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Biological Evolution I

Define and compare: evolution, biological evolution, population,


species.

Provide an example of biological evolution than can be observed at


historical time scales
(changes in populations, not necessarily origin of new species).

EVOLUTION any kind of change


BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTIONS changes in populations
Look for patters as evidence for evolution such as species
becoming resistant to certain substances over time.
FOR EXAMPLE:
Ants becoming resistant to pesticides
The body becoming resistant to certain antibiotics
POPULATION group of interbreeding individuals
SPECIES group of POTENTIALLY interbreeding individuals

Is biological evolution a theory or a fact?


Biological Evolution is an EMPERICAL FACT (BOTH)

Explain how antibiotic resistant strains of microbes (diseases) develop.

EXAMPLE: CHLAMYDIA & ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE


Antibiotics may not kill chlamydiae
PERSISTENCE MAY LEAD TO CLINICAL FAILURE
Chlamydiae have sophisticated mechanisms to evade
antimicrobial activity
RESISTANCE can be induced in VITRO
EXPLANATION Biological Evolution the population becomes
resistant from generation to generation as resistant cells become more
and more prominent

Know what Darwin said in his explanation of biological evolution


through natural selection.

-- (not what you or someone else think he said) be able to write a four
point summary.

DARWIN SAID
1. More individuals are produced than can survive. (Individuals NOT species)
2. Individuals VARY. (Individuals NOT species)
3. Individuals that have traits suited to their surroundings are more likely to
survive and reproduce. (any given characteristic or feature may be well
suited in one setting and poorly suited in another).
4. If traits can be passed on to offspring, then the offspring of the surviving
organisms will also be more likely to reproduce in the same surroundings.
(suitable parental traits may only be suitable to offspring if the
surroundings do not change)
DARWIN DID NOT SAY.
1. Anything about how STRONG or WEAK an individual is in reference to
survival.
2. Anything about COMPETITION in terms of mate selection and feeding
efficiency.
3. Anything about ADAPTATION. The ability for an individual to adapt is NOT
and example of evolution.
OVER ALL.

Nothing is guaranteed

Survival is only more likely or less likely

The definition of best suited changes with time and place.

How does application of the theory of evolution through natural


selection affect society, and our standard of living?
HUMAN SELECTION RESULTS IN BIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION

Selection works on existing variability NOT adaptive behavior


ARTIFICIALSELECTION:thefarmerpicksthetraitsthathewishesto
emphasizeinthenextgeneration
NATURALSELECTION:thenaturalcircumstancesfavortraitsthatarebest
suitedtothesettingandthosetraitsareretainedinthenextgeneration
LINEAGES(retentionorcollectionoffavoredtraitsthroughtime
(generations)canadapttochangethroughnaturalselectionovertime.

Be familiar with the arguments in lecture as to why science and religion


are not incompatible and inherently at odds (you do not have to believe it
personally, but understand the argument).
Science and religion are NOT inherently at odds.
SCIENCE EXPLAINS
all of the natural world
it does NOT establish ethics
it answers the WHAT & HOW
RELIGION ADRESSES
the human spirit and condition
communication of ethics and morality
answers the WHY
Each of these treat different human needs; they complement eachother,
not conflict.
Biological evolution explains the diversity of life on Earth

Biological Evolution II

- Relationship between mass extinctions and adaptive radiations and key evolutionary
innovations and adaptive radiations.

GENETICS: chromosomes, genes, and DNA

Each parent donates of genetic material

Sexual recombination

Provides raw variation and sometimes mutation

MUTATION: molecular change in DNA caused by

Ultra violet light

Radiation

Chemicals

Spontaneous

MOST MUTATIONS ARE FATAL, SOME BENIGN.

SPECIATION: origin of new species (process)


1. NEO-DARWINISM:

Genes are controlling factor

Mutations are small and accumulate slowly

Interaction with other organisms is emphasized

Relaxation of competition allows diversification

NO macro genetic mutation or alteration to embryo during development


2. EvoDevo (HoxGenes)

Regulatory elements and HoxGenes

Small changes (mutations) can result in large morphological


changes

Interaction with environment is emphasized

SAME regulatory genes control homologous regions in FRUIT FLY and MOUSE
- End member models of speciation (phyletic gradualism, punctuated equilibrium) process,
results, expected geologic record.

PHYLETIC GRADUALISM:
1. Transformation of ancestral population into descendants.
2. Transformation is constant & slow.
3. Transformation involves large numbers of individuals.
4. Transformation occurs over a wide geographic range.
CONSEQUENCES: fossil record of species consists of a long sequence of
continuous, graded intermediate forms. Any breaks in morphology in a sequence
are due to imperfections of the geologic record (missing link)

PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM:
1. New species arise by splitting of lineages.
2. New species evolve relatively rapidly.
3. Small ancestral population gives rise to a new species.
4. New species originate in a very small geographic range (peripheral
isolate)
CONSEQUENCES: In a local stratigraphic section a species origin should be
marked by a sharp morphological break (migration of descendent into the area)
-

Patterns and causes of convergent evolution and divergent evolution (examples of each).

COMMON EVOLUTIONARY PATTERNS


KEY INNOVATION: a new characteristic that allows an organism to make its
living in a significantly different mode than its ancestor
ADAPTIVE RADIATION: diversification after mass extinction development of a
key innovation
-

Tertiary mammals

Cretaceous Birds/Crocodiles

Jurassic Dinosaurs

CONVERGENT EVOLUTION: when unrelated groups have the same life mode
(results in the same morphology)

Fish Shark

Land Reptile Ichthyosaur

Land Mammal Porpoise

EXAMPLES:
Dolphin = Land Mammal
Eastern Coral Snake (venomous) VS. Scarlet King Snake (nonvenomous)
DIVERGENT EVOLUTION: when related groups have evolved a different life
mode (avoid competition) results in the different morphologies
Ex) Galapogos Finches
ITERITIVE EVOLUTION: repeated evolution and extinction of a morphology or
life mode
REPLACEMENT: replace one group with another after first becomes extinct
DISPLACEMENT: one group pushing aside another group. Old idea now in
disfavor. Mammals did not push aside reptiles.
HETEROCHRONY: changes in the onset or timing of features during
development, relative to an organisms ancestor.
Ex. delayed birth/early puberty/early adulthood
NEOTENY (early development): retention of juvenile characteristics in
adult hood.
HYPERMOPHOSIS: extended development or more stages

Fossil Preservation
-

Definition of "fossil" and how to apply it; e.g., what is a fossils and what is not. Classification of fossil preservation (ways fossils can be preserved)

FOSSIL: any evidence of past life past


pre-Holocene

Pre-civilization

Pre-end of last ice age

Greater than 10,000 years old


FOSSIL USES:

Rock Forming Abundance (industry)

Biostratigraphy (age equivalence)

Paleoenvironments (interpretation)

History of Life (biological evolution)

Record of ambient chemical/thermal conditions (stable isotopes)

Aesthetic

The parameters that will affect the likelihood of preservation.

VERY FEW INDIVIDUALS LIKELY TO BE PRESERVED AS A FOSSIL


What INCREASES preservation potential?

non-traumatic death

rapid, permanent burial

skeletal hard parts (stable mineral)

robust skeleton

Ex) RARE: Eocene butterfly; delicate cuticle fine lake sediment


COMMON: Pilocene clams, robust aragonite shells burried in marine mud

unaltered (soft methods) (hard-compositions) altered (soft-process) (hard processes)


mold, cast, steinkern
trace fossil definition and examples other, including chemical fossils

BODY FOSSILS: any evidence of the form or a physical portion of an


organism
1. UNALTERED (original):

SOFT PARTS: must be sealed from environment how?


frozen
amber
desiccation
petroleum
pickled

HARD PARTS (composition)


original skeleton
proteinaceous organics (spores, pollen graptolites)
chitino-phosphate (inarticulate brachiopods)
Silica: SIO 2 (diatoms, radiolarian, sponges)
CALCITE: same composition as aragonite but more stable,
unaltered (echinoderms, brachiopods, single celled)
ARAGONITE: same composition as calcite but less stable,
dissolve (mollusc shells)
bone (calcium-fluroapatite plus collegen)
cuticle

2. ALTERED

SOFT PARTS (replacement): minerals such as


PHOSPHATE or IRON SULFIDES replace soft organic
tissues
neoproterozoic metazoan embryos
upper Ordovician trilobite pyrite replacement

HARD PARTS (replacement {mineral}, recrystallization,


permineralization, carbonization)
PERMINERALIZATION: original void space (pores) filled
by minerals (BONES & WOOD COMMON)
REPLACEMENT: change of composition (exchange of
molecules by dissolution and precipitation) EX) PYRITE
REPLACING CALCITE
RECRYSTALLIZATION: reorganization of skeletal mineral
into a more stable poly morph; EX) ARAGONITE TO
CALCITE
CARBONIZATION: heat & pressure boil off all of the soft
parts leaving only a carbon film

EXAMPLES:
PETRIFIED (turned to stone) = Replacement & Permineralization
47 Mill. Yr. old primate = Carbonization
Very common with PLANTS = Carbonization
INDIRECT EVIDENCE:

TRACE FOSSILS: evidence of the activity of an organism

Tells us more about ECOLOGY than TAXONOMY


o Locomotion (Footprints)
o Feeding

o Dwelling (worm tubes)


CORPROLITES: fossil feces
GASTROLITHS: gizzard stones

CHEMICAL FOSSILS: any evidence of PAST LIFE


o Organic molecules (petroleum)
o Biomarkers (distinctive molecules)
o Molecular paleontology (DNA)

PSEUDOFOSSIL: things that look like fossils


o Sedimentary Structures (load casts, interference
ripples)
o Mineral Deposits and Concretions (dendrites,
nodules)

MOLDS & CASTS


MOLD impression of plant or animal

Process: Death Decay Burial Sediment Hardens


Disolves Mold Exposed Collected

CAST a replica of the original skeleton made by filling a mold


STEINKERN (uncommon): CAST of interior empty space; perfect,
complete internal mold

Ancient Life and Times (Paleozoic)


- definition of disparity vs. diversity; and the Cambrian Explosion

DIVERSITY: number of different kinds of the same thing


DISPARITY: the degree of difference among the kinds of things (scorpion vs.
cockroach vs. spider, vs. butterfly)

LOW disparity/HIGH diversity

HIGH disparity/LOW diversity


- know hierarchical categories for Linnaean classification: D, K, P, C, O, F, G, S

LINNAEAN HIERARCHY (Evolutionary Relationships)


Domain

D ear

Kingdom

K ING

Animalia

Phylum

P HILIP

Chordata

Class

C AME

Mammalia

Order

O VER

Carnivora

Family

F OR

Felidae

Genus

G OOD

Felis

Species

S OUP

Catus

(example only below)

Phylum Disparity (difference)

Genus Diversity (kinds)

- observed general patterns of change in both diversity and disparity in multicellular animals from
Proterozoic through to today.

Examples of VARIATION AMONG ENVIRONMENTS

HIGH Disparity LOW Diversity


many differences; few kinds many phyla, but very few species in each
Distinctive Environments
TODAY (all phyla, a few extinct classes, many species)
late Cambrian (all phyla, most classes, few species)
HIGH Disparity HIGH Diversity
many differences; many kinds many phyla, many species in each
Rainforests Reefs
Phanerozoic

LOW Disparity LOW Diversity


few differences; few kinds few phyla represented by one species
Very Harsh Environments
end Proterozoic
LOW Disparity HIGH Diversity
few differences; many kinds few phyla, many species
Distinctive Environments

DISPARITY & DIVERSITY increasingly, increasing through time.

- Know relative sequence (not numerical dates) of evidence for evolution of multicellular life: trace
fossils (Proterozoic); embryos and Ediacaran fauna (late Proterozoic), small shelly fossils (early
Cambrian), Burgess Shale soft bodied (middle Cambrian)

METAZOANS: multicellular animals

1. Indirect evidence: surface trails 1.0 by


2. Direct evidence: embryos (replaced by phosphate) 600 my
Ediacaran fauna: late Proterozoic; FIRST multi-cellular body fossils
3. Small shelly fossils: early Cambrian (540 my)
--Beginning of CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION
--Earliest Cambrian (pre-trilobite) sponges & molluscs, other fossils
without affinities
4. Burgess Shale (soft bodied): middle Cambrian (515 my)
5. All phyla (but one) by end of Cambrian (485 my)
-- End of CAMBRIAN EXPLOSION
Great Ordovician Diversification Event
6. All major classes by end middle Ordovician (460 my)

- Importance of Burgess Shale & Chengjiang (preservation & time of Cambrian Explosion).
TWO PLACES WITH SPECIAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION FOR PRESERVING ALTERED
SOFT PART:

Chengjiang

Burgess Shale

When? Early Cambrian

Mid-Cambrian

Where? China

Banff, BC

How? minerals replacing soft tissue


What? first records of many groups
(The Cambrian explosion is partially an artifact of preservation.)

how does the Great Ordovician Diversification Event compare to the Cambrian
Explosion?

Paleozoic Marine Life:


- Major invertebrate marine groups of the Cambrian; early-mid Paleozic; late Paleozoic

Fate of these groups (extinct, diminished, abundant) today.


-

why do trilobites have such an excellent fossil record, but most other Arthropods (a very
successful group) do not.

- What is the basic difference between brachiopods and bivalves? Which would you expect to
find in a Paleozoic rock vs. a Modern Sea.?

Which groups are responsible for reef formation in the Cambrian, vs. middle Paleozoic,
vs. today.?

From a good representative picture and a multiple choice or short matching list of names,
be able to recognize a: trilobite, brachiopod, bryozoan, graptolite, cephalopod (straight or
coild), tabulate coral, rugose coral, blastoid, crinoid, extinct mollusk (hyolithid), extinct
echinoderm.

- What features do all members of these groups share (defines the group)?

Brachiopods (calcite shell, small body, large filter feeding organ, symmetry
through shell)
Mollusks (most with aragonite shell, muscular foot, large fleshy body)
Bivalves(symmetry between shells, prominent muscle scars)
Cephalopods- (shells with internal partitions, chambers)
Echinoderms internal plates of calcite, 5 rows of tube feet, no head crinoids
small body with arms
Blastoids bulbous body without arms
Corals skeletons of calcite or aragonite, tentacles with stinging cells.

Invasion of Land
- when did it happen, which groups came on land first.

Pre-Silurian Landscape: When? 4 BILLION YEARS AGO

no plants, animals, or soil

massive water run off

pervasive weathering and erosion

different chemical environment (acid rain)

FIRST groups on land bacteria, algae, & fungi BUT there is no fossil
record
-what physical challenges did life on land pose (relative to in sea)?

DESICCATION need special tissue or skeleton to keep from drying out


ULTRA VIOLET RAYS always lethal without protection
SUPPORT water is less dense than air and keeps bodies supported; need
stronger support system (rigid stalk or strong skeleton)

ATTACHMENT OR TRANSPORTATION need roots or holdfasts; need


stronger limbs
-how were some of these challenges overcome?

KEY INNOVATION: new characteristic that allows an organism to do


something fundamentally differen from its ancestors. Followed by ADAPTIVE
RADIATION
VASCULAR TISSUE: in plants; consists of bundle of tubes

passes water & nutrients

passes manufactured food

1st appear in Late Silurian

- what were the early advantages of living on land?

ADVANTAGES of living on land:

light for photosynthesis

no herbivors, predators

wide open spaces

Our Appalachians
For ANY Mountain, the TOPOGRAPHIC RELIEF is a result of either:
active uplift (collision or volcano)
or
differential erosion (hard rocks =high ; weak rocks = low)
-Names (Coastal Plain to Appalachian Plateau) and characteristics (age to Era, major rock type,
level of deformation) of Geologic Provinces

GEOLOGICAL PROVINCES
(extend along the entire east coast)

COASTAL PLAIN
o Undeformed Cretaceous
o Cenozoic Sedimentary Rock

PIEDMONT
o Deformed & Metamorphosed Paleozoic Sedimentary Rocks
o Paleozoic Igneous Intrusions
o Extends BENEATH COASTAL PLAIN

TRIASSIC RIFT BASINS


o Undeformed Triassic Sediments & Igneous Rack red beds
o WITHIN PIEDMONT

{A VERY LARGE THRUST FAULT SEPARATES THE PIEDMONT FROM THE


BLUE RIDGE}

BLUE RIDGE
o Deformed & Metamorphosed Proterozoic Rocks (hard crystalline)
o Major THRUST FAULTS to West

VALLEY & RIDGE


o Folded & Thrust Faulted (NOT Metamorphosed) Paleozoic
Sedimentary Rock
o Many THRUST FAULTS to the West
o Differential Erosion (valleys & ridges)

PLATEAUS

o Flat & Gently Deformed, Paleozoic Sediments


o The Coal Fields

RAPIDS & WATER FALLS exist at transition between PIEDMONT &


COASTAL PLAIN
-Wilson Cycle: definition, sedimentological and tectonic features associated with Rifting, Sea floor
spreading, Passive margin, Subduction, collision (clastic wedge).

WILSON CYCLE: the opening & closing of ocean basins (the break up and
formation of continents)
1. Begins with a SUPERCONTINENT
2. Heat UPLIFTS (buldge) then extension RIFTS the continent.
3. Divergent Boundary, ocean widens (young, narrow to wide, mature)
4. Change in relative plate motion subduction zone forms (Ocean
Continent Collision)
5. Ocean Basin Closes Ocean-Continent Convergent Margin
6. Continent Continent Collision
7. Ends with a SUPERCONTINENT

RIFTING (break up of a continent)

heat causes uplift (buldge)

normal faults

clastic sediments fill valley

mafic & felsic intrusions & extrusions

lakes (evaporates & carbonates)

Ex) by ago: failed rifting of Pannotia supercontinent: valley fill sediments form
Grandfather Mt.; Mt Rogers, VA; Smoky Mountains
SEA FLOOR SPREADING

direct evidence rarely preserved

old ocean crust usually get recycled down subduction zones

Ex) rocks of Rich Mt. & Howard Knob (amphibolite = metamorphosed basalt)
PASSIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN

Carbonate platform: limestone on a flat clean, shallow shelf

Cambrian of southern Laurentia

CHANGE IN PLATE MOTION DIRECTIONS


SUBDUCTION BEGINS
-Times of supercontinent formation and break up (Rodinia, Pannotia, Pangea).

PANNOTIA SUPERCONTINENT: LATE PROTEROZOIC; SPLITS NORTH


AMERICA FROM SOUTH AMERICA AND FORMS LAPETUS SEA
PANGEA: LATE PALEOZOIC

THERE HAVE BEEN A SERIES OF SUPERCONTINENTS:

-History of the Appalachian Mountain System: names and geologic time (e.g,. Ordovician) of
orogenies, their associated clastic wedges and the tectonic cause of the orogeny. (Grenville,
Taconic, Acadian and Alleghenian)

ORDOVICIANMOUNTAINBUILDINGcollisionwithTaconicIslandArc

CLASTICWEDGE:
o Sedimenterodedfromaprevioushighland
o ConglomeratetoShale
o Rivers,Deltas,AlluvialFans
ClasticWedgesaremoreCOARSEGRAINED&THICKER
TOWARDSOURCE

TheAppalachianMountainsformedasaresultofthe
collisionofNorthAmerica&Africa

WilsonCycleendswiththeendofthePaleozoic

CarolinasareinthemiddleofPangea

StartofNEWWilsonCycle=EarlyMesozoic

TriassicRiftBasinsSCtoCAformstheAtlantic

SUMMARYOFABOVE
AppalachianMt.SystemTimeLinewithresults(evidence)
1.AssemblyofRodiniasupercontinentGrenvilleOrogeny(1.1by).
LocalrocksinBoone(CranberryGneiss)partofthecoreofmetamorphicrocksina
chainthatextendsacrossmostmoderncontinents(thenassembledasRodinia).Middle
Proterozoic.
2.Failedriftofsupercontinent(0.75by).
LocalrocksoftheGrandfatherMt.Formation,Mt.RogersandSmokeyMts,displaythe
sequencerocksexpectedinariftsystem(immatureclasticsediments,mixedmaficfelsic
intrusive&extrusive).Noevidenceofmarineorpassivemarginsedimentsimmediately
followingfailedrift..
3.Successfulriftofsupercontinent(~0.5by).
LocalrocksofearlyCambrianshowexpectedsequencefromrift,followedbypassive
marginlimestones.WestsideofBlueRidgefromGAtoPA.LocallyatLinvilleGorge
andCaverens
4.Passivecontinentalmargin(Cambrian).
LocalrocksofthickCambrianlimestonesanddolomites.Locallyrocksof
JohnsonCityandBristonTNextendfromGAtoPA(e.g.Worley'sCave).
5.Subductionzoneandislandarcformsoffshore.
CambrianandOrdovicianvolcanicashbedspresentinpassivemarginlimestones(from
TNtoMO).Latercollision.

6.CollisionwithIslandArcformsTaconicMts.(Ordovician).
Regionalmetamorphism,rockterrainsofwesternPiedmontaddedtoNorthAmerica
(separategeologichistoryuptothatpoint)
7.Iapetuscontinuestoclose&collisionwithmicrocontinentscausesmountainsin
Devonian.
8.NorthAmericacollideswithAfricatoformPangeasupercontinentcauseverylarge
mountains,AlleghanianOrogeny(latePaleozoic)
evidence
9.Pangeabeginstobreakup(riftbasins)TriassicyoungAtlantic
evidence
10.ReturntopassivemarginasAtlanticgrows(Cretaceous)
evidence
11.Differentialerosion,andlateupliftcausespresenttopogoraphy,
sedimentaccumulatesonCoastalPlain(Cenozoic)
evidence