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Archimides Number

Gas law constant

Archimedes number is proportional


to {(gravitational force) / (viscous force) }
and is used in momentum transfer in general
and buoyancy, fluidization, and motion due
to density difference calculations in
particular. It is normally defined in the
following form :

Temperature

Bingham Number
Bingham number is proportional to
{(yield stress) / (viscous stress)} and is used
in momentum transfer in general and flow of
bingham plastics calculations in particular. It
is normally defined in the following form :

Where:
g

Gravitational
acceleration
Where:

Characteristic length

mu

Viscosity

rho_f

rho_s

gc

Dimensional constant

Characteristic length

Fluid density

mu

Viscosity

Solid density

tau_y

Stress

Velocity

Arhenius Number
Arrhenius number is proportional to
{(activation energy) / (potential energy)} and
is used in mass transfer in general and
reaction rate calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in the following form:

Where:
Eo

Activation Energy

Biot Number
Biot number is proportional to
{(thermal internal resistance) / (surface film
resistance)} and is used in heat transfer in
general and unsteady state calculations in
particular. It is normally defined in the
following form :

Where:
delta-x

Mid-plane distance

h_T

Heat
coefficient

Thermal Conductivity

transfer

Blake number
Blake number is proportional to { (inertial
force) / (viscous force) } and is used in
momentum transfer in general and flow
through beds of solids calculations in
particular. It is normally defined in one of the
following forms :

Where:
epsilon =

Void fraction

Mass velocity

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

Particle area/particle volume

Velocity

Bodenstein number
Bodenstein number is used in mass transfer in general
and diffusion in reactors calculations in particular.
It is normally defined in the following form :

Where:
epsilon =

Void fraction

Mass velocity

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

Where:

Particle area/particle volume

Dv,a

Effective axial diffusivity

Velocity

Reactor length

Velocity

Or:

Bond number

sigma

Surface tension

Velocity

Bond number is normally defined in the following form:

Cauchy number

Where:
d

Droplet/bubble diameter

Gravitational acceleration

gc

Dimensional constant

rho

Droplet/bubble density

rho_f

Surrounding fluid density

sigma

Surface tension

Cauchy number is proportional to {


(inertial force) / (compressibility force) } and
is used in momentum transfer in general and
compressible flow calculations in particular.
It is normally defined in the following form :

Where:

Capillary number
Capilarity number
is proportional to
{(viscous force) / (surface tension force)}
and is used in momentum transfer in general
and atomization and 2-phase flow in beds of
solids calculations in particular. It is
equivalent to (We/Re). It is normally defined
in the following form

Where:
gc

Dimensional constant

mu

Viscosity

Eb

bulk modulus of fluid

gc

Dimensional constant

rho

Density

Velocity

Cavitation number
Cavitation number is proportional to
{ (excess of local static head over vapor
pressure head) / (velocity head) } and is used
in momentum transfer in general and
throttling calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in the following form :

Where:
gc

Dimensional constant

Local static pressure

p_v

Vapor pressure

rho

Density

Velocity

rho

Density

Velocity

Condensation number
Condensation number is used in heat
transfer in general and as the name implies in
condensation calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms :

Colburn-Chilton j factor
Colburn-Chilton j factor is used in
heat transfer in general and free and forced
convection calculations in particular. It is
equivalent to (St.Pr^2/3). It is normally
defined in one of the following forms :

or

Where:
delta-T

Temperature
difference

lambda

Latent heat

Gravitational
acceleration

Heat transfer
coefficient

Thermal
Conductivity

or

Where:
Cp

Heat capacity

Characteristic length

Mass velocity

mu

Viscosity

Heat transfer coefficient

rho

Density

Thermal Conductivity

mu

Viscosity

Darcy Friction Factor


Darcy friction factor is proportional
to shear stress at pipe/conduit wall as number
of velocity heads and is used in momentum
transfer in general and turbulent flow
calculations in particular. It is equivalent to
(4) times Fanning's friction factor. It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms

or

Mass velocity

Length

rho

Density

Velocity

Drag Coefficient
Drag coefficient is proportional to
{(gravitational force) / (inertial force)} and is
used in momentum transfer in general and
free settling velocities and resistance to flow
calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Where:

Where:
d

Diameter

delta-P

Pressure drop

dP/dL

Pressure drop per unit


length

gc

Dimensional constant

Gravitational
acceleration

Characteristic
dimension of
object

rho

Density of
object

rho_f

Density of
surrounding
fluid

Velocity

Eckert Number
Eckert number is used in momentum
and heat transfer in general and compressible
flow calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Cp

Heat capacity

delta-T

Temperature difference

V_inf

Where:

Characteristic
length

Rho

Density of
bubble/droplet

rho_f

Density of surrounding fluid

Sigma

Surface tension

Velocity of fluid far from body

Elasticity Number
Elasticity number is proportional to:
{(elastic force) / (inertial force) } and is used
in momentum transfer in general and
viscoelastic flow calculations in particular. It
is normally defined in the following form :

Euler Number
Euler number is proportional to {
(friction head) * (velocity head) } and is used
in momentum transfer in general and fluid
friction in conduits calculations in particular.
It is equivalent to (N/2) where N is the
number of velocity heads. It is normally
defined in one of the following forms :

Where:
r

Pipe/conduit radius

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

theta

relaxation time

or

Where:

Etvs number
Etvs number is proportional to
{(gravitational force) / (surface tension
force)} and is used in momentum transfer in
general and atomization, and motion of
bubbles and droplets calculations in
particular. It is equivalent to (Bo). It is
normally defined in the following form :

delta-P

Pressure drop

Gc

Dimensional constant

Mass velocity

Rho

Density

Velocity

Fanning friction factor

Fourier Number

Fanning friction factor is proportional


to shear stress at pipe/conduit wall as number
of velocity heads and is used in momentum
transfer in general and turbulent flow
calculations in particular. It is equivalent to
(1/4) the Darcy friction factor. It is normally
defined in one of the following forms :

Fourier number is used in heat transfer in


general and unsteady state heat transfer
calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in one of the following forms :

or

or

Where:

or

or

Where:
d

Diameter

delta-P

Pressure drop

dP/dL

Pressure drop per unit


length

gc

Dimensional constant

Mass velocity

Length

rho

Density

Velocity

Alpha

Thermal diffusivity

Cp

Heat capacity

Thermal Conductivity

Characteristic length

Rho

Density

Time

Froude Number
Froude number is proportional to
{(inertial force) / (gravitational force)} and is
used in momentum transfer in general and
open channel flow and wave and surface
behavior calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms:

or

{(L/d) / Pe}. It is normally defined in one of the


following forms :

Where:
a

Acceleration

Gravitational acceleration

Characteristic length

Velocity

Galileo Number
Galileo number is proportional to { (Re.
gravity force) / (viscous force) } and is used
in momentum and heat transfer in general and
viscous flow and thermal expansion
calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Where:
Where:
g

Gravitational acceleration

Diameter

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

Grtz Number
Grtz number is proportional to
{(thermal capacity) / (convective heat transfer)}
and is used in heat transfer in general and
convection in laminar flow calculations in
particular. It is equivalent to {(L/d) / (Re.Pr)} or

Alpha

Thermal diffusivity

Cp

Heat capacity

Diameter

Mass velocity

Thermal Conductivity

Length

Mass flowrate

Rho

Density

Velocity

Grashof Number
Grashof number is proportional to {
(buoyancy force) / (viscous force) } and is
used in heat transfer in general and free
convection calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms :

Where:
Cp

Heat capacity

Mass velocity

Heat transfer coefficient

Thermal Conductivity

Mu

Viscosity

Rho

Density

Velocity

Where:
beta

Coefficient of expansion

delta-T

Temperature difference

Gravitational acceleration

Characteristic length

mu

Viscosity

Kinematic viscosity

rho

Density

Hodgson Number
Hodgson number is proportional to
{(time constant of system) / (period of
pulsation) } and is used in momentum
transfer in general and unsteady pulsating gas
flow calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Heat Transfer Factor


Heat transfer factor is used in heat
transfer in general and free and forced
convection calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms :

Where:
delta-P

Pressure drop

fr

Frequency

Where:

Avg. static pressure

Alpha

Thermal diffusivity

Avg. volumetric flowrate

Cp

Heat capacity

System Volume

Dv

Diffusivity

Thermal Conductivity

Rho

Density

Knudsen Number
Knudsen number is proportional to
{(length of mean free path) / (characteristic
dimension)} and is used in momentum and
mass transfer in general and very low
pressure gas flow calculations in particular. It
is normally defined in the following form :

Mach number
Mach number is used in momentum
transfer in general and near/ultra sonic flow
and throttling calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in the following form :

Where:
lambda

Length of mean free path

Where:

Characteristic dimension

Velocity

V_sound

Velocity of sound in fluid

Lewis Number
Lewis number is used in combined
heat and mass transfer calculations. It is
equivalent to (Sc/Pr). It is normally defined
in one of the following forms :

Mass Transfer Factor


Mass transfer factor is used, as the
name implies, in mass transfer calculations.
It is normally defined in the following form :

Where:
Dv

Diffusivity

Kc

Diffusion rate

mu

Viscosity

Where:

rho

Density

Gc

Dimensional constant

Velocity

Characteristic length

Mu

Viscosity

Rho

Density

Sigma

Surface tension

Nusselt Number
Nusselt number is proportional to
{(total heat transfer) / (conductive heat
transfer) } and is used in heat transfer in
general and forced convection calculations in
particular. It is normally defined in the
following form :

Peclet Number
Peclet number is proportional to
{(bulk heat transfer) / (conductive heat
transfer)} and is used in heat transfer in
general and forced convection calculations in
particular. It is equivalent to (Re.Pr). It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms :

Where:
h

Heat transfer coefficient

Diameter

Thermal Conductivity

Ohnesorge Number
Ohnesorge number is proportional to
{(viscous force) / (sqrt (inertial force . surface
tension force))} and is used in momentum
transfer in general and atomization
calculations in particular. It is equivalent to
(SQRT(We) / Re). It is normally defined in
the following form :
Where:
Alpha

Thermal diffusivity

Cp

Heat capacity

Characteristic length

Mass velocity

Thermal Conductivity

rho

Density

Where:

Characteristic length

Gc

Dimensional constant

Rate of rotation

Power

Rho

Density

Velocity

Pipeline Parameter
Pipeline parameter is proportional to
{(maximum water-hammer pressure rise) / (2
static pressure)} and is used in momentum
transfer in general and hydraulic transients
calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Prandtl Number
Prandtl number is proportional to
{(momentum diffusivity) / (thermal
diffusivity)} and is used in heat transfer in
general and free and forced convection
calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Where:
a

Wave velocity

Gravitational acceleration

Static head

Where:

Vo

Initial velocity

Cp

Heat capacity

Thermal Conductivity

Mu

Viscosity

Power Number
Power number is proportional to
{(drag force) / (inertial force)} and is used in
momentum transfer in general and power
consumption by agitators, fans, pumps, etc.
calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Rayleigh Number

Rayleigh number is used in heat


transfer in general and free convection
calculations in particular. It is equivalent to
(Gr.Pr). It is normally defined in one of the
following forms :
or

Where:

Where:
alpha

Characteristic length

Mass velocity

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

Velocity

Thermal diffusivity

beta

Coefficient of expansion

Cp

Heat capacity

delta-T

Temperature difference

Gravitational acceleration

Thermal Conductivity

Characteristic length

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

Schmidt Number
Schmidt number is proportional to
{(kinetic viscosity) / (molecular diffusivity)}
and is used in mass transfer in general and
diffusion in flowing systems calculations in
particular. It is normally defined in the
following form :

Reynolds Number
Where:

Reynolds number is proportional to


{(inertial force) / (viscous force)} and is used
in momentum, heat, and mass transfer to
account for dynamic similarity. It is normally
defined in one of the following forms:

Dv

Diffusivity

mu

Viscosity

rho

Density

Sherwood Number
Sherwood number is proportional to {
(massr diffusivity) / (molecular diffusivity) }
and is used in mass transfer calculations. It is
equivalent to (jm.Re.Sc1/3). It is normally
defined in the following form :

Cp

Heat capacity

Mass velocity

Heat transfer coefficient

Rho

Density

Velocity

Strouhal Number
Where:
Dv

Diffusivity

kc

Diffusion rate

Characteristic length

Strouhal number is proportional to the


reciprocal of vortex spacing expressed as no.
of obstacle diameters and is used in
momentum transfer in general and Van
Karman vortex streets and unsteady state
flow calculations in particular. It is normally
defined in the following form :

Stanton Number
Stanton number is proportional to
{(heat transfered) / (thermal capacity of
fluid)} and is used in heat transfer in general
and forced convection calculations in
particular. It is equivalent to (Nu / (Re.Pr)). It
is normally defined in one of the following
forms :

Where:
fr

frequency

Characteristic length

Velocity

Weber Number

Where:

Weber number is proportional to


{(inertial force) / (surface tension force)} and
is used in momentum transfer in general and
bubble/droplet formation and breakage of
liquid jets calculations in particular. It is
normally defined in one of the following
forms :

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Where:
gc

Dimensional constant

Mass velocity

Characteristic length

rho

Density

sigma

Surface tension

Velocity