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Josh Rajan

Intern/ Mentor 5&6
Annotated Source List
Baek, G. H. (2010). Are we prepared for geriatric orthopedics? Clinics in Orthopedic Surgery,
2(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.4055/cios.2010.2.3.129
The source discusses the trend of an increase in Geriatric Orthopedic patients and
the measures that Orthopedic surgeons must take in order to care for and treat such
patients. In the article, a Geriatric patient is described as someone with weaker bones
and a smaller muscle mass as compared to ordinary patients, thus requiring more
careful attention while being cared for.. In the current decade, elderly people have seen
an increase in age and wellbeing due to improved medical technology, yet still may
require careful and a great deal of patience from orthopedic surgeons due to being
Geriatric. orthopedic surgeons must respond to this increase of Geriatric patients with
improved techniques and care, such as not using bed rest as a means of rehabilitation
for patients or consulting other specialist doctors in the treatment of a patient.
This source is effective in discussing, without bias, the effect that musculoskeletal
disorders can have on the elderly to an audience of middle aged adults and orthopedic
surgeons. The increase in Geriatric patients provides a warning to future generations to
promote good health in order to prevent the development of musculoskeletal disorders.
Yet also, the article provides the techniques and explanations about how orthopedic
surgeons deal with musculoskeletal disorders in patients. The articles lacks in the
absence of in depth information about the certain musculoskeletal diseases that pose a
threat for the elderly and create Geriatric patients.
Bass, S., Pearce, G., Bradney, M., Henricks, E., Delmas, P. D., Harding, A., & Seemar, E. (1998).
Exercise before puberty may confer residual benefits in bone density in adulthood:
Studies in active prepubertal and retired female gymnasts. J Bone Miner Res Journal of
Bone and Mineral Research, 13(3). http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.1998.13.3.500
The journal article is a study done to investigate the differences in bone density
between 45 active, prepubescent gymnasts, 36 retired gymnasts, and 50 common
people. The results of the study show that the prepubescent gymnasts and retired
gymnasts had much higher BMD growth rate than the common control subjects
because of the increased amount of activity in their youth. The journal article uses
such data and data from other studies to prove the hypothesis that the prepubescent
years of a persons life are the most opportune years for a person to exercise because
such years allow a person to build the most bone density.
The journal article provides data and evidence to support the assumption that
exercise in a persons early life can build bone density and health. The statistics and
charts of data provided by the source are able to be used as evidence to support the
notion that exercise as a child can be helpful to people in their old age. Also, the
journal article provides a great amount of background information and information
from other studies about bone density and how it changes throughout a persons life,
as well as information to improve the health of bones in a persons life. The journal
article is reliable because it provides data straight from observation from the gymnasts
as well as not having any biased information towards a specific side, as stated in the
bias summary.

The burden of musculoskeletal diseases in the united states. (2013). Retrieved October 27, 2016,
from The Bone and Joint Iniative website: http://www.boneandjointburden.org/facts-brief
The website details about the burdens associated with musculoskeletal diseases,
such as through the aspects of finance and quality of life. The website includes
different sections of each musculoskeletal diseases and how the U.S. and its citizens
are affected by each one. For example, the website discusses how 25% of Americans
are reported to have back pain throughout their lives, as hospital costs and American
GDP are in turn affected by this musculoskeletal disease. The article provides such
information along with graphs and diagrams of statistics that enhance and organize the
information presented.
The source is effective in providing evidence to support a rationale to prevent the
influx of musculoskeletal diseases. The various articles provided by the websites
provided statistics that support the notion to avoid musculoskeletal diseases to prevent
financial burden and increase the quality of life in the future for each individual. The
website manages to uses its graphs and diagrams to show how destructive
musculoskeletal diseases can be not only to the finances of a country, but also to a
generation of peoples health. The articles of the website manages to provide all such
information in a non-biased fashion to an audience of individuals new to the topic.
Carmona, R. H. (2004). The burden of bone disease. In Bone health and osteoporosis: A report
of the surgeon general. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK45502/
This chapter discusses how many types of musculoskeletal diseases can affect a
person as well as society in many different ways. Such disorders, even though unlikely
to cause death, can inflict a person with the inability of their libs to return to normal
function or even the loss of function. Such inability can cause emotional trauma, such
as depression and anxiety, and can cost an affected person a great amount of money
just to receive treatment and therapy. In respect to society, musculoskeletal diseases
can pose as an expensive threat, costing hefty amounts of taxpayers money, and can
cause multiple hospital and doctor visits in a year in the USA.
The source is effective in detailing the harms and effects of musculoskeletal
diseases. With multiple statistics from other reports and studies, the chapter provides
reasons to avoid musculoskeletal disorders to an adult audience , thus providing
evidence to back up the purpose of exercising during a persons youth. The article also
provides information on the musculoskeletal diseases and how each can affect the
human body at the hips, arms, spine,and legs. The chapter comes from the U.S. from
the Surgeon General, thus providing a reliable report with a great variety of data from
around the U.S., without providing any bias on the topic.
Deyle, G., Henderson, N., Matekel, R., Ryder, M., Garber, M., & Allison, S. (2000).
Effectiveness of manual physical therapy and exercise in osteoarthritis of the knee: A
randomized, controlled trial. Ann Intern Med, 132(3), 173-181.
This journal article is a study that tests if physical therapy can work better than
other medication in improving the motion of the hip, ankle, and spine in elderly
patients. The study followed 83 elderly patients, who all had knee osteoarthritis, as
one group went to practice physical therapy and the other went to practice an

ultrasound therapy. The results of the investigation found that those who practiced
physical therapy felt less pain and stiffness in the knee, thus bettering the symptoms of
the osteoarthritis. Even though an improvement is seen, the article states how too
much exercise can result in an increase in pain with the knees, as seen in the study.
The source is effective in proving the effectiveness of physical therapy in
response to musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly. The article shows how physical
therapy, although not fully healing, relieves the effects of musculoskeletal disorders
and allows elderly patients to get back to their lives. The article manages to back up
such information with a variety of statistical data and graphs/tables from a performed
study. The additional details about the exercises in physical therapy also provides
insightful information about the topic of relieving musculoskeletal disease through
exercise. The article manages to provide all the information and data in a non-biased
way, as well as presenting information that is somewhat recent, as it is from the
Fejer, R., & Ruhe, A. (2012). What is the prevalence of musculoskeletal problems in the elderly
population in developed countries? A systematic critical literature review. Chiropractic &
Manual Therapies, 20(31). http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2045-709X-20-31
This journal article discusses a study done regarding frequency of musculoskeletal
diseases in elderly people of our current generation. The study was done by using the
Pubmed database search for articles regarding the studies of the rate of
musculoskeletal diseases in people over the age of 60 between the years of 2001-2011.
The results of the study showed that out of all the elderly people reported, 29%
suffered from back pain, 17% suffered from osteoporosis or osteoarthritis, 8% from
rheumatoid arthritis, and 30% suffered from an other pain. Also, the results from the
studies show that more women suffer from musculoskeletal disorders rather than men,
and are more inclined to report their pain to a doctor.
This source provides recent statistics and research regarding the most common
musculoskeletal diseases affecting the elderly. The information is effective in
providing evidence in the rate at which musculoskeletal diseases affect the elderly and
trends that are seen with musculoskeletal disorders and the elderly. However, the
article somewhat lacks in providing a clear, specific range of certain musculoskeletal
diseases in the elderly, as it provides a broad range of the disorders instead. The article
demonstrated no bias at all, as it was for educating the general public about the
frequency of musculoskeletal disorders, yet was ineffective by stating how that the
results might have varied greatly due to the pain definitions of different elderly person,
who would report musculoskeletal disorders at different times due to how much pain
they think they feel.
Gheno, R., Cepparo, J. M., Rosca, C. E., & Cotten, A. (2012). Musculoskeletal disorders in the
elderly. Journal of Clinical Imaging Science, 2(39). http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/21567514.99151
The journal article discusses the multiple musculoskeletal diseases and disorders
that might inflict elderly people and the various ways of diagnosing such disorders.
The article talks about fractures, the most common musculoskeletal problem affecting
the elderly, through the spine, hip, and pelvis of many elderly people. Fractures are

caused mainly by osteoporosis, or the weakening of the bones. Osteoarthritis is a

musculoskeletal disorder involving the degradation of cartilage and muscle around
bones. Such a disorder is diagnosed through yearly physicals by a general doctor, as
signs of the disorders are the inabilities to move the shoulder, hand, and knee joints.
Microcrystal disorders involve declining amounts of certain minerals in the bones, as
Gout is a common example of such. Infection of bones can result from surgical
procedures or hospitalization due to other musculoskeletal disorders, and can be
detected through a biopsy. Pagets disease is another bone disorder which is the
formation of weak bones from other musculoskeletal disorders.
This sources provides crucial information about the various diseases that plague
the musculoskeletal systems of the elderly. The source was effective in providing
information about the main musculoskeletal disorders while also going in detail about
how such disorders affect the bodies of the elderly. However, the article was not as
effective in providing ways to prevent such illnesses from occurring. There was little
bias detected in the article, as the main intent of the article was to educate the general
population about musculoskeletal disorders.
Jun, I., & Yeh, J. K. (2000). Effect of deconditioning on cortical and cancellous bone growth in
the exercise trained young rats. Journal of Bone and Medical Research, 15(9), 18421849. http://dx.doi.org/10.1359/jbmr.2000.15.9.1842
The journal article discusses a study done to prove the effects of not exercising on
bone mass of a population of rats. The study was done on the rats, whose age was not
reported, after considerably exercising on a treadmill for either 8 or 12 weeks, then
subjected to not exercising for the same amount of weeks. The results that were
reported was that the rats built a considerable amount of bone mass from exercising,
but when not exercising, these bone mass gains were reversed. The article calls for
more studies based on the same topic where the age of the rats are taken into effect, as
such a consideration factors greatly into the long term one mass gains.
The source is effective by providing evidence on how without exercise, individual
can see considerable bone mass losses. The article provides an alternate study as it
provides the effect of not exercising on bone health, instead of how exercising
improves bones health. The article could improve by providing a study where the
animals age is reported as this could provide information on how age is involved in
bone mass gains and losses. The article does provide useful background information to
introduce its study and provides methods and materials, as well as a non-biased
discussion of the results attained.
Keyte, J. (2013, October 23). Musculoskeletal disorders [Video file]. Retrieved from
This video goes in depth about different types of musculoskeletal diseases that
affect the muscles and bones of people. The video talks about how certain
musculoskeletal diseases are caused in people. The video then details how some
musculoskeletal diseases function in the human body, as it shows the symptoms and
effects of such diseases. Osteoporosis, Rheumatoid Arthritis, and bone fractures are
mainly described in the video, as it discusses the differences and similarities between

each disease. Also, the video lists the tests that orthopedic doctors use to diagnose such
diseases, as well as the treatments and remedies for such disorders.
The source provides an accurate portrayal of musculoskeletal disorders from a
reliable source. Even though it was posted on YouTube, this video was created by
Professor Jeff Keyte from the College of St Mary, as he was leading a lecture on the
topic of musculoskeletal diseases. the detailed, in depth information in the video
provides a look into the science of musculoskeletal diseases, as it shows how such
disorders function and act within the body. This video also provides great background
information into the topic of musculoskeletal diseases to use in the research project.
The video delivers all the information in a professional tone without any bias, to an
audience of people will desire to learn about musculoskeletal diseases, possible
medical school students.
Kumar, D. K., Rathan, N., Mohan, S., Begum, M., Prasad, B., & Prasad, E. R. V. (2014 ).
Exercise prescriptions to prevent musculoskeletal disorders in dentists. Journal of
Clinical and Diagnostic Research, 8(7). http://dx.doi.org/10.7860/JCDR/2014/7549.4620
This source discusses how modern dentists are at a greater risk of developing
musculoskeletal diseases, while also providing useful solutions to prevent such trends
from occurring. The article talks about how dentists are at a greater chance of
developing a musculoskeletal disease in the current day of age because of the increase
of patients and workload of the dentists, causing strain of certain muscles, decrease in
oxygen flow to muscles, uncomfortable and improper postures, and muscle discomfort
in the dentists. Solutions that are suggested by the source to prevent musculoskeletal
diseases are to stretch and exercise each muscle area to provide a continuous of
oxygen use for each muscle area.
The source provides evidence to support the claim that musculoskeletal diseases
will occur in individuals if such people dont take care of their muscles. Also, the
source provides research that shows in order to prevent such diseases from developing,
dentists must actively exercise and stretch to provide relief and health to muscles in
the body. The effectiveness of the source is shown through how the source describes
how muscles are negatively affected by the poor posture and work habits of dentists
and suggests various, helpful solutions to help prevent such problems. However, the
source somewhat lacks by failing to discuss the main types of musculoskeletal
diseases that affect dentists and other workers, as the source just talks about how
generally musculoskeletal diseases will affect dentists with poor work habits.
Lawerence, R. C., Helmick, C. G., Arn ett, F. C., Deyo, R. A., Felson, D. T., Giannni, E. H., . . .
Wolfe, F. (1998). Estimates of the prevalence of arthritis and selected musculoskeletal
disorders in the united states. Arthritis and Rheumatism, 41(5), 778-799.
The journal article talks about the prevalence of musculoskeletal diseases in the
US by discussing research done on the topic through surveys. The article states that
based on the research, almost 15% of Americans suffered from Arthritis in 1995, as
the article predicts the amount to grow to 18.9% in 2020. The article used surveys
from the, National Arthritis Data Workgroup of the NIH for their research on
Arthritis in the US and to predict the growth of the musculoskeletal diseases in the

future. The article also reports on other musculoskeletal diseases such as Osteoporosis,
as it states how some diseases are harder to record and research due to pain defination
of patients giving a lack of data.
The source provides data about the extent of how musculoskeletal diseases
affected the US back in 1995. Such historical data provided by the source shows how
great a problem musculoskeletal diseases posed for America, as such a problem was
predicted to increase in the upcoming modern decade. The source also provides useful
background data about Arthritis and other musculoskeletal disorders and the ways in
which their reported effect to American society. The source is effected in providing a
non- bias view of musculoskeletal diseases back in 1995, where such information and
surveys were the first to be seen in the topic of research.
Modlesky, C. M., & Lewis, R. D. (2002). Does exercise during growth have a long-term effect
on bone health? Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 30(4), 171-176. Retrieved from
The journal article discusses the claim that bone health is increased when a person
exercise by evaluating multiple studies done on the topic. The article provides an
introduction that demonstrates how growth in the bones is attained and the biological
science behind such a phenomenon. The article proves that studies have shown that
bone health is increased when an individual exercises. However in terms of
longitudinal bone health, the article explains how studies have shown that even though
bone density is increased immediately by intensive exercise, as such gains are shown
to be lost as the individual ages without exercise. The article calls for better studies
that test for the simulating factor that promotes bone growth from exercise and how
bone maturity and age in childhood affect how bone mass gains are persevered in a
persons life.
This source is very resourceful as it truly discusses the overall findings from a
multitude of studies and evidence. Such information shows overall trends in research,
while providing places to emphasis in researching the topic, such as with prepubescent
exercise and bone growth. The article provides a great deal of scientific background
information, which is useful for explaining the trend seen in the multiple studies of
bones and exercise. From reading the article, there is a greater understanding of the
topic and clear definitions of some of the topics most confusing terms.
Rana, A., Iorio, R., & Healy, W. (2011). Hospital economics of primary THA decreasing
reimbursement and increasing cost, 1990 to 2008. Clinical Orthopaedics and Related
Research, 469(2), 355-361. http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11999-010-1526-y
The journal article is a study that examines the relationship of the expenses of a
hospital and the influx of hip osteoporosis surgeries in the U.S. in the 1990s and
2000s. The study followed multiple patients of the surgery from 1990 to 2008, as it
examined their hospital costs and other expenses resulting from the surgeries. The
study discovered that because of the multiple surgeries performed on patients with
healthcare, hospitals on total lost revenue due to the fees from Medicare and other
healthcare companies paying for surgeries, as costs for advanced technology for the
surgery also contributed to hospital revenue losses.The article then suggests that

government should release reimbursements for hospitals to manage such costs and
receive profits from them.
The source is effective in listing a rationale to prevent influx of musculoskeletal
diseases in the future. This reason being is to lessen the financial burden of hospitals
to pay for and care for the diseased victims surgeries and other expenses. Even
though the article goes in depth about the health care aspects of medicine and
hospitals, the source is also able to provide statistics and figures about the costs of
treating musculoskeletal diseases to victims and also to societies as a whole. The
source delivers such detailed, unbiased information to an audience of hospital
administrators and regular adults in order to reason to such an audience about avoiding
musculoskeletal diseases in the future.
Todd, J., & Robinson, R. (2003). Osteoporosis and exercise. Postgraduate Medical Journal,
79(932), 320-323. http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/pmj.79.932.320
The journal article discusses the effectiveness of exercise in promoting bone
health and preventing Osteoporosis in a persons life by providing research from other
studies done on the topic. The article uses data and statistics to show how people who
exercise throughout their childhood and athletes tend to have greater bone densities
than people who dont regularly exercise. The article also states how high activity and
intensive exercises like running or lifting weights, provide the greatest increase of
bone mass compared to low intensive exercises The multiple studies that the article
uses show an increase in bone mass in the hip and lumbar spine areas from activities
and exercise.
This source provides a great deal of evidence and data to show how exercise
prevents musculoskeletal diseases. The data in the article demonstrates how exercise is
able to build bone density faster than those without exercise, as the data also supports
such an increase in bone mass at multiple sites in the body. The article also supports
how such exercise reduces the risk for musculoskeletal diseases, such as Osteoporosis,
while providing evidence from studies to support this. The articles demonstrates no
bias, as it many shares its assumptions by supporting them with experimental data to
an audience of middle aged people and other specialists in the topic.
Turner, C. H., & Robling, A. G. (2003). Designing exercise regimens to increase bone strength.
Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 31(1), 45-50. Retrieved from
The journal article is an article discussing the various techniques and exercise that
can improve bone health in a persons skeleton, as well as describing the explanations
that cause such bone growth to occur from the exercise. The article uses evidence from
multiple studies and data sets to show that humans can improve bone health and
extend bone growth through use of intense exercise with periods of rest in between
sets during their youth. Such exercise builds bone density in small amounts by
creating areas of pressure on the bone, which drives gradients to break down and build
back bone. Such small amounts of bone growth are able to benefit humans and
animals with stronger and more flexible bones.

The journal article provides a great deal of detail and information about how
exercise leads to bone growth and development. Such detail can be useful in
supporting how exercise can strengthen bones and can prevent musculoskeletal
diseases or disorders, as it allows a detailed explanation of how bone can be strengthen
from exercise. The source is reliable as it provides non- biased data from other
conducted studies and experiments. Also, the article provides scientifically-based,
accurate information of bone development and growth to support its conclusions about
bone health.