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PREAMBLE(NOTPARTOFTHESTANDARD)
Inordertopromotepubliceducationandpublicsafety,equaljusticeforall,abetterinformedcitizenry,theruleoflaw,worldtradeandworld
peace,thislegaldocumentisherebymadeavailableonanoncommercialbasis,asitistherightofallhumanstoknowandspeakthelawsthatgovern
them.
ENDOFPREAMBLE(NOTPARTOFTHESTANDARD)

b
a

NATIONALELECTRICALCODE2011
(FirstRevision)

BUREAUOFINDIANSTANDARDS
i

SP30:2011

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FIRSTPUBLISHEDAUGUST1985
FIRSTREVISIONFEBRUARY2011
BUREAUOFINDIANSTANDARDS
ICS01.12091.160.01
PRICERs.4070.00
PUBLISHEDBYBUREAUOFINDIANSTANDARDS,MANAKBHAVAN,9BAHADURSHAHZAFARMARG,NEWDELHI110002,
PRINTEDBYVIBAPRESSPVT.LTD.,NEWDELHI110020

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INTRODUCTION
Indiaisonthepathofdevelopmentanditsinfrastructuresectorhasgrownprogressively.Thebuildingsandservicessoconstructeddependon
powerfortheirconstructionandeffectiveutilization.Infact,powerisoneoftheprimemoversofdevelopmentandelectricalenergyisthe
predominantformofenergybeingusedduetoeaseofgeneration/conversion,transmission,andfinalutilization.
SpecificregulationstobeadheredtointhesupplyanduseofelectricalenergyhadbeenlaiddownbytheIndianElectricityAct,1910andthe
IndianElectricityRules,1956framedthereunder.However,aneedwasfelttoelaborateupontheseregulationssincetheagenciesinvolvedhavevaried
practicesinviewoftheirdiverseinterestsanddifferentaccessibilitylevelstotechnologicaldevelopments.Inordertorationalizethesepractices,Indias
firstNationalElectricalCode,formulatedin1985,wasacompendiumofseveralwellestablishedcodesofpracticewhichprovidedassistanceon
economicselection,installationandmaintenanceofelectricalequipmentemployedintheusageofelectricalenergy.Thecodecomplementedand
elaboratedontheIndianElectricityRules,1956fortheeaseofapplicationbythesystemengineersbyrecommendingthebestpracticesforelectrical
installationsinaconsolidatedforminordertoprovideforunifiedpracticesandproceduresalongwithconsiderationforsafetyandeconomicusageof
energyinthedesign,execution,inspectionandmaintenanceofelectricalinstallationsofvariouslocations.
DuringtheformulationoftheNationalElectricalCodein1985,itwasrealizedthatthereferredcodes,forexample,thoseonwiringpractice,
earthing,lightningprotectionetcneedtoberevisedinlinewiththepracticeandtechnologyavailableatthattime.Ithadalsobeenplannedthatafter
therelevantcodesarerevised,theNationalElectricalCodewouldalsoneedtoberevised.AfterthepublicationofNEC1985,thereferredCodeswere
revised.However,thetaskofrevisionofNECcouldnotbetakenupinearnestimmediatelyaftertherevisionofvariouscodesofpractice.Overthe
years,therehavebeenyetmorechangesinthetechnologynewpracticeshaveevolvedandgotmodified.Therehavebeentremendoussocioeconomic
changes,andcorrespondingchangeinthepatternoftheusageofelectricity.ElectricityAct2003hasbeennotifiedandpowersectorreformshave
beenfirmlyestablished.DuringtheNinthPlan,itwasrealizedthatitisnecessarytohaveanEnergyConservationAct.Accordingly,theGovernment
hasenactedtheEnergyConservationAct,2001tomeetthelegalrequirementneededtoenforceenergyefficiencyandconservationmeasures.Dueto
allsuchchanges,thepresentscenarioisatgreatvariancewiththatof1985,whentheCodewasfirstformulated.Therefore,anurgentneedwasfeltto
revisetheNECattheearliesttomaintainitsrelevanceinthepresentcontext.
ThetaskforrevisionofNECwastakenupbytheElectricalInstallationsSectionalCommittee,ETD20consideringtheabovefactors.This
revisionfollowstheearlierstructureofNEC,withmodificationsandadditionsbeingincorporatedinlinewithIEC60364seriesonElectrical
InstallationsaswellasthechangesanddevelopmentsthattookplacesincethepublicationofNEC1985.Itisvisualizedthatinfuture,further
harmonizationwithinternationalcodesmaybeconsidered.
ElectricalinstallationshouldbecarriedoutinaccordancewiththeIndianElectricityRules,1956andrelevantregulationsasamendedor
broughtintoforcefromtimetotime.Allmaterial,accessories,appliancesetc.,usedinanelectricalinstallationshouldconformtoIndianStandards
wherevertheyexist.Thereshouldbegoodworkmanshipandpropercoordinationandcollaborationbetweenthearchitect,buildingengineerandthe
electricalengineerfromtheplanningstageitself.Thedesignofelectricalinstallationisrequiredtotakeintoaccountthecharacteristicsofavailable
supply,natureofdemand,environmentalconditions,typeofwiringandmethodsofinstallations,protectiveequipment,emergencycontrol,
disconnectingdevices,preventingofmutualinfluencebetweenelectricalandnonelectricalinstallations,accessibilityetc.
TheCodeisdividedintoeightparts,whicharefurtherdividedintosections.Part1coverstheGeneralandcommonaspects,whichwouldapply
toalltypesofelectricalinstallations.Wiringinstallationsareanimportant

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aspectofanyelectricalinstallation.Thesehavebeenrevisedtoalignwithinternationalpracticeanditisproposedtorevisetherelevantcodeof
practiceforwiringinstallationsalso.TheSectionsrelatedtoEarthingandLightningprotectionhavebeenmodifiedandcorrespondingmodificationis
alsobeinginitiatedtorespectivecodes.Aspectofvoltagesurgeshasalsobeenincluded.EnergyconservationaspectshadbeenemphasizedinNEC
1985.Meanwhile,EnergyConservationAct,2001hasbeennotified.Therefore,energyconservationaspectshavebeenfurtherelaboratedandenergy
audithasalsobeenincluded.
ThisCodeexcludestherequirementscomingunderthepurviewofutilities,namely,thelargegeneratingstations,distributionsubstationsand
associatedtransmissionsystem,orcaptivegeneratorsetsofverylargecapacity.Itcoverstherequirementsrelatingtostandbyoremergencygenerating
stationsandcaptivesubstationsintendedforservinganindividualoccupancyandintendedtoserveabuildingoragroupofbuildingsnormallyhoused
inandaroundit.Itgivesguidelinesonlayoutandbuildingconstructionaspects,selectionofequipment,transformerinstallations,switchingstations
andstationauxiliaries.ReferencetopollutionnormsaslaiddowninEnvironmentProtectionAct1986fordieselgeneratorsetshasnowbeen
included.
Nonindustrialbuildingsincludedomesticdwellings,officebuildings,shoppingandcommercialcentersandinstitutions,recreational&assembly
buildings,medicalestablishments,hotelsandsportsbuildingsetc.Optimumbenefitsfromtheuseofelectricitycanbeobtainedonlyiftheinstallation
isofsufficientcapacityandaffordsenoughflexibility.Safety,economy,efficiency,reliability,convenienceaswellasprovisionforfutureexpansionare
majorconsiderationsinplanningtheelectricallayout.Guidelinesareprovidedbasedongeneralcharacteristicsofinstallations,supplycharacteristics
andparameters.Switchgearforcontrolandprotection,servicelines,metering,earthing,buildingservices,fireprotectionandmiscellaneousprovisions
havebeencovered.Miscellaneousprovisionsincludetelephonewiring,callbellsystem,clocksystem,groupcontrol,audiovisualsystems,closedcircuit
TVwhereapplicable,emergencylightsforcriticalareasofthedwelling.Provisionofincreasednumberofpointsforresidentialunitsinorderto
accommodatethegadgetsavailableandtoavoidoverloadingofpointsbyconsumerandreferencetominiaturecircuitbreakersinadditiontofuses
underrequirementofswitchgearforcontrolandprotectionhasbeenmade.
Electricalnetworksinindustrialbuildingsservethepurposeofdistributingtherequiredpowertotheconsumingpointswhereitisusedfora
multitudeofpurposesintheindustry.Thedesignofelectricalinstallationinindustrialpremisesisthereforemorecomplicatedthanthoseinnon

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industrialbuildings.Industrialinstallationhastotakecareofloadrequirementsandsupplylimitationsinasimpleandeconomicmanner,ensuringat
thesametimefullprotectiontohumanlifeandlossofpropertybyfire.Thenetworklayoutshouldalsofacilitateeasymaintenanceandfault
localization.Aparticularfeatureofelectricalinstallationsinindustrialbuildingsisthereliabilityofsupplytoessentialoperationsforwhichstandbyand
emergencysupplysources/networksareavailable.Theneedsofsuchsystemswoulddependonthetypeandnatureoftheindustrialworks.
Locationsinindustrialbuildingswhicharebytheirnaturehazardous,requirespecialtreatmentinrespectofdesignofelectricalinstallations
therein.Industrialinstallationshavebeenclassifieddependingonthespecifiedcriteriathereininordertohelpidentifythespecificnatureofeach
industryandthelocationstherein,forassistingthedesignengineerinthechoiceofequipmentandmethods.
Electricalinstallationsareoftenrequiredtobedesignedanderectedforuseforshortperiodsoftimerangingfromafewhourstofewmonths
andareconnectedtothesupplysourceinopenground.Suchinstallationsaregenerallyunprotectedfromenvironmentalhazardsascomparedto
installationsinbuildings.Majorrisksintheuseofpowerinsuchinstallationarisefromshortcircuitresultinginfireaccidentsandexposuretolive
wireresultinginshock.Outdoorinstallationsarerequiredtocomplynotonlywiththegeneralrequirements,butalsoadditionalrequirements
regardingsupplyintakearrangements,controlofcircuits,earthing,andprotectionagainstoverload,shortcircuitandearthleakage.
Thereisincreaseduseofelectricityforessentialpurposesinagriculturewiththeincreaseinsophisticationinorganisingthefarmoutputofthe
country.Installationsinagriculturalpremisesaredifferentastheexternalinfluencesontheelectricalservicesarequitedifferentfromthose
encounteredelsewhere.Eventhoughtheoverallpowerrequirementsforsuchinstallationscouldbesmall,thepresenceoflivestockandother
extraneousfactorsnecessitatelayingdownspecificrequirementstoensuresafety.Specificrequirementsofelectricalinstallationsinagricultural
premiseswhichincludepremiseswherelivestockarepresentandfarmproducearehandledorstoredhavebeencovered.Agriculturalprocessingatthe
farmpremiseshasnowbeenincluded.
Anyarea,whereduringnormaloperationsahazardousatmosphereislikelytooccurinsufficientquantitytoconstituteahazardhadtobe
treatedinaspecialmannerfromthepointofthedesignofelectricalinstallation.

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Manyliquids,gasesandvapourswhichinindustryaregenerated,processed,handledandstoredarecombustible.Whenignitedthesemayburn
readilyandwithconsiderableexplosiveforcewhenmixedwithairintheappropriateproportions.Withregardtoelectricalinstallations,essential
ignitionsourcesincludearcs,sparksorhotsurfacesproducedeitherinnormaloperationorunderspecifiedfaultconditions.NECprovidesguidelines
forelectricalinstallationsandequipmentinlocationswhereahazardousatmosphereislikelytobepresentwithaviewtomaximizingelectricalsafety.
Whenelectricalequipmentistobeinstalledinornearahazardousarea,effortistobemadetolocatemuchoftheequipmentinlesshazardousor
nonhazardousareasandthusreducetheamountofspecialequipmentrequired.Hazardousareascanbelimitedinextentbyconstructionmeasures,
thatis,wallsordams.Ventilationorapplicationofprotectivegasalsoreducestheprobabilityofthepresenceofexplosivegasatmospheresothatareas
ofgreaterhazardcanbetransformedtoareasoflesserhazardortononhazardousareas.Anumberofproductstandardsofferingdifferenttypesof
protectionareavailable.Regulatoryrequirementsaretobeadheredtoforsuchinstallations.Standardspertainingtoclassificationofhazardousareas
havingflammablegasesandvapoursforelectricalinstallationandguideforselectionofelectricalequipmentforhazardousareahavebeenrevisedand
thechangeshavebeenincorporatedintheNEC.
Excessiverelianceonfossilfuelresourcestomeettheenergyrequirementofthecountryisconsideredunsustainableinthelongrunandhasan
adverseimpactontheenvironmentandecology.Thishasresultedinthequestofrenewablesourcesofenergyasaviableoptiontoachievethegoalof
sustainabledevelopment.Harnessingofsolarenergyisonesuchareawhichisexpectedtosupplementenergysupplyefforts.Henceanewpartonsolar
photovoltaicinstallationshasbeenadded.
TheCodeexcludesguidanceontariff.ProductdetailsarealsoexcludedfromtheCodeasseparateproductstandardsareavailableforthese.
WhenthesestandardsarerevisedsubsequenttotherevisionofNEC,therecouldbeinstanceswherethelatestCodesdifferfromtherevisedNEC.Itis
thereforerecommendedtofollowtheprovisionsofthelateststandards/codesofpractice.InordertoavoidinstanceswheretheIndianStandardsand
provisionsofthisCodediffer,attentionhasbeendrawntotherelevantstandard.However,forcertainprovisionsinthisCode,therelevant
requirementsfromcorrespondingIndianStandardshavebeenextractedandreproduced.Inallcases,fordetailedguidance,referenceshouldbemade
totheindividualstandardandshouldanycontradictionbeobservedbetweentheprovisionsinindividualstandardandthosereproducedherein,the
provisionsoftheformershallbeconsideredaccurate.Asageneralrule,technologicalinnovationssuchasbettermaterialsornewandbettermethod
alsoprovedasgoodpracticewouldfirstbeintroducedintheindividualstandardasappropriatethanintheNationalElectricalCode.Inordertokeep
pacewithsuchchangesandtoincorporatetheadditionalknowledgethatwillbegainedthroughtheimplementationoftheCode,acontinuousreview
isenvisaged.Thus,theusersofthisCodeareencouragedtobringtothenoticeofBureauofIndianStandards,needofmodificationsthatmaybe
requiredinthelightofchangesintechnologyorotherfactors,asthisisacontinuousprocess.
TheNationalElectricalCode(hereafterreferredtoastheCode)isintendedtobeadvisory.Itcontainsguidelines,whichcanbeimmediately
adoptedforusebythevariousinterestsconcerned.Itsprovisionsarepresentlynotmandatorybutareexpectedtoserveasamodelforadoptioninthe
interestofsafetyandeconomyandwiththeintenttokeepourelectricalinstallationpracticesatparwiththebestpracticesintheworld.
COMMITTEECOMPOSITION

ElectricalInstallationsSectionalCommittee,ETD20
Chairman
SHRIN.NAGARAJAN
ChiefEngineer
CentralPublicWorksDepartment,NewDelhi
Organization

Representative(s)

ArevaTransmissionandDistribution,Noida

ShriBiswajitSaha

BESTUndertaking,Mumbai

ShriS.A.Puranik

ShriP.R.B.Nair(Alternate)

BSESRajdhaniPowerLtd,NewDelhi

ShriShantanuDastidar

CentralElectricityAuthority,NewDelhi

ShriR.K.Verma

ShriB.R.Singh(Alternate)

ChiefElectricalInspectorate(Kerala),Thiruvananthapuram

ShriK.S.Beena

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ShriK.K.Unni(Alternate)

ChiefElectricalInspectorate(MadhyaPradesh),Bhopal

ShriS.S.Mujalde

ShriA.K.Dubey(Alternate)

ChiefElectricalInspectorate(Orissa),Behrampur

ShriG.C.Choudhury

ShriS.H.Rahman(Alternate)

ChiefElectricalInspectorate(TamilNadu),Chennai

ShriR.Subramaniyan

ShriS.Appavoo(Alternate)

ChiefElectricalInspectorate(Uttranchal),Nainital

ShriAnupamKumar

ShriGirishChand(Alternate)

CentralPublicWorksDepartment,NewDelhi

ShriM.K.Verma

ShriS.Chopra(Alternate)

DevelopmentConsultantLimited,Kolkata

ShriJibanK.Chowdhury

ShriRanjitK.Das(Alternate)

DirectorGeneralFactoryAdvisoryServices&LabourInstitute,Mumbai

ShriV.B.Sant

ShriS.C.Sharma(Alternate)

DepartmentofTelecommunications,NewDelhi

ShriPradeepNettur

ShriJ.S.Yadav(Alternate)

ElectricalContractorsAssociationofMaharashtra,Mumbai

ShriU.S.Chitre

ShriAnilGachke(Alternate)

ElectricalContractorsAssociationofTamilNadu,Chennai

ShriA.K.Venkataswamy

ShriT.M.Bhikkaji(Alternate)

EngineersIndiaLtd,NewDelhi

ShriJ.M.Singh

ShriNeerajSethi(Alternate)

GujaratElectricityBoard,Vadodara

ShriR.O.Gandhi

ShriK.M.Dave(Alternate)

IndianElectricalandElectronicsManufacturersAssociation,Mumbai

ShriAmitabhaSarkar

ShrimatiAnitaGupta(Alternate)

Larsen&ToubroLtd,Chennai

ShriS.Rajavel

ShriD.Maheswaran(Alternate)

Metallurgical&EngineeringConsultants(I)Ltd,Ranchi

ShriG.Mishra

MinistryofDefence,NewDelhi

ShriA.K.Mittal

ShriR.K.Tyagi(Alternate)

NationalThermalPowerCorporationLtd,Noida

ShriAtulShrivastava

ShriRahulAggarwal(AlternateI)

ShriVikramTalwar(AlternateII)

NuclearPowerCorporation,Mumbai

ShriM.L.Jadhav

PowerGridCorporationofIndiaLtd,Gurgaon

ShriS.V.Sarma

ShriSubirSen(Alternate)

RuralElectificationCorporationLtd,NewDelhi

ShriDineshKumar

ShriP.S.Hariharan(Alternate)

SiemensLtd,Chennai

ShriT.Prabhakar

ShriK.Gurumurthy(Alternate)

TariffAdvisoryCommittee,Ahmedabad

ShriM.M.Bhuskute

ShriP.K.RoyChowdhury(Alternate)

TataConsultingEngineers,Mumbai

ShriMurliMuthana

ShriUtpalPriyadarshi(Alternate)

TamilNaduElectricityBoard,Chennai

ShriSukumaran

ShriS.Kabbab(Alternate)

BISDirectorateGeneral

shriR.K.TrehanScientistF&Head(Electrotechnical)
RepresentingDirectorGeneral(ExofficioMember)

MemberSecretary
ShrimatiNishatS.Haque
ScientistE(Electrotechnical)
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CONTENTS

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PageNo.

ix

INTRODUCTION

iii

COMPOSITION

vi

PART1

GENERALANDCOMMONASPECTS

Section1

ScopeoftheNationalElectricalCode

Section2

Definitions

Section3

GraphicalSymbolsforDiagrams,LetterSymbolsandSigns

13

Section4

GuideforPreparationofDiagrams,Charts,Tables,andMarking

19

Section5

UnitsandSystemsofMeasurement

23

Section6

StandardValues

25

Section7

FundamentalPrinciples

27

Section8

AssessmentofGeneralCharacteristicsofBuildings

31

Section9

WiringInstallations

37

Section10

ShortCircuitCalculations

Section11

ElectricalAspectsofBuildingServices

110

Section12

SelectionofEquipment

130

Section13

ErectionandPrecommissioningTestingofInstallations

131

Section14

Earthing

136

Section15

LightningProtection

163

Section16

ProtectionAgainstVoltageSurges

171

Section17

GuidelinesforPowerFactorImprovement

180

Section18

EnergyEfficiencyAspects

184

Section19

SafetyinElectricalWork

186

Section20

Tables

PART2

ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSINSTANDBYGENERATINGSTATIONSANDCAPATIVESUBSTATIONS

PART3

ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSINNONINDUSTRIALBUILDINGS

201

Section1

DomesticDwellings

204

Section2

OfficeBuildings,ShoppingandCommercialCentresandInstitutions

214

Section3

Recreational,AssemblyBuildings

220

Section4

MedicalEstablishments

224

Section5

Hotels

250

Section6

SportsBuildings

259

Section7

SpecificRequirementsforElectricalInstallationsinMultistoreyedBuildings

265

PART4

ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSININDUSTRIALBUILDINGS

271

PART5

OUTDOORINSTALLATIONS

301

Section1

PublicLightingInstallations

304

Section2

TemporaryOutdoorInstallations

325

Section3

PermanentOutdoorInstallations

330

PART6

ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSINAGRICULTURALPREMISES

343

PART7

ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSINHAZARDOUSAREAS

351

PART8

SOLARPHOTOVOLTAIC(PV)POWERSUPPLYSYSTEMS

379

101

190
195

NATIONALELECTRICALCODE
PART1

x
2
1

PART1GENERALANDCOMMONASPECTS
0FOREWORD
Electricalinstallationsrequireadequateplanningrightfromconceptstagetolayoutanddesigning,selectionofproperequipment,their
installationandtheirmaintenance.Fundamentalaspectsofinstallationpracticearecommonformostofthetypesofelectricalinstallations.Part1of
theNationalElectricalCodecoverstheseaspectsunderitsvariousSections.
AnaccounthasbeentakenoftheIndianStandardsexistingondifferentaspectsofelectricalinstallationpractice.However,somepracticeshave
changedovertimeandcorrespondingCodesofpracticeeitherdonotexistorareyettobemodified.AnattempthasbeenmadethroughthisCodeto
refertothepresentgoodpractices.AreferencehasalsobeenmadetoproductstandardsinordertoinformtheuseroftheCodeabouttheavailability
anddesirabilitytousethem.
AspectsconcerningspecificoccupanciesarecoveredinotherPartsandSectionsofthisCode.Thefundamentalprinciplesofinstallationpractice
coveredunderPart1ofthisCodegenerallyapply,unlessmodifiedorsupplementedbysubsequentParts.ThisPart1wouldalsobeausefulreferencefor

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occupanciesnotexplicitlycoveredbythescopeofsubsequentPartsoftheCode.

SECTION1SCOPEOFTHENATIONALELECTRICALCODE
0FOREWORD
EachPart/SectionoftheNationalElectricalCodecoverstherequirementsrelatingtoelectricalinstallationsinspecificoccupancies.The
fundamentalandgeneralprinciplesgoverningelectricalinstallationpracticetogetherwithcommonaspectsapplicabletoalltypesofinstallationshas
beenbroughtoutinaseparatePartinordertoserveasareferencedocumentonsuchmatters.
ThedetailsenumeratedinthisPartaregenerallyapplicabletoalltypesofoccupanciesandaretobereadasmodifiedorsupplementedwiththe
informationprovidedintherelevantPartsoftheCode.
Efforthasbeenmadetomakethispartselfcontained,sothatusersoftheCodecanderiveutmostadvantageinusingitforapplicationinthe
fieldevenforoccupanciesnotexplicitlycoveredbythescopeofsubsequentPartsoftheCode.Effortshavealsobeenmadetoensurethatallthe
relevantdetailsrequiredfortheunderstandingoftheCodeareavailabletotheextentpossiblewithinPart1andefforthasbeenmadetokeepthe
referencesofindividualstandardstotheminimum.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section1oftheCodedescribesthescopeoftheNationalElectricalCode.
2REFERENCES
TheNationalElectricalCodetakesintoaccountthestipulationsinseveralIndianStandardsdealingwiththevariousaspectsrelatingtoelectrical
installationpractice.Severalproductstandardsalsoexist,andcompliancewithrelevantIndianStandardsisdesirable.Itisthereforerecommendedthat
individualParts/SectionsoftheCodeshouldbereadinconjunctionwiththerelevantIndianStandards.ListofsuchIndianStandardsisgivenat
relevantPart/SectionoftheCode.
Atthetimeofpublication,theeditionsindicatedwerevalid.Allstandardsaresubjecttorevision,andpartiestoagreementsbasedonthis
standardareencouragedtoinvestigatethepossibilityofapplyingthemostrecenteditionsofthestandards.
3SCOPEOFTHENATIONALELECTRICALCODE
3.1

TheNationalElectricalCodecoversthefollowing:
a.Standardgoodpracticesforselectionofvariousitemsofelectricalequipmentformingpartofpowersystems
b.Recommendationsconcerningsafetyandrelatedmatterinthewiringofelectricalinstallationsofbuildingsorindustrialstructures,promoting
compatibilitybetweensuchrecommendationsandthoseconcerningtheequipmentinstalled
c.Generalsafetyproceduresandpracticesinelectricalworkand
d.Additionalprecautionstobetakenforuseofelectricalequipmentforspecialenvironmentalconditionslikeexplosiveandactiveatmosphere.
3.2

TheCodeappliestoelectricalinstallationssuchasthosein:
a.Standby/emergencygeneratingplantsandbuildingsubstations
b.Domesticdwellings
c.Officebuildings,shoppingandcommercialcentresandinstitutions
d.Recreationandotherpublicpremises
e.Medicalestablishments
f.Hotels
g.Sportsbuildings
h.Industrialpremises
i.Temporaryandpermanentoutdoorinstallations
j.Agriculturalpremises
k.Installationsinhazardousareasand
l.Solarphotovoltaicinstallations.
NOTES
1.Anytypeofinstallationnotcoveredbytheaboveshallbeclassifiedinthegroupwhichmostnearlyresembleitsexistingorproposed
use.
2.WherechangeintheoccupancyplacesitunderthescopeofadifferentSectionoftheCode,thesameinstallationshallbemadeto
complywiththerequirementsoftheCodeforthenewoccupancy.

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3.3

TheCodeappliestocircuitsotherthantheinternalwiringofapparatus.
3.4

TheCodedoesnotapplytotraction,motorvehicles,installationsinrollingstock,onboardships,aircraftorinstallationsinundergroundmines.
3.5

TheCodecoversonlyelectricalaspectsoflightningprotectionofbuildingsandinsofarastheeffectsoflightningontheelectricalinstallations
areconcerned.
Itdoesnotcoverlightningprotectionaspectsfromstructuralsafetypointofview.

4
3.6

TheCodeisalsonotintendedtoapplyto,
a.Systemsofdistributionofenergytopublicand
b.Powergenerationandtransmissionforsuchsystems.
3.7

TheCodealsodoesnotcoverguidelinesonthepaymentforelectricalworkdoneininstallations.
5

SECTION2DEFINITIONS
0FOREWORD
EachPartoftheCodegives,wherenecessary,definitionsoftermsandphrasesrelevantforthecomprehensionoftherequirementsstipulated
therein.Usersmayfinditconvenienttorefertoadetailedlistoftermsandtheirdefinitionscontainedinthissectionthatarerelevanttoelectrical
installationpractice.Itmayhoweverbenotedthatforfurtherguidance,recourseshouldbemadetoIS1885(series)onelectrotechnicalvocabulary
containingacompendiumoftermsinthefield.
ThedefinitionscontainedintheCodearebasedonthecurrentinternationalterminologyasfaraspossible.Somedefinitionsarebasedonthe
terminologydrawnupbytherelevantexpertgroupsundertheElectrotechnicalDivisionCouncilwiththeobjectofstrikingacorrectbalancebetween
absoluteprecisionandsimplicity.Theprincipalobjectofthisexerciseistoprovidedefinitionswhicharesufficientlyclearsothateachtermis
understoodwiththesamemeaningbyallconcerned.Itmaysometimesbefeltthatthedefinitionsarenotidenticalwiththosewhichmaybefoundin
otherpublicationsdesignedwithdifferentobjectivesandforotherreaders.Suchdifferencesareinevitableandshouldbeacceptedintheinterestof
clarity.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section2oftheCodecoversdefinitionsofterms.
2REFERENCES
AlistofIndianStandardsonelectrotechnicalvocabularyrelevantforthepurposeoftheCodeisgivenatAnnexA.
3TERMINOLOGY
3.0

ForthepurposeoftheNationalElectricalCode,thefollowingdefinitionsshallapply,inadditiontothosecontainedinindividualParts/Sections
andrelevantIndianStandards.
3.1FundamentalDefinitions

3.1.1

CapacitorAsystemoftwoconductors(plates)separatedovertheextentoftheirsurfacesbyaninsulationmediumwhichiscapableofstoring
electricalenergyaselectricalstress.
3.1.2

ConductorAsubstanceorbodywhichallowscurrentofelectricitytopasscontinuously.

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3.1.3

DielectricAmaterialmediuminwhichanelectricfieldcanexistinastationarystate.
3.1.4

ElectrodeAconductingelementusedforconveyingcurrenttoandfromamedium.
3.1.5

CurrentTheelementaryquantityofelectricityflowingthroughagivensectionofaconductordividedbythecorrespondingindefinitelysmall
time.
3.1.6

ElectricCircuitAnarrangementofbodiesormediathroughwhichacurrentcanflow.
3.1.7

ElectricCurrentThemovementofelectricityinamediumoralongacircuit.Thedirectionofthecurrentisacceptedasoppositetothatofthe
motionofnegativeelectricity.
3.1.8

Voltage,PotentialDifferenceThelineofintegralfromonepointtoanotherofanelectricfield,takenalongagivenpath.
3.1.9

ArcAluminousdischargeofelectricityacrossagas,characterizedbyalargecurrentandalowvoltagegradient,oftenaccompaniedbypartial
volatilizationoftheelectrodes.
3.1.10

FlashoverThepassageofadisruptivedischargeroundininsulatingmaterial.
3.1.11

SparkAbrilliantlyluminousphenomenonofshortdurationwhichcharacterizedadisruptivedischarge.
3.1.12ConnectionofCircuits

3.1.12.1SeriesAnarrangementofelementssothattheyallcarrythesamecurrentorflux.
3.1.12.2ParallelAnarrangementofelementssothattheyallcarryaportionoftotalcurrentorfluxthroughthem
3.1.12.3SeriesparallelAnarrangementofelementsofwhichsomeareconnectedinseriesandothersinparallel.
3.1.13

EarthFaultAccidentalconnection/contactofaconductortoearth.Whentheimpedanceisnegligible,theconnectioniscalledadeadearth.
3.1.14

EarthLeakageCurrentThecurrentflowingtoearthonaccountofimperfectinsulation.
3.1.15

InsulationFaultAnabnormaldecreaseininsulationresistance.
3.1.16

OverloadOperatingconditionsinanelectricallyundamagedcircuitwhichcausesanovercurrent.
3.1.17

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ShortcircuitTheintentionaloraccidentalconnectionoftwopointsofacircuitthroughanegligibleimpedance.Thetermisoftenappliedto
the
groupofphenomenawhichaccompanyashortcircuitbetweenpointsatdifferentpotentials.

3.2Equipment

3.2.1

ElectricalEquipmentTheelectricalmachines,apparatusandcircuitsformingpartofanelectricalinstallationorapowersystem.
NOTES
1.Outdoorelectricalequipmentarethosesuitableforinstallationinopenair.
2.ForthepurposeofthisCode,thetermelectricalequipmentcaningeneralbeusedtoanyitemusedforsuchpurposesasgeneration,
conversion,transmission,distributionorutilizationofelectricalenergysuchasmachines,transformers,apparatus,measuring
instruments,protectivedevices,wiringmaterialandappliances.
3.2.2

CurrentUsingEquipmentEquipmentintendedtoconvertelectricalenergyintoanotherformofenergy,forexample,light,heatormotive
power.
3.2.3

PortableEquipmentEquipmentwhichismovedwhileinoperationorwhichcaneasilybemovedfromoneplacetoanotherwhileconnected
tothesupply.
3.2.4

HandheldEquipmentPortableequipmentintendedtobeheldinthehandduringnormaluse,inwhichthemotor,ifany,formsanintegral
partoftheequipment.
3.2.5

StationaryEquipmentEitherfixedequipmentorequipmentnotprovidedwithacarryinghandleandhavingsuchamassthatitcannoteasily
bemoved.
3.2.6

FixedEquipmentEquipmentfastenedtoasupportorotherwisesecuredinaspecificlocation.
3.2.7

GeneratorAmachineforconvertingmechanicalenergyintoelectricalenergy.
3.2.8

ElectricMotorAmachineforconvertingelectricalenergyintomechanicalenergy.
3.2.9

InductionMotorAnalternatingcurrentmotorwithoutacommutatorinwhichonepartonly,therotororastator,isconnectedtothesupply
network,theotherworkingbyinduction.
3.2.10

MotorGeneratorSetAmachinewhichconsistsofanelectricmotormechanicallycoupledtoagenerator.
3.2.11

AutotransformerAtransformerinwhichtheprimaryandsecondarywindingshavecommonpartorparts.
3.2.12

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TransformerApieceofapparatus,withoutcontinuouslymovingparts,whichbyelectromagneticinductiontransformsvariablevoltageand
currentinoneormoreotherwindingsusuallyatdifferentvaluesofvoltageandcurrentandatthesamefrequency.
3.2.13

Relay(IncludingGasoperatedRelay)Adevicedesignedtoproducesuddenpredeterminedchangesinoneormorephysicalsystemsonthe
appearanceofcertainconditionsinthephysicalsystemcontrollingit.
3.2.14

SwitchgearandControlgearAgeneraltermcoveringswitchingdevicesandtheircombinationwithassociatedcontrol,measuring,protective
andregulatingequipment,alsoassembliesofsuchdevicesandequipmentwithassociatedinterconnections,accessories,enclosuresandsupporting
structuresintendedinprincipleforuseinconnectionwithgeneration,transmission,distributionandconversionofelectricenergy.Controlgearsare
switchingdevicesintendedinprincipleforthecontrolofelectricalenergyconsumingequipment.
3.2.15

Switch(Mechanical)Amechanicalswitchingdevicecapableofmakingcarryingandbreakingcurrentsundernormalcircuitconditionswhich
mayincludespecifiedoperatingoverloadconditionsandalsocarryingforaspecifiedtimecurrentsunderspecifiedabnormalcircuitconditionssuchas
thoseofashortcircuit.
3.2.16

SwitchfuseAswitchinwhichoneormorepoleshaveafuseinseriesinacompositeunit.
3.2.17

FuseswitchAswitchinwhichafuselinkorafusecarrierwithfuselinkformsthemovingcontactoftheswitch.
3.2.18

CircuitBreaker(Mechanical)Amechanicalswitchingdevicecapableofmakingcarryingandbreakingcurrentsundernormalcircuit
conditionsandalsomaking,carryingforaspecifiedtimeandbreakingcurrentsunderspecifiedabnormalcircuitconditionssuchasthoseofashort
circuit.
3.2.19

Fusedevicethat,bythefusingofoneormoreofitsspeciallydesignedandproportionedcomponents,opensthecircuitinwhichitisinserted
bybreakingthecurrentwhenthisexceedsagivenvalueforasufficienttime
NOTEThefusecomprisesallthepartsthatformthecompletedevice.
3.2.20

EnclosedDistributionFuseboardAnenclosurecontainingbusbars,withfuses,forthepurposesofprotecting,controllingorconnectingmore
thanoneoutgoingcircuitfedfromoneormoreincomingcircuits.
3.2.21

EnclosedFuselinkFuselinkinwhichthefuseelementistotallyenclosed,sothatduringoperationwithinitsratingitcannotproduceany
harmfulexternaleffects,forexample,duetodevelopmentofanarc,thereleaseofgasortheejectionofflameormetallicparticles.
7

3.2.22

FuselinkPartofafuseincludingthefuseelement(s)intendedtobereplacedafterthefusehasoperated.
3.2.23

MiniatureCircuitbreakerAcompactmechanicaldeviceformakingandbreakingacircuitbothinnormalconditionsandinabnormal
conditionssuchasthoseofovercurrentandshortcircuit.
3.2.24

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DTypeFuseAnoninterchangeablefusecomprisingafusebaseascrewtypefusecarrier,agaugepieceandafuselink.
3.2.25

DistributionPillarAtotallyenclosedstructurecubiclecontainingbusbarsconnectedtoincomingandoutgoingdistributionfeederscontrolled
throughlinksfuses.
3.2.26

InterconnectingBusbarAconductorotherthancable,usedforexternalconnectionbetweenterminalsofequipment.
3.2.27

BimetallicConnectorAconnectordesignedforthepurposeofconnectingtogethertwoormoreconductorsofdifferentmaterials(normally
copperandaluminium)forpreventingelectrolyticcorrosion.
3.2.28

Fuseelement(FusewireinRewirableFuse)Thatpartofarewirablefuse,whichisdesignedtomeltwhenthefuseoperates.
3.2.29

Fusebase(Fusemount)Thefixedpartofafuseprovidedwithcontactsandterminalsforconnectiontothesystem.Thefusebasecomprises
allthepartsnecessaryforinsulation.
3.2.30

FusecarrierThemovablepartofafusedesignedtocarryafuselink.Thefusecarrierdoesnotincludeanyfuselink.
3.2.31

LightningArrester(SurgeDiverter)Adevicedesignedtoprotectelectricalapparatusfromhightransienttoprotectelectricalapparatusfrom
hightransientvoltageandtolimitthedurationandfrequentlytheamplitudeoffollowcurrent.Thetermlightningarresterincludesanyexternal
seriesgapwhichisessentialfortheproperfunctioningofthedeviceasinstalledforservice,regardlessofwhetherornotitissuppliedasanintegral
partofthedevice.
3.3WiringPractice

3.3.1

AccessoryAnydevice,associatedwiththewiringandelectricalapplianceofaninstallation,forexample,aswitch,afuse,aplug,asocket
outlet,alampholder,oraceilingrose.
3.3.2

ApparatusElectricalapparatusincludingallmachines,appliancesandfittingsinwhichconductorsareusedforofwhichtheymayformapart.
3.3.3

AerialConductorAnyconductorwhichissupportedbyinsulatorsabovethegroundandisdirectlyexposedtotheweather.
NOTEThefollowingfourclassesofaerialconductorsarerecognized:
a.Bareaerialconductors,
b.Coveredaerialconductors,
c.Insulatedaerialconductors,and
d.Weatherproofneutralscreenedcable.
3.3.4

BunchedCablesaresaidtobebunchedwhentwoormorearecontainedwithinasingleconduit,ductorgrooveor,ifnotenclosed,arenot
separatedfromeachother.

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3.3.5

CableAlengthofsingleinsulatedconductor(solidorstranded),ortwoormoresuchconductors,eachprovidedwithitsowninsulation,which
arelaiduptogether.Theinsulatedconductororconductorsmayormaynotbeprovidedwithanoverallmechanicalprotectivecovering.
3.3.6

Cable,ArmouredAcableprovidedwithawrappingofmetal(usuallyintheformoftapeorwire)servingasamechanicalprotection.
3.3.7

Cable,FlexibleAcablecontainingoneormorecores,eachformedofagroupofwires,thediametersofthecoresandofthewiresbeing
sufficientlysmalltoaffordflexibility.
3.3.8

CircuitAnarrangementofconductororconductorsforthepurposeofconveyingenergyandformingasystemorabranchofasystem.
3.3.9

Circuit,Final,SubAnoutgoingcircuitconnectedtoonewaydistributionfuseboardandintendedtosupplyelectricalenergyatoneormore
pointstocurrentusingappliances,withouttheinterventionofafurtherdistributionfuseboardotherthanaonewayboard.Itincludesallbranches
andextensionsderivedfromthatparticularwayintheboard.
3.3.10

CleatAninsulatedincombustiblesupportnormallyusedforinsulatedcable.
3.3.11

Conductor,BareAconductornotcoveredwithinsulatingmaterial.
3.3.12

Conductor,EarthedAconductorwithnoprovisionforitsinsulationfromearth.
3.3.13

Conductor,InsulatedAconductoradequatelycoveredwithinsulatingmaterialofsuchqualityandthicknessastopreventdanger.
3.3.14

ConnectorBoxorJointBoxAboxformingapartofwiringinstallationprovidedtocontainjointsintheconductorsofcablesofthe
installation.
3.3.15

ConductorforPortableAppliancesAcombinationofaplugandsocketarrangedfor
attachmenttoaportableelectricalapplianceortoaflexiblecord.

8
3.3.16

ConsumersTerminalsTheendsoftheelectricalconductorssituateduponanyconsumerspremisesandbelongingtohimatwhichthesupply
ofenergyisdeliveredfromtheserviceline.
3.3.17

Cord,FlexibleAflexiblecablehavingconductorofsmallcrosssectionalarea.TwoflexiblecordstwistedtogetherareknownasTwinFlexible
Cord.
NOTEForthemaximumdiameterandminimumnumberofwiresforflexiblecord,seerelevantstandard.
3.3.18

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CutoutAnyapplianceforautomaticallyinterruptingthetransmissionofenergythroughanyconductorwhenthecurrentrisesabovea
predeterminedamount,forexample,fusiblecutout.
3.3.19

DeadAtoraboutearthpotentialand/ordisconnectedfromanylivesystem.
3.3.20

DirectEarthingSystemAsystemofearthinginwhichthepartsofaninstallationaresoearthedasspecifiedbutarenotconnectedwithinthe
installationtotheneutralconductorofthesupplysystemortoearththroughthetripcoilofanearthleakagecircuitbreaker.
3.3.21

DistributionFuseboardAnassemblageofpartsincludingoneormorefusesarrangedforthedistributionofelectricalenergytofinalsub
circuits.
3.3.22

EarthAconnectiontothegeneralmassofearthbymeansofanearthelectrode.Anobjectissaidtobeearthedwhenitiselectrically
connectedtoanearthelectrodeandaconductorissaidtobesolidlyearthedwhenitiselectricallyconnectedtoearthelectrodewithoutafuse,
switch,circuitbreaker,resistanceorimpedanceintheearthconnection.
3.3.23

EarthContinuityConductorTheconductor,includinganyclamp,connectingtotheearthingleadortoeachotherthosepartsofan
installationwhicharerequiredtobeearthed.
3.3.24

EarthElectrodeAmetalplate,pipeorotherconductorelectricallyconnectedtothegeneralmassoftheearth.
3.3.25

EarthingLeadThefinalconductorbywhichtheconnectiontotheearthelectrodeismade.
3.3.26

Fitting,LightingAdeviceforsupportingorcontainingalamporlamps(forexample,fluorescentorincandescent)togetherwithanyholder,
shade,orreflector,forexample,abracket,apendantwithceilingrose,oraportableunit.
3.3.27

FlammableAmaterialcapableofbeingeasilyignited.
3.3.28

DisconnectorAdeviceusedtoopen(orclose)acircuitwheneithernegligiblecurrentisinterrupted(orestablished)orwhenthesignificant
changeinthevoltageacrosstheterminalofeachofthepoleofthedisconnectoroccursintheopenpositionitprovidesanisolatingdistancebetween
theterminalsofeachpole.
3.3.29DoubleInsulation

a.OfaconductorAconductorissaidtohavedoubleinsulationwheninsulatingmaterialintervenesnotonlybetweentheconductorandits
surroundingenvelope(ifacable)orimmediatesupport(ifbare),butalsobetweentheenvelopeorsupportandearth.
b.OfanapplianceAnappliancehavingaccessiblemetalpartisdoublyinsulatedwhenprotectiveinsulationisprovidedinadditiontothenormal
functionalinsulation,inordertoprotectagainstelectricshockincaseofbreakdownofthefunctionalinsulation.
3.3.30

LiveorAliveElectricallychargedsoastohaveapotentialdifferencefromthatofearth.
3.3.31

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MultipleEarthedNeutralSystemAsystemofearthinginwhichthepartsofaninstallation,specified,tobeearthedareconnectedtothe
generalmassofearthand,inaddition,areconnectedwithintheinstallationtotheneutralconductorofthesupplysystem.
3.3.32

NeutralorNeutralConductorIncludestheneutralconductorofathreephasefourwiresystem,theconductorofasinglephaseordc
installationwhichisearthedbythesupplyundertaking(orotherwiseatthesourceofthesupply),andthemiddlewireorcommonreturnconductorof
athreewiredcorsinglephaseacsystem.
3.3.33

PointApointshallconsistofthebranchwiringfromthebranchdistributionboard,togetherwithaswitchasrequired,asfarasandincluding
theceilingroseorsocketoutletorsuitabletermination.Athreepinsocketoutletpointshallinclude,inaddition,theconnectingwireorcablefrom
theearthpintotheearthstudofthebranchdistributionboard.
3.3.34

ServiceTheconductorsandequipmentrequiredfordeliveringenergyfromtheelectricsupplysystemtothewiringsystemofthepremises
served.
3.3.35

SocketoutletandPlugAdeviceconsistingoftwoportionsforeasilyconnectingportablelightingfittingsorothercurrentusing
appliances/devicestothesupply.Thesocketoutletisanaccessoryhavingsocketcontactsdesignedtoengagewiththepinsofaplugandhaving
terminalsfortheconnectionofcable(s).
9

Theplugportionhaspinsdesignedtoengagewiththecontactsofasocketoutlet,alsoincorporatingmeansfortheelectricalconnectionand
mechanicalretentionofflexiblecable(s).
3.3.36

SwitchboardAnassemblageofswitchgearwithorwithoutinstrumentsbutthetermdoesnotapplytoagroupoflocalswitchesorafinalsub
circuitwhereeachswitchhasitsowninsulatingbase.
3.3.37

Voltage,LowThevoltagewhichdoesnotnormallyexceed250V.
3.3.38

Voltage,MediumThevoltagewhichnormallyexceeds250Vbutdoesnotexceed650V.
3.3.39

Voltage,HighThevoltagewhichnormallyexceeds650V(butlessthan33kV).
3.3.40

Voltage,ExtraHighThevoltageexceeding33kVundernormalconditions.
NOTETheIndianElectricityRules,1956definefourrangesofvoltages,namely,low(upto250V),medium(250650V),high
(650V33kV)andextrahigh(greaterthan33kV).Thedefinitionsgivenin3.3.37to3.3.40arebasedontheprovisionsofIERules.It
mayhowever,benotedthatvoltagerangesasdefinedinternationallyareatvariancewiththeabovedefinitions.
3.4MiscellaneousTerms

3.4.1

BuildingAnystructureforwhatsoeverpurposeandofwhatsoevermaterialsconstructedandeverypartthereofwhetherusedashuman
habitationornotandincludesfoundation,plinth,walls,floors,roofs,chimneys,plumbingandbuildingservices,fixedplatforms,verandah,balcony,
corniceorprojection,partofabuildingoranythingaffixedtheretooranywallenclosingorintendedtoencloseanylandorspaceandsignsand
outdoordisplaystructures.Tents,shamianahs,tarpaulinshelters,etc,erectedfortemporaryoftheAuthorityshallnotbeconsideredasbuilding.
3.4.2

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OccupancyorUseGroupTheprincipaloccupancyforwhichabuildingorapartofabuildingisusedorintendedtobeusedforthepurposes
ofclassificationofabuildingaccordingtooccupancy,anoccupancyshallbedeemedtoincludethesubsidiaryoccupancieswhicharecontingentupon
it.
3.4.3

RoomHeightTheverticaldistancemeasuredfromthefinishedfloorsurfacetothefinishedceilingsurface.Whereafinishedceilingisnot
provided,theundersideofthejointsorbeamsortiebeamsshalldeterminetheupperpointofmeasurementfordeterminingtheheadroom.
3.4.4

ImpulseUsuallyanaperiodictransientvoltageorcurrentwhichrisesrapidlytoapeakvalueandthenfalls,generallymoreslowly,tozero.
Ideallyitapproximatesadoubleexponentialform.Otherformsaresometimesusedforspecialpurposes.
3.4.5

ClearanceThedistancebetweentwoconductingpartsalongastringstretchedtheshortestwaybetweentheseconductingparts.
3.4.6

CreepageDistanceTheshortestdistancebetweentwoconductingpartsalongthesurfaceoftheinsulatingmaterialoralongthejointoftwo
insulatingbodies.
3.4.7

SimultaneouslyAccessiblePartsConductorsorconductivepartsthatcanbetouchedsimultaneouslybyapersonorwhereapplicableby
livestock.
NOTESimultaneouslyaccessiblepartsmaybe
a.liveparts,
b.exposedconductiveparts,
c.extraneousconductiveparts,
d.protectiveconductors,and
e.earthelectrodes.
3.4.8

ArmsReachAzoneextendingfromanypointonasurfacewherepersonsusuallystandormoveabouttothelimitswhichapersoncanreach
withthehandinanydirectionwithoutassistance.
3.4.9

EnclosureApartprovidingprotectionofequipmentagainstcertainexternalinfluencesand,inanydirection,protectionagainstdirectcontact.
3.4.10

BarrierApartprovidingprotectionagainstdirectcontactfromanyusualdirectionofaccess.
3.4.11

ObstacleApartpreventingunintentionaldirectcontact,butnotpreventingdeliberateaction.
3.4.12

LeakageCurrent(inanInstallation)Acurrentwhichflowstoearthortoextraneousconductivepartsinacircuitintheabsenceofafault.
NOTEThiscurrentmayhaveacapacitivecomponentincludingthatresultingfromthedeliberateuseofcapacitors.
3.4.13

NominalVoltage(ofanInstallation)Voltagebywhichaninstallationorpartofaninstallationisdesignated.

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NOTETheactualvoltagemaydifferfromthenominalvoltagebyaquantitywithinpermittedtolerances.
3.4.14

SupplyTerminalsThepointatwhichaconsumerreceivedenergy.
3.4.15

ServiceLine,ServiceAlineforconnectingacurrentconsuminginstallationtothedistributionnetwork.
3.4.16

DistributionUndertakingThepartysupplyingelectricitytoconsumersentirelyfromexternalsourcesofpowerviaadistributionnetwork.
3.4.17

ConsumerorCustomerThepartywho
receiveselectricityfromthesupplyordistributionundertakingforhisownneedsorforfurtherdistribution.

10
3.4.18

DemandThemagnitudeofelectricitysupply,expressedinkWorkVA.
3.4.19

InstalledLoadThesumoftheratedinputsoftheelectricalapparatusinstalledontheconsumerspremises.
3.4.20

ConnectedLoadThepartoftheinstalledloadofconsumersuppliedbythesupplyundertaking.
3.4.21

KilowatthourRate(kWhRate)Theamounttobepaidperunitofenergy(kWh)consumed.
3.4.22

MeterRentAnamounttobepaidforaspecifiedperiodformetering,andassociatedequipmentinstalled.
3.4.23

TariffAstatementsettingoutthecomponentstobetakenintoaccountandthemethodstobeemployedincalculatingtheamountstobe
chargedbythesupply/distributionundertakingtotheconsumer,accordingtothecharacteristicsofthesupply.
3.4.24

DomesticTariffAtariffapplicableparticularlyorexclusivelytodomesticconsumers.
3.4.25

IndustrialTariffAtariffapplicableexclusivelytoindustrialconsumers.
3.4.26

LightingTariffAtariffapplicabletoelectricitysuppliestakenmainlyforlightingandothersmallappliances,forexample,fansandradios.
3.4.27

HeatingTariffAtariffapplicabletoelectricitysuppliestakenforspaceheatingorforthermalapplicationsorforboth.
3.4.28

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PowerFactorClauseAclausesettingoutincreaseinchargestobeappliediftheratioofthekWhtokVAhconsumedbyaconsumerduringa
specifiedperiodbelowasetlimitthesameclausemayprovideforadecreaseinchargesintheoppositecase.
NOTEThepowerfactorisgenerallymeasuredbytheratioofkWhtokVAhconsumedduringthespecifiedperiod.
3.4.29

LoadFactorTheratio,expressedasanumericalvalueorasapercentage,oftheenergyconsumptionwithinaspecifiedperiod(year,month,
day,etc)totheenergyconsumptionthatwouldresultfromcontinuoususeofthemaximumkWdemandoccurringwithinthesameperiod.
NOTETheloadfactorforagivendemandisalsoequaltotheratiooftheutilizationtimetothetimeinhourswithinthesame
period.

ANNEXA
LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSONELECTROTECHNICALVOCABULARY
(Clause2)
ISNo.

11

Title

1885

Electrotechnicalvocabulary:

(Part1):1961

Fundamentaldefinitions

(Part8):1986

Secondarycellsandbatteries(firstrevision)

(Part9):1992/IEC60050(446):1983

Electricalrelays(secondrevision)

(Part10):1993/IEC60050(448):1986

Powersystemprotection(firstrevision)

(Part11):1966

Electricalmeasurements

(Part14):1967

Nuclearpowerplants

(Part15):2003/IEC60050(481):1996

Primarycellsandbatteries(firstrevision)

(Part16/Sec1):1968

Lighting,Section1Generalaspects

(Part16/Sec2):1968

Lighting,Section2Generalillumination,lightingfittingsandlightingfortrafficandsignalling

(Part16/Sec3):1967

Lighting,Section3Lampsandauxiliaryapparatus

(Part17):1979

Switchgearandcontrolgear(firstrevision)

(Part27):1993/IEC60050(551):1982

Powerelectronics(secondrevision)

(Part28):1993/IEC60050(321):1986

Instrumenttransformers(firstrevision)

(Part29):1971

Miningterms

(Part30):1971

Overheadtransmissionanddistributionofelectricalenergy

(Part32):1993/IEC60050(461):1984

Electriccables(firstrevision)

(Part34):1972

Cinematography

(Part35):1993/IEC60050(411):1996

Rotatingmachinery(firstrevision)

(Part37):1993/IEC60050(691):1973

Part37Tariffsforelectricity(firstrevision)

(Part38):1993/IEC60050(421):1990

Powertransformersandreacto(secondrevision)

(Part43):1977

Electricalequipmentusedinmedical

(Part51):1993/IEC60050(841):1983

Industrialelectroheating

(Part53):1980

Mica

(Part54):1993/IEC60050(471):1984

Insulators(firstrevision)

(Part55):1981

Electricfans

(Part57):1993/IEC60050(131):1978

Electricandmagneticcircuits(firstrevision)

(Part60):1993/IEC60050(426):1990

Electricalapparatusforexplosiveatmospheres(firstrevision)

(Part61):1985

Nuclearmedicalinstruments

(Part62):1993/IEC60050(212):1990

Solidinsulatingmaterials(firstrevision)

(Part69):1993/IEC60050(602):1993

Generation,transmissionanddistributionofelectricityGeneration

(Part70):1993/IEC60050(604):1987

Generation,transmissionanddistributionofelectricityOperation

(Part71):1993/IEC60050(605):1983

Generation,transmissionanddistributionofelectricitySubstations

(Part72):1993/IEC60050(101):1977

Mathematics

(Part73/Sec1):1993/IEC60050(1111):1984

Physicsandchemistry,Section1physicalconcepts

(Part73/Sec2):1993/IEC60050(1112):1984

PhysicsandchemistrySection2Electrotechnicalconcepts

(Part73/Sec3):1993/IEC60050:(1113):1977

PhysicsandchemistrySection3Conceptsrelatedtoquantitiesandunits

(Part74):1993/IEC60050(151):1978

Electricalandmagneticdevices

(Part75):1993/IEC60050(351):1975

Automaticcontrol

(Part77):1993/IEC60050(466):1990

Overheadlines

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(Part78):1993/IEC60050(601):1985

Generation,transmissionanddistributionofelectricityGeneral

(Part79):1993/IEC60050(603):1986

Generation,transmissionanddistributionofelectricityPowersystemplanningandmanagement

(Part80):1994/IEC60050(301):1983

Generaltermsonmeasurementsinelectricity

(Part81):1993/IEC60050(302):1983

Electricalmeasuringinstruments

SECTION3GRAPHICALSYMBOLSFORDIAGRAMS,LETTERSYMBOLSANDSIGNS
0FOREWORD
Severalgraphicalsymbolsareusedforinstallationdiagrams.Considerableamountofstandardizationhasbeenachievedinthefieldof
symbolsforelectrotechnologythatitisnowpossibletodeviceelectricalnetworkschematicsusingthemsothattheseschematicdiagramscould
beuniformlyunderstoodbyallconcerned.
ThesymbolscontainedinthisSectionoftheCodehavebeendrawnupbyindividualexpertgroupsundertheElectrotechnicalDivisionCouncil.
Theyrepresentaconsensusofopinioninthedisciplineandarerecommendedfordirectadoption.AssistancehasalsobeendrawnfromInternational
ElectrotechnicalCommission(IEC)databaseIEC60617Graphicalsymbolsfordiagrams.
IthasalsobeenfeltessentialforthepurposesofthisSectiontodrawtheattentionofpracticingengineerstostandardizedlettersymbolsand
signs.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section3oftheCodecoversgraphicalsymbolsfordiagrams,lettersymbolsandsignswhichmaybereferredtoforfurtherdetails.
2REFERENCES
AlistofrelevantIndianStandardsongraphicalsymbolsisgivenatAnnexA.
3GRAPHICALSYMBOLS
3.0

ForthepurposesoftheCode,thegraphicalsymbolsgivenbelowshallapply.
NOTEAlistofIndianStandardsongraphicalsymbolsusedinelectrotechnologyrelevanttotheCodeisgiveninAnnexA.
3.1FundamentalSymbols

3.1.1DirectCurrent

3.1.2AlternatingCurrent,GeneralSymbol

Image
a.Alternatingcurrent,singlephase,50Hz

b.Alternatingcurrent,threephase,415V.50Hz

c.Alternatingcurrent,threephasewithneutral.50Hz

3.1.3Neutral

3.1.4PositivePolarity

3.1.5NegativePolarity

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3.1.6DirectCurrent,2Conductors110V

3.1.7DirectCurrent,3ConductorsincludingNeutral,220V

3.1.8UndergroundCable

3.1.9OverheadLine

3.1.10Winding,Delta

3.1.11Winding,Star

3.1.12Terminals

13

3.1.13Resistance/Resistor

3.1.13.1Variableresistor

3.1.14Impedance

3.1.15Inductance/Inductor

3.1.16Winding

3.1.17Capacitance,Capacitor

3.1.18Earth

3.1.19Fault

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3.2Equipment

3.2.1FlexibleConductor

3.2.2Generator

3.2.2.1ACgenerator

3.2.2.2DCgenerator

3.2.3Motor

3.2.4SynchronousMotor

3.2.5MechanicallyCoupledMachines

3.2.6InductionMotor,ThreePhase,SquirrelCage

3.2.6.1Inductionmotorwithwoundrotor

3.2.7TransformerswithTwoSeparateWindings

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3.2.8AutoTransformer

3.2.93PhaseTransformerwithThreeSeparateWindingsStarStarDelta

14

3.2.10Starter

3.2.11DirectonLineStarterforReversingMotor

3.2.12StarDeltaStarter

3.2.13AutoTransformerStarter

3.2.14RheostaticStarter

3.2.15Switch

3.2.16Contactor

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3.2.17Relay

3.2.18CircuitBreaker

3.2.19Isolator

3.2.20EarthLeakageCircuitBreaker

3.2.21ResidualCurrentCircuitBreaker

3.2.22SurgeProtectiveDevice

3.2.23Fuse

3.2.24SignalLamp

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3.2.25Link

3.2.26DistributionBoard,CubicleBox,MainFuseBoardwithSwitches

3.2.27SocketOutlet,5A

15

SocketOutlet,15A

3.2.28Plug

3.2.29Voltmeter

3.2.30Ammeter

3.2.31Wattmeter

3.2.32Varmeter

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3.2.33PowerFactorMeter

3.2.34Ohmmeter

3.2.35IndicatingInstrument(generalsymbol)

3.2.36RecordingInstrument(generalsymbol)

3.2.37IntegratingMeter

3.2.38WatthourMeter

3.2.39Clock

3.2.40MasterClock

3.2.41CurrentTransformer

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3.2.42VoltageTransformer

3.2.43WiringontheSurface

3.2.44WiringinConduit

3.2.45Lamp

16

3.2.46LampMountedonaCeiling

3.2.47EmergencyLamp

3.2.48SpotLight

3.2.49FloodLight

3.2.50Heater

3.2.51StorageTypeWaterHeaters

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3.2.52Bell

3.2.53Buzzer

3.2.54CeilingFan

3.2.55ExhaustFan

3.2.56FanRegulator

3.2.57Aerial

3.2.58RadioReceivingSet

3.2.59TelevisionReceivingSet

3.2.60ManuallyOperatedFireAlarm

3.2.61AutomaticFireDetectorSwitch

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4LETTERSYMBOLSANDSIGNS
4.0General

4.0.1

Quantitiesandunitsusedinelectrotechnologycoverinadditiontoelectricityandmagnetismothersubjectssuchasradiationandlight,
geometry,kinematics,dynamicsandthermodynamics.Severaldisciplinesinteractwiththeresultthatterminologyusedinonedisciplinebecomes
closelyinterrelatedwiththatoftheother.Inordertoenableuniformunderstandingofthemeaningtheyrepresent,thelettersymbolsandsignsused
inabbreviationsfordenotingquantities,theirfunctionsandunitsshallconformtothoserecommendedinIS3722(Part1)andIS3722(Part2).
4.0.2

Guidanceonthechoiceofalphabetandtheirtype,representationofvectorquantities,symbolsofunits,numericalvalues,andguidanceonthe
useofsubscriptsarecoveredinIS3722(Part1).
ReadyreferencetablesforsymbolsandsubscriptsarecontainedinIS3722(Part2).ForthepurposesofthisCode,alistofsymbols,namesof
quantitiesandofconstantsandsubscriptsreferredtofrequentlyisgivenin4.1.
4.1SymbolsandSubscripts

4.1.1

Table1ofIS3722(Part2)givesareferencelistofsymbolsandsubscriptsusedinelectrotechnology.
17

ANNEXA
LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSONGRAPHICALSYMBOLS
(Clause2)
ISNo.

Title

2032

Graphicalsymbolsusedinelectrotechnology:

(Part15):1976

Aircraftelectricalsymbols

(Part19):1977

Electricalequipmentusedinmedicalpractice

(Part25):1980

Electricalinstallationsinships

3722

Lettersymbolsandsignsusedinelectricaltechnology:

(Part1):1983

Generalguidelinesonsymbolsandsubscripts

(Part2):1983

Referencetablesforsymbolsandsubscripts

10381:1982

Terms(andtheirHindiequivalents)commonlyusedfornameplatesandsimilardataofelectricalpowerequipment

11353:1985

Guideforuniformsystemofmarkingandidentificationofconductorsandapparatusterminals

12032(Part1):1987/IEC60617

Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part1Generalinformation,generalindex,crossreferencetable

1(1985)
12032(Part2):1987/IEC606172 Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part2Symbolselements,qualifyingsymbolsandother
(1983)

symbolshavinggeneralapplication

12032(Part3):

Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part3Conductorsandconnectingdevices

12032(Part4):1987/IEC606174 Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part4Passivecomponents
(1984)
12032(Part6):1987/IEC606176 Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part6Productionandconversionofelectricalenergy
(1983)
12032(Part7):1987/IEC606177 Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part7Switchgear,controlgearandprotective
(1983)
12032(Part8):1987/IEC606178 Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part8Measuringinstruments,lampsandsignallingdevices
(1983)
12032(Part11):1987/IEC60617 Graphicalsymbolsfordiagramsinthefieldofelectrotechnology:Part11Architecturalandtopographicalinstallationplansand
11(1983)
18

diagrams

SECTION4GUIDEFORPREPARATIONOFDIAGRAMS,CHARTS,TABLESANDMARKING
0FOREWORD

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Varioustypesofdiagramsandchartsarerequiredtobepreparedduringtheplanningandexecutionstagesofanelectricalinstallationwork.Itis
thereforenecessarytodefinethedifferenttypesofdiagrams,chartsandtables,theirpurposesandformatandtheguidingprinciplesforpreparing
themforthesakeofuniformity.
ThisSection4oftheCodecoversgeneralguidelinesonthesubject.AlistofrelevantIndianStandardsisgivenatAnnexA.
Theguidelinesformarkingofconductorsgivenin3.6.Table1areinlinewiththeguidelinesacceptedinternationallyonsuchmatters.They
provideforacommonbasisforunderstandingandidentifyingconductorsandapparatusterminals,butmoreimportant,ensuresafetytooperating,
maintenancepersonnel.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section4oftheCodecoversguidelinesforpreparationofdiagrams,chartsandtablesinelectrotechnologyandformarkingof
conductors.
2REFERENCES
AlistofIndianStandardsongeneralguidelinesonvarioustypesofdiagramsandchartsisgivenatAnnexA.
3PREPARATIONOFDIAGRAMS,CHARTSANDTABLES
3.0General

3.0.1Diagram

Adiagrammayshowthemannerinwhichthevariouspartsofanetwork,installation,groupofapparatusoritemsofanapparatusare
interrelatedandorinterconnected.
3.0.2Chart

Achartmayshowtheinterrelationbetween
a.differentoperations.
b.operationsandtime.
c.operationsandphysicalquantities,and
d.statesofseveralitems.
3.0.3Table

Atablereplacesorsupplementsadiagramorachart.
3.1ClassificationAccordingtoPurpose

3.1.0

Themainclassificationsare:
a.Explanatorydiagrams,
b.Explanatorychartsortables,
c.Wiringdiagramsorwiringtables,and
d.Locationdiagramsortables.
3.1.1ExplanatoryDiagrams

Explanatorydiagramsareintendedtofacilitatethestudyandunderstandingofthefunctioningofaninstallationorequipment.Threetypesare
definedbelow:
a.BlockdiagramRelativelysimplediagramtofacilitatetheunderstandingoftheprincipleofoperation.Itisadiagraminwhichaninstallationor
equipmenttogetherwithitsfunctionalinterrelationshipsarerepresentedbysymbols,blocksymbolsorpictureswithoutnecessarilyshowingall
theconnections.
b.CircuitdiagramExplanatorydiagramintendedtofacilitatetheunderstandingofthefunctioningindetail.Itshowsbysymbolsaninstallation
orpartofaninstallationandtheelectricalconnectionsandotherlinksconcernedwithitsoperation.
c.EquivalentcircuitdiagramSpecialtypeofcircuitdiagramfortheanalysisandcalculationofcircuitcharacteristics.
3.1.2ExplanatoryChartsorTables

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Explanatorychartsortablesareintendedtofacilitatethestudyofdiagramsandtogiveadditionalinformation.Twoexamplesaregivenbelow:
a.Sequencechartortablegivesthesuccessiveoperationinaspecifiedorder,and
b.Timesequencechartortableisonewhichinadditiontakesaccountofthetimeintervalsbetweensuccessiveoperations.
3.1.3WiringDiagramsorWiringTables

Wiringdiagramsareintendedtoguidethemakingandcheckingoftheconnectionofaninstallationorequipment.Foranequipment,theyshow
theinternalorexternalconnectionsorboth.Thediagramsmaysometimesshowthelayoutofthedifferentpartsandaccessories,suchasterminal
blocksandthewiringbetweenthem.
3.1.3.1Unitwiringdiagram
Diagramisrepresentingallconnectionswithinaunitofaninstallation.
3.1.3.2Interconnectiondiagram

19

Diagramrepresentingtheconnectionsbetweenthedifferentunitsofaninstallation.
3.1.3.3Terminaldiagram
Diagramshowingtheterminalsandtheinternaland/orexternalconductorsconnectedtothem.
NOTEAnyofthewiringdiagrammaybereplacedorsupplementedbyatable.
3.1.4LocationDiagramsorTables

Alocationdiagramortablecontainsdetailedinformationaboutthelocationofpartsoftheequipment,forexample,terminalblocks,plugin
units,subassemblies,modules,etc.Itshowstheitemdesignationsusedinrelateddiagramsandtables.
NOTES
1.Alocationdiagramneednotnecessarilybetoscale.
2.Severaltypesofdiagramsmaybecombinedintoasinglediagram,formingamixeddiagram.Thesamedrawingmayformbothan
explanatoryandwiringdiagram.
3.2ClassificationAccordingtoMethodofRepresentation

3.2.1

Themethodofrepresentationisdistinguishedby:
a.thenumberofconductors,devicesorelementsrepresentedbyasinglesymbol(see3.2.1.1)
b.thearrangementofthesymbolsrepresentingtheelementsorpartsofanitemofapparatus(forexample,detachedorassembled)(see3.2.1)and
c.theplacingofthesymbolstocorrespondwiththetopographicallayoutofthedevices(see3.2.1.3).
3.2.1.1Numberofconductors
Accordingtothenumberofconductors,devicesorelementsrepresentedbyasinglesymbol,thetwomethodsofrepresentationasgivenbelow
maybedistinguished.
a.SinglelinerepresentationTwoormoreconductorsarerepresentedbyasingleline.
Inparticular,asinglelinemayrepresent:
1.circuitsofamultiphasesystem,
2.circuitswhichhaveasimilarelectricalfunction,
3.circuitsorconductorswhichbelongtothesamesignalpath,
4.circuitswhichfollowthesamephysicalroute,and
5.conductorsymbolswhichwouldfollowthesamerouteonthediagram.
Severalsimilaritemsofapparatusmayaccordinglyberepresentedbyasinglesymbol.
b.MultilinerepresentationEachconductorisrepresentedbyanindividualline.
3.2.1.2Arrangementofsymbols
Accordingtothearrangementofthesymbolsrepresentingtheelementsorpartsofanitemofapparatusonthediagram,themethodsof
representationaregivenbelow:
a.AssembledrepresentationThesymbolsforthedifferentpartsofanitemofapparatusorofaninstallationorequipmentaredrawninclose
proximityonthediagram.
b.SemiassembledrepresentationThesymbolsforthedifferentpartsofanitemofapparatusorofaninstallationareseparatedandarrangedin
suchawaythatthesymbolsformechanicallinkagesbetweenthepartswhichworktogethermaybedrawneasily.
c.DetachedrepresentationThesymbolsforthedifferentpartsofanitemofapparatusorofaninstallationareseparatedandarrangedinsucha

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waythatthecircuitsmayeasilybefollowed.
3.2.1.3Topographicalrepresentation
Thepositionsofthesymbolsonthediagramcorrespondwhollyorpartlytothetopographical(physical)locationofitemsrepresented.
Thefollowingareexampleswheretopographicalrepresentationmaybeused.
a.Wiringdiagrams,
b.Architecturaldiagrams,and
c.Networkdiagrams.
NOTESeveralofthesemethodsofrepresentationmaybeusedonthesamediagram.
3.3ItemDesignation

3.3.1

Itemisatermusedforcomponentequipment,plant,unit,etc,whichisrepresentedbyagraphicalsymbolonadiagram.Theitemdesignationis
shownatanappropriateplacenearthegraphicalsymboloftheitem.Thisdesignationcorrelatestheitemondifferentdiagrams,partslist,circuit
descriptionsandintheequipment.
3.3.2

Anitemdesignationmaybeusedforgeneralorspecialpurposesdependingonthekindofinformationrequired.Guidelinesonassignmentof
itemdesignation,groupstogetherwithstandardlettercodesforthesamearecoveredinIS8270(Part2).
20

3.4GeneralRulesforDiagrams

3.4.1

PapersizesfordrawingsshallpreferablybeaccordingtotheinternationalAseries(seeIS1064).Thechoiceofdrawingsizesshouldbedecided
aftertakingintoaccountthenecessaryfactorsenumeratedin2.2ofIS8270(Part2).
3.4.2

InIS2032,differentkindsofsymbolsaswellassymbolsofdifferentformsareshown.Allthepossibleexamplesarealsonotcoveredthere.Any
symbolmaybecomposedusingtheguidancefromrelevantPartofIS2032andPart1/Section3oftheCode.Thebasicrulesforthechoiceofsymbols
shallbe:
a.tousethesimplestformofsymboladequatefortheparticularpurpose,
b.touseapreferredformwhereverpossible,and
c.tousethechosenformconsistentlythroughoutthesamesetofdocumentation.
3.4.3

SpecificguidelinesontheapplicationofIS2032(Allparts)fromthepointofviewofchoiceofalternativesymbols,symbolsizes,linethickness,
orientationofsymbolsandmethodsofindicatingsymbollocationarecoveredinIS8270(Part3).
3.5InterconnectionDiagramsandTables

3.5.1

Interconnectiondiagramsandtablesprovideinformationontheexternalelectricalconnectionsbetweenequipmentinaninstallation.Theyare
usedasanaidinthefabricationofwiringandformaintenancepurposes.Informationontheinternalconnectionsofunitsarenormallynotprovided
butreferencestotheappropriatecircuitdiagram[seeIS8270(Part4)]maybeprovided.
3.5.2

Thediagramsmayemploysingleormultiplerepresentationandmaybecombinedwithorreplacedbytables,providedclarityismaintained.
Tablesarerecommendedwhenthenumberofinterconnectionsislarge.
3.5.3

Guidanceonlayout,identificationandtypesofinterconnectiondiagramsandtablesaregiveninIS8270(Part5).
3.6MarkingandArrangementofConductors

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3.6.0General

3.6.0.1Thepurposeofmarkingistoprovideameanswherebyconductorscanbeidentifiedinacircuitandalsoaftertheyhavebeendetached
fromtheterminalstowhichtheyareconnected.Mainmarkingisasystemofmarkingcharacterizingeachconductororgroupofconductors
irrespectiveoftheirelectricalfunction.Supplementarymarkingisusedassupplementtoamainmarkingbasedontheelectricalfunctionofeach
conductororgroupofconductors.
3.6.0.2ThevariousmethodsofmarkingapplicabletoelectricalinstallationsandtheequipmentwhichformpartofthemarecoveredinIS
5578.
3.6.1IdentificationofInsulatedandBareConductors

ForthepurposesofthisCode,theprovisionsofTable1shallapplyforthegeneralapplicationofmarkingconductorsininstallation.Therules
alsoapplyformarkingconductorsinassembles,equipmentandapparatus.ReferenceisalsodrawntotheprovisioncontainedinrelevantIndian
Standard.
3.6.2ArrangementofConductors

3.6.2.0Busbarsandmainconnectionswhicharesubstantiallyinoneplaneshallbearrangedintheordergivenineither3.6.2.1or3.6.2.2
accordingtothesystem.Therelativeorderremainsapplicableevenifanypolesofthesystemareomitted.
3.6.2.1ACsystems
Theorderofphaseconnectionshallbered,yellowandblue:
a.Whentherunoftheconductorsishorizontal,theredshallbeonthetoporontheleftorfarthestawayasviewedfromthefront.
b.Whentherunoftheconductorsisvertical,theredshallbeontheleftorfarthestawayasviewedfromthefront.
c.Whenthesystemhasaneutralconnectioninthesameplaceasthephaseconnections,theneutralshalloccupyanouterposition.
d.Unlesstheneutralconnectioncanbereadilydistinguishedfromthephaseconnections,theordershallbered,yellow,blueandblack.
3.6.2.2DCsystems
Thearrangementshallbeasfollows:
a.Whentherunoftheconductorsishorizontal,theredshallbeonthetoporontheleftorfarthestawayasviewedfromthefront.
b.Whentherunoftheconductorsisvertical,theredshallbeontheleftorfarthestawayasviewedfromthefront.
c.Whenthesystemis3wirewiththeconductorsinthesameplace,theneutralshalloccupythemiddleposition.
21

Table1AlphanumericNotation,GraphicalSymbolsandColours
(Clause3.6.1)
Sl
No.

DesignationofConductors

(1)

i)

Identificationby
Alphanumeric Graphical
Notation
Symbol

(2)

(3)

(4)

L1

Phase2

L2

Yellow

Phase3

L3

Blue

Neutral

Apparatusac

Phase1

system

Phase2

Yellow

Phase3

Blue

Neutral

Black

Positive

L+

Red

Negative

Blue

Midwire

Supplydcsystem

Phase

(singlephase)

Neutral

Protective

PE

GreenandYellow

Nocolourotherthanthecolourofthebareconductor.Ifinsulated,thecolourforinsulationsochosen

TE

viii) Frameorchassis

MM

ix)

CC

iii) Supplydcsystem

iv)
v)

(5)

Phase1

ii)

Supplyacsystem

Colour

Red

Black

Red

Black

Red
Black

conductor
vi)

Earth

toavoidthoselistedabovefordesignationofotherconductors
vii) Noiseless(clean

Underconsideration

earth)

Equipotential
Terminal

ANNEXA
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LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSONDIAGRAMS,CHARTS,TABLESANDMARKING
(Clause2)
ISNo.

22

Title

1064:1980

Specificationforpaperstandardsizes

2032

Graphicalsymbolsusedinelectrotechnology:

(Part15):1976

Aircraftelectricalsymbols

(Part19):1977

Electricalequipmentusedinmedicalpractice

(Part25):1980

Electricalinstallationsinships

5578:1984

Guideformarkingofinsulatedconductors

8270

Guideforthepreparationofdiagrams,chartsandtablesforelectrotechnology:

(Part1):1976

Definitionsandclassification

(Part2):1976

Itemdesignation

(Part3):1977

Generalrequirementsfordiagrams

(Part4):1977

Circuitdiagram

(Part5):1976

Interconnectiondiagramsandtables

(Part6):1983

Unitwiringdiagramsandtables

SECTION5UNITSANDSYSTEMSOFMEASUREMENT
0FOREWORD
TheInternationalSystemofUnits(SI)havereceivedworldwideacceptanceandareacceptedinmostofthecountries.Ithadbeenintroducedin
IndiaundertheWeightsandMeasuresAct,1976.UseofSIUnitsinmattersrelatingtoelectricalengineeringpracticehasmanyadvantages.
ThisSection5oftheCodeforreasonsofbrevityisrestrictedtoelectricalunitsonly.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section5oftheCodecoversunitsandsystemsofmeasurementinelectrotechnology.
2REFERENCE
ThefollowingIndianStandardmaybereferredforfurtherinformation:
IS10005:1994/ISO1000:1992SIunitsandrecommendationsfortheuseoftheirmultiplesandofcertainotherunits.
3UNITSANDSYSTEMSOFMEASUREMENT
3.1AbsoluteUnits

3.1.1Ampere(UnitofElectricCurrent)

Aconstantcurrentwhich,maintainedintwoparallelstraightconductorsofinfinitelength,ofnegligiblecircularcrosssectionanplacedata
distanceofonemetreapartinavacuumwillproduceaforceof2107Newtonpermetrelengthbetweentheconductors.
3.1.2Coulomb(UnitofQuantityofElectricity)

Thequantityofelectricityconveyedinonesecondbyacurrentofoneampere.
3.1.3Farad(UnitofElectricCapacitance)

Thecapacitanceofanelectriccapacitorhavingadifferenceofelectricpotentialofonevoltbetweentheplates,whenitischargedwitha
quantityofelectricityofonecoulomb.
3.1.4Henry(UnitofElectricInductance)

Theinductanceofaclosedcircuitinwhichanemfofonevoltisproducedwhenthecurrentinthecircuitsvariesattheuniformrateofone
amperepersecond.
3.1.5Ohm(UnitofElectricalResistance)

Theelectricalresistancebetweentwopointsofaconductorwhenaconstantpotentialdifferenceofonevolt,appliedtothesepoints,producesa
currentofoneampereintheconductor,providednoemfisgeneratedintheconductor.

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3.1.6Volt(UnitofElectricPotentialDifference)

Thedifferenceofelectricpotentialwhichexistsbetweentwopointsofaconductorcarryingaconstantcurrentofoneampere,whenthepower
dissipatedbetweenthesepointsisonewatt.
3.1.7Weber(UnitofMagneticFlux)

Themagneticfluxwhich,linkedwithacircuitcomposedofasingleturnproducesinitanemfofonevoltifitisuniformlyreducedtozeroin
onesecond.
3.1.8Watt(UNITOFELECTRICPOWER)

Thepowerwhichresultsintheproductionofenergyattherateof1J/s.
3.1.9Siemens(UnitofElectricConductance)

Theconductanceofaconductorofresistance1ohmandisnumericallyequalto1ohm1.
3.1.10Tesla

Theteslaisamagneticfluxdensityof1Wb/m2.
3.2

Theelectricalunitsdefinedin3.1,togetherwiththeirexpressionintermsofotherunits,recommendationsontheselectionoftheirmultiples
andsubmultiplesandsupplementaryremarks(ifany)areenumeratedinTable1.
23

Table1ElectricalUnitsofMeasurement
(Clause3.2)
Sl
No.

Quantity

Name

Symbol

ExpressioninTermsof
OtherUnits

ExpressioninTermsofSI
BaseUnits

SelectionofMultiples

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

i) Electriccurrent

ampere

watt

J/s

iii) Quantityofelectricity,electriccharge

coulomb

iv) Electricpotential,potentialdifference,

volt

W/A

farad

ohm
Siemens

ii) Power

kA,mA,A,nA,pA

m2.kgs3

GW,MW,kW,mW,W

s.A

kC,C,nC,pC

m2.kgs3.A1

MV,kV,mV,V

C/V

m2.kg.s1.A1

mF,F,nF,pF

V/A

m2.kg.s1.A2

G,M.K,m,

A/V

m2.kg1.s1

kS,mS,S

weber

Wb

V.s

m2.kg.s2.A1

mWb

tesla

Wb/m2

kg.s1.A1

mT,T,nT

electromotiveforce
v) Capacitance
vi) Electricalresistance
vii) Conductance
viii) Magneticflux
ix) magneticfluxdensity
x) Inductance

Wb/A

m2.kg.s2.A2

mH,H,nH,pH

siemens/metre

S/m

m1.kg1.S1,A1

MS/m,kS/m

volt/metre

V/m

m.kg.s1.A1

MV/m,kV/morV/mm,V/m,

xiii) Permeability

henry/metre

H/m

m.kg.s2.A2

H/m,nH/m

xiv) Permittivity

faradper

F/m

m1.kg1.s4.A2

F/m,nF/m,pF/m

xi) Conductivity
xii) Electricfieldstrength

henry

mV/m,V/m

metre
xv) Reluctance

1perhenry

H1

m2.kg1.s2.A2

xvi) Resistivity

ohm/metre

.m

m1.kg.s1.A2

Gm,Mm,km,cm,mm,
m,nm

24

SECTION6STANDARDVALUES
0FOREWORD
Standardizationofbasicparameterssuchasvoltage,currentsandfrequencyisoneoftheprimaryexercizesundertakenatthenationallevel.
Thisstandardizationhelpsinlayingasoundfoundationforfurtherworkrelatingtoproductorinstallationengineering.Thevaluesofvoltages
recommendedasstandardinthisSectionarebasedonthecontentsofIS12360:1988Voltagebandsforelectricalinstallationsincludingpreferred

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voltagesandfrequency.
ThishistoryofstandardizationofsystemvoltagesparticularlythoseofsystemsoperatingbelowmediumvoltagelevelsisenumeratedinIS12360.
ReferencetoIndianElectricityRulesmayalsobemade.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section6oftheCodecoversstandardvaluesofacanddcdistributionvoltages,preferredvaluesofcurrentratingsandstandard
systemfrequency.
2REFERENCES
ThisPart1/Section6oftheCodemaybereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:
ISNo.

Title

1076(Part1):1985/ISO3:1973

Preferrednumbers:Part1Seriesofpreferrednumbers

12360:1988

Voltagebandsforelectricalinstallationsincludingpreferredvoltagesandfrequency

3STANDARDVALUESOFVOLTAGES
3.0General

3.0.1

Forthesakeofcompleteness,allthestandardvaluesofvoltagesgiveninIS12360relatingtoactransmissionanddistributionsystemsare
reproducedinthisSection.However,itisnotedthatformostofthetypesofinstallationscoveredinsubsequentpartsoftheCode,onlythelower
voltagevalueswouldberelevant.
3.0.2

Formediumandlowvoltageofdistributionsystem,theoriginalrecommendedstandardvaluesofnominalvoltageswere230Vforsinglephase
and230/400Vforthreephasesystem.However,during1959,toalignwithIECrecommendationsandinviewoftheeconomicadvantagesthey
offered,valuesof240Vsinglephaseand240/415Vthreephasehadbeenadoptedwithatoleranceof6percent.However,inviewofthelatest
internationaldevelopments,itwasdecidedtoalignIndianStandardsnominalsystemvoltageswithIECrecommendationsandaccordinglyrevisethe
valuesofacnominalsystemvoltagesfrom240/415to230/400withthetoleranceof10percentanditwasalsodecidedtoeffectthecomplete
transitionby31December2009,asgiveninIS12360.IS12360maybereferredforthelatestvalues.
3.0.3

Inthecaseofvoltagesabove1kV,theimportanceofhighestsystemvoltage,whicharegenerally10percentabovethecorrespondingnominal
voltagesgivenin2.1.2.1isrecognizedandproductstandardsrelatethevoltageratingofequipmentwithrespecttohighestsystemvoltagesonly.
3.1StandardDeclaredVoltage

3.1.1Singlephase,TwoWireSystem

Thestandardvoltageshallbe240V(see3.0.2).
3.1.2ThreephaseSystem

3.1.2.1Thestandardvoltagesforthreephasesystemshallbeasunder:
415V(see3.0.2)

(Voltagetoneutral240V)(see3.0.2)

3.3kV

66kV

6.6kV

110kV

11kV

132kV

22kV

220kV

33kV

400kV

NOTES
1.However,inviewofthelatestinternationaldevelopments,itwasdecidedtoalignIndianStandardsnominalsystemvoltageswithIECrecommendationsand
accordinglyrevisethevaluesofa.c.nominalsystemvoltagesfrom240/415to230/400withthetoleranceof10percentanditwasalsodecidedtoeffectthe
completetransitionby31December2009,asgiveninIS12360
2.Thesevoltagesrefertothelinetolinevoltage.
3.110kVisnotastandardvoltagefortransmissionpurposesbutthisvaluehasbeenincludedforthesakeofequipmentthatarerequiredforuseonthe110kV

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systemsalreadyinexistence.Itisrealizedthatbecauseofeconomicandotherconsiderations,extensionstoexistingsystemsatthisvoltagemayhavetobe
madeatthesamevoltage.

3.1.3

Thestandarddcdistributionvoltageshallbe220/440V.
3.2VoltageLimitsforacSystems

3.2.1

Thevoltageatanypointofthesystemundernormalconditionsshallnotdepartfromthedeclaredvoltagebymorethanthevaluesgivenbelow:
a.6percentinthecaseoflowormediumvoltage(see3.0.2)or
NOTESupplyvariationwillbecome230V10percentwitheffectfrom31December2009.SeeIS12640:1988forthelatestprovision.

25

b.6percentonthehighersideor9percentonthelowersideinthecaseofhighvoltageor
c.12.5percentinthecaseofextrahighvoltage.
NOTEThepermissiblevariationsgivenaboveareinaccordancewithIndianElectricityRules,1956,andareapplicabletothesupply
authorities.
3.2.2

Forinstallationdesignpurposes,thelimitsofvoltagebetweenwhichthesystemandtheequipmentusedinthesystemshallbecapableof
operatingcontinuouslyareasfollows:
SystemVoltage

HighestVoltage

LowestVoltage

(Un )

(Um)

(1)

(2)

(3)

240V

264V

216V

415V

457V

374V

3.3kV

3.6kV

3.0kV

6.6kV

7.2kV

6.0kV

11kV

12kV

10kV

22kV

24kV

20kV

33kV

36kV

30kV

66kV

72.5kV

60kV

132kV

145kV

120kV

220kV

245kV

200kV

400kV

420kV

380kV

NOTES
1.Thisvariationinvoltageshouldnotbeconfusedwiththepermissiblevariationfromthedeclaredvoltageasgivenin3.2.1.
2.Forsystemvoltage230/400highestvoltageandlowestvoltageshallbe10percent

4PREFERREDCURRENTRATINGS
4.1

ThepreferredcurrentratingsshallbeselectedfromtheR5series.Ifintermediatevaluesarerequired,thesameshallbeselectedfromR10series
[seeIS1076(Part1)].
5STANDARDSYSTEMFREQUENCY
5.1

Thestandardsystemfrequencyshallin50Hz.
5.2

ThelimitswithinwhichthefrequencyistobemaintainedaregovernedbytheIndianElectricityRules.
26

SECTION7FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES

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0FOREWORD
ThebasiccriteriainthedesignofelectricalinstallationareenumeratedinthisSectionwhichcouldbetakennoteofintheplanningstages.The
specificnatureofeachoccupancycallsforadditionalinformationwhicharesummarizedintherespectiveSectionsoftheCode.
AssistancehasbeenderivedforthisSectionfromIEC603641LowvoltageelectricalinstallationsPart1:Fundamentalprinciples,assessment
ofgeneralcharacteristics,definitionsissuedbytheInternationalElectrotechnicalCommission.Measuresforachievingprotectionagainstthevarious
hazardsareunderconsiderationbytheNationalElectricalCodeSectionalCommittee.ItmaybeaddedthatsubsequentrequirementsoftheCode
would,however,providesufficientguidelinesinrespectofachievingthedesiredlevelofsafety.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section7oftheCodeenumeratesthefundamentalprinciplesofdesignandexecutionofelectricalinstallations.
2REFERENCE
ReferencehasbeenmadetothefollowingIndianStandard:
ISNo.

Title

IS3792:1978

Guideforheatinsulationofnonindustrialbuildings

3FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLES
3.0General

3.0.1ConformitywithIndianElectricityRules

TheinstallationshallgenerallybecarriedoutinconformitywiththerequirementsoftheIndianElectricityRules,1956asamendedfromtime
totime,andalsotherelevantregulationsoftheelectricsupplyauthorityconcerned.
3.0.2Materials

Allmaterials,fittings,equipmentandtheiraccessories,appliances,etc,usedinanelectricalinstallationshallconformtoIndianStandards
wherevertheyexist.IncaseanIndianStandarddoesnotexist,thematerialsandotheritemsshallbethoseapprovedbythecompetentauthority.
3.0.3Workmanship

GoodworkmanshipisanessentialrequirementforcompliancewiththisCode.UnlessotherwiseexemptedundertheIndianElectricityRules,
theworkonelectricalinstallationsshallbecarriedoutunderthesupervisionofapersonholdingacertificateofcompetencyissuedbyarecognized
authority.Theworkmenshallalsoholdtheappropriatecertificateofcompetency.
3.1Coordination

3.1.1ExchangeofInformation

3.1.1.1Propercoordinationandcollaborationbetweenthearchitect,buildingengineerandtheelectricalengineershallbeensuredfromthe
planningstageoftheinstallation.Theprovisionsthatwouldhavetobemadefortheaccommodationofsubstation,transformerswitchgearrooms,lift
wellsandotherspacesrequiredtobeprovidedforservicecableducts,openings,etc.inthecivilwork,andsuchotherrelevantdatashallbespecifiedin
advance.
3.1.1.2Inallcases,thatis,whethertheproposedelectricalworkisanewinstallationoranextensiontotheexistingone,oramodification,the
relevantauthorityshallbeconsulted.Inallsuchcases,itshallalsobeensuredthatthecurrentcarryingcapacityandtheconditionoftheexisting
equipmentandaccessoriesareadequate.
3.1.1.3Sufficientcoordinationshallbeensuredwiththecivilarchitectintheinitialstagesitselftoensurethatsufficientbuildingspacebe
allottedforelectricalinstallationpurposessuchasthoserequiredforsubstationinstallation,fromthepointofsafety.
3.1.1.4Thebuildingservicesplanshallalsoincludeattheearlystagesallthedetailsofservicesthatutilizeelectricalenergyandthe
requirementsoftheelectricalinstallationinordertoenablethedesignersandothersinvolvedtodecidethecoordinationtobeensured.
3.2DistancefromElectricLines

Nobuildingshallbeallowedtobeerectedorreerected,oranyadditionsoralterationsmadetotheexistingbuilding,unlessthefollowing
minimumclearancesareprovidedfromtheoverheadelectricsupplylines:
27

SlNo.

TypeofSupplyLine

Voltage

(1)

(2)

(3)

i) Lowandmediumvoltage

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Clearance
Verticalm

Horizontal,m

(4)

(5)

2.5

1.2

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ii) Highvoltage

Uptoandincluding11000V
Above11kVuptoandincluding33kV

iii) Extrahighvoltage

3.7

1.2

3.7

2.0

3.7(seeNote)

2.0(seeNote)

NOTEForextrahighvoltagelinesapartfromtheminimumclearancesindicated,averticalandhorizontalclearanceof0.30mforeveryadditionalkVorpart
thereofshallbeprovided.
3.3LightingandVentilation

Fromthepointofviewofconservingenergy,itisessentialtoconsiderthoseaspectsofdesignofbuildingsasvital,whichwouldenableuseof
naturallightingandventilationtothemaximum.Attentionis,however,drawntothegeneralrequirementsstipulatedinPart1/Section14.
3.4HeatInsulation

3.4.1

Forinformationregardingrecommendedlimitsofthermaltransmittanceofroofsandwallsandtransmissionlossesduetodifferent
constructions,referenceshallbemadetoIS3792.
3.4.2

Propercoordinationshallbeensuredtoprovidefornecessaryarrangementstoinstallandservetheelectricalequipmentneededfortheair
conditioningandheatingservicesinthebuilding.
3.5LiftsandEscalators

Forinformationoftheelectricalengineer,thelift/escalatormanufacturerinconsultationwiththebuildingplanners,shalladviseofthe
electricalrequirementsnecessaryfortheliftsandescalatorstobeinstalledinthebuilding.GeneralprovisionsareoutlinedinPart1/Section14.
3.6LocationandSpaceforElectricalEquipment

Eventhoughspecificprovisionsregardingthechoiceoflocationandspacerequirementsforelectricalinstallationinbuildingshavebeen
providedintherelevantpartsoftheCode.Thefollowingaspectsshallbetakennoteofingeneralwhileplanningthebuildingdesign:
a.Needforandlocationandrequirementsofbuildingsubstation.
b.Loadcentreandcentreofgravityofbuildings,
c.Layout,
d.Room/spacesrequiredforelectricalutility,
e.Locationandrequirementsofswitchrooms,
f.Levelsofillumination,and
g.Ventilation.
4DESIGNOFELECTRICALINSTALLATION
4.0General

4.0.1

Thedesignoftheelectricalinstallationshalltakeintoaccountthefollowingfactors:
a.Theprotectionofpersons,livestockandpropertyinaccordancewith4.1,and
b.Theproperfunctioningoftheelectricalinstallationfortheuseintended.
4.0.2

Thefollowingfactorsshallthereforebekeptinview:
a.Characteristicsoftheavailablesupplyorsupplies,
b.Natureofdemand,
c.Emergencysupplyorsupplies,
d.Environmentalconditions,
e.Crosssectionofconductors,
f.Typeofwiringandmethodsofinstallations,
g.Protectiveequipment,

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h.Emergencycontrol,
i.Disconnectingdevices,and
j.Preventingofmutualinfluencebetweenelectricalandnonelectricalinstallations.
4.1ProtectionforSafety

4.1.0

Therequirementsstatedin4.1.1to4.1.6areintendedtoensurethesafetyofpersons,livestockandpropertyagainstdangersanddamagewhich
mayariseinthereasonableuseofelectricalinstallations.
NOTEInelectricalinstallations,twomajortypesofrisksexist.
a.Shockcurrentsand
b.Excessivetemperatureslikelytocauseburns,firesandotherinjuriouseffects.
4.1.1ProtectionAgainstDirectContact

Personsandlivestockshallbeprotectedagainstdangerthatmayarisefromcontactwithlivepartsoftheinstallation.
Theprotectioncanbeachievedbyoneofthefollowingmethods:
a.Preventingacurrentfrompassingthroughthebodyofanypersonoranylivestock,and
28

b.Limitingthecurrentwhichcanpassthroughabodytoavaluelowerthantheshockcurrent.
4.1.2ProtectionAgainstIndirectContact

Personsandlivestockshallbeprotectedagainstdangersthatmayarisefromcontactwithexposedconductiveparts.
Thisprotectioncanbeachievedbyoneofthefollowingmethods:
a.Preventingafaultcurrentfrompassingthroughthebodyofanypersonoranylivestock.
b.Limitingthefaultcurrentwhichcanpassthroughabodytoavaluelowerthantheshockcurrent.
c.Automaticdisconnectionofthesupplyontheoccurrenceofafaultlikelytocauseacurrenttoflowthroughabodyincontactwithexposed
conductiveparts,wherethevalueofthatcurrentisequaltoorgreaterthantheshockcurrent.
4.1.3ProtectionAgainstThermalEffectsinNormalService

Theelectricalinstallationshallbesoarrangedthatthereisnoriskofignitionofflammablematerialsduetohightemperatureorelectricarc.
Also,duringnormaloperationoftheelectricalequipment,thereshallbenoriskofpersonsorlivestocksufferingburns.
4.1.4ProtectionAgainstOvercurrent

Personsorlivestockshallbeprotectedagainstinjury,andpropertyshallbeprotectedagainstdamageduetoexcessivetemperaturesor
electromechanicalstressescausedbyanyovercurrentslikelytoariseinliveconductors.
Thisprotectioncanbeachievedbyoneofthefollowingmethods:
a.Automaticdisconnectionontheoccurrenceofanovercurrentbeforethisovercurrentattainsadangerousvaluetakingintoaccountitsduration,
and
b.Limitingthemaximumovercurrenttosafevalueandduration.
4.1.5ProtectionAgainstOvervoltage

Personsorlivestockshallbeprotectedagainstinjuryandpropertyshallbeprotectedagainstanyharmfuleffectsofafaultbetweenlivepartsof
circuitssuppliedatdifferentvoltages.
Personsorlivestockshallbeprotectedagainstinjuryandpropertyshallbeprotectedagainstdamagefromanyexcessivevoltageslikelytoarise
duetoothercauses(forexample,atmosphericphenomenaorswitchingvoltages).
4.1.6MethodsforProtectionforSafety

Whilethegeneralprinciplesofprotectionagainsthazardsinanelectricalinstallationaregivenin4.1.1to4.1.6guidelinesonthemethodsfor
achievingprotectionandthechoiceofaparticularprotectivemeasureareunderconsideration.
4.2OtherFactorsofDesign

4.2.1CharacteristicsoftheAvailableSupplyorSupplies

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a.Natureofcurrent:acand/ordc,
b.Natureandnumberofconductors:
1.Forac:
i.phaseconductors(s),
ii.neutralconductor,and
iii.protectiveconductor.
2.Fordc:
i.conductorsequivalenttothoselistedabove.
c.Valuesandtolerances:
1.voltageandvoltagetolerances(seePart1/Section6),
2.frequencyandfrequencytolerances(seePart1/Section6),
3.maximumcurrentallowable,and
4.prospectiveshortcircuitcurrent(seePart1/Section13).
d.Protectivemeasuresinherentinthesupply,forexample,earthed(grounded)neutralormidwire.
e.Particularrequirementsofthesupplyundertaking.
4.2.2NatureofDemand

Thenumberandtypeofthecircuitsrequiredforlighting,heating,power,control,signalling,telecommunication,etc,aretobedeterminedby:
a.locationsofpointsofpowerdemand,
b.loadstobeexpectedonthevariouscircuits,
c.dailyandyearlyvariationofdemand,
d.anyspecialconditions,
e.requirementsforcontrol,signaling,telecommunication,etc.
4.2.3EmergencySupplyorSupplies(seealsoPart2oftheCode)

a.Sourceofsupply(nature,characteristics),and
b.Circuitstobesuppliedbytheemergencysource.
29

4.2.4EnvironmentalConditions(seePart1/Section8)

4.2.5CrosssectionofConductors

Thecrosssectionofconductorsshallbedeterminedaccordingto:
a.theiradmissiblemaximumtemperature,
b.theadmissiblevoltagedrop,
c.theelectromechanicalstresseslikelytooccurduetoshortcircuits,
d.othermechanicalstressestowhichtheconductorsmaybeexposed,and
e.themaximumimpedancestressestowhichtheconductorsoftheshortcircuitprotection.
4.2.6TypeofWiringandMethodsofInstallations

Thechoiceofthetypeofwiringandthemethodsofinstallationdependon:
a.natureofthelocation,
b.natureofthewallsorotherpartsofthebuildingsupportingthewire,
c.accessibilityofwiringtopersonsandlivestock,
d.voltage,
e.electromechanicalstresseslikelytooccurduetoshortcircuits,and
f.otherstressestowhichthewiringmaybeexposedduringtheerectionoftheelectricalinstallationorinservice.
4.2.7ProtectiveEquipment

Thecharacteristicsofprotectiveequipmentshallbedeterminedwithrespecttotheirfunctionwhichmaybe,forexample,protectionagainstthe
effectsof:

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a.overcurrent(overload,shortcircuit)
b.earthfaultcurrent,
c.overvoltage,and
d.undervoltageandnovoltage.
Theprotectivedevicesshalloperateatvaluesofcurrent,voltageandtimewhicharesuitablyrelatedtothecharacteristicsofthecircuitsandto
thepossibilitiesofdanger.
4.2.8EmergencyControl

Whereincaseofdanger,thereisnecessityforimmediateinterruptionofsupply,ininterruptingdeviceshallbeinstalledinsuchawaythatitcan
beeasilyrecognizedandeffectivelyandrapidlyoperated.
4.2.9DisconnectingDevices

Disconnectingdevicesshallbeprovidedsoastopermitdisconnectionoftheelectricalinstallation,circuitsorindividualitemsofapparatusas
requiredformaintenance,testing,faultdetectionorrepair.
4.2.10PreventionofMutualInfluenceBetweenElectricalandNonelectricalInstallations

Theelectricalinstallationshallbearrangedinsuchawaythatnomutualdetrimentalinfluencewilloccurbetweentheelectricalinstallationand
nonelectricalinstallationsofthebuilding.
4.2.11AccessibilityofElectricalEquipment

Theelectricalequipmentshallbearrangedsoastoaffordasmaybenecessary:
a.sufficientspacefortheinitialinstallationandlaterreplacementofindividualitemsofelectricalequipment,and
b.accessibilityforoperation,testing,inspection,maintenanceandrepair.
30

SECTION8ASSESSMENTOFGENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFBUILDINGS
0FOREWORD
Anassessmentofthegeneralcharacteristicsofbuildingsisessentialbeforeplanningfortheneedsofanelectricalinstallation.ThisPart
1/Section8coversachecklistofvariousfactorsthatrequireassessment.
ThisPart1/Section8followstheinternationallyrecommendedmethodofidentificationoftheexternalinfluencesontheelectricalinstallation
suchasenvironment,utilizationandmethodofconstructionofthebuilding.Outoftheseinfluences,thosewhicharespecificallyimportantfor
specificoccupanciesarelistedattherelevantSectionsoftheCode.However,itishopedthatthisSection8wouldalsoenableunderstandingof
installationsnotexplicitlycoveredbytheCode.
ThecontentsofthisPart1/Section8areprimarilyintendedforinstallationsinsidebuildingsthoughtotheextentpossibletheycouldbeutilized
foroutdoorsites.Howevermoresevereconditionsmayprevailatoutdoorsitesandtheserequirespecialconsiderations.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section8oftheCodecoversguidelinesforassessingthecharacteristicsofbuildingsandtheelectricalinstallationtherein.
2ASSESSMENTOFGENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFBUILDINGS
Anassessmentofthegeneralcharacteristicsofbuildingsasenumeratedbelowisessentialfromthepointofviewofdesignandprotectionfor
safetyoftheelectricalinstallation.Thesecharacteristicswhenassessedshallalsobetakenintoconsiderationintheselectionanderectionof
equipment.
2.1IdentificationofGeneralCharacteristics

2.1.1Purposes,SuppliesandStructure

Thefollowingshallbeassessed:
a.Maximumdemandanddiversityfromthepointofviewofeconomicandreliabledesign(see3.2.2ofPart1/Section7).
b.Typeofdistributionsystem,whichincludes,typesofsystemsofliveconductorsandtypesofsystemearthing.
NOTEFortypesofsystemearthing,seePart1/Section14.
c.Supplycharacteristicssuchasnatureofcurrent,nominalvoltage,prospectiveshortcircuitcurrents.
NOTEThisassessmentshallincludethosecharacteristicsofmain,standbyandsafetysupplyservices.

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d.Divisionofinstallationfromthepointofviewofcontrol,safeoperation,testingandmaintenance.
2.2IdentificationofExternalInfluencesontheElectricalInstallation

2.2.1

Thecharacteristicsofthefollowingexternalinfluencesshallbeassessed:
a.Environments
1.Ambienttemperature,
2.Atmospherichumidity,
3.Altitude,
4.Presenceofwater,
5.Presenceofforeignsolidbodies,
6.Presenceofcorrosiveorpollutingsubstances,
7.Mechanicalstresses,
8.Presenceoffloraand/ormouldgrowth,
9.Presenceoffauna,
10.Electromagnetic,electrostaticorionizinginfluences,
11.Solarradiation,
12.Seismiceffects,
13.Lighting,and
14.Wind.
b.Utilization
1.Capabilityofpersons,
2.Electricalresistanceofhumanbody,
3.Contactofpersonswithearthpotential,
4.Conditionsofevacuationinanemergency,and
5.Natureofprocessedorstoredmaterial.
c.ConstructionofBuildings
1.Constructionalmaterials,and
2.Buildingdesign.
2.2.2

Table1suggeststheclassificationandcodificationofexternalinfluenceswhichrequireassessmentinthedesignanderectionofelectrical
installation.
31

Table1AssessmentofGeneralCharacteristicsofBuildings
(Clause2.2.2)
Sl
No.
(1)

i)

ClassDesignation

Characteristics

ApplicationandExamples

Code

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

Environment

1) Ambienttemperature

Theambienttemperaturetobeconsideredfortheequipmentis

thetemperatureattheplacewheretheequipmentistothe
installedresultingfromtheinfluenceofallotherequipmentin
thesamelocation,whenoperating,nottakingintoaccountthe
thermalcontributionoftheequipmenttobeinstalled.Lowerand
upperlimitsofrangeofambienttemperature:

LowerLimits

UpperLimits

a)

60C

+5C

AA1

b)

40C

+5C

AA2

c)

25C

+5C

AA3

d)

5C

+40C

AA4

e)

+5C

+40C

AA5

f)

5C

+60C

AA6

Theaveragetemperatureovera24hourperiodmustnotexceed

5Cbelowtheupperlimits.

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Combinationoftworangestodefinesomeenvironmentsmaybe
necessary.Installationsubjecttotemperaturesoutsidetheranges
requirespecialconsideration.
2)

Atmospherichumidity

Underconsideration

3)

Altitude

2000m

AC1

>2000m

AC2

4)

Presenceofwater:

a)

Probabilityofpresenceofwaterisnegligible

Locationsinwhichthewallsdonotgenerallyshowtraces AD1

Negligible

ofwaterbutmaydosoforshortperiods,forexample,in
theformofvapourwhichgoodventilationdriesrapidly

b)

Freefalling

Possibilityofverticallyfallingdrops

drops

c)
d)

Sprays
Splashes

Locationsinwhichwatervapouroccasionallycondenses

AD2

asdropsorwheresteammayoccasionallybepresent
Possibilityofwaterfallingassprayatanangleupto60Cfrom

Locationsinwhichsprayedwaterformsacontinuousfilm AD3

thevertical

onfloorsand/orwalls

Possibilityofsplashesfromanydirection

Locationswhereequipmentmaybesubjectedtosplashed AD4
water,thisapplies,forexample,tocertainexternal
lightingfittings,constructionsiteequipment,etc

e)

Jets

Possibilityofjetsofwaterfromanydirection

Locationswherehosewaterisusedregularly(yards,car

AD5

washingbays)

f)

Waves

Possibilityofwaterwaves

Seashorelocationssuchaspiers,beachesquays,etc

AD6

g)

Immersion

Possibilityofintermittentpartialortotalcoveringbywater

Locationswhichmaybefloodedandorwherewatermay

AD7

beatleast150mmabovethehighestpointofequipment,
thelowestpartofequipmentbeingnotmorethan1m
belowthewatersurface

h)

Submersion

Possibilityofpermanentandtotalcoveringbywater

Locationssuchasswimmingpoolswhereelectrical

AD8

equipmentispermanentlyandtotallycoveredwithwater
underapressuregreaterthan0.1bar
5)

Presenceofforeignsolid

Thequantityofnatureofdustorforeignsolidbodiesisnot

AE1

Presenceofforeignsolidbodieswherethesmallestdimensionis

Toolsandsmallobjectsofwhichthesmallestdimension

AE2

notlessthan2.5mm

isatleast2.5mm

Verysmall

Presenceofforeignsolidbodieswherethesmallestdimensionis

Wiresareexamplesofforeignsolidbodiesofwhichthe

objects

notlessthan1mm

smallestdimensionisnotlessthan1mm

NOTEInconditionsAE1andAE3,dustmaybepresentbutis

Presenceofdustinsignificantquantity

AE4

bodies:

a)

Negligible

significant

32

b)
c)

Smallobjects

AE3

notsignificanttooperationoftheelectricalequipment

d)

6)

Presenceofcorrosiveor

Dust

pollutingsubstances:

a)

Negligible

Thequantityornatureofcorrosiveorpollutingsubstancesisnot

AF1

significant

b)

Atmospheric

Thepresenceofcorrosiveorpollutingsubstanceofatmospheric

Installationsituatedbytheseaorindustrialzones

originissignificant

producingseriousatmosphericpollution,suchas

AF2

chemicalworksandcementworksthistypeofpollution
arisesespeciallyintheproductionofabrasive,insulating
orconductivedusts

c)

Intermittentor

Intermittentoraccidentalsubjectiontocorrosiveorpolluting

Locationwheresomechemicalproductsarehandledin

accidental

chemicalsubstancesbeingusedorproduced

smallquantitiesandwheretheseproductsmaycomeonly

AF3

accidentiallyintocontactwithelectricalequipmentsuch
conditionsarefoundinfactory,laboratories,other
laboratoriesorinlocationswherehydrocarbonsareused
(boilerrooms,garages,etc)

d)

Continuous

Continuouslysubjecttocorrosiveorpollutingchemical

Forexample,chemicalworks

AF4

substancesinsubstantialquantity
7)

Mechanicalstresses:

a)

Impact

Lowseverity

Householdandsimilarconditions

AG1

Mediumseverity

Usualindustrialconditions

AG2

Highseverity

Severeindustrialconditions

AG3

NOTEProvisionalclassification.Quantitativeexpressionof

impactseveritiesisunderconsideration.

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b)

Vibration

Lowseverity

Householdandsimilarconditionswheretheeffectsof

AH1

vibrationaregenerallynegligible

Mediumseverity

Usualindustrialconditions

AH2

Highseverity

Industrialinstallationssubjecttosevereconditions

AH3

NOTEProvisionalclassification.Quantitativeexpressionof

Underconsideration

AJ

AK1

vibrationseveritiesisunderconsideration.

c)

Other
mechanical
stresses

8)

Presenceoffungusand/or
mouldgrowth:

a)

Nohazard

Nohazardoffungusand/ormouldgrowth

b)

Hazard

hazardoffungusand/ormouldgrowth

Thehazarddependsonlocalconditionsandthenatureof AK2
fungus.Distinctionshouldthemadebetweenharmful
growthofvegetationorconditionsforpromotionofmould
growth

9)

Presenceofvermin:

a)

Nohazard

Nohazard

AL1

b)

Hazard

Hazardfromfauna(insects,birds,smallanimals)

Thehazarddependsonthenatureofthevermin.

AL2

Distinctionshouldbemadebetween:

a) presenceofinsectsinharmfulquantityorofan

aggressivenature.

b) presenceofsmallanimalsorbirdsinharmfulquantity

orofanaggressivenature
10) Electromagnetic,

electrostaticorionizing

33

influences:

a)

Negligible

Noharmfuleffectsfromstaycurrents,electromagneticradiation,

AM1

electrostaticfields,ionizingradiationorinduction

b)

Straycurrents

c)

d)

Harmfulhazardsofstraycurrents

AM2

Electromagnetics Harmfulpresenceofelectromagneticradiation

AM3

Ionization

Harmfulpresenceofionizingradiation

AM4

e)

Electrostatics

Harmfulpresenceofelectrostaticfields

AM5

f)

Induction

Harmfulpresenceofinducedcurrents

AM6

11) Solarradiation:

a)

Negligible

AN1

b)

Significant

Solarradiationofharmfulintensityand/orduration

AN2

12) Seismiceffects:

a)

Negligible

Upto30gal(1gal=1cm/s2)

AP1

b)

Lowseverity

Over30uptoandincluding300gal

AP2

c)

Mediumseverity Over300uptoandincluding600gal

AP3

d)

Highseverity

Vibrationwhichmaycausethedestructionofthebuilding AP4

Greaterthan600gal

isoutsidetheclassification.Frequencyisnottakeninto
accountintheclassificationhowever,iftheseismicwave
resonateswiththebuilding,seismiceffectsmustbe
speciallyconsidered.Ingeneral,thefrequencyofseismic
accelerationisbetween0and10Hz
13) Lightning:

a)

Negligible

AQ1

b)

Indirectexposure Hazardfromsupplyarrangements

Installationssuppliedbyoverheadlines.

AQ2

c)

Directexposure

Partofinstallationslocatedoutsidebuildings.Therisks

AQ3

Hazardfromexposureofequipment

AQ2andAQ3relatetoregionswithaparticularlyhigh
levelofthunderstormactivity
14) Wind(Under

ii) Utilization

1)

Capabilityofpersons:

a)

Uninstructedpersons

BA1

consideration)

Ordinary

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b)

c)

Children

Handicapped

Childreninlocationsintendedfortheiroccupation.

Nurseries

BA2

NOTEThisclassdoesnotnecessarilyapplytofamilydwellings

Personsnotincommandofalltheirphysicalandintellectual

Hospitals

BA3

Electricaloperatingareas

BA4

Closedelectricaloperatingareas

BA5

BB

Nonconductinglocations

BC1

abilities(sickpersons,oldpersons)

d)

Instructed

Personsadequatelyadvisedorsupervisedbyskilledpersonsto
enablethemtoavoiddangerswhichelectricitymaycreate
(operatingandmaintenancestaff)

e)

Skilled

Personswithtechnicalknowledgeorsufficientexperienceto
enablethemtoavoiddangerswhichelectricitymaycreate
(engineersandtechnicians)

2)

Electricalresistanceofthe
humanbodyclassification
(Underconsideration)

3)

Contactofpersonswith
earthpotential:

a)

None

Personsinnonconductingsituations

b)

Low

Personsdonotinusualconditionsmakecontactwithextraneous

BC2

conductivepartsorstandonconductingsurfaces

c)

Frequent

Personsarefrequentlyintouchwithextraneousconductiveparts Locationswithextraneousconductiveparts,either
orstandonconductingsurfaces

34

d)

Continuous

BC3

numerousoroflargearea

Personsareinpermanentcontactwithmetallicsurroundingsand Metallicsurroundingssuchasboilersandtanks

BC4

forwhomthepossibilityofinterruptingcontactislimited
4)

Conditionsofevacuation

Lowdensityoccupation,easyconditionsofevacuation

Buildingsofnormalorlowheightusedforhabitation

BD1

inanemergency

Lowdensityoccupation,difficultconditionsofevacuation

Highrisebuildings

BD2

Highdensityoccupation,easyconditionsofevacuation

Locationsopentothepublic(theatres,cinemas)

BD3

Highdensityoccupation,difficultconditionsofevacuation

Highrisebuildingsopentothepublic(hotels,hospitals,

BD4

etc)
5)

Natureofprocessedor

storedmaterials

a)

Nosignificant

BE1

risks

b)

Firerisks

Manufacture,processingorstorageofflammablematerials

Barns,woodworkingshops,paperfactories

BE2

Oilrefineries,hydrocarbonstores

BE3

Foodstuffindustries,kitchen

includingpresenceofdust

c)

Explosionrisk

Processingorstorageofexplosiveorlowflashpointmaterials
includingpresenceofexplosivedusts

d)

Contamination

Presenceofunprotectedfoodstuffs,pharmaceutics,andsimilar

risks

productswithoutprotection

NOTECertainprecautionsmaybenecessaryintheevent
offault,topreventprocessedmaterialsbeing
contaminatedbyelectricalequipment,forexample,by
brokenlamps

iii) Constructionsof

Building
1) Constructionalmaterials:

a)

Noncombustible

CA1

b)

Combustible

Buildingsmainlyconstructedofcombustiblematerials

Woodenbuildings

CA2

2)

Building
Design:

a)

Negligiblerisk

CB1

b)

Propagationof

Buildingsofwhichtheshapeanddimensionsfacilitatethe

Highrisebuildings,Forcedventilationsystems

CB2

fire

spreadoffire(forexample,chimneyeffects)

Movement

Risksduetostructuralmovement(forexample,displacement

Buildingsofconsiderablelengthorerectedonunstable

CB3

betweenabuildingandtheground,orsettlementofgroundor

ground.

buildingfoundations)

Contractionorexpansionjoints

c)

d)

Flexibleor

Structureswhichareweakorsubjectstomovement(forexample, Tents,airsupportstructures,falseceilings,removable

unstable

oscillation)

CB4

partitions
Flexiblewiring,Installationsneedingsupport

NOTES
1Eachconditionofexternalinfluenceisdesignatedbyacodecomprisingagroupoftwocapitallettersandanumberasfollows:
Thefirstletterrelatestothegeneralcategoryofexternalinfluence
A=environment

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B=utilization
C=constructionofbuildings
Thesecondletterrelatestothenatureoftheexternalinfluence
A
B
C
Thenumberrelatestotheclasswithineachexternalinfluence
1
2
3
Forexample,thecodeAC2signifies:
A=environment
AC=environmentaltitude,and
AC2=environmentaltitude>2000m.
TheCodegivenhereisnotintendedtobeusedformarkingequipment.
2ThecharacteristicsdefinedforelectricalinstallationsarethoseacceptedbytheIECandasapplicableforelectricalinstallationsinbuildings.Influenceson
outdoorinstallationsareseparatelydefinedintherespectivepartsoftheCode.

35

Forthetimebeing,thecharacteristicsofinfluences(Table1,col3)aregivenindescriptivelanguageonly.Codificationforthesame(seeNote1),
asrecommendedbyIECaregivenatTable1col5forinformation.
2.3Compatibility

Anassessmentshallbemadeofanycharacteristicsofequipmentlikelytohaveharmfuleffectsuponotherelectricalequipmentorotherservices
orlikelytoimpairthesupply.Thosecharacteristicsinclude,forexample:
a.Transientovervoltages,
b.Rapidlyfluctuatingloads,
c.Startingcurrents,
d.Harmoniccurrents,
e.dcfeedback,
f.Highfrequencyoscillations,and
g.Earthleakagecurrents.
2.4Maintainability

Anassessmentshallbemadeofthefrequencyandqualityofmaintenancetheinstallationcanreasonablybeexpectedtoreceiveduringits
intendedlife.Whereanauthorityistoberesponsiblefortheoperationoftheinstallation,thatauthorityshallbeconsulted.Thosecharacteristicsareto
betakenintoaccountinapplyingtherequirementsofthisCodesothat,havingregardtothefrequencyandqualityofmaintenanceexpected,
a.Anyperiodicinspectionandtestingandmaintenanceandrepairslikelytobenecessaryduringtheintendedlifecanbereadilyandsafelycarried
out,
b.Effectivenessoftheprotectivemeasuresforsafetyduringtheintendedlifeisensued,and
c.Reliabilityofequipmentforproperfunctioningoftheinstallationisappropriatetotheintendedlife.
36

SECTION9WIRINGINSTALLATIONS
0FOREWORD
Amajorportionoffixedinstallationdesigninabuildingrelatestowiringinstallation.ThisSectionoftheCodeisprimarilyintendedtocover
guidelinesondesignandconstructionofwiringinstallationswhicharecommonlyapplicabletoalltypesofoccupancies.Therequirementsspecifiedin
thisSectionarebasedonsafetyandreliabilityconsiderations.
ThegeneraldesignguidelinesforwiringgiveninthisSectionhavetobecarefullyconsideredwhileapplyingthemtospecificoccupanciesanda
properselectionofthemethodistobedecideddependingonlocalconditions.GuidanceonsuchmattersiscoveredinrespectiveSectionsoftheCode.
AssistanceforthisSectionhasbeenderivedfromIEC60364552(20001)ElectricalinstallationsofbuildingsPart552:Selectionand
erectionofelectricalequipmentWiringsystems.
1SCOPE
ThisSection9oftheCodecoverstheessentialdesignandconstructionalrequirementsforelectricalwiringinstallations.
2REFERENCES

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AlistofrelevantIndianStandardsonelectricalwiringisgivenatAnnexA.
3TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposeofthisPart1/Section9,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeandthefollowingshallapply.
3.1

CableDuctingSystemAsystemofclosedenclosureofnoncircularsectionsforinsulatedconductors,cableandcordsinelectrical
installations,allowingthemtobedrawninandreplaced.
3.2

ConduitFittingAdevicedesignedtojoinorterminateoneormorecomponentsofaconduitsystem,orchangedirection.
3.3

ConduitJointAninterfacebetweentwoormorecomponentsofaconduitsystem,orbetweenaconduitsystemandotherequipment.
3.4

CableTrunkingSystemAsystemofclosedenclosurescomprisingabasewitharemovablecoverintendedforthecompletesurroundingof
insulatedconductors,cables,cordsand/orfortheaccommodationofotherelectricalequipment.
3.5

ConduitSystemAclosedwiringsystemconsistingofconduitsandconduitfittingsfortheprotectionandmanagementofinsulated
conductorsand/orcablesinelectricalorcommunicationinstallations,allowingthemtobedrawninand/orreplaced,butnotinsertedlaterally.
NOTEWithintheconduitsystemthereshallbenosharpedges,burrsorsurfaceprojectionswhicharelikelytodamageinsulated
conductorsorcablesorinflictinjurytotheinstalleroruser.Themanufacturershallberesponsibleforprovidingguidelinestoassistthe
safeinstallationoftheconduitsystem.
3.6

DistributionBoardAunitcomprisingoneormoreprotectivedevicesagainstovercurrentandensuringthedistributionofelectricalenergy
tothecircuits.
3.7

LuminaireApparatuswhichdistributes,filtersortransformsthelighttransmittedfromoneormorelampsandwhichincludesalltheparts
necessaryforsupporting,fixingandprotectingthelamps,butnotthelampsthemselves,andwherenecessarycircuitauxiliariestogetherwiththe
meansforconnectingthemtothesupply.
4GENERALANDCOMMONASPECTSFORSELECTIONOFWIRINGSYSTEMS
4.1CableandConductorsforLow/MediumVoltage

Everynonflexiblecablecordforuseatlow/mediumvoltage,busbartrunkingsystem,andeveryconductorotherthanacableforuseasan
overheadlineoperatingatlowmediumvoltageshallcomplywiththeappropriateIndianStandards.
FlexiblecableorflexiblecordshallbeusedforfixedwiringonlywheretherelevantprovisionsofthisCodearemet.
4.1.1CableforacCircuitsElectromagneticEffects

Singlecorecablesarmouredwithsteelwireortapeshallnotbeusedforaccircuits.Conductorsofaccircuitsinstalledinferromagnetic
enclosureshallbearrangedsothattheconductorsofallphasesandtheneutralconductor(ifany)andtheappropriateprotectiveconductorofeach
circuitarecontainedinthesameenclosure.
Wheresuchconductorsenteraferrousenclosuretheyshallbearrangedsothattheconductorsarenotindividuallysurroundedbyaferrous
material,orotherprovisionshallbemadetopreventeddy(induced)currents.
37

4.1.2ElectromechanicalStresses

Everyconductororcableshallhaveadequatestrengthandbesoinstalledastowithstandtheelectromechanicalforcesthatmaybecausedby
anycurrent,includingfaultcurrentitmayhavetocarryinservice.

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4.2ConduitsandConduitFittings

AconduitorconduitfittingshallcomplywiththeappropriateIndianStandard.
4.3Trunking,DuctingandFittings

Whereapplicable,trunking,ductingandtheirfittingsshallcomplywithIS14927.WhereIS14927doesnotapply,nonmetallictrunking,ducting
andtheirfittingsshallbeofinsulatingmaterialcomplyingwiththeignitabilitycharacteristicPofrelevantIndianStandard.
4.4LightingTrackSystems

AlightingtracksystemshallcomplywithrelevantIndianStandard
4.5MethodsofInstallationofCablesandConductors

ThemethodsofinstallationofawiringsystemforwhichtheCodespecificallyprovidesareat6.Othermethodscanbeusedprovidedthat
compliancewiththeCodeismaintained.
Abareliveconductorshallbeinstalledoninsulators.Nonsheathedcablesforfixedwiringshallbeenclosedinconduit,ductingortrunking.
Wherecableshavingdifferenttemperatureratingsareinstalledinthesameenclosure,allthecablesshallbedeemedtohavethelowesttemperature
ratings.
4.6SelectionandErectioninRelationtoExternalInfluences

Table1ofPart1/Section8containsaconciselistofexternalinfluenceswhichneedtobetakenintoaccountintheselectionanderectionof
wiringsystems.
4.6.1AmbientTemperature(AA)

Awiringsystemshallbeselectedanderectedsoastobesuitableforthehighestandlowestlocalambienttemperaturelikelytobeencountered.
Thecomponentsofawiringsystem,includingcablesandwiringenclosuresshallbeinstalledorhandledonlyattemperatureswithinthelimitsstated
intherelevantproductspecificationorasrecommendedbythemanufacturer.
4.6.2ExternalHeatSources

Toavoidtheeffectsofheatfromexternalsourcesoneormoreofthefollowingmethods,oranequallyeffectivemethod,shallbeusedtoprotect
thewiringsystem:
a.shielding.
b.placingsufficientlyfarfromthesourceofheat.
c.selectingasystemwithdueregardfortheadditionaltemperaturerisewhichmayoccur.
d.reducingthecurrentcarryingcapacity.
e.localreinforcementorsubstitutionofinsulatingmaterial.
NOTEHeatfromexternalsourcesmayberadiated,convectedorconducted,forexample
a.fromhotwatersystems,
b.fromplantappliancesandluminaires,
c.frommanufacturingprocess,
d.throughheatconductingmaterials,
e.fromsolargainofthewiringsystemoritssurroundingmedium.
Partsofacableorflexiblecordwithinanaccessory,applianceorluminaireshallbesuitableforthetemperatureslikelytobeencountered,or
shallbeprovidedwithadditionalinsulationsuitableforthosetemperatures.
4.6.3PresenceofWater(AD)orHighHumidity(AB)

Awiringsystemshallbeselectedanderectedsothatnodamageiscausedbyhighhumidityoringressofwaterduringinstallation,useand
maintenance.Wherewatermaycollectorcondensationmayforminawiringsystemprovisionshallbemadeforitsharmlessescapethroughsuitably
locateddrainagepoints.Whereawiringsystemmaybesubjectedtowaves(AD6),protectionagainstmechanicaldamageshallbeaffordedbyoneor
moreofthemethodsgivenin4.6.6to4.6.8.
4.6.4PresenceofSolidForeignBodies(AE)

Awiringsystemshallbeselectedanderectedtominimizetheingressofsolidforeignbodiesduringinstallation,useandmaintenance.Ina

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locationwheredustorothersubstanceinsignificantquantitymaybepresent(AE4:Lightdust,AE5:ModeratedustorAE6:HeavyDust)additional
precautionsshallbetakentopreventitsaccumulationinquantitieswhichcouldadverselyaffecttheheatdissipationfromthewiringsystem.
4.6.5PresenceofCorrosiveorPollutingSubstances(AF)

Wherethepresenceofcorrosiveorpollutingsubstancesislikelytogiverisetocorrosionordeterioration,partsofthewiringsystemlikelytobe
affectedshallbesuitablyprotectedormanufacturedfrommaterialsresistanttosuchsubstances.Metalsliabletoinitiateelectrolyticactionshallnotbe
placedincontactwith
38

eachother.Materialsliabletocausemutualorindividualdeteriorationorhazardousdegradationshallnotbeplacedincontactwitheachother.
4.6.6Impact(AG)

Awiringsystemshallbeselectedanderectedsoastominimizemechanicaldamage.Inafixedinstallationwhereanimpactofmediumseverity
(AG2)orhighseverity(AG3)canoccur,protectionshallbeaffordedby:
a.themechanicalcharacteristicsofthewiringsystem,or
b.thelocationselected,or
c.theprovisionofadditionallocalorgeneralmechanicalprotection,
orbyanycombinationoftheabove.
Exceptwhereinstalledinaconduitorductwhichprovidesequivalentmechanicalprotection,acableburiedinthegroundshallbeofa
constructionincorporatinganarmourormetalsheathorboth,orbeofinsulatedconcentricconstruction.Suchcableshallbemarkedbycablecovers
orasuitablemarkingtapeorbysuitableidentificationoftheconduitorductandbeburiedatasufficientdepthtoavoidbeingdamagedbyany
disturbanceofthegroundreasonablylikelytooccur.
Awiringsystemburiedinafloorshallbesufficientlyprotectedtopreventdamagecausedbytheintendeduseofthefloor.
Whereacableisinstalledunderafloororaboveaceilingitshallberuninsuchapositionthatitisnotliabletobedamagedbycontactwiththe
floorortheceilingortheirfixings.Whereacablepassesthroughatimberjoistwithinafloororceilingconstructionorthroughaceilingsupport(for
example,underfloorboards),thecableshallbeatleast50mmmeasuredverticallyfromthetop,orbottomasappropriate,ofthejoistorbatten.
Alternatively,cableshallincorporateanearthedmetallicsheathsuitableforuseasaprotectiveconductororshallbeprotectedbyenclosureinearthed
steelconduitsecurelysupported,orbyequivalentmechanicalprotectionsufficienttopreventpenetrationofthecablebynails,screws,andthelike.
Whereacableistobeconcealedwithinawallorpartitionatadepthoflessthan50mmfromthesurfaceitsmethodoferectionshallbethat
thecableshallbeinstalledwithin150mmofthetopofthewallorpartitionwithin150mmofanangleformedbytwoadjoiningwallsorpartitions.
Wherethecableisconnectedtoapointoraccessoryonthewallorpartition,thecablemaybeinstalledoutsidethesezonesonlyinstraightruns,
eitherhorizontallyorvertically,tothepointoraccessoryorswitchgear.
Wherecomplianceasaboveisimpracticable,theconcealedcableshallincorporateanearthedmetalliccoveringwhichcomplieswiththe
requirementsofthisCodeforaprotectiveconductorofthecircuitconcerned,orshallbeenclosedinearthedconduit,trunkingorductingsatisfying
therequirementsofthisCodeforaprotectiveconductor,orbymechanicalprotectionsufficienttopreventpenetrationofthecablebynails,screws
andthelike.
4.6.7Vibration(AH)

Awiringsystemsupportedby,orfixedto,astructureorequipmentsubjecttovibrationofmediumseverity(AH2)orhighseverity(AH3)shallbe
suitablefortheconditionsandinparticularshallemploycablewithfixingsandconnectionssuitableforsuchasituation.
4.6.8OtherMechanicalStresses(AJ)

Awiringsystemshallbeselectedanderectedsoastominimizeduringinstallation,useandmaintenance,damagetothesheathandinsulationof
cablesandinsulatedconductorsandtheirterminations.
Wherethewiringsystemisdesignedtobewithdrawablethereshallbeadequatemeansofaccessfordrawingcableinoroutand,ifburiedinthe
structure,aconduitorcableductingsystemforeachcircuitshallbecompletelyerectedbeforecableisdrawnin.Theradiusofeverybendinawiring
systemshallbesuchthatconductorsandcablesshallnotsufferdamage.Whereaconductororacableisnotcontinuouslysupporteditshallbe
supportedbysuitablemeansatappropriateintervalsinsuchamannerthattheconductororcabledoesnotsufferdamagebyitsownweight.Every
cableorconductorusedasfixedwiringshallbesupportedinsuchawaythatitisnotexposedtounduemechanicalstrainandsothatthereisno
appreciablemechanicalstrainontheterminationsoftheconductors,accountbeingtakenofmechanicalstrainimposedbythesupportedweightofthe
cableorconductoritself.Aflexiblewiringsystemshallbeinstalledsothatexcessivetensileandtorsionalstressestotheconductorsandconnections
areavoided.
4.6.9PresenceofFloraand/orMouldGrowth(AK)

Whereexpectedconditionsconstituteahazard(AK2),thewiringsystemshallbeselectedaccordinglyorspecialprotectivemeasuresshallbe
adopted.
4.6.10PresenceofFauna(AL)

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Whereexpectedconditionsconstituteahazard(AL2),thewiringsystemshallbeselectedaccordinglyorspecialprotectivemeasuresshallbe
adopted.
4.6.11SolarRadiation(AN)

Wheresignificantsolarradiation(AN2)isexperienced
orexpected,awiringsystemsuitablefortheconditionsshallbeselectedanderectedoradequateshieldingshallbeprovided.

39

4.6.12BuildingDesign(CB)

Wherestructuralmovement(CB3)isexperiencedorexpected,thecablesupportandprotectionsystememployedshallbecapableofpermitting
relativemovementsothatconductorsarenotsubjectedtoexcessivemechanicalstress.
Forflexibleorunstablestructures(CB4)flexiblewiringsystemsshallbeused.
4.7CurrentCarryingCapacityofConductors

Thecurrenttobecarriedbyanyconductorforsustainedperiodsduringnormaloperationshallbesuchthattheappropriatetemperaturelimit
specifiedisnotexceeded.SeevariouspartsofIS3961fordetails.
4.8VoltageDropinConsumersInstallations

Undernormalserviceconditionsthevoltageattheterminalsofanyfixedcurrentusingequipmentshallbegreaterthanthelowerlimit
correspondingtotheIndianStandardrelevanttotheequipmentwhereverexisting.Intheabsenceofsuchastandard,thentheVoltageatthe
terminalsshallbesuchasnottoimpairthesafefunctioningoftheequipment.
Thevoltagedropbetweentheoriginoftheinstallation(usuallythesupplyterminal)andthefixedcurrentusingequipmentshouldnotexceed4
percentofthenormalvoltageofthesupply.
Agreatervoltagedropmaybeacceptedforamotorduringstartingperiodsandforotherequipmentwithhighinrushcurrentsprovideditis
verifiedthatthevoltagevariationsarewithinthelimitsspecifiedintherelevantIndianStandardsfortheequipmentor,intheabsenceofaIndian
Standard,inaccordancewiththemanufacturersrecommendations.Temporaryconditionssuchasvoltagetransientsandvoltagevariationdueto
abnormaloperationmaybedisregarded.
4.9CrosssectionalAreasofConductors

4.9.1PhaseConductorsinacCircuitsandLiveConductorsindcCircuits

Thenominalcrosssectionalareaofphaseconductorsinaccircuitsandofliveconductorsindccircuitsshallbenotlessthanthevalues
specifiedinTable1.
4.10NeutralConductors

Forapolyphasecircuitinwhichimbalancemayoccurinnormalservice,throughsignificantinequalityofloadingorofpowerfactorinthe
variousphases,orthroughthepresenceofsignificantharmoniccurrentsinthevariousphases,theneutralconductorshallhaveacrosssectionalarea
adequatetoaffordcompliancewithpermissibleconductoroperatingtemperatureforthemaximumcurrentlikelytoflowinit.
Forapolyphasecircuitinwhichseriousimbalanceisunlikelytooccurinnormalservice,otherthana
Table1MinimumNominalCrosssectionalAreaofConductor
(Clause4.9.1)
Sl
No.

TypeofWiringSystem

(1)

(2)

UseoftheCircuit

Conductor
Material

i) Cablesandinsulatedconductors

ii) Bareconductors

iii) Flexibleconnectionswithinsulated

(3)

Minimumpermissiblenominalcross
sectionalareamm2

(4)

(5)

Lightingcircuits

Cu

1.5

PowerCircuits

Cu

2.5

Signallingandcontrolcircuits

Al

10(seeNote1)

Cu

0.5(seeNote2)

Powercircuits

Cu

10

Signallingandcontrolcircuits

Al

16

Cu

Cu

AsspecifiedintherelevantIndian

Foraspecificappliance

conductorsandcables

Standard0.5
ForanyotherapplicationExtralowvoltagecircuitsfor

(seeNote2)

specialapplications

0.5

NOTES

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1.Connectorsusedtoterminatealuminiumconductorsshallbetestedandapprovedforthisspecificuse.
2.Inmulticoreflexiblecablescontaining7ormorecoresandinsignallingcontrolcircuitsintendedforelectronicequipmentaminimumnominalcrosssectional
areaof0.1mmispermitted.

40

dischargelightingcurrent,multicorecablesincorporatingareducedneutralconductorinaccordancewiththeappropriateIndianStandardmay
beused.Wheresinglecorecablesareusedinsuchcircuits,theneutralconductorshallhaveacrosssectionalareaappropriatetotheexpectedvalueof
theneutralcurrent.
Inadischargelightingcircuittheneutralconductorshallhaveacrosssectionalareanotlessthanthatofthephaseconductor(s).
4.11ElectricalConnections

4.11.1ConnectionsBetweenConductorsandBetweenaConductorandEquipment

Everyconnectionbetweenconductorsandbetweenaconductorandequipmentshallprovidedurableelectricalcontinuityandadequate
mechanicalstrength(see4.6.8).
4.11.2SelectionofMeansofConnection

Theselectionofthemeansofconnectionshalltakeaccount,asappropriate,ofthefollowing:
a.materialoftheconductoranditsinsulation.
b.numberandshapeofthewiresformingtheconductor.
c.crosssectionalareaoftheconductor.
d.numberofconductorstobeconnectedtogether.
e.temperatureattainedbytheterminalsinnormalservicesuchthattheeffectivenessoftheinsulationoftheconductorsconnectedtothemisnot
impaired.
f.whereasolderedconnectionisusedthedesignshalltakeaccountofcreep,mechanicalstressandtemperatureriseunderfaultcurrent
conditions.
g.provisionofadequatelockingarrangementsinsituationssubjecttovibrationorthermalcycling.
4.11.3EnclosedConnections

Whereaconnectionismadeinanenclosure.Theenclosureshallprovideadequatemechanicalprotectionandprotectionagainstrelevant
externalinfluences.EveryterminationandjointinaliveconductororaPENconductorshallbemadewithinoneofthefollowingoracombination
thereof:
a.asuitableaccessorycomplyingwiththeappropriateIndianStandard.
b.anequipmentenclosure,complyingwiththeappropriateIndianStandard.
c.asuitableenclosureofmaterialcomplyingwiththerelevantglowwiretestrequirementsofIS11000(Part2/Sec1).
d.anenclosureformedorcompletedwithbuildingmaterialconsideredtobenoncombustiblewhentestedappropriateIndianStandardrelatingto
IS3808.
e.anenclosureformedorcompletedbypartofthebuildingstructure,havingtheignitabilitycharacteristicPasspecifiedinappropriateIndian
Standard.
Coresofsheathedcablesfromwhichthesheathhasbeenremovedandnonsheathedcablesattheterminationofconduit,ductingortrunking
shallbeenclosedasperspecifiedenclosureat(b)above.
4.11.4AccessibilityofConnections

Exceptforthefollowing,everyconnectionandjointshallbeaccessibleforinspection,testandmaintenance:
a.acompoundfilledorencapsulatedjoint.
b.aconnectionbetweenacoldtailandaheatingelement(forexample,aceilingandfloorheatingsystem,apipetraceheatingsystem).
c.ajointmadebywelding,soldering,brazingorcompressiontool.
4.12SelectionandErectiontoMinimizetheSpreadofFire

4.12.1RiskofSpreadofFire

TheriskofspreadoffireshallbeminimizedbyselectionofanappropriatematerialanderectioninaccordancewiththisCode.Thewiring
systemshallbeinstalledsothatthegeneralbuildingstructuralperformanceandfiresafetyarenotmateriallyreduced.Apartofawiringsystemwhich
complieswiththerequirementsoftherelevantIndianStandard,whichstandardhasnorequirementfortestingforresistancetothepropagationof
flame,shallbecompletelyenclosedinnoncombustiblebuildingmaterialhavingtheignitabilitycharacteristicP.

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Whereawiringsystempassesthroughelementsofbuildingconstructionsuchasfloors,walls,roofs,ceilings,partitionsorcavitybarriers,the
openingsremainingafterpassageofthewiringsystemshallbesealedaccordingtothedegreeoffireresistancerequiredoftheelementconcerned(if
any).
Whereawiringsystemsuchasconduit,cableducting,cabletrunking,busbarorbusbartrunkingpenetrateselementsofbuildingconstruction
havingspecifiedfireresistanceitshallbeinternallysealedsoastomaintainthedegreeoffireresistanceoftherespectiveelementaswellasbeing
externallysealedtomaintaintherequiredfireresistance.Anonflamepropagating

41

wiringsystemhavingamaximuminternalcrosssectionof710mm2neednotbeinternallysealed.
Exceptforfireresistanceoveronehour,thisrequirementissatisfiedifthesealingofthewiringsystemconcernedhasbeentypetestedbythe
methodspecifiedinrelevantIndianStandard.
Eachsealingarrangementusedasaboveshallcomplywiththefollowingrequirements:
a.Itshallbecompatiblewiththematerialofthewiringsystemwithwhichitisincontact,and
b.Itshallpermitthermalmovementofthewiringsystemwithoutreductionofthesealingquality,
c.Itshallberemovablewithoutdamagetoexistingcablewherespacepermitsfutureextensiontobemade,and
d.Itshallresistrelevantexternalinfluencestothesamedegreeasthewiringsystemwithwhichitisused.
4.12.2ErectionConditions

Duringtheerectionofawiringsystemtemporarysealingarrangementsshallbeprovidedasappropriate.Duringalterationworksealingwhich
hasbeendisturbedshallbereinstatedassoonaspracticable.
4.12.3Verification

Eachsealingarrangementshallbevisuallyinspectedatanappropriatetimeduringerectiontoverifythatitconformstothemanufacturers
erectioninstructionsandthedetailsshallberecorded.
4.13ProximitytoOtherServices

4.13.1ProximitytoElectricalServices

4.13.1.1Neitheranextralowvoltagenoralowvoltagecircuitshallbecontainedwithinthesamewiringsystemasacircuitofnominalvoltage
exceedingthatoflowvoltageunlesseverycableisinsulatedforthehighestvoltagepresentoroneofthefollowingmethodsisadopted:
a.eachconductorinamulticorecableisinsulatedforthehighestvoltagepresentinthecable,orisenclosedwithinanearthedmetallicscreenof
currentcarryingcapacityequivalenttothatofthelargestconductorenclosedwithinthescreen,or
b.thecablesareinsulatedfortheirrespectivesystemvoltagesandinstalledinaseparatecompartmentofacableductingorcabletrunkingsystem,
orhaveanearthedmetalliccovering.
4.13.1.2Alowvoltagecircuitshallbeseparatedfromanextralowvoltagecircuit.
4.13.1.3Whereaninstallationcomprisescircuitsfortelecommunication,firealarmoremergencylightingsystemsaswellascircuitsoperating
atlowvoltageandconnecteddirectlytoamainssupplysystem,appropriateprecautionsshallbetakentopreventelectricalcontactbetweenthecables
ofthevarioustypesofcircuit.
4.13.1.4Firealarmandemergencylightingcircuitsshallbesegregatedfromallothercablesandfromeachother.
4.13.1.5Whereacommonconduit,trunking,ductorductingisusedtocontaincablesofcategory1andcategory2circuits,allcablesof
category1circuitsshallbeeffectivelypartitionedfromthecablesofcategory2circuits,oralternativelythelattercablesshallbeinsulatedinaccordance
withtherequirementsoftheclausesforthehighestvoltagepresentinthecategory1circuits(seealso4.13.1.8).
4.13.1.6Whereacategory3circuitisinstalledinachannelortrunkingcontainingacircuitofanyothercategory,thecircuitsshallbe
segregatedbyacontinuouspartitionsuchthatthespecifiedintegrityofthecategory3circuitisnotreduced.Partitionsshallalsobeprovidedatany
commonoutletsinatrunkingsystemaccommodatingacategory3circuitandacircuitofanothercategory.Wheremineralinsulatedcable,orcable
whoseperformancecomplieswithappropriateIndianStandardrelatingtospecificationforperformancerequirementsforcablesrequiredtomaintain
circuitintegrityunderfireconditions,isusedforthecategory3circuitsuchapartitionisnotnormallyrequired.
4.13.1.7Inconduit,duct,ductingortrunkingsystems,wherecontrolsoroutletsforcategory1andcategory2circuitsaremountedinorona
commonbox,switchplateorblock,thecablesandconnectionsofthetwocategories,ofcircuitshallbesegregatedbyapartitionwhich,ifofmetal,
shallbeearthed..
4.13.1.8Wherecoresofacategory1andacategory2circuitarecontainedinacommonmulticorecable,flexiblecableorflexiblecord,the
coresofthecategory2circuitshallbeinsulatedindividuallyorcollectivelyasagroup,inaccordancewiththerequirementsofthisCode,forthehighest
voltagepresentinthecategory1circuit,oralternativelyshallbeseparatedfromthecoresofthecategory1circuitbyanearthedmetalscreenof
equivalentcurrentcarryingcapacitytothatofthecoresofthecategory1circuit.Whereterminationsofthetwocategoriesofcircuitaremountedinor
ona
42

commonbox,switchplate,orblock,theyshallbesegregatedinaccordancewith4.13.1.7.
4.13.2ProximitytoNonelectricalServices

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4.13.2.1Whereawiringsystemislocatedincloseproximitytoanonelectricalserviceboththefollowingconditionsshallbemet:
a.thewiringsystemshallbesuitablyprotectedagainstthehazardslikelytoarisefromthepresenceoftheotherserviceinnormaluse,and
b.protectionagainstindirectcontactshallbeaffordedinaccordancewithPart1/Section7ofthisCode.
4.13.2.2Awiringsystemshallnotbeinstalledinthevicinityofaservicewhichproducesheat,smokeorfumelikelytobedetrimentaltothe
wiring,unlessprotectedfromharmfuleffectsbyshieldingarrangedsoasnottoaffectthedissipationofheatfromthewiring.
4.13.2.3Whereawiringsystemisroutednearaserviceliabletocausecondensation(suchaswater,steamorgasservices)precautionsshallbe
takentoprotectthewiringsystemfromdeleteriouseffects.
4.13.2.4Whereawiringsystemistobeinstalledinproximitytoanonelectricalserviceitshallbesoarrangedthatanyforeseeableoperation
carriedoutoneitherservicewillnotcausedamagetotheother.
4.13.2.5Anymetalsheathorarmourofacableoperatingatlowvoltage,ormetalconduit,duct,ductingandtrunkingorbareprotective
conductorassociatedwiththecablewhichmightmakecontactwithfixedmetalworkofotherservicesshallbeeithersegregatedfromit,orbondedto
it.
4.13.2.6Nocableshallberuninalift(orhoist)shaftunlessitformspartoftheliftinstallationasdefinedintheappropriateIndianStandard
relatingtoLiftsandServiceLifts.
4.14SelectionandErectioninRelationtoMaintainability,IncludingCleaning

Whereanyprotectivemeasuremustberemovedinordertocarryoutmaintenance,reinstatementoftheprotectivemeasureshallbepracticable
withoutreducingtheoriginaldegreeofprotection.Provisionshallbemadeforsafeandadequateaccesstoallpartsofthewiringsystemwhichmay
requiremaintenance.
5MAINSINTAKEANDDISTRIBUTIONOFELECTRICALENERGYINCONSUMERSPREMISES
5.1DistributionBoardSystem

Distributionboardsystem,alsoknownasDistributionFuseBoardSystemorDistributionMiniatureCircuitBreaker(MCB)BoardSystemis
mostcommonlyadoptedfordistributionofelectricalenergyinabuilding.Appropriateprotectionshallbeprovidedatdistributionboardsandatall
levelsofpanelsandswitchboardsforallcircuitsandsubcircuitsagainstshortcircuit,overcurrentandotherparametersasrequired.Theprotective
deviceshallbecapableofinterruptingmaximumprospectiveshortcircuitcurrentthatmayoccur,withoutdanger.Theratingsandsettingsoffusesand
theprotectivedevicesshallbecoordinatedsoastoaffordselectivityinoperation.Wherecircuitbreakersareusedforprotectionofamaincircuitand
ofthesubcircuitsderivedtherefrom,discriminationinoperationmaybeachievedbyadjustingtheprotectivedevicesofthesubmaincircuitbreakers
tooperateatlowercurrentsettingsandshortertimelagthanthemaincircuitbreaker.Itisrecommendedtoprovideresidualcurrentdevice(RCD)of
300/500mAratingaspartofthemainboardattheentryofthebuildingandof30mAratingaspartofthesubdistributionboard.
Wherehighrupturingcapacity(HRC)typefusesareusedforbackupprotectionofcircuitbreakers,orwhereHRCfusesareusedforprotection
ofmaincircuits,andcircuitbreakersfortheprotectionofsubcircuitsderivedtherefrom,intheeventofshortcircuitsprotectionexceedingtheshort
circuitsprotectionexceedingtheshortcircuitscapacityofthecircuitbreakers,theHRCfusesshalloperateearlierthanthecircuitbreakersbutfor
smalleroverloadswithintheshortcircuitcapacityofthecircuitbreakers,thecircuitbreakersshalloperateearlierthantheHRCfuseblows.If
rewireabletypefusesareusedtoprotectsubcircuitsderivedfromamaincircuitprotectedbyHRCtypefuses,themaincircuitfuseshallnormallyblow
intheeventofashortcircuitorearthfaultoccurringonsubcircuit,althoughdiscriminationmaybeachievedinrespectofoverloadcurrents.Theuse
ofrewireablefusesisrestrictedtothecircuitswithshortcircuitlevelof4kAforhigherleveleithercartridgeorhighrupturingcapacity(HRC)fuses
shallbeused.
Afusecarriershallnotbefittedwithafuseelementlargerthanthatforwhichthecarrierisdesigned.Thecurrentratingofafuseshallnot
exceedthecurrentratingofthesmallestcableinthecircuitprotectedbythefuse.Everyfuseshallhaveitsowncaseorcoverfortheprotectionofthe
circuitandanindelibleindicationofitsappropriatecurrentratinginanadjacentconspicuousposition.
InFig.1,thetwocopperstrips(busbars)fixedinadistributionboardofhardwoodormetalorothernonmetalinsulatingcaseareconnectedto
thesupplymainsthroughalinkedswitchwithfuseorlinkedcircuitbreakeroneachliveconductor,sothattheinstallationcanbeswitchedoffas
wholefromboth
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Fig.1ATypicalDistributionBoardSystem
polesofthesupply,ifrequired.AfuseorMCBisinsertedinthephasepoleofeachcircuit,sothateachcircuitisconnectedupthroughitsown
particularfuseorMCB.Thelamps,fans,socketoutletsforotherdomesticappliancesconsistingeachcircuitneednotnecessarilybeinthesameroom
orevenonthesamefloorincaseofasmallbuildingandsimplyallocatedtoeachcircuitinsuchawaythattheracewaysorrunsforconnectingthem
ismostconvenientandeconomical.Thedistributionboardhas4waysforfourcircuitsbutthenumberofwaysandthecircuitscanbemore,provided
thecablefeedingtheboardislargeenoughtocarrythetotalloadcurrent.
Thepracticeinresidentialandsimilarcommercialbuildingsistorestrictthemaximumnumberofpointsoflights,fansandsocketoutletsina
finalcircuit.Inordertoensuresafety,incasemorepointsarerequiredtobeconnectedtothesupply,thenitistobedonebyhavingmorethanone
finalcircuits.
5.1.1MainandBranchDistributionBoardSystems

5.1.1.1Theratingorsettingofovercurrentprotectiondevicesshallbesochosenastobesuitableforprotectionofcablesandconductorsused
inthecircuit.Maindistributionboardshallbeprovidedwithacircuitbreakeroneachpoleofeachcircuit,oraswitchwithafuseonthephaseorlive
conductorandalinkontheneutralorearthedconductorofeachcircuit.Theswitchesshallalwaysbelinked.Mainandbranchdistributionboards
shallbeprovided,alongwithsurgeprotectivedeviceandearthleakageprotectivedevice(incoming),withafuseoraminiaturecircuitbreakerorboth
ofadequaterating/settingontheliveconductorofeachsubcircuitandtheearthedneutralconductorshallbeconnectedtoacommonlinkandbe
capableofbeingdisconnectedindividuallyfortestingpurposes.Atleastonesparecircuitofthesamecapacityshallbeprovidedoneachbranch
distributionboard.Further,theindividualbranchingcircuits(outgoing)shallbeprotectedagainstovercurrentwithminiaturecircuitbreakerof
adequaterating.Inresidential/industriallightinginstallations,thevariouscircuitsshallbeseparatedandeachcircuitshallbeindividuallyprotectedso
thatintheeventoffault,onlytheparticularcircuitgetsdisconnected.
5.1.1.2Functionallytheresidentialinstallationwiringshallbeseparateforceilingandhigherlevelsinwalls,portableorstationeryplugin
equipments.Fordevicesconsuminghighpowerandwhicharetobesuppliedthroughsupplycordandplug,separatewiringshallbedone.Forplugin
equipmentprovisionsshallbemadeforprovidingELCBprotectioninthesubdistributionboard.Itispreferabletohaveadditionalcircuitforkitchen
andbathrooms.Suchsubcircuitshallnothavemorethanatotaloftenpointsoflight,fansand6Asocketoutlets.Theloadofsuchcircuitshallbe
restrictedto800W.Ifaseparatefancircuitisprovided,thenumberoffansinthecircuitshallnotexceedten.Powersubcircuitshallbedesigned
accordingtotheloadbutinnocaseshalltherebemorethantwo16Aoutletsoneachsubcircuit.Thecircuitsforlightingofcommonareashallbe
separate.Forlargehalls3wirecontrolwithindividualcontrolandmastercontrolshallbemadeforeffectiveconservationofenergy.
5.1.1.3Inindustrialandothersimilarinstallationsrequiringtheuseofgroupcontrolforswitchingoperationcircuitsforsocketoutletsmaybe
keptseparatefromfansandlights.Normally,fansandlights
44

maybewiredonacommoncircuit,however,ifneedisfeltseparatecircuitsmaybeprovidedforthetwo.Theloadonanylowvoltagesubcircuit
shallnotexceed3000W.Inacaseofnewinstallation,allcircuitsandsubcircuitsshallbedesignedbymakingaprovisionof20percentincreasein
loadduetoanyfuturemodification.Powersubcircuitsshallbedesignedaccordingtotheloadbutinnocaseshalltherebemorethanfouroutletson
eachsubcircuit.Inindustrialinstallationsthebranchdistributionboardshallbetotallysegregatedforsinglephasedistributionandwiring.
5.1.1.4Inwiringinstallationsatspecialplaceslikeconstructionsites,stadium,shipyards,openyardsinindustrialplants,etc,wherealarge
numberofhighwattagelampmayberequired,thereshallbenorestrictionofloadonanycircuitbutconductorsusedinsuchcircuitsshallbeof
adequatesizefortheloadandpropercircuitprotectionshallbeprovided.
5.1.1.5Inlargebuildings,however,ifonlyonedistributionboardwereused,someofthepointswouldbeataconsiderabledistancefromitand
insuchcasesitisadvisabletoemploysubdistributionboards(knownasfinalcircuitdistributionboards)knownasbranchdistributionboardseitherto
savecableortopreventtoogreatvoltagedropatthemoredistantpoints(lamps,fansorotherappliances).Insuchcases,themaindistributionboard
controlsthedistributioncircuitstoeachsubdistributionboardfromwhichthefinalcircuitstoloadsaretakenasshowninFig.2.
5.1.1.6Thenumberof,

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a.submaincircuits(alsocalleddistributioncircuits)frommaindistributionboardtosubdistributionboards.
b.subdistributionboards,alsocalledbranchdistributionboardsorfinalcircuitdistributionboards.
c.finalcircuitstoloads,aredecidedasperthenumberofpointstobewiresandloadtobeconnectedpercircuitandtotalloadtobeconnectedto
thesupplysystem.
5.1.1.7Fordeterminationofloadofaninstallation,thefollowingratingsmaybeassumed,unlessthevaluesareknownorspecified:
ConnectedDevice

RatingforCalculatingConnectedLoad

Fluorescentlamp

40W

Incandescentlamp,fan

60W

6Asocketoutlet

100Wunlesstheactualvalueofloadsarespecified

16Asocketoutlet

1000Wunlesstheactualvalueofloadsarespecified

Exhaustfans,fluorescentlampsotherthansinglelamp,compactfluorescentlamps,HVMV

accordingtotheircapacity,controlgearlossesshallbealso

lamps,HVSVlamps

consideredasapplicable

5.2DistributionBoards

Distributionboardswhichprovideplentyofwiringspacehavingterminalsofadequatesizetoaccommodatethecableswhichwillbeconnected
tothemshouldbeselected.Veryoftenitisnecessarytoinstallacablewhichislargerthanwouldnormallyberequired,inordertolimitvoltagedrop,
andtake

Fig.2TypicalHousewiringCircuit
45

accountofthepresenceofharmonics,variationofvoltageandsometimesthemainterminalsarenotofsufficientsizetoaccommodatethese
largercables.Thereforedistributionboardsshouldbeselectedwithmainterminalsofsufficientsizefortheselargercables.
5.2.1BranchDistributionBoards

Branchdistributionboardsshallbeprovided,alongwithsurgeprotectivedeviceandearthleakageprotectivedevices(incoming),withafuseora
miniaturecircuitbreakerorbothofadequaterating/settingchoseninaccordancewithIS732ontheliveconductorofeachsubcircuitandthe
earthedneutralconductorshallbeconnectedtoacommonlinkandbecapablebeingdisconnectedindividuallyfortestingpurposes.Atleastonespare
circuitofthesamecapacityshallbeprovidedoneachbranchdistributionboard.Furthertheindividualbranchingcircuits(outgoing)shallbeprotected
againstovercurrentwithminiaturecircuitbreakerofadequaterating.Inresidential/industriallightinginstallation,thevariouscircuitsshallbe
separatedandeachcircuitshallbeindividuallyprotectedsothatintheeventoffault,onlytheparticularcircuitgetsdisconnected.
Therearethreetypesofdistributionboards,
a.thosefittedwithrewirablefuselinks
b.thosefittedwithHBCfuselinksand
c.thosefittedwithcircuitbreakers.
RefertoFig.3fortheabovemantionedprotectivedevices.
Thereareseveralreservationstotheuseofrewirablefuses.Itisdifficulttopreventthereplacementofrewirablefuselinkbyalargersizefuse
linkthanthefuselinkchosenatthetimeoftheinstallation.Ifthefuselinksarenotofappropriatesizetomatchthecurrentcarryingcapacityofthe
installedcircuit,itwouldleadtoshortcircuitandearthfault.
DistributionboardscanbefittedwithMCBsorHBCfuselinks.Distributionboardsfittedwithminiaturecircuitbreakersaremoreexpensivein
theirfirstcost,buttheyhaveanadvantagethattheycanincorporateanearthleakagetrip.Miniaturecircuitbreakersareobtainableinratingsfrom6

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Ato63A,allofwhichareofthesamephysicalsize,andarethereforeeasilyinterchangeable.However,theymustnotbeinterchangedwithoutfirst
makingsurethatareofthecorrectratingforthecircuitstheyprotect.AnotheradvantageofusingMCBsisthattheycaneasilyberesetafteroperation.

46

Fig.3ProtectiveDevices

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5.2.2InstallationofDistributionBoards

5.2.2.1Thedistributionboardsshallbelocatedasnearaspossibletothecentreoftheloadtheyareintendedtocontrol.Thelocationshouldbe
convenientandeconomicalforinstallationanduse.Wheretwoand/ormoredistributionfuseboardsfeedinglowvoltagecircuitsarefedfromasupply
ofmediumvoltage,thesedistributionboardsshallbe:
a.arrangedsothatitisnotpossibletoopentwoatatime,namely,theyareinterlockedandthemetalcaseismarkedDanger415Voltsand
identifiedwithproperphasemarkinganddangermarksor
b.installedinaroomorenclosureaccessibletoonlyauthorizedpersons.
5.2.2.2Inwiringbranchdistributionboard,totalloadofconsumingdevicesshallbedividedasfaraspossibleevenlybetweenthenumberof
waysintheboardleavingsparecircuitsforfutureextension.AlllowvoltagedistributionboardsshallbemarkedLightingorPowerorLightingand
Power,asthecasemaybe,andalsomarkedwiththevoltageandnumberofphasesofthesupply.Eachshallbeprovidedwithacircuitlistgiving
diagramofeachcircuitwhichitcontrolsandthecurrentratingofthecircuitandsizeoffuseelement.Ifadistributionboardisrecessedintoawall
whichisconstructedofcombustiblematerialssuchaswood,thecasemustbeofmetalorothernoncombustiblematerial.
5.2.2.3Distributionboardsshallbeofeithermetalcladtype,orairinsulatedtype.But,ifexposedtoweatherordampsituations,theseshallbe
oftheweatherprooftypeand,ifinstalledwhereexposedtoexplosivedust,vapourorgas,theseshallbeofflameprooftypeinaccordancewithIS5571.
Incorrosiveatmospheres,theseshallbetreatedwithanticorrosivepreservativeorcoveredwithsuitableplasticcompound.
5.2.3WiringofDistributionBoards

5.2.3.1Thewiringshallbedoneonadistributionsystemthroughmainand/orbranchdistributionboards.Maindistributionboardshallbe
controlledbyalinkedcircuitbreakerorlinkedswitchwithfuse.Eachoutgoingdistributioncircuitorsubmaincircuitfrommaindistributionboardto
subdistributionboardsshallbeprovidedwithlinkeddisconnectorswitchorlinkedMCB.Eachoutgoingfinalcircuitfromamaindistributionboardor
branchdistributionboardshall
47

becontrolledbyaminiaturecircuitbreaker(MCB)orafuseonthephaseorlineconductorasinthecaseofsinglephaseneutral(SPN)
distributionboardorthreephaseneutraldistributionboard.Thebranchdistributionboardshallbecontrolledbyalinkedswitchfuseorlinkedcircuit
breaker.Eachoutgoingcircuitshallbeprovidedwithafuseorminiaturecircuitbreaker(MCB)ofspecifiedratingonthephaseorliveconductor.
5.2.3.2Threepoleneutral(TPN)distributionboardsarenotgenerallyrecommendedtobeusedforsinglephase2wirefinalcircuitdistribution.
However,theuseofTPNfusedistributionboardsorTPNMCBdistributionboardsforsinglephase2wirefinalcircuitdistributionhavecometo
practiceandthesameispermissible,providedthesizeoftheneutralconductorwireiscarefullydesigned,takingtheunbalancedloadcondition,
harmonicgenerationofloadsetc.
5.2.3.3Theneutralconductors(incomingandoutgoing)shallbeconnectedtoacommonlink(multiwayconnector)inthedistributionboard,
andbecapableofbeingdisconnectedindividuallyfortestingpurposes.Thewiringthroughouttheinstallationshallbesuchthatthereisnobreakin
theneutralwireexceptintheformofalinkedswitchgear.
5.2.3.4Thereshallbeatleasttworingcircuitsoneforlightcurrent(knownaslightpower)6Asocketoutletsandanotherforheavycurrent
(knownasheavypower)16Asocketoutletstoconnectheavycurrentdomesticappliances.Similarly,heavycurrentwiringshallbekeptseparateand
distinctfromlightcurrentwiring,fromthelevelofcircuits,thatis,beyondthebranchdistributionboards.Lights,fansandcallbellsshallbewiredin
thelightcurrentcircuits.
5.2.3.5Wiringshallbeseparateoressentialloads,thatis,thosefedthroughstandbysupplyandnonessentialloadsthroughout.Wiringforthe
safetyservicesshallbeseparateanddistinct.Unlessandotherwisespecified,wiringshallbedoneonlybytheLoopingSystem.Phaseorlive
conductorsshallbeloopedattheswitchboxesandneutralconductorsatthepointoutlets.Wherejointboxsystemisspecifiedforinstallation,all
jointsintheconductorsshallbemadebymeansofapprovedmechanicalconnectorinsuitableandapprovedjunctionboxes.
5.2.3.6Thebalancingofcircuitsinthreewireorpolyphaseinstallationsshallbearrangedbeforehand.
5.2.4LocationofDistributionBoards

5.2.4.1Distributionboardsshouldpreferablybesitedasnearaspossibletothecentreoftheloadstheyareintendedtocontrol.Thiswill
minimizethelengthandcostoffinalcircuitcables,butthismustbebalancedagainstthecostofsubmaincables.Bestlocationofdistributionboards
dependsontheavailabilityofsuitablestanchionsorwalls,thecasewithwhichcircuitwiringcanberuntothepositionchosen,accessibilityfor
replacementoffuselinks,andfreedomfromdampnessandadverseconditions(ifexposedtotheweatherordampconditions,adistributionboardmust
beoftheweatherprooftype)Thedistributionboardsshallnotbemorethan2maboveroomfloorlevel.
5.2.4.2Wheredistributionboards(whicharefedfromasupplyexceeding230V)feedcircuitswithavoltagenotexceeding230Vthen
precautionsmustbetakentoavoidaccidentalshockatthehighervoltagebetweentheterminalsoftwolowervoltageboards.Wherethevoltage
exceeds230V,aclearlyvisiblewarninglabelmustbeprovided,worded400/415VBETWEENADJACENTENCLOSURES.Thesewarningnotices
shouldbefixedontheoutsideofbusbarchambers,distributionboardsorswitchgear,whenevervoltageexceeding230Vexists.
5.2.5FeedingDistributionBoard

Whenmorethanonedistributionboardisfedfromasinglesubmaincableorfromarisingbusbartrunking,itisadvisabletoprovidelocal
isolationneareachdistributionboard(seeFig4).Itisalsogoodpracticetoprovidealocalisolatorforalldistributionboardswhicharesituatedremote
fromthemainswitchboard(seeFig.5).Ifthemainorsubmaincablesconsistofbareorinsulatedconductorsinmetaltrunking,itisveryoften
convenienttofitthedistributionboardadjacenttotherisingtrunking,andtocontroleachwithfusiblecutoutsorswitchfuse.
5.2.6CircuitChartsandLabelling

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Thediagrams,chartsortablesshallbeprovidedtoindicateforeachcircuit:
a.Theoutletsserved,
b.Sizeandtypeofcable,and
c.Ratingoffuseorprotectivedevice.
Theseshouldbefixedin,orinthevicinityofthedistributionboard,andfittedinglazedframesorinplasticenvelopsforprotection.
5.2.7MarkingDistributionBoards

a.Alldistributionboardsshouldbemarkedwithaletterornumber,orboth,preferablywiththeprefixLforlighting,SforsocketandPfor
power.
b.Theyshouldalsobemarkedwiththevoltageandthetypeofsupply,andifthesupplyexceeds230VaDANGERnoticemustbefixed.
c.Whenplanninganinstallation,amarginofsparefusewaysshouldbeprovidedusuallyabout20percentofthetotal.
48

Fig.4SingleLineDiagramofaTypicalRingMainFeedingSixDistributionBoards

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Fig.5SingleLineDiagramShowingSixFinalDistributionBoardsFedbyRadialSubmainsfromaMainDistributionBoard
d.Metaldistributionboardsshouldbeprovidedwithpluggedholestoenableadditionalconduitsormulticorecablestobeeasilyconnectedin
future.

49

5.3ApproximateEstimatesofAllowableVoltageDropinDifferentPartsofWiringSystemofaLargeBuilding

Thereisnohardandfastruleinthisrespect.Ordinarily,however,inalightingcircuitcontaininglightsandfans,thetotalvoltagedropiskept
within3percentofthedeclaredvoltage.Themaximumallowablevoltagedropis1Vfrommainfusetomaindistributionboard,4.5Vfrommain
distributionboardtoeachsubdistributionboardand1.5Vineachfinalsubcircuit.Thevoltagedropintheconnectionlineofapumpmotorina
housemaygoupto7.5percentofthedeclaredvoltage,butasisthecasewithalightingcircuit,itisrecommendedtokeepthisdropwithin3percent,
ifpossible.
5.4CorrectEstimationofSizesofCables

5.4.1

Ifthesizeofcableisdeterminedonthebasisoftotalloadconnectedinthecircuit,thatis,onthebasisofsumofwattageofalllamps,fans,wall
plugs,etc,thesizewillbeverylarge.However,alllamps,fans,wallplugsetc,maynotbeinusesimultaneouslyatagiventime,anditispossiblethatall
thepointsarenotloadedtotheirfullcapacity.Forthesereasonsitisconsideredtobesufficientlyaccurateifanestimateispreparedaccordingto
5.1.1.7andthecriteriaofconsideringtwothirdsoftotalwattageofthecircuit,thatis,thetotalwattageofeveryfinalsubcircuitisobtainedbyadding
upthewattageofindividualloadsconnectedtothatcircuitandtwothirdsofthistotalwattageshouldbetakenintoconsiderationfordeterminingthe
sizeofcabletobeusedforthissubcircuit.Butthecurrentcorrespondingtothiswattagemustnotbelessthanthecurrentdrawnbythesingle
maximumwattagepoint.Ifasubcircuithasonlyonepoint,cablesuitableforfullloadcurrentofthatpointistobeused.However,ifasubcircuithas
three6Aplugsockets,thesizeofthecablecanbedeterminedonthebasisoftwothirdsof180W(thatis,120W).
Theaboveappliestoordinarydwellinghouse,butnottoallbuildings.Threefourthsofthetotalwattageistobeconsideredforhotels,boarding
housesetc,andninetenthsforofficeetc.Fortheauditoriumofcinema,theatreetc,cablessuitableforfullconnectedloadaretoused.
5.4.2

Ifinahousethereiselectriccookerorelectricoven,fullloadupto10Aandonehalfofanyextraload(inexcessof10A)shouldbetakeninto
account.Theloadofeverysubcircuitisthuscalculated,andthecurrentdrawnbyasubdistributionboardisdetermined.
5.4.3

Theloadofwallplugconnectedtoasubdistributionboardinadwellinghousewheretherearewallplugsofvarioussizeswillbethefullloadof
theplugdrawingmaximumcurrentplusfourtenthsofalltheremainingplugs.Inhotelsetc,threefourthsofthetotalloadofalltheremainingplugs
havetobeaddedtothefullloadoftheplugdrawingmaximumcurrent.
a.Atfirstcurrentsforthesubcircuitsaretobedetermined,onebyone.

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b.Sizesoffuseshouldbedeterminedaccordingtocapacitytocontinuouslycarrytherespectivecurrent.
c.Thesizeofcableforeachsubcircuitisdeterminedaccordingtothecurrentdrawnbythatsubcircuit.
d.Finally,thesizesofflexiblecordandwallsocketfortherespectivesubcircuittobedetermined.
5.5DiversityandMaximumDemand

Indeterminingthemaximumdemandofaninstallationorpartsthereof,diversitymaybetakenintoaccount.
Table2givesguidanceondiversity,butitisemphasizedthatthecalculationofdiversitywouldhavetotakeintoaccountseveralfactorswhich
wouldneedspecialknowledgeandexperience.ByconsultingTable2,areasonableestimatecanbeobtainedastowhatthemaximumloadislikelyto
be,butitmustbestressedthateachinstallationmustbedealtwithonitsownmerits.
Table2TypicalAllowancesforDiversity
(Clause5.5)
Sl
No.

PurposeofFinalCircuitFedfromConductorsor
SwitchgeartowhichDiversityApplies

(1)

(2)

i) Lighting
50

TypeofPremises
Individualhouseholdinstallations,including
individualdwellingofablock

Smallshops,stores
officesandbusiness
premises

(3)

66percentoftotalcurrentdemand

Smallhotels,boardinghousesetc

(4)

90percentoftotal

(5)

75percentoftotalcurrentdemand

currentdemand
ii) Heatingandpower[alsoseeSl.No.(iii)to(iv)
below]

100percentoftotalcurrentdemandupto10A

100percentoffull

100percentoffullloadoflargest

+50percentofanycurrentdemandinexcessof

loadoflargest

appliance

10A

appliance

+80percentofsecondlargest

+75percentof

appliances

remainingappliances +60percentofremaining
appliances
iii) Cookingappliances

10A

100percentoffull

100percentoflargestappliance

+30percentoffullloadofconnectedcooking

loadoflargest

+80percentoffullload1ofsecond

appliancesinexcessof10A+6Aifsocketoutlet appliance

largestappliance

incorporatedinunit

+60percentoffullloadof

+80percentoffull

loadofsecondlargest remainingappliances
appliance
+60percentoffull
loadofremaining
appliances
iv) Motors(otherthanliftmotorswhicharesubject

tospecialconsideration)

100percentoffull

100percentoffullloadoflargest

loadoflargestmotor

motor

+80percentoffull

+50percentoffullloadof

loadofsecondlargest remainingmotors.
motor
+60percentoffull
loadofremaining
motors
v) Waterheater(instantaneoustype1))

100percentoffullloadoflargestappliance

100percentoffull

100percentoffullloadoflargest

+100percentoffullloadofsecondlargest

loadoflargest

appliance

appliance

appliance

+100percentoffullloadofsecond

+25percentoffullloadremainingappliances

+100percentoffull

largestappliance

loadofsecondlargest +25percentoffullloadof
appliance

remainingappliances

+25percentoffull
loadofremaining
appliances
vi) Waterheaters(thermostaticallycontrolled)

Nodiversityallowable2)

+25percentoffull

loadofremaining
appliances
vii) floorwarminginstallations
viii) Waterheatersthermalstoragespaceheating

Nodiversityallowable2)

Nodiversityallowable2)

100percentofcurrentdemandoflargestcircuit

100percentofcurrent

+40percentofcurrentdemandofeveryother

demandoflargest

circuit

circuit

installations
ix) Standardarrangementsoffinalcircuitsin
accordancewithIS732

+50percentofcurrent
demandofeveryother
circuit
x) SocketoutletsotherthanthoseincludedinSlNo. 100percentofcurrentdemandoflargestpoint

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x) SocketoutletsotherthanthoseincludedinSlNo. 100percentofcurrentdemandoflargestpoint

100percentofcurrent 100percentofcurrentdemandof

(ix)aboveandstationaryequipmentotherthan

+40percentofcurrentdemandofeveryother

demandoflargest

largestpoint

thoselistedabove

point

point

+75percentofcurrentdemandof

+75percentofcurrent everypointinmainrooms
demandofeveryother (dinningrooms,etc)
point

+40percentofcurrentdemandof
everyotherpoint

1)Forthepurposeofthetableaninstantaneouswaterheaterisdeemedtobeawaterheaterofanyloadingwhichheatswateronlywhilethetapisturnedon

andthereforeuseselectricityintermittently.
2)Itisimportanttoensurethatthedistributionboardsareofsufficientratingtotakethetotalloadconnectedtothemwithouttheapplicationofany

diversity.

Anexampleofestimationofmaximumdemandforadomesticinstallationwithasingletariffisgivenbelow:
ConnectedLoad

ExpectedMaximumDemand

Installedlighting

10A

66percentofinstalledload

= 6.6A

Installedfixedheating

30A

100percentoffirst10Aplus

= 20A

50percentofexcessof10A
Installedgeneralpurposesocketoutlet 40A

100percentcurrentdemandoflargestcircuit(20A)plus40percentcurrentdemandofothercircuits(8A)

= 28A

Installedcooker

10Aplus30percentoffullloadofremaining

= 22A

45A

connectedappliancesplus6Aforsocketinunit.
Total
51

125A

76.6A

Inthiscasea100Amainswitchshouldbeprovided.Unlessitisanticipatedtoincreasetheloadconsiderablyintheforeseeablefuture,inwhich
casealargerswitchfuseshouldbeinstalled.
However,forasmallrestaurantwhereelectriclightingandheatingisinstalled,itwouldbemostlikelythatthewholeloadwillbeswitchedonat
onetimeandthereforethemainswitchgearmustbesuitableforthetotalinstalledload.
5.6MV/LVBusbarChambers(400/230V)

Busbarchamberswhichfeedtwoormorecircuitsmustbecontrolledbyamaindisconnector(TPandN),orisolatinglinks,or(three)fusesand
neutrallink,toenablethemtobedisconnectedfromthesupply.
5.7EarthedNeutrals

TocomplywithIndianElectricityRules,1956nofusesorcircuitbreakersotherthanalinkedcircuitbreakershallbeinsertedinanearthed
neutralconductor,andalinkedswitchorlinkedcircuitbreakershallbearrangedtobreakalltherelatedphaseconductors.Ifthisneutralpointofthe
supplysystemisconnectedpermanentlytoearth,thentheaboveruleappliesthroughouttheinstallationincluding2wirefinalcircuits(seeFig.6).
Thismeansthatnofusesmaybeinsertedintheneutralorcommonreturnwireandtheneutralshouldconsistofaboltedsolidlink,orpartofalinked
switchwhichcompletelydisconnectsthewholesystemfromthesupply.Thislinkedswitchmustbearrangedsothattheneutralmakesbefore,and
breaksafterthephases.
5.8GeneralDesignofFeederCircuit,DistributionCircuitandFinalCircuit

5.8.1

Everydistributionboardmustbeconnectedtoeitheramainswitchfuseoraseparatewayonamainswitchboard.Everyfinalcircuitmustbe
connectedtoeitheraswitchfuse,ortoonewayofadistributionboard.Ineithercasetheratingoftheprotectivedevicemustnotexceedthecurrent
ratingofthecircuitcable.
5.8.2

Thecircuitwhichisconnectedtosinglewayofswitchboard/subswitchboardorfuse/MCBdistributionboardforsupplyingcurrenttooneor
moreloadpointknownasfinalcircuit.Inthecaseofdomesticandcommercialsupply,thesupplierslineorcablecomestotheenergymeterthrough
suppliersscaledcutoutandfromthemeteritgoestoconsumersmainswitch.Thislineiscalledsupplymainormainline.

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Fig.6SinglePoleFusing
52

5.8.3

Onaccountofheavyloadinbigfactoriesofhorizontaldistribution,veryoftenfeederlineisdrawnfromthemainincomerswitchtobusbar
chamberofmainswitchboardandthefeederlineiscalledsupplymainormainfeeder.Ifsubswitchboardordistributionboardisinstallednextin
sequencetoanothersubmainswitch,thefeederlineuptosubswitchboardormaindistribution,thelinefrommainswitchboarduptosubswitch
boardormaindistributionboardiscalledsubmainfeeder.Ifmaindistributionboardisinstallednextinsequencetosub(main)switchboard,theline
uptomaindistributionboardiscalledmaindistributionfeederline.Andfromtherelineisdrawnthroughdifferentsubbusbarchambersofsub
switchboardstodistributionboards,orfromthemainswitchboardanddirecttomaindistributionboards.
5.8.4

Alsoonaccountofheavyloadinlargebuildingsofverticaldistribution,veryoftenmainfeederlineisdrawnfromthemainincomerswitchto
mainbusbarchambersandfromthereuptodifferentsubbusbarchambersandormaindistributionboards,thefeederlinefromconsumersmain
switchtobusbarchamberthatrisesfromthegroundflooruptothetopmostfloorinmultistoriedbuildingisknownasmainraisingmain.Ifsub
(main)busbarchamberormaindistributionboardisinstallednextinsequenceindifferentfloorsthroughanothersubmainswitch,feederlineupto
sub(main)busbarsormaindistributionboardsiscalledsubmainraisingbarsandconsideredsubmainfeederline.Ifmaindistributionisinstalled
nextinsequencetosubmainbusbars,thelineuptomaindistributionboardiscalleddistributionbusbarandconsideredmaindistributionfeederline.
Circuitlinesdrawnfrommaindistributionboardsuptofinalcircuitfusedistricutionboards/MCBdistributionboardsmaybeassubmaindistribution
feeder.
5.8.5

Everycircuitlinewhichrunsfromfinalcircuitfusedistributionboardtowardsloadpointsiscalledfinalcircuit.Sometimesacircuitlinemaygo
toaloadpointfromamaindistributionboard/maindistributionbusbarchamber,asubmainswitchboard/submainrisingmain,amainswitch
board/mainrisingmainetcinthatcaseeverylineisregardedasafinalcircuit.
5.8.6

Everyfinalcircuitmustcomeoutofaseparatewayofa(finalcircuit)distributionboard.Wherethereisonlyonefinalcircuit,itmaybe
connecteddirectlytothemainswitchboard.

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5.8.7

Wiringofeveryfinalcircuitwillbecompletelyseparatedfromthatofanotherfinalcircuitwhichcanbeonoroffwithasinglepoleswitch.Care
mustbetakentoseethateverypairofliveorneutralwiresarekepttogetherproperlyinorderinthedistributionboardfortheconvenienceoftesting
ordisconnectingcurrentflowingtowardsloadpointsmustnotexceedthecircuitcarryingcapacityofwiresusedforfinalcircuit.
5.8.8UseofPlugPointwithLampCircuit

Inahousewiring,usuallylamp,wallplugetc.,areconnectedtothesamecircuit.Theactuallimitofthecurrentthatthecablesusedinthe
wiringcansafelycarryshouldbeknown.Consideringthefinalcircuitwhichincludesdischargelamps,thesumtotalofcurrentstakenbyalldischarge
lampstogethermustnotexceedthecurrentcarryingcapacityofthefinalcircuit.Ifthelampsarelightedbymeansofonlythenormalcircuit,current
carryingcapacityofthefinalcircuitshouldbe1.256timesthetotalcurrentofallthelampstogether.
Ifinafinalcircuitbothincandescentlampsandinductorlighteddischargelampsareused,

Mustnotexceedthecurrentcarryingcapacityofthefinalcircuit.
5.8.9ExceptioninCaseofTemporaryWiring

Incaseoftemporaryloadpointswherebayonetholdersforlampshavebeenused,totalpowerdemandofloadmustnotexceed1000Wper
finalcircuit.
5.8.10SplitterUnit

Thiskindofdistributionboardisverymuchinusenowadays.Thisboardcanbeinstalledanywhereandisknownassplitterunitorsplitter
box.Theunitispreparedbysettingapairofmainswitchesaswellasapairofmainfusesorasinglefuseinsideacastironbox.Anexternalhandleis
attachedtothebodyofthebox.Itissoarrangedthatthecoveroftheboxcannotbeopenedwhentheswitchisintheonpositionortheswitch
cannotbeswitchedonwhenthecoverisopen,thatisthecovercannotbyanymeansbeopenedunlesstheswitchisoff.Itisforthisarrangementthat
theunitisquitegoodfromthepointofviewofsafety.TheboxisalsoknownasIroncladSwitchFuseBox.Theswitchfuseboxisinstalledatapoint
wherefromconsumerszonestarts.Cablesaredrawnfromtheswitchandconnectedtothebusbarsofafuseboard.Thisisthemaindistribution
board.Nowadaysironcladfuseboxisverymuchinuse.Ascrewisattachedtothebodyofthisbox.Theriskofelectricshockisavoidedby
connectingearthwirestothatscrew.Theboxistobeearthedbytwoseparateanddistinctearthconnections.
53

5.8.11LampsoftheSameRoomareSuppliedfromMoreThanOneFinalCircuitDistributionBoards

Whenoutletsfromasubdistributionboardorafuseboardaredividedintowaysandeachfinalsubcircuitisconnectedtoaseparateway,the
advantageisthatintheeventofashortcircuitinanyonesubcircuit,theothersubcircuitsremainunaffectedandcontinuetofunctionnormally.But
ifafaultoccursinadistributionboard,allthesubcircuitscomingoutofitareaffected.Therearesomeplacessuchashospital,operationtheatrecash
roominabank,engineroom,workshopetc,wheretheentireroomcannotbeallowedtobedarkunderanycircumstance.Alotofrisksmayhaveto
befacedifsuchplacessuddenlybecometotallydark.Whereverspecialattentionmustbepaidtoavoidanyinconvenienceinbusiness,everyroomis
equippedwithmorethanonelampandtheseareinvariablytakenfromdifferentways.Evensometimestheselampsaresuppliedfromfullyseparate
distributionboard.Supposethewiringofathreestoreyedbuildingistobedoneinsuchawaythatnoroomofthatbuildingshallbetotallydark
(exceptintheeventofdiscontinuityofsupply).Inthatcasetheremustbeaseparatesubdistributionboardineachfloor.Butitisnotthatthesub
distributionboardwillcontroltheloadpointsofthatflooronly.Dependingontheconvenienceofacircuit,subdistributionboardinthelowerfloor
willsupplypowertosomelampsetc,ofthelowerfloorandtosomelampsetc,oftheupperfloor.Everyroomwillbeprovidedwithtwosetsofcables
onesetwillbesuppliedfromsubdistributionboardoftheupperfloorandtheothersetwillbesuppliedfromsubdistributionboardofthelowerfloor.
Withthesearrangementsifafaultdevelopsinasubdistributionboard,thereisnopossibilityofanyroombecomingtotallydark.Insuchcases,
operationtheatreetc,areprovidednotonlywithconnectionfromseparatedistributionboardsbutwithalternativesourceofsupplysuchasgasplant
orchargedbattery.
5.8.12PilotLamp

Arrangementsshouldbemadeforfixingabracketaboveeachmainboardandforconnectinga20Wlamponit.Cablesconnectingthislamp
willcomeoutdirectlyfromthebusbarsoftheboardthroughaseparateswitcharidfuse.ThislampiscalledaPilotLamp.Thepurposebehindthis
arrangementistokeepthemainboardalwaysilluminatedsothatfuseetc,caneasilybechanged.
5.8.13ArrangementsforTakingCableConnectionsfromOneHousetoAnother

Ifwiringistobedonetosupplycurrentfromonehouseinwhichconsumersmainswitchhasbeeninstalledtoanotherhouse,whicheverofthe
followingarrangementsissuitable(foraparticularcase)istobeadoptedforthewiringanditsprotection:
Ifthedistancebetweenthehouseinwhichthemainmeterboardhasbeeninstalledandtheotherhouse(forexamplegarage,servantsroom
etc)doesnotexceed3mandiftherebenothoroughfarebetweenthetwohouses,electriclinesmaybedrawnfromtheformertothelatterthrougha
galvanizediron(G.I.)pipeofsuitabledimensionsataheightofatleast2.5mabovethegroundlevel.AlsotheG.I.pipehastobeproperlyearthed.But
incasethedistancebetweenthetwohousesexceeds3morifthereisathoroughfarebetweenthem,aseparatemainorsubmainhastobedrawn

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fromonehousetoanotherbymeansofweatherproofcablestiedupwithG.I.bearerwire(seeFig.7A).
Ifcurrentistobetakenfromonehousetoanotherbymeansofcleatwiring,thecableusedinthewiringwillbeweatherproof.Thisisalso
knownasH.S.O.S.(HouseServiceOverheadSystem)cable.UseofcablewithpolychloroprinesheathorPVCcableorcablewithPVCsheathisalso
approvedbymany.Thisarrangementofdrawingasupplylineisalloweduptoadistanceof3mbetweentwobuildings.Usingcablesasdescribedabove
anddrawingthesecablesoveraseparatecatenarywireorusingthosecableswhichhaveinbuiltbearerwires(atthetimeofmanufacture),thesupply
linemaybedrawn.
Othermethodsofdrawingcablesoverbearerwiresarealsoinuse,oneofthesemethodsisshowninFig.7B.Inthismethodapieceofleather
straploopsahardrubbersheathedcableatcertainintervalsforhangingit,whiletheupperpartofthestrapisfastenedtothecatenarywirebymeans
ofwirehook.Thisisalsoanarrangementfortakingasupplycablefromonebuildingtoanother.Ifsuchacable,ashasinbuiltbearerwire,isused,the
limitofdistancebetweentwobuildingswilldependupontheloadbearingcapacityofthebearerwire.
BesidestheseacablemaybedrawnfromonehousetoanotherasshowninFig.7C.Mainearthpitshouldbeatleast1.5mawayfromthe
building.
5.8.14IdentificationofCablesandConductors

IS11353givesguidanceonuniformsystemofmarkingandidentificationofconductorsandapparatusterminals(seeTable3).Coloursofthe
coresshallbeasperrelevantIndianStandardforcables.Thefollowingshallbeensured:
a.NonFlexibleCablesandBareConductorsEverysinglecorenonflexiblecable,andeverycoreoftwinormulticorenonflexiblecableusedas
fixedwiringshallbeidentifiablethroughoutitslengthbyappropriatemethods.
54

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Fig.7ArrangementsforTakingCableConnectionsfromOneHousetoAnother
b.RubberorPVCInsulatedCablesCorecolourstobeinaccordancewithrespectiveIndianStandardorcoloursleevesattheterminationofthese
cables.
c.MulticorePVCCablesIfcolouringofcoresisnotused,thencorestobeidentifiedinaccordancewithrelevantIndianStandards.
d.MICablesAttheterminationofthesecables,sleevesshallbefitted.
e.BareConductorsTobefittedwithsleevesorpainted.
f.Colourcodingoffixedwiringcablesappliestoallwiringuptothefinaldistributionboard,andalsoforcircuitwiring,exceptthatredmaybeused
foranyphase.
g.WhenwiringtomotorsthecoloursspecifiedinIndianStandardshouldbeusedrightuptothemotorterminalbox.Forslipringmotorsthe
coloursfortherotorcablesshouldbethesameasthoseforthephasecables,orcouldbeallofonecolourexceptblackorgreen.

55

h.Forstardeltaconnectionsbetweenthestarterandthemotor,useredforA1andA0,yellowforB1andB0,andblueforC1andC0.The1
cablesshouldbemarkedtodistinguishthemfromthe0cables,
i.For2wirecircuits,suchasforlightingorsockets,theneutralofmiddlewiremustalwaysbeblack,andthephaseorouterwire(whichever
phaseitisderivedfrom)shouldbered.
j.Forlightingtheredwirewillalwaysfeedtheswitch,andaredwiremustbeusedfromtheswitchtothelightingpoint.

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Forflexiblecablesandcordsthedistinctivecoloursarenotthesameasforfixedwiring,andthecoloursofthesearegiveninTable4.
5.8.15SubmainCables

Submain(feeder)cablesarethosewhichconnectbetweenaswitchfuse/MCCBfeedingsubdistributionboardsofmainswitchboard,to
incomerofsubsidiarymainswitchboardordirecttoamaindistributionboard.Thesizeofthesecableswillbedeterminedbythetotalconnectedload
whichtheysupply,withdueconsiderationfordiversityandvoltagedrop,andtheotherfactorsdescribedinWiringRegulations.Submaincablesmay
bearrangedtofeedmorethanonedistributionboardifdesiredtheymaybearrangedtoformaringcircuit,loopingfromonemaindistributionboard
toanother.Whereasubmaincablefeedsmorethanonedistributionboardinaringcircuit,itssizemustnotbereducedwhenfeedingthesecond
Table3ColourIdentificationofCoresofNonflexibleCablesandBareConductorsforFixedWiring
(Clause5.8.14)
Sl
No.

Function

(1)

(2)

ColourIdentificationofCoreofRubberorPVCIsulatedNonflexibleCable,orofSleeveorDisctobe
AppliedtoConductororCableCode
(3)

i) Protectiveorearthing

Greenandyellow

ii) Phaseofacsinglephasecircuit

Red[oryelloworblue(seeNote1)]

iii) Neutralofacsingleorthreephasecircuit

Black

iv) PhaseRof3phaseaccircuit

Red

v) PhaseYof3phaseaccircuit

Yellow

vi) PhaseBof3phaseaccircuit

Blue

vii) Positiveofdc2wirecircuit

Red

viii) Negativeofdc2wirecircuit

Black

ix) Outer(positiveornegative)ofdc2wirecircuitderived

Red

from3wiresystem
x) Positiveof3wiresystem(positiveof3wiredccircuit)
xi) Middlewireof3wiredccircuit

Red
Black

xii) Negativeof3wiredccircuit

Blue

xiii) Functionalearthtelecommunication

Cream

NOTES
1.Asalternativetotheuseofred,ifdesiredinlargeinstallations,uptothefinaldistributionboard.
2.ForarmouredPVCinsulatedcablesandpaperinsulatedcables,seerelevantIndianStandard.

Table4Colour,IdentificationofCoresofFlexibleCablesandFlexibleCords
(Clause5.8.14)
SlNo.

NumberofCores

FunctionofCore

(1)

(2)

(3)

i) 1

Colour(s)ofCore
(4)

Phase

Brown1)

Neutral

(Light)Blue

Protectiveorearthing

Greenandyellow

Phase

Brown

Neutral

(Light)Blue1)

ii) 2

iii) 3

Phase

Brown

Neutral

(Light)Blue1)

Protectiveorearthing

Greenandyellow

Phase

Brownorblack1)

iv) 4or5

Neutral

(Light)Blue1)

Protectiveorearthing

Greenandyellow

1)CertainalternativesareallowedinWiringRegulations.

56

orsubsequentboard,becausethecablemusthaveacurrentratingnotlessthanthefuseorcircuitbreakerprotectingthesubmain.Ifafuseor
circuitbreakerisinsertedatthepointwhereareductioninthesizeofthecableisproposed,thereducedsizeofcablemaybeused,providingthatthe
protectivedeviceisratedtoprotectthecableitcontrols.
5.8.16ProtectiveMultipleEarthing(PME)

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5.8.16.1Protectivemultipleearthingsystemusestheprotectiveconductorasacombinedearth/neutralconductor.Itissometimesusedwhere
thereisoverheaddistribution,andwhereitisdifficulttoobtainasufficientlylowearthresistancefromsupplytransformertotheconsumersterminal.
Insuchacasetheneutralconductorisalsotheearthconductoranditisbondedtoearth,notonlyatthetransformerposition,butalsoatthe
consumerterminalposition.Theconditionofapprovalforthissystemcontainverystringentrequirements.Thewiringforconsumersinstallations,
includingsubmainsandcircuitswiringmay(ifapproved)becarriedoutonthePMEsystem.Someoftherequirementsforconsumersinstallationare
asfollows:
a.Thesupplyundertakingshallbeconsultedtodetermineanyspecialrequirementsconcerningthesizeofprotectiveconductors.
b.Allprecautionsmustbetakentoavoidthepossibilityofanopencircuitintheneutralconductor.
c.Bondingleadsmustbeconnectedtotheearthingterminalsofallmetalstructures,metalpipesandothermetalservicesthatare(ormay
reasonablybeexpectedtobecome)inelectricalcontactwiththegeneralmassofearth,andthataresosituatedthatsimultaneouscontactmay
reasonablybeexpectedtobemadebyanypersonwithsuchstructures,pipesorothermetalworkontheonehand,andwiththeexposednon
currentcarryingmetalworkoftheconsumersinstallation,oranymetalworkinelectricalcontacttherewith,ontheotherhand.
d.Earthelectrodesshallbeprovidedatpointsnotlessremotefromthetransformerthanthemostremoteservicelineorconnectionpoint,andat
suchotherpointsaswillensurethattheresistancetoearthintheneutralconductorissatisfactoryandtheprotectionsystemoperative.The
overallresistanceshallnotexceed20times.
e.Thereshallbeawireconnectionfromtheneutralearthconductortoboththeneutralandtheearthterminalofeverysocketoutlet.Wiringfrom
plugsorspurunitstolampsandappliancesshallbecarriedoutbyaphaseconductor,aconductorandaseparateearthconductor.
f.Thereshallbeelectricalcontinuityoftheneutralearthsheathingofmulticorearmouredcables.Allconnectionsandjointsshallbemadein
accordancewiththerecommendationsofthecablemanufacturer.Ateveryjointintheouterconductor(thatisneutralearth)andat
terminations,thecontinuityoftheconductorshallbeensuredbybondingconductoradditionaltothemeansusedforsealingandclampingthe
outerconductor.
5.8.16.2TheuseofaPMEsysteminpetrolfillingstationsisspecificallyprohibited.Thereasonfortheprohibitionistopreventtheriskof
electricalreturncurrentsflowingbacktoearththroughthemetallicpartsoftheundergroundsupplypipesandstoragetanks.Specialarmoured
multicorecablesmaybeusedforthePMEsystem.SuchcablesmaybewithXLPE(crosslinkedpolyethylene)insulation,Aluminiumconductorsand
sheathareused,andthecableshaveaPVCoversheath.Thearmouringinthesecablesislaiduponsuchawaythatsufficientamountcanbepulled
awayfromthecablewithoutthenecessityofcuttingit,toenableaccesstothephaseconductorforthepurposeofjointing.Thesespecialcablesare
onlymanufacturedinminimumlengthsofabout200m,anditmaynotbeeconomicaltoemploythePMEsystemforsubmaincableswhenonly
shortrunsareinvolved.
5.8.16.3Circuitwiring
a.CircuitringforPMEsystemmayalsouseacommonneutralearth(CEN)conductor,butinsomeinstancesthismaynotresultinanycost
savings.
b.Formineralinsulatedcoppersheathedsystemstheoutsidesheathinglendsitselfreadilytothesystem,butspecialglandsshouldbeusedto
ensuresatisfactorylowimpedanceintheearthconductor.
c.Forscrewedconduitsystemsitissometimesdifficulttoguaranteesatisfactorylowimpedanceintheconduitsystemduringthelifeofthe
installation,anditisrecommendedthatacircuitprotectiveconductor(CPC)neutralconductorbedrawnintotheconduit.
d.Thesamerecommendationappliestowiringissteeltrunking,becauseitisimperativethattherebenoriskduringthelifeoftheinstallationthat
anopencircuit,orahighresistancejoint,couldoccur.

57

e.BeforeplanninganyPMEinstallationcarefulstudymustbemadeoftheactualconditionsofapprovalissuedbytheconcernedregulatory
authority.
5.9ComputerDataTransmissionandControlSystem

Cablesrequiredfordatatransmissionandcontrolsystemsarethosethatarerequiredbetweenthecomputerandtheoutstationsandthoseused
betweenthemachineandtheassociatedperipheralequipment.Generally,thefieldwiringismulticoreandmayhavescreeningappliedtoeachcore,to
eachpairor,simply,overall.Thereisalargerangeofcablesusedbydifferentcomputermanufacturers.Oneofthecommonlyusedcablesfor
peripheralequipmentistheribbonformwhichisalsoproducedasmulticorecable,withandwithoutscreeningandvarioustypesofinsulation.
Althoughribboncablesareproducedinwidthsuptoapproximately80mmandwithover60cores,theyareextremelythinand,therefore,flexible.
5.10MultiplexSystems

Oneoftheadvantagesgainedbytheuseofelectronicequipmentisthattheamountoffieldwiringrequiredisfarless,inbothquantityandsize,
thanfortheearlierpowercircuitryentailedbymechanicalrelaysystems.Evenfurtherimprovementsaremadepossiblebytheuseofmultiplexing
systems,thatis,theabilitytoconveyalargenumberofsignalseachwayalongthesameconductor,andtheseare,therefore,particularlysuitablefor
installationsrequiringalargenumberofoutstations,whetherfordatatransmissionorprocesscontrol.Opticalfibrecablesprovidefurtheradvantages
forlightcurrentinstallationsofalltypestheyhavelowattenuationandhighbandwidth,whichreducesthenecessityforrepeaters,andarenotsubject
tointerferencefromheavyelectricalequipment.Inhazardousareas,opticalfibresgiveevengreatersafetythanintrinsicallysafecircuitsastheformof
energytransmittedis,ofcourse,lightwavesandnotcurrent.
5.11DomesticSystems

5.11.1

Thesmallerdomestictypeofinstallationisadequatelycateredforwithtwinandcircuitprotectiveconductor(CPC)PVCcablesorsinglecore

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PVCcableinsomeformofenclosuretheinstallationofthefirstislesslabourintensivethanconduitworkalthoughthesecondprovidesbetter
mechanicalprotection.Duetotheamountofspacethatisoccasionallyavailablebetweenfloorboardsandceilings(modernconstructionmethods
includesolidfloors)andinlofts,installationisrelativelysimpleandprotectionisrarelynecessaryforhorizontalruns.Wheredroppersarerequiredfor
switchesandwallfittings,however,itisessentialtoprovideovalconduitorcappingoverthecables.AlthoughPVChasamuchlongeranticipatedlife
thanthepreviouslyusedrubbercoveredcables,MICCisasuitablealternativewhichhasanevenlongerlife.Itisnotcommonlyusedonverysmall
installationsexcept,possibly,forexteriorlightingorfeedstoremotebuildings.
5.11.2

Toavoidunduedisruptionanddamagetoexistingfloorboards,plastering,etc,anumberofenclosedsurfacesystemsareavailablewhich
incorporateminitrunking,dadotrunkingandcornicetrunking.Foreachsystem,accessoriesareavailableforaccommodatingdifferenttypesofoutlet
andfornegotiatingcorners,doorways,etc,acorrectlydesignedinstallationiseffectiveandrelativelyinconspicuous,althoughevenwhereobvious,such
asacrossceilings,itpresentsanaestheticallypleasingappearance.
5.12TelephoneCables

Astheuserfindsitmoreconvenienttoinstallhisowninternaltelephonesystems,alargerangeofcablesavailableforthepurpose.The
conventionaltypeofmultipairormultitriplecableconsistsoftinnedcopperconductors,PVCinsulatedandsheathedwith,insomecases,anon
metallicripcordlaidunderthesheathtosimplifystrippingwhile,forunderthecarpetinstallationsorsituationswheretheconventionalroundcables
areinconvenientortoobulky,ribboncablesareagainavailablewithupto50ways.Wheresuchcablesmaybesubjecttodamageorheavytraffic,such
asunderfloorcoverings,ribboncablesinsulatedwithcrosslinkedPVC(XLPVC)whichismorerobustthanstandardPVCmaybeused.XLPVCare
differentfromXLPEinsulatedcableswhich,amongotheradvantages,havefireretardantproperties.
5.13CableJointingandTermination

5.13.1

Althoughthemethodsemployedforjointingandterminatingcablesofalltypeshavebeensimplified,largelyduetotheuseofimproved
materialsforinsulationandsheathing,theimportanceofutilizingcorrecttechniquesandmethodscannotbetoostronglyemphasized.Alljointsand
terminationsintroducepotentiallydangerouspointsinpowercircuitsafaultyjointwillleadtolocalhotspotswithultimatefailureofthecable,while
inlightcurrentinstallationsforprocesscontrol,datatransmissionandcommunications,ahighresistanceconnection(dryjoint)canprevent
equipmentfromoperatingsatisfactorily.
5.13.2

Multicorecables,whetherformains,voltagesorlightcurrentduty,generallypresentthegreaterproblemasthecrutch,thatis,thepointat
whichconductorsaresplayedoutfromthenormalformation,
58

constitutesanaturallyweakareainwhichairmaybetrappedifaterminationorjointisnotcorrectlyformed,leadingtobreakdownatalater
stage.
5.13.3

Singlecorecablesshould,preferably,neverbejointed,butwherethisisessentialitshouldbeeffectedonlyinpurposemadejointboxes
equippedwithsuitablemechanicalorcompressiontypeconnectors.Thesemaybeoftheferruletypewithpinchingscrewsor,aswithterminators,
boltedclampsrequiringthebareconductortobeeitherwoundaroundtheboltbetweenshapedwashersorenclosedincrimpedtypeterminalswhich
arethenthreadedoverthescrewthreadandclamped.Itisessentialwithalltypesofstrandedcabletoensurethateverystrandisincludedinthejoint
orterminationand,particularlywithaluminiumconductors,tofollowcablemanufacturersrecommendationsfortighteningtorques.Aluminium,
althoughlighterinweightandlessexpensivethancopper,unfortunatelyhasahighercoefficientofexpansionandthishas,attimes,caused
connectionstoslackenshortlyaftercommissioning.Itisthereforeadvisablefortheinstallerofaluminiumcablestorecheckallclamptype
connectionsafterelectricalloadhasbeenapplied.Thisdoesnotimply,however,thatasimilarprocedureisunnecessarywithcopperconductorsbut
thatitmaynotbesoessentialprovidedthatconnectionsarefullycheckedinthefirstinstance.
5.13.4

Crimpedterminalsarequiteadequateforthesmaller,relativelylightlyloadedcablesbut,otherwise,compressionsleevesandlugs,providedthat
therecommendedtorquesareapplied,areunlikelytogiverisetoproblemsduringthelifeofacableunderthemostarduouscircumstances.
5.14SpecialCablingRequirements

5.14.0

AlthoughPVCinsulatedcablesaresuitableformostofthegeneralwiringrequirementsindomestic,commercialandindustrialsituations,
circumstancesmaydictate,eitherthroughtechnicalnecessityorstatutorydemands,thatfurtherprecautionsarenecessarytopreventthepossibilityof
dangerortogiveincreasedsecurity,asdetailedbelow.
5.14.1Lighting

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Thetwomainareasofconcernarerelatedtoheatbuildupinluminariesandsurgescreatedbydischargelighting.Intotallyenclosedluminaries,
hightemperaturesmayariseduetothelackofventilation.ThoughluminairescomplyingwiththerelevantIndianStandardstakeintoaccountthe
temperaturerise,however,duringinstallationofluminairesitshouldensuredthatwiringinproximitytothefittingsissuitable.Dischargetypefittings
mayentailtheuseofhighercurrentratedcablestoavoidunnecessarytemperaturerises.Theeffectsofhighdischargecurrentsduringswitching
operationsmayhavemoredrasticeffectsbycausingacabletodisintegratecompletely.Somecablesaresusceptibletocurrentandvoltagesurgeswhich
maybeavoidedbytheuseofcurrentlimitingdevices.Whereelectricalequipmentinnormaloperationhasasurfacetemperaturesufficienttocausea
riskoffire,suitablemethodsofprotectionshouldbeadopted.
5.14.2EmergencyLighting

Emergencylightingisverycriticalforathospitals,theatres,hotels,factories,offices,shops,cinemasandcertainspecifiedplacesof
entertainmentandpracticallyalltypesofpremisesexcludinghouses.Generally,thecableinstallationforanemergencylightingsystemshouldcomply
withWiringRegulationsbutcaremustbetakentoensurethatallwiringpossessesinherentlyhighresistancetoattackbyfireandadequatemechanical
strength.Thisallowstheuseofvariousstandardtypesofcable,providedthatsuitablemeansofprotectionareemployed.Whenemergencyluminaries
aresuppliedfromaremotesource,thewiringsystemmustbemechanicallyseparatedfromothersystemsbyrigidandcontinuouspartitionsofnon
combustiblematerials.Consequently,multicompartmentenclosuresaresuitable,alsomineralinsulatedcoppercladcableswithoutfurtherprecautions.
Segregationisnotarequirementwhenselfcontainedluminariesareinstalled,asafailureofthesupplywillonlycausethemtooperate.Precautionsto
betakenatthesourceofsupplyforanemergencylightingsystemarethatcablesbetweenthesourceandabatterychargercombinationshouldbea
fixedinstallation,whichprecludesplugsandsockets,whilethosecablesfromthebatterytoaprotectivedevice,thatistheloadcircuitcables,mustbe
separatedfromeachotherandnotenclosedwithinmetalconduit,ductingortrunking.Segregationmustalsobeappliedbetweenthedcandanyac
cables.
5.14.3FireAlarmsandDetection

Therequirementsintheprevioussectionregardingmechanicalprotection,highfireresistanceandsegregation,etcapply.Wherehighfrequency
circuitsareinstalled,adequatescreeningisappliedbetweenthedifferentcircuitsinordertoavoidfalsealarms.
5.14.4PowerSystem

5.14.4.1Someoftheproblemsarisingintheinstallationofpowercablesarehighorlowambienttemperatures,grouping,thermalinsulation,
typeofprotectivedeviceemployedandvoltagedropconsiderations.Undernormalcircumstances,correctlychosenprotectivedevicesareadequateto
dealwithdisruptionssuchasoverloads,shortcircuitsandearthfaultsonlowvoltagesystemsbut,onhighvoltagenetworks,transientsmay
59

occurwhichcreatehighstressesoncableinsulationandtherefore,itmaybeadvisabletoinstallscreenedcableswhichhavetheeffectofgrading
suchstressesbetweencoresorbetweencoresandearth.
5.14.4.2Thehandlingandinstallationofalltypesofcableisanimportantconsideration.SomePVCcables,forinstance,shouldnotbeinstalled
duringtemperaturesbelow0Casflexingwilldamagetheinsulation,whilehightemperatureswillsoftenthePVC,causingittostripifpulledinto
conduit,ducting,etc.Damagemayalsobecausedtocablesbydrawingthemintoroughedgedenclosures,forexampleburredconduits,overstony
surfacesorbendingthemtighterthantherecommendedradii.Largearmouredcablesareimpressivelystrong,buteventhese,whenbeingdrawninto
ducts,maybedamagedifthecorrecttypeofgripsleeve(orsock)andhaulingequipmentisnotused,astoohighatorquemaystretchthecablecores
orstripofftheinsulationandsheathing.
5.14.4.3Particularlywiththesmallerarmouredcables,ifarmouringistobeusedastheprotectiveconductor,theimpedancemustbechecked
toensurethatitcomplieswiththerelevantrequirementsotherwiseadditionalconductivematerialmustbeincorporatedintheprotectivecircuit.
5.14.5ControlandInstrumentation

Modemsystemsforcontrolandinstrumentationutilizeelectronicmeans(ratherthanpowercircuitry)whicharemorelikelytobeaffectedby
lowvoltagesystems,andprecautionssuchassegregationandscreeningmustbeemployed.Cablesareavailabletosuitalltypesofsystembut,as
requirementsvarybetweenmanufacturersofelectronicequipment,adviceshouldbesoughtatanearlystage.Theincreasinguseofmultiplexsystems
andfibreopticscablessimplifyinstallationworkbyreducingthenumberofcoresrequiredforthemostcomplexsystemsand,inthecaseofthelatter,
eliminatecompletelythepossibilityofinterferencefromothercircuits.
5.14.6HazardousAreas

Dangerinahazardousareaarisesinitiallyfromthetypeofmaterialsbeingprocessedratherthanfromtheelectricalinstallation,butagreat
degreeofresponsibilityrestsuponthedesignertoensurethattheinstallationdoesnotcontributetothehazardbytheintroductionofflammable
materials,highsurfacetemperatures,arcsorsparkstotheatmosphere.Forthesereasons,everycaremustbetakentoavoidtheoverloadingofcables
ortheinclusionofsheathingmaterialswhicheasilybumandgiveofftoxicgases.
SeeIS5572forclassificationofhazardousareasandIS5571forselectionofequipmentinhazardousareas.
Differentdegreesofhazardexistand,consequently,theseaffectthetypeofelectricalinstallation,particularlywithregardtoequipment.Itis
essential,therefore,toascertainwhichzoneisapplicablebeforecommencingtheelectricaldesign,thisinformationgenerallybeingavailablefromthe
processplantuser.SeealsoPart7oftheCode.
6WIRINGSYSTEMS
6.0General

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6.0.1

Thefollowingsystemsareusuallyadoptedforhousewiring:
a.Cleatwiring
b.Casingandcappingwiring
c.Metalsheathedwiring(forexampleleadcoveredwiring)
d.Cabtyresheathed(C.T.S.)ortoughrubbersheathed(T.R.S.)wiring
e.PVCsheathedwiring
f.Allinsulatedwiringsurfacewiringandconcealedwiring
g.Enclosedwiringsystemconduitwiringandcabletrunkingand
h.Conduitwiringsteel,plasticandflexible.
Aparticulartypeofwiringisselectedforaparticularplaceonthebasisoftypeofwork,placeandexpensesinvolved.Insulatedwiresareusedin
allsystemsofwiring.Thesesystemshavebeennamedaccordingtoeitherconstructionaldetailsofwiresormodesoffixingthesewiresonthewall.
Thevoltagegradeofwiresdependsonsupplyvoltageofthecircuit,thatis,thevoltagegradeofwiresmustnotbelessthanthehighestrootmean
squareoreffectivevalueofsupplyvoltage.Incaseofhousewiringwhereworkingvoltagenormallydoesnotexceed250V,wiresof250Vgradecanbe
used.
6.0.2SizeofWires

Thewireusedshouldhavesuchcrosssectionalareathatwhenthemaximumcurrentdrawnbythecircuitflowscontinuouslythroughit,the
voltagedropbetweenmaindistributionboardandthefarthestpointofthelightingcircuitdoesnotexceed3percentofthesupplyvoltage(ina230V
circuitthisdropis3/100230=6.97.0V).Atthesametimeitshouldbeensuredthatthewireisnotexcessivelyheatedwhenthemaximum
currentflowscontinuouslythroughit.Normally,thewireisnotexcessivelyheatedwhentheamountofvoltagedropremainswithinthelimitedvalue.
Ifthesizeofawireinacircuithastobeincreasedwithaviewtoreducethedropofvoltage,itmaybenotedthatthewirewillcarryasmuch
currentashasbeendetermined
60

forthecircuittocarry.Further,thesizeofawirespecifiedforacircuitmustbesuitableforcontinuousflowofcurrentwhichisnotlessthan
thecurrentcarryingcapacityofthefuseofthatcircuit.RecommendedcurrentratingsforcablesareasperIS3961.
6.0.3ProtectionofWiringfromDamage

V.I.R.(vulcanizedrubber)wire,plasticinsulatedwirewithorwithoutbraidedcottoncover,C.T.S.(orT.R.S.)wirenormallyneednotbefurther
coveredwithseparatecovering.Butsituationsandcircumstanceshavetobetakenintoaccount,andifnecessary,theoutermostinsulationhastobe
protectedfromprobabledamage.
Wherethereisprobabilityofconduit,duct,casing,etc,becominghurtful,adequatearrangementshavetobemadetoprotectthem.Where
metalsheathedwireorarmouredcableisinstalledinsideconcreteorplaster,thereisusuallynoneedforfurtherprotection.However,dependingupon
sitecondition,sometimesadditionalarrangementsmayhavetobemade.
Wiresusedforlift,hoist(anelectricallyoperatedmachineusedforliftinggoods),etc,mustbemetalsheathed[seealsoIS4289(Part1)andIS
4289(Part2].Wherethewiringwillpassunderthefloor,thewireshouldbesoinstalledthatitwillnotbedamagedasaresultofcomingincontact
withthefloororsomefitting.
Whereacablewillentertheironpartofahouseortheshedofafactory,everysuchentryshouldbeprovidedwithabushinsuchamannerthat
thecablewillnotsufferabrasionfromrubbing.
WherethesheathofaC.T.S.cablemadeofrubberorsomecompoundmixedwithrubberwillbeexposedtodirectsunlight,arrangementsmust
bemadetocoveritwithsomespecialcovering.Ifthesunlightcomesthroughglasspanesofwindows,itisnotadirectsunlight.Wiringshouldbedone
inasdryaplaceaspossible.
6.0.4PermissibleTemperatureRiseofOrdinaryInsulatedWiresandFlexibleCables

Ordinaryinsulatedcablesandflexiblecables,whicharenotspeciallymanufacturedforwithstandingexcessiveheat,shouldnotbeusedinplaces
wherethetemperaturemayexceedthelimitgiveninTable5.
Incaseswherethetemperatureoflampfittingsandotheraccessoriesareexcessivelyhigh,cablesandflexiblecordswhicharenotspeciallymade
towithstandsuchhightemperaturesshouldnotbebroughtnearthesefittingsandaccessories.Wherethereisprobabilityoftemperatureexceeding
60C,hightemperatureresistingcableslikeflexiblecord,speciallycoveredwithconditionedasbestos,mustbeused.Further,theyshouldbeso
connectedthattheirtemperaturesdonotexceed85C.Ifhowever,theflexiblecordisconnectedwithaportableheaterwithwhichthereisnot
possibilityofexcessiveriseoftemperature,atemperatureriseupto66Cmaybeallowed,providedthattheinsulationofwiresshouldremaincovered
withbeadsorinsulatingsleevessuitableforhightemperature,andthereisnodependenceonrubberinsulationofcableforthepreventionofearth
faultofcableconductorsorshortcircuitamongthem.Thesearrangementsaretobespeciallyprovidedforlampsrated200Wormoreandfor
immersionheater.
Whereacablewithrubber,PVCorpolytheneinsulationoraflexiblecordremainsconnectedwithbareconductororabusbar,theinsulationof
thecableorcordshouldbepeeledoffandwiresshouldremainbareforalengthofabout15cmfromthepointofconnectionevenwhenthe
temperatureofthebareconductororthebusbaris90C.Butinplaceswherethiscannotbedone,thecurrentflowingthroughthebareconductoror
thebusbarshouldbesoreducedasnottoallowariseoftemperatureabove90C.

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6.1CleatedWiringSystem

6.1.0

Cleatwiringisoneofthemosteconomicalmethodsofwiring.Thewiresremainexposedtoview,andthesewiresaredrawnthroughcleats
madeofporcelainorplasticorsomeotherapprovedmaterial.Cleatwiringismostsuitablefortemporarywiring.Thewiringcanbecompletedquickly
andthewiringmaterialscanberecoveredeasilywhiledismantling.
Table5PermissibleMaximumTemperatureofSurroundingSpaceforOrdinaryInsulatedCables
(Clause6.0.4)
SlNo.

TypesofInsulation

MaximumTemperatureofSurroundingSpaceorSpaceInsideConduitPipes

Cable

FlexibleCable

(C)

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

i) Rubber

Rubber

45

PVC

45

iii) Polythene

45

iv) OilsoakedPaper

75

ii) PVC

v) Clothimpregnatedwithvarnish
vi)
61

Rubberorclothmixedwithconditionedasbestos

75
80

Moreover,additionsandalterationsaswellasinspectionofwiringsystemcanbeeasilymade.Cleatwiringisnotrecommendedfordampplaces
andalsoforpermanentwiring.Afteracertainperiodofinstallationthewiressagatsomeplaces,dustanddirtcollectoverthemandthewholeofthe
wiringsystemmaylookshabby.
6.1.1

Thewiresusedareeithervulcanizedrubberinsulatedcables,singlecorePVCorpolyethylenecables,whichcanbeusedwithoutfurther
protection.Conductorsshouldbevisibleallthroughoutacleatwiring.
6.1.2

Thecleatsaremadeintwoparts,calledbaseandcap.Thebaseisgroovedtoreceivethewireandthecapisplacedoverit,andthewholeofitis
placedonawoodenplugwhichisfixedintothewall.Thecleatsaretighteneduponwoodenplugsbymeansofwoodenscrewswhichalsotightenthe
gripofthewiresbetweentwohalvesofthecleat.Thecleatsareusuallyoftwotypeshavingtwoorthreegroovessoastoreceivetwoorthreewires.
ThesecleatsareshowninFig.8.
6.1.3InstallationofCleats

a.Woodenplugsaretobeproperlycementedinthewallorceiling,andthedistancebetweentwoadjacentplugsshouldbesuchthatthecleatsare
notmorethan60cmaparthorizontallyorvertically.
b.Cleatsshallbeofsuchdimensionsthatforlowvoltageinstallationthedistancebetweentwowiresshallnotbelessthan2.5cmcentretocentre
forbranchlinesand4cmforsubmainlines.
c.Innocasetwowiresshallbeplacedinthesamegrooveofthecleats.Alsothewiresshallbelaidstretchedbetweenthecleatssothattheydonot
touchthewall.
d.Jointcutoutsorfusecutoutsshallnotbeusedinthistypeofwiring.Wherejointsbecomeunavoidable,woodenjunctionboxeswithporcelain
connectorsinsideshouldbeused.
e.Wiringshouldbeenclosedinaconduitwhenpassingthroughawallorafloor.Thewiresshouldrunthroughaconduituptoaheightof1.5m
level.Incaseofametallicconduit,itshouldbeproperlyearthed.Woodenbushingsaretobeprovidedatbothendsoftheconduit,otherwise
insulationofthewiresmaybespoiledwhendrawnthroughit.
f.Whentwowirescrosseachother,theyshouldbeseparatedbyaninsulatingbridgepiecewhichshouldmaintainadistanceofatleast1.3cm
betweenthewires.
g.Thewiresshouldnotrunnearwaterorgaspipesorstructuralwork.
h.Aspecialpatternofcleatmaybeusedwhereconductorspassroundcorners,sothattheremaybenoriskoftheconductorstouchingthewalls
owingtosaggingorstretching.
i.Cleatsshallbefixedatdistancesnotgreaterthan60cmapartandatregularintervals.
6.1.4

Intemporaryinstallationswiringisoftendoneoverbobbinorknobinsulatorsinplaceofcleats.Wheneverthewirespassthroughaflooror
throughaspacewheresomedamageisapprehended,theyshouldbeprovidedwithanadditionalprotectionofaspecialstrongcoveringuptoaheight
of1.5mabovethefloorlevel.Forthispurpose,whilethewiringpassesthroughawallorapartition,itshouldbetakeninsideatubeorapipeora
conduitmadeofnoninflammableandnonhygroscopicmaterial.Porcelainwallpipe,leadwalltube,ironconduit,etc,aretheexamplesofthistypeof
covering.Variouscomponentsofcleatwiringaredescribedbelow.

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6.1.5InstallationofCleatWiring

6.1.5.1Cleatwiringisinstalledalongthewallbelowthebeam.Iftherearewoodenbeamsinahouse,cleatsmaybedirectlyfixedonthebeam
fordrawingwiresuptoceilingroses.Butifthereisanironbeam,thenspacepermitting,apieceofwoodmaybetightlyfittedononesideofthebeam
andcleatisfittedonthispieceofwood.ThisisshowninFig.9.Ifspaceisnotsufficientforfixingapieceofwoodonthesideofthe

Fig.8TypesofCleat
62

ironbeam,atfirstpiecesofwoodareclampedatintervalstothebottomofthebeamandthenthecleatsarefixedonthesewoodpieces.Thisis
showninFig.10.Thespacingbetweentwoconsecutivepiecesofwoodshouldbesuchthatthewiringmustnotsagduetoitsownweight.Ifwiringis
tobetakenfromoneroomintothenext,aholeisdrilledintothecommonwallandwiringistakenthroughporcelainormetaltube(walltube)set
intothehole.

Fig.9CleatisFixedonanWoodPieceWhichisTightlyAttachedonOneSideofanIronBeam

Fig.10ArrangementforDrawingWiresUnderIronBeam
Ifthewiresaretobedrawnundertheironbeamfromonecleattothenext,arrangementsareprovidedasshowninFig.11Businghoopironor
flatironclamp.Forheavywiringorforlastinganddurablejob,twowroughtironclampsareusedasshowninFig.11A.

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Fig.11UseofClamps
6.1.5.2Spacingbetweenwiresincleatwiring
Thespacingbetweenwiresdrawnthroughthecleatsdependsuponthelinevoltage,andthetypeofcircuitasgivenatTable6.Anexampleof
cleatwiringsystemisgivenatFig.12.
Table6SpacingofWiresinCleatWiring
(Clause6.1.5.2)
SlNo.

Voltage

TypeofCircuit

(1)

(2)

(3)

i) Notexceeding250V

CentretoCentreDistanceBetweenTwoAdjacentWires
(4)

Branch

Notlessthan2.5cm

Submain

Notlessthan4cm

Main
ii) Exceeding250V

Notlessthan7.0cm

10.0cmdistance
2.5cmspacingall
around

6.1.5.3Drawingawirethroughwall
Walltubeorpipeisusuallysetneartheceilingcorner(seeFig.13).Thespacewithinthepipeshouldbesufficienttoaccommodatewith
comfortableinterspacethemaximumnumberofwirestobedrawnthroughit.Withtoomanynumberofwiresmorethanonetubemaybenecessary.
Inthatcasepipesaresettogetheratoneplacesidebyside.Suchatubemaybemadeofporcelainormetal.Amongmetalslead,ironorsteelisused.
Thepipeissetinsidethewallbymeansofcement.Ifconduitisused,itstworoughendsareproperlyfiledandtwobushesmadeofhardwoodor
ebonitearefittedattheseends.Thiseliminatesthepossibilityofdamageoftheinsulationofwireswhendrawnthroughthepipes.Incaseofacwiring
allthewiresmustbedrawnthroughthesamemetalconduit.Wherewiresaredrawnoutsidefromaroom,theouterendofthepipeshouldbeabit
morewidened.Alsothisendshouldhaveadownwardbendsothatrainwaterorwaterfromothersourcesmaynotgetinsidethepipealongthewires.
6.1.5.4Drawingofwiresthroughfloors
Ifthewiresaretobedrawnthroughaholemadeinthefloor,thesemustbedrawnthroughaconduitpipeuptoaheightof1.5mabovethefloor
level,andthelowerendoftheconduitshouldbeflushwiththeceilingbelow.Asusualtwoendsoftheconduitmustbefittedwithinsulatingbushes.
6.2CasingWiring

Inthissystemofwiringnarrowgroovedplanksofhardwoodarefixedonwoodenplugsgroutedinthewallinsteadofcleatsandwiresdrawn
alongthegrooves.Thesenarrowplanksarecalledwoodcasing.Usuallytwolonggroovesaremadeineachcasing,althoughthreegroovedcasingisalso
available.Thetopofthe
63

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Fig.12AnExampleofCleatWiringSystem

Fig.13UseofWalltubeforDrawingWiresfromOneRoomintotheOtherThroughPartitionWall
64

casingiscoveredbyarectangularstripofwoodofthesamewidthasthatofcasing.Itisknownascappingwhichremainsscrewedtothecasing
(seeFig.14).Onthesurfaceofthecappingaboublebediscuttoshowthepositionofwiressothatthescrewsmaynotbedriventhroughwrong
positiondamagingtheinsulationofthecableslaidunderthecapping.Casingwiringisgenerallyadoptedforlowvoltageinstallationssuchasofficeand
residentialbuildings.Thistypeofwiringisnotsuitableforplacesexposedtorainorsunorhavingdampness.Itshouldnotalsobeusedinplaceswhere
acidsandalkaliesarelikelytobepresent.

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6.2.1

Thewoodusedforcasingandcappingmustbefirstclassseasonedteakwoodoranyotherhardwoodfreefromknots,shakesandsaps.The
sidesshouldbewellvarnishedbothinsideandoutsidewithpureshellacvarnish.Thesizeofcasingandcappingdependsuponthenumberofwires
drawnthroughthegroovesinaparticularlengthofrun.

Fig.14WoodenCappingandCasing
6.2.2

ThesizeofwoodcasingandcappingandnumberofcablesthatmaybedrawninonegrooveofthecasingisgiveninTable2ofPart1/Section
20ofthisCode.
6.2.3InstallationofCasingWiring

Casinggenerallyusedforinstallationisabout44mmwideand16mminthickness(height).However,forcablesofhighersizes,80100mm
wideandproportionallyhigherinthicknesscasingsarealsoinuse.Casingsmaybe5.5mto6.0mlong,butsmallerlengthsarealsoavailable.Lengths
ofabout2.5mto3.0mareconvenientforhandling.Verygoodworkmanshipisrequiredtomakethejobperfect,andthisresultsincostlier
installation.Thereisalsoriskoffirefromwood.
Therearetwogroovesineachcasing.Thewidthofthestripofwoodseparatingthetwogroovesshouldbecarefullyobservedsothatitisnotless
than13mm,andtheportionofwoodbeloweachgrooveshallnotbelessthan7mminthickness.Incasethecablehasalargecrosssectionora
numberofcablesaretobedrawn,thesizeofcasingshouldincreaseaccordingly.Atthetimeofwiringthecableslaidinthegroovesarecoveredbya
verythinandlongstripofwoodwhichisaswideasthecasing.Thisisknownascapping.Thethicknessofcappingshouldbeabout7mm.The
followingprecautionsneedtobetaken:
a.Anynumberofwiresofthesamepolaritymaybelaidinthesamegroove,butinnocasewiresofoppositepolaritiesarelaidinonegroove.
b.Casingshouldbefixedondrywallandceiling.Casingshallnotbeembeddedintocementorplaster.Itshallneitherbesosetastogetcontact
withawaterpipe,noritshallbelaidjustbelowawaterpipe.Itshallnotalsobeusedinaplacewheremoistureaccumulatesanddrips.
c.Aclearspaceof3mmshallbekeptbetweenwallorceilingandthecasing.Thiscouldbebymeansofporcelaininsulators(spacinginsulator)or
cleats(eitherupperhalforlowerhalf).
d.Woodenplugsofapprovedsizesshallbefixedatadistanceof90cmapartforcasingofsizesupto63.5mm.Forhighersizesofcasingthis
distanceshallnotexceed60cm.
e.Whilepassingthroughfloorsorwalls,heavygaugeconduitofapprovedsizesshallbeused.Theconduitshouldbesecurelyenteredintocasing,
anditshouldbeextendeduptoaheightof1.5mabovefloorlevel.
f.AlljointsshallbemadewithgoodworkmanshipasperIS732.
g.Afterthewiresarelaidinthegrooves,thecappingisattachedtocasingbybrassscrewsinaproperway.Thescrewsmustnotbesofixedasto
piercethroughtheinsulationofthewires.
h.Cappingshouldbefixedonthecasingonlybyscrews.Thescrewusedforfixingthecasingmustbelongenoughtopassthroughthecasing,
capping,centralholeinthebobbininsulatororspacinginsulatorandthewoodenpluginthewall.Thecappingisfixedonthecasingbymeans
ofsmallscrews.Ifthewidthofthecasingislessthan50mm,aseriesofscrewsarefixedonthecentrallineofthecapping,andincasethe
widthismore,tworows(orcolumns)ofscrewsarefixedontwosidesofthecapping.Forthisreasonthewidthofthestripsofwoodonboth
sidesofthecasingshallnotbelessthan10mm.Screwsusedforfixingthecappingmaybemadeofbrass.
i.Provisionmustbethereforeasyinsertionofcablesintothecasing.Beforefixingthecasing,itisnecessarytosmearitssidesandbackproperly
withtwocoatsofshellacvarnish.Furtherprotectionisprovidedbypaintingorvarnishingthecasingwiringonceagainonallsidesafterthe
wiringisfinished.
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j.Spacinginsulatorsmaybeusedataplacewherethecasingispassingbelowanironbeam.PreferredsizesofcasingsisgiveninPart1/Section20.
6.2.4JointsinCasingWiring

Incasingwiringworkstartsfromthefarthestpointoftheloadcircuit,graduallyproceedstowardsthemainboardandfinallyendsthere.
a.JointwhilefixinglampTheceilingroseofthelampbracketissetonaroundwoodenblock.Thisblockshouldhaveathickness(height)of4
cmwithtwocoatsofvarnishappliedonit.Ithasasawcutononesideinsuchamannerthatthetipofthecasingcloselyfitsontoit(seeFig.
15).

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Fig.15JointforFixingLamp
b.Jointsforcasing/cappingWhentwopiecesofcasingorofcappingaretobejoinedtogether,thejointshouldbecompletedasshowninFig.
16A(LapJoint).Thejointofcappingshallbeanobliqueone(seeFig.16B).Caremustbetakentoseethatcappingsarenotjoinedtogetherata
pointwherethereisalreadyajointofcasing,andalsonoscrewforfixingthecappingpiercesanysidewallofthecasing.
1.JointatthecornerThekindofjointnecessaryatthecornerroundisshowninFig.17.Thetwotipsofcasingsthataretobejoined
togetherareplacedonthefloor,cutatanangleof45andfinallyscrewedtoeachother.Thecomersofthegroovesshouldbeflushwith
eachothersoastopreventanydamagetotheinsulationofthecables.Thegeneralappearanceofthejointwherethecasingistakenfrom
onewalltoanotherisatFig.18orsomewhatsimilar.Theshapeofsuchajointshouldbesuchthattheradiusofcurvatureofthejoint
shouldnotbelessthan75mmsothattheinsulationofcablesisnotdamagedduetotwistetc.Foracornerjoints,thepieceofcasingcan
beabtainedasshowninFig.19.

Fig.16JointsforCasing/Capping

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Fig.17JointataCorner

Fig.18ShapeofJointataCorner
66

Fig.19HowaSmallPieceofCasingisObtainedforaCornerJoint
2.BendingoncablesTobendaVIRorPVCcable,theinternalradiusofbendshallbeatleastfourtimesthediameterofthecable.Where
thecasingwillgofromonewalltoanotherontheexternalside,thejointshouldbeasperFig.20.

Fig.20JointofCasingontheExternalSidesofWalls
3.TJointFromapointinthecontinuousrunofthecasing,sometimesconnectionistobetakenoutforlamppoint,fanpoint,etc,
throughajointofthecasing,knownasTJoint.Wheresuchajointistobeadopted,aVshapedpieceofcasingistobecutoffuptothe
middleofthecasingusedinthecontinuousrun.Later,thetipofanothercasingtobejoinedtoitiscutoffintheshapeofVandismade
flushwiththeVgrooveoftheformercasingasshowninFig.21.

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Fig.21Tjoint
4.BridgeWhenitisrequiredtodrawonecircuitoveranother,asmallpieceofcasing,namedbridge,isusedsothatthecableofone
circuitdoesnotcomeintouchwiththatofanother.Atfirstthebridgeisfixedonthecasingandthenthesecondcableisdrawnoverit.
WhereaTjointisnecessary,aonehalfbridgeisfixedtherealongwithafullbridge.Thisadditionalonehalfportionisknownashalf
bridge.Abridgeisalsousedwherecableofonecircuitcrossesthatofanothercircuit.Figure22depictshalfbridgeandbridge.Thejoint
ofcasingsatthispointiscalledcrossjoint.TjointandcrossjointofcasingsareshowninFig.23andFig.24respectively.

Fig.22HalfBridgeandBridge

Fig.23TjointofCasingwithBridges

Fig.24CrossjointofCasingswithBridge
6.2.5InstallationofWiring

67

a.LeadingacablefromoneroomtoanotherWhenleadingfromoneroomtoanother,acablemaybedrawneitherthroughacasingorthrough
awalltube.Ifcasingisused,theholeinthewallmustbelargeenoughtoleaveaclearanceofatleast25mmallaroundthecasing.Thepurpose
ofthisclearanceistokeepthecasingdrythroughventilationofair.Ifawalltubeistobeused,thetwoendsofthetubeprojectalittlefromthe
wall.Thepartitionwallbetweenthegroovesattheendofcasingremainingincontactwiththewalltubemustbecutofftothesameextentas
theamountofprojectionofthetubefromthewall(seeFig.25).Thiswillkeepthewalltubeproperlyfittedwiththecasing.Butincasethe
diameterofthetubeislargerthantheheightofthecasingorwheremorethanonewalltubesareused,itwillnotbepossibletofixthecapping
overthecasing.Insuchcases,theheightofthecasingisincreasedwiththehelpofahalfbridge.
Forcontinuousearthingsystemasinglegalvanizedironwireisdrawncontinuouslyoutsidethecasingalongwiththecablesandfinally
earthed.ThisiscalledEarthcontinuityconductor.Theoutermetalliccoversoffanregulatorironcladdistributionbox,earthterminalofthe
wallsocketetc,remainconnectedwiththiswire.Usuallyaseparatewalltubeisusedforleadingearthcontinuityconductorthroughthewall.
Forthisworkahalfbridgeonthecasingnearthewallisindispensable.

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Fig.25CuttingOffaPortionofCasinginOrdertoFititwithaWalltube
Thereshouldbethreesocketsinsteadoftwoineverywallsocketandthreepinsinsteadoftwowitheverywallplug.Alsotheflexible
cablesusedinthissystemmusthavethreelengthsofinsulatedwiresinsteadoftwo.
b.LeadingacablethroughthefloorInthecasingwiringifcablesaretobedrawnfromalowerfloortoaupperfloor,apieceofconduitispushed
throughaholemadeinthefloor.Thesizesofwiresofallthecircuitstobedrawnfromlowertoupperfloorarecalculatedatfirst,andthenthe
sizeandnumberofconduitsaredeterminedaccordingly.Ifcontinuousearthingsystemisadopted,anotherextraconduitistobeprovidedfor
drawingearthcontinuityconductor.Attheceilingofthelowerfloorallconduitsmustprojectatleast25mm.Atbothendsofaconduit
insulatingbushesaretobefitted.Intheupperfloorconduitwillriseuptoaheightof1.5mabovethefloorlevel.Atthisendoftheconduitone
endofacasingshouldremainproperlyfitted.ForproperfittingthelowerendofthecasingiscuttosizeasshowninFig.26.Ifnecessary,the
spacingofthecasingfromthewallmaybeincreasedbyusingahalfbridge.Besides,everypieceofconduitshouldremainwellearthed.

Fig.26LeadingofCableThroughtheFloor
c.UtilityofloopinginsystemLikecleatwiring,casingwiringcanalsobedonebymeansofconnectorsinsidejunctionboxesaswellasby
loopinginsystem.Loopwiringhasmanyadvantages.Nojointisnecessaryandtheinsulationresistanceisbetterretainedbythissystemthan
anyothersystemofwiring.Thereasonfornojointisthat,onepieceofcableisjoinedwithanotherpieceonlythroughbrassscrewsofswitches
andceilingroses.Whatismeantbyjointingofcablesdoesnotatallhappeninthissystem.Itsmaindisadvantage,however,isthatthelengthof
cablerequiredforwiringissomewhatmore.
6.3MetalsheathedWiring

6.3.1

Thewiringsystemcompletedwithwireshavingmetallic(forexamplelead)coveringoverrubberinsulationisknownasmetalsheathedorlead
coveredwiring.Heretheconductorsarerubberinsulatedandcoveredwithanoutersheathofleadalloycontainingabout95percentleadwhich
provides
protectionagainstmechanicalinjury.Leadsheathshouldbeproperlyearthed.

68
6.3.2

Thecablesmayremainexposedtosunorrain,butitshouldnotbeusedwhereacidsandalkaliesarelikelytobepresent.Thecablesarelaidon
woodenbattensandremainfixedonitbymeansofbrassoraluminiumlinkclipsspacedatintervalsnotexceeding10cmhorizontallyand15cm
vertically.Thethicknessofthebattenshouldnotbelessthan10mm.
6.3.3InstallationofMetalSheath

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a.Sharpbendsshouldbeavoided.Aroundbendofradiusnotlessthan10cmmaybeadoptedforachangeofdirection.
b.Supportingclipsusedforthecablesmustnotsetupanychemicalreactionwiththemetalsheath.
c.Leadsheathmustbeelectricallycontinuousandproperlyearthed.Formaintainingelectricalcontinuity,bondingofsheathsisnecessaryatjoint
boxesandswitchboards.
d.Whenpassingthroughafloororcrossingawall,thecablemustbedrawnthroughconduits.Conduitsshouldgouptoaheightof1.5mabovethe
floorlevel.Bothendsoftheconduitshouldbefittedwithebonite,plasticorhardrubberbushingsinordertoprotectmetalsheathandrubber
insulationofcablesfrombeingdamaged.
6.3.4JointsforMetalSheathedWiring

a.ConnectorsSomespecialtypesofconnectorareusedforjointingwiresorforaTjointtoleadacabletoswitchboardetc.Thesetypesof
connectoraremoreorlessthesameforalmostalltypesofwiring.Asperrequirementtwo,threeorfourholesareprovidedinsmallpiecesof
porcelainorplastic,andinsidethoseholesthereareconnectorsintheformofbrasstubes.Atthetwoendsoftheconnectortherearebrass
screwsforfixingthewires.Theporcelainorplasticportionactsasinsulators.Whenonlyonepieceofwireistobejoinedwithanotherpiece,the
smallestsizeconnectorwithasinglepieceofbrasstubeisused.Forjointingtwinwire(2core)fromasinglecable,aconnectorwithtwopieces
ofbrasstubesisneeded.Inplaceofjunctioncutoutsconnectorisusedevenincleatandcasingwirings.Thereareholesonthetopofall
connectorswithscrewstoconnectwireswiththeconnector(thelefthandoneshowssinglejointconnector).Sometimestheoutercoverofa
connectorismadeofPVCorbakeliteinplaceofporcelain.ButasaninsulatortheuseofporcelainisbetterthanPVCorbakelite.
b.ThimblesThimbleismadeofporcelainorplasticandlookslikeacapasshowninFig.27.Athimbleisthreadedinsideanditbecomespointed
towardstheupperend.Wheretwoormorewiresaretobeconnectedtogether,about6.4mmofendinsulationofeachwireistakenoffandall
theendsarethentwistedtogether.Thecombinationisthenputinsideathimblewhichisturnedlikeascrewdriver.Asaresultthethimblepulls
thecombinationoftwistedendsinbymeansofthreadsandthusholdsittightly.

Fig.27WiresConnectedwithThimble

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c.TJointWhereTconnectionistakenforapoint,connectorsusedthereandthemodeofconnectionareshowninFig.28.Asmallbox,called
jointbox,isusedtocoverthejoint.Theboxmaybemadeofmetalorwood.Theboxshallpreventaccessofinsects,dustorlimewater(during
whitewashing).Theadvantageofametalboxisthatthespecialityofaleadsheathedwiringtomaintainelectricalcontinuityofmetalsheathof
thecableseverywherebeginningfromthemainboarduptothefarthestpointoftheloadcircuitisautomaticallyretainedinit,whereasincaseof
awoodenboxitisnotso.Ifawoodenboxistobeused,anadditionalbondingclampmustbeprovidedintheboxandtheleadsheathsofallthe
cablestakeninforconnectionshallremainfixedwiththisclampsothatelectricalcontinuityisestablishedamongthem.Ifmetalsheathofthe
cableistobeusedasanearthcontinuityconductor,thenincaseofnonmetalbox,astripofmetalistobeusedformaintainingcontinuityof
metalsheath,andtheresistanceofsuchmetalstripshallbenegligibleincomparisontothatofthelargestsizeofcablecomingintothebox(see
Fig.29).Jointboxmustnotbeinstalledinadampplaceduetopossibilityofleakageofcurrentinthejointboxinstalledinadampplace.
ArrangementformaintainingcontinuitybetweenwiresnearaceilingroseisshowninFig.30.Inthisway,maintainingcontinuityandelectrical
connectionsamongleadsheaths,finallythesheathisconnectedtoearthatthemaindistributionboard.Ifthisisnotdone,theinsulationofthe
cablegetsdamagedinaveryshorttimeinmetalsheathedwiring.Iftwoormoreleadcoveredwiresarelaidsidebysideandonewirehas
leakageanditssheathisnotwellbonded,therewillbesparkingbetweenthem,causingdamagetothecable.Inmetalsheathedwiring,electrical
continuityofsheathmustbemaintained,andthissheathmustnotonlybewellearthed,buttheearthconnectionmustalsobewellmaintained.

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Fig.28HowWiresareDrawnandhowTheseareConnectedinaTjoint

Fig.29UseofBondingMetalStripinaWoodenJointbox
d.LeadsheathedcableswithearthwireContinuousearthingsystemensuressafetyofcircuits.Accordingtothissystemmetalliccoversoftable
fan,electriciron,electricheater,tablelampetc,aretobeearthed.IncaseofcleatorcasingwiringasingleG.I.wireistobedrawnastheearth
wirealongwiththewiringthroughoutthehouse.Useofcableshavingasingleearthwireprovidedalongwithinsulatedcopperwireorwires
withinthesameleadsheathcanbemade.Whilejointingtwoormorewires,aseparateconnectorshouldalsojointallrelatedearthwires.Ifthe
outercoverandinnerleverismadeofmetal,theswitchshouldalsobeearthedasperrule.Insuchcasesleadsheathedcableswithearthwire
insideisused.ConnectionofearthwireofacircuitwithearthinthedistributionboardisshowninFig.31.Descriptionsofdifferentmethods
andsystemsofwiring(forexamplecleatorcasingwiring)arealsoapplicabletometalsheathedsystem.Loopinginsystemofwiringmayalsobe
adoptedwithleadsheathedcableswherenecessary.

Fig.30MaintenanceofContinuityofWiresNearaCeilingRose

Fig.31EarthContinuityBarandArrangementforConnectionofEarthWiresofDifferentCircuits
6.3.5InstallationofWiring

a.DrawingofCablesthroughtheFloorTheleadsheathedcableshouldbedrawnthroughaheavygauzeconduitpipewhenthecableisdrawn
fromlowerfloortoupperfloor.Theconduitlengthshallremainextendeduptoaheightof1.5mabovethefloorlevelintheupperfloor,while
thelowerendoftheconduitshallremainflushwiththeceilingofthelowerfloor.Bothendsoftheconduitshouldbefittedwithbushesmadeof
woodoreboniteorsomeotherinsulatingmaterial.

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b.DrawingofcablesthroughpartitionwallbetweentwoadjacentroomsLikeothersystemsofwiringmetalsheathedcableshouldalsobe
drawnthroughporcelainwalltubeorsteelconduitorhardPVCconduitasstraightaspossible.
c.ConcealedwiringthroughthewallLeadsheathedcablecannotbelaiddirectunderplaster.Forconcealedwiringitshouldbeeitherdrawn
throughconduitpipeorbysomeothermeansafterwhichthewholethingiscoveredwithplaster.
6.4CabTyreSheathed(C.T.S.)orToughRubberSheathed(T.R.S.)Wiring

6.4.0

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Thistypeofwiringisadoptedonlyforlowvoltagecircuits.C.T.S.wiringisusedinopenspaceinplaceofdrawingbareconductors.Thissystem
ofwiringisveryusefulinworkshopsorplaceswherefumesaregeneratedcontinuouslyfromacidsetc,whichmaydamagetheinsulationofordinary
cablesorwearoutconduitsetc,orcorrodetheleadsheathofcables.Nootherinsulationisappliedontheconductorexcepthardrubbersheath,andin
thewiringsystemcablemaynotbedrawnthroughconduit,casingetc.Theadvantagesofthissystemisthatwiringcanbedoneveryeasilyandquickly.
Asaresultwiringiseconomicalonthewhole,althoughthecablemaycostmore.C.T.S.wiringcanbeusedwithavarietyoffittingsandalsoincaseof
concealedwiring.TheT.R.S.(C.T.S.)systemhashowever,nowbecomealmostobsoleteasithasbeenreplacedbythePVCinsulatedandsheathed
system.
6.4.1InstallationofC.T.S.Wiring

WhenthesheathofC.T.S.cablemadeofrubberorsomeothercompoundmixedwithrubberremainsexposedtodirectsunlight,arrangement
mustbeprovidedtocoveritupproperly.Itshould,however,benotedthatwhensunlightcomesthroughtheglassofawindow,itisnotregardedas
directsunlight.Whereweatherprooforleadsheathedcableistobedrawnwiththehelpofcatenarywire,eitherthecableshouldbetakenbybinding
itcontinuouslywiththecatenarywireoritshouldremainfixedwithcatenarywirebymeansoflinkclipsatintervalsofabout15cm.C.T.S.cableis
drawnoverthewallinthesamewayasleadsheathedcable.Atfirstwoodenplugsaregroutedorcementedinthewallatintervalsofabout75cmand
polishedthinbattenofteakwoodaswideasoralittlewiderthanthecableisscrewedtotheseplugs.Tinnedbrassoraluminiumlinkclipsarethen
fixedonthisbattenwiththehelpofironpinsatintervalsnotexceeding10cmhorizontallyand15cmvertically.Forthesakeofconvenienceofwork,
sometimesclipsarefixedonthebattenatequalintervalsinastraightlinefirstandthenthebattenisscrewedtothewoodenplugs.Finallythecableis
laidneatlyontheclipswhicharethenfolded.Insomecasesabattenwithclippedcableisscrewedtothewoodenplugs.Asingleclipmaybeusedtofix
uptotwotwincore,0.0194cm2cables.Ifthecrosssectionofthecableisgreaterthanthis,asingleclipmayholdonlyonecable.Wherethereare
fumesfromacidsetc,clipsaremadeofleadstripscutoutfromthenleadsheetsandironpinsarealreadypaintedwithacidproofpaint.Thisprevents
theironpinsbeingrustedwhenincontactwithacidfumes.ForaneatandcleanlookofC.T.S.wiringorforsavingitfrommechanicalinjury,the
wiringmaybecoveredbywoodenchannelingoranyothersuitablecover.AlsoC.T.S.cablesmaybedrawnthroughconduitpipes,ifnecessary.During
installationofC.T.S.wiringthefollowingpointsaretobekeptinmind:
a.C.T.S.cablesshouldbelaidonwellseasoned,wellvarnishedandperfectlystraighthardwoodofthickness10mmandwidthsufficientenoughto
carrytherequirednumberofcables.
b.Woodenbattenshouldremainfixedtorawlorphilplugsgroutedinthewallorceilingbymeansofwoodscrewsatanintervalnotexceeding75
cm.
c.C.T.S.cablesshallneverbeturnedatrightangles.Whereverthereisabend,theradiusofcurvatureshallnotbelessthansixtimestheouter
diameterofthecable.Whilepassingthroughwallorfloor,cablemustbedrawnthroughconduitpipes.Metalconduitshouldbeproperly
earthed.
d.C.T.S.cablesshallneverbeburiedunderplaster.Theseshouldbedrawnthroughconduitorwoodenchanneling.
e.Whiletakingthroughafloor,thecableshallbedrawnthroughaheavyconduit.Thetwoendsoftheconduitshouldbefittedwithbushesmade
ofwoodorrubberoranyothersuitableinsulatingmaterial.Thebottomoftheconduitshouldbeflushwiththeceilingofthelowerfloor,while
itstopmustriseuptoaheightof1.5mabovethefloorleveloftheupperfloor.Porcelaintubesmayalsobeusedwhenthecablesaredrawn
throughawall.
71

6.5PolyvinylChloride(PVC)SheathedWiring

6.5.0

PVCsheathedcableisusedextensivelyinhousewiring.Thiscableisavailableinsinglecore,twincoreorthreecore,anditscostis
comparativelylessthanthatofotherwires.PVCcablemaybeusedforwiringinopenspaceinplaceofbareconductororC.T.S.cable.Therubber
sheathofC.T.S.cabledeterioratesquicklyinplaceswherethereisoil,butPVCinsulationishighlysuitableinsuchplaces.PVCinsulationcan
withstandacid,alkali,ozoneandalsodirectsunlight.Owingtogapsinthesheathitdoesnotdryup,hardenandcracklikerubber.Butathigher
temperaturesPVCsoftensbecauseofwhichitshouldnotbeusedatplaceswhereitisexpectedtogetexcessivelyheated.Also,PVCinsulationbecomes
brittleinverycoldatmospherethereforeitshouldnotbeusedinplaceswherethereisiceorsnowfall.WiringsystemsofPVCwireissimilartothatof
C.T.S.wiring.However,asthePVCwireiscomparativelylighterthanC.T.S.wire,linkclipsaretobefixedonwoodenbattensatcomparativelycloser
intervals.Thedistancebetweentwoadjacentlinkclipsshouldbe6cmhorizontallyand7.5cmvertically.Forconduitwiringaswellasforconcealed
wiring,PVCcablesaredrawnthroughconduitpipesinplaceofV.I.R.wires.Thefirstallinsulatedwiringsystemconsistedofvulcanizedinsulated
conductorswithatoughcablessheath(T.R.S.).Whenfirstintroducedthesystemwasknownascabtypesystem(C.T.S.).TheT.R.S.(C.T.S.)system
hasnowbecomealmostobsoleteasithasbeenreplacedbythePVCinsulatedandsheathedsystem.PVCandsimilarsheathedcablesifexposedto
directsunlightshallbeofatyperesistanttodamagebyultravioletlight.PVCcableshouldnotbeexposedtocontactwithoil,creosoteandsimilar
hydrocarbons,orshouldbeofatypecapableofwithstandingsuchexposure.Thecablesmaybeinstalledwithoutfurtherprotection,exceptwhere
exposedtomechanicaldamage,inwhichcasetheymustbesuitablyprotected.Theallinsulatedwiringsystemisusedextensivelyforlightingand
socketinstallationinsmalldwellings,andisoneofthemosteconomicalmethodsofwiringforthistypeofwork.SeeIS14772forjointboxesandIS
371forceilingroses.AnalternativemethodforwiringwithPVCsheathedcablesforlightingistouse2coreandcircuitprotectiveconductorcables
with3plateceilingrosesinsteadofjointboxes.Atthepositionsofjointboxes,switches,socketsandluminariesthesheathingmustterminateinside
theboxorenclosure,orcouldbepartlyenclosedbythebuildingstructureifconstructedofcombustiblematerial.
6.5.1InstallationofPVCWiring

a.BendsinWiringThewiringshallnotinanycircumstancesbebentsoastoformarightanglebutshallberoundedoffatthecornerstoa
radiusnotlessthansixtimestheoveralldiameterofthecable.
b.KeepingcablesawayfrompipeworkInsulatedcablesmustnotbeallowedtocomeintodirectcontactwithgaspipesornonearthedmetal

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work,andveryspecialcaremustbeexercisedtoensuretheyarekeptawayfromhotwaterpipes.
c.Precautionsforcablespassingthroughwalls,ceiling,etcWherethecablespassthroughwalls,floors,ceilings,partitions,etc,theholesshallbe
madegoodwithincombustiblematerialtopreventthespreadoffire.Itisadvisabletoprovideashortlengthofpipeorsleevingsuitablebushed
atthesepositionsandthespaceleftinsidethesleeveshouldbepluggedwithincombustiblematerial.Wherethecablespassthroughholesin
structuralsteelwork,theholesmustbebushedsoastopreventabrasionofthecable.Whererununderwoodfloors,thecablesshouldbefixedto
thesideofthejoists,andifacrossjoists,shouldbethreadedthroughholesdrilledthroughthejoistsinsuchapositionastoavoidfloorboard
nailsandscrews.Inanycase,screwedtrapsshouldbeleftoveralljointboxesandotherpositionswhereaccessmaybenecessary.
d.FixingcablesbysuspensiononcatenarywiresCablescanbetakenacrossaloftybuilding,oroutsidebetweenbuildings,ifprotectedagainst
directsunlightbysuspendingthemoncatenarywires.Galvanizedsteelwiresshouldbestrainedtightandthecablesclippedtothewirewith
wiringclips.Alternatively,theycanbesuspendedfromthewirewithrawhidehangersthisprovidesbetterinsulationalthoughnotsoneatas
theformermethod.Thecatenarywiremustbebondedtoearth.

72

e.Multicorecableshavecoresofdistinctivecolours,theredshouldbeconnectedtophaseterminals,theblacktoneutralorcommonreturnand
theprotectiveconductortotheearthterminal.Clipsaremuchneaterthansaddles,butwhenmorethantwocablesareruntogetheritis
generallybesttouselargesaddles.Ifanumberofcableshavetoberuntogetheronconcreteorotherwisewherethefixingsaredifficultto
obtain,itisadvisabletofixawoodbattenandthentocliporsaddlethecablestothebatten.Cablerunsshouldbeplannedsoastoavoidcables
havingtocrossoneanother,andadditionalsaddlesshouldbeprovidedwherethereischangeindirections.PVCsheathedcablesshouldnotbe
usedforanysystemswherethenormalvoltageexceed1000V.
f.WiringtosocketoutletsWhenPVCcablesisusedforwiringtosocketoutletsofotheroutletsdemandinganearthconnection,itisusualto
provide2coreandcircuitprotectiveconductorcables.Theseconsistoftwoinsulatedconductorsandoneuninsulatedconductor,thewhole
beingenclosedinthePVCsheathing.TheprotectiveconductorshallcomplywithIS3043.Whenwiringto16ampsstandarddomesticsockets,
thecablewillhavetobetakenintostandardboxwhichisdesignedforthesesocketsandwhichincludesanearthterminal.
6.6AllInsulatedWiring

Thefirstallinsulatedwiringsystemconsistedofvulcanizedinsulatedconductorswithatoughcablessheath(T.R.S.).Thesystemwasinitially
knowascabtypesystem(C.T.S.).TheT.R.S.(C.T.S.)systemhasnowbecomealmostobsoleteasithasbeenreplacedbythePVCinsulatedand
sheathedsystem.ThePVCsystemhasmanyadvantagesovertheoldT.R.S.systembecauseitisnotsoinflammable,andwillstandupbettertodirect
sunlightandchemicalaction.Thecablesmaybeinstalledwithoutfurtherprotection,exceptwhereexposedtomechanicaldamage,whentheymustbe
suitablyprotected.Thisallinsulatedwiringsystemisusedextensivelyforlightingandsocketinstallationinsmalldwellings,andisprobablythemost
economicalmethodofwiringforthistypeofwork.Itiscustomarytouse2and3corecableswithanintegralprotectiveor4terminalceilingrosesfor
makingthenecessaryconnections.
AnalternativemethodforwiringwithPVCsheathedcablesforlightingistouse2coreandCPCcableswith3plateceilingrosesinsteadofjoint
boxes.Terminationsofjointsinthesecablesmustbeenclosedinnonignitablematerial,suchasaboxcomplyingwithIS14772.
NOTEAnaccessoryisadevice,otherthancurrentusingequipmentassociatedwithsuchequipmentorwiththewiringof
installation.
Atthepositionsofjointboxes,switches,socketsandluminariesthesheathingmustterminateinsidetheboxorenclosure,orcouldbepartly
enclosedbythebuildingstructureifconstructedofcombustiblematerial.
6.6.1SurfaceWiring

Whencablesarerunonthesurface,aboxisnotnecessaryatoutletpositionsprovidingtheoutersheathingisbroughtintotheaccessoryor
luminaries,orintoablockorrecesslinedwithincombustiblematerials,orintoaplasticpatress.Forverticalruncableswhichareinstalledin
accessiblepositionsandunlikelytobedisturbed,supportshallbeprovidedatthetopofthecable,andthenatintervalsofnotlessthan5m.For
horizontalrunsthecablesmayrestwithoutfixinginpositionswhichareinaccessibleandarenotlikelytobedisturbed,providedthatthesurfaceis
dry,reasonablysmoothandfreefromsharpedges.Forcablesinstalledinaccessibleportionsthefixingspaceforcableis100to250mmforhorizontal
runsand150to400mmforverticalruns.
Linkclipsforelectricalwiringshallbeusedforfixingthecablesinstalledinaccessiblepositions.Linkclipsshallbesoarrangedthatonesingle
clipshallnotholdmorethantwotwincoreT.R.S.orPVCsheathedcablesupto1.5mm2abovewhichsingleclipsshallholdasingletwincorecable.
Theclipsshallbefixedonvarnishedwoodbattenswithanyrustresistingpinsorscrews.Forthewiringandrunsofmainsexposedtoheatandrain,
clipspeciallymadeforoutdoorusefromadurablemetal,resistanttoweatherandatmosphericcorrosionshallbeused(seeIS2412forlinkclips).
6.6.2ConcealedWiring

PVCwiring,concealedinceilingpartition,isaneffectivemethodofprovidingasatisfactoryinstallationwhereappearanceisofprime
importanceasindomestic,displayorofficesituations.Whereitisimpracticaltorunconcealedwiringattheselocations,specialprecautionsare
necessary,appropriateprotectionmustbeprovided.Thismaytaketheformofacableincorporatinganearthedmetalsheath,orbyenclosingthe
cablesinearthedmetallicconduit,trunkingorducting.PVCsheathedcablesshallnotbeburieddirectincementorplaster.Thedisadvantageisthat
cablesonceburiedincementorplastercannotbewithdrawnshouldanydefectoccur.Itisbettertoprovideaplasticconduittotheswitchoroutlet
positions,sothatthePVCcablescanbedrawnintotheconduit,andwithdrawnshouldtheneedarise.Suchanarrangementmustalsocomplywith
thelocationconstraints.Whicheverconstructionisemployed,itisnecessarytoprovideaboxatalllight,switchandsocketoutletposition.Theboxes
mustbeprovidedwithearthingterminalstowhichtheprotectiveconductorinthecablemustbeconnected.Iftheprotectiveconductorisabarewire
inmulticorecable,agreen/yellowsheathmustbeappliedwherethecableentersthebox.
6.7EnclosedWiringSystem

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6.7.0

Manyoftheoriginalinstallationsconsistedofsinglecorecablesupportedincleats.Withincreasingawarenessofthepossibilityofhazard,the
necessity
73

forgreaterprotectioncreatedthedemandforenclosuressuchasconduitand,later,trunkingofwhichtherearemanydifferenttypesnow
availabletosuitdifferentsituations.
6.7.1ConduitWiringSystems

6.7.1.0Wiringdonebyinsulatedwiresdrawnthroughironorsteelpipesisknownasconduitwiring.Conduitsystems,whenassembledin
accordancewiththemanufacturersinstructions,shallhaveadequateresistancetoexternalinfluencesaccordingtotheclassificationdeclaredbythe
manufacturerswithaminimumrequirementofIP30.AconduitsystemwhichconformstoIS14930(Part1)isdeemedsafeforuse.Toensuresafety
inelectricalinstallations,useofmetallicconduitsasearthcontinuityconductorisnotpermitted.
NOTES
1.Certainconduitsystemsmayalsobesuitableforuseinhazardousatmosphere.Regardshouldbetakenfortheextrarequirement
necessaryforequipmenttobeinstalledinsuchcondition.
2.Earthingconductorsmayormaynotbeinsulated.Earthingconductorsmayormaynotbeinsulatediflaidoutside,butinvariablybe
insulated.
SeeIS14930(Part2)forrequirementsandtestsforconduitsystemsburiedunderground,includingconduitsandconduitfittingsforthe
protectionandmanagementofinsulatedconductorsand/orcablesinelectricalinstallationsincommunicationsystemsandIS9537(variousparts)for
conduits.ConduitdiametersshallbepreferablyaccordingtoTable7andpointsofsupportinaccordancewithTable8.Classificationcodingofconduit
systemsisgivenatAnnexB.
Table7OutsideDiametersPreferredValues
(Clause6.7.1.0)
SlNo.

NominalSize

(1)

OutsideDiameter
mm

(2)

Tolerance
mm

(3)

InsideDiameter,Min
mm

(4)

(5)

i) 25

25

+0.5

18

ii) 32

32

+0.6

24

iii) 40

40

+0.8

30

iv) 50

50

+1.0

37

v) 63

63

+1.2

47

vi) 75

75

+1.4

56

vii) 90

90

+1.7

67

viii) 110

110

+2.0

82

ix) 120

120

+2.2

90

x) 125

125

+2.3

94

xi) 140

140

+2.6

106

xii) 160

160

+2.9

120

xiii) 180

180

+3.3

135

xiv) 200

200

+3.6

150

xv) 225

225

+4.1

170

xvi) 250

250

+4.5

188

NOTES
1.Toleranceonoutsidediametersaregivenasfollows:
a.Outsidediameterspecifiedarenominaldimensions.
b.Outsidediametermaximumisnominaloutsidediameter+(0.018nominaloutsidediametervalues)roundedoffto+0.1mm.
c.Minimuminsidediameterisnominaloutsidediameterdividedby1.33.
2.AnyothersizesotherthanthosementionedinTable7shallbeaspertheagreementbetweenthebuyerandtheseller.

6.7.1.1TypesofConduits
a.SteelconduitsystemIS9537(Part2)specifiestherequirementofrigidsteelconduits.Thescrewedsteelconduitsystemisusedextensivelyfor
permanentwiringinstallations,especiallyformoderncommercialandindustrialbuildings(seeFig.32).Itsadvantagesarethatitaffordsthe
conductorsgoodmechanicalprotection,permitseasyrewiringwhennecessaryandminimizesfirerisks.Thedisadvantagesarethatitis
expensivecomparedwithothersystems,isdifficulttoinstallunderwoodfloorsinhousesandflats,andisliabletocorrosionwhensubjectedto
acid,alkaliandotherfumes.Moreover,undercertainconditions,moistureduetocondensationmayforminsidetheconduit.Soliddrawn

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conduitismuchmoreexpensivethanweldedconduit,duetowhichitsuseisgenerallyrestrictedtogastightandexplosionproofinstallation
work.Weldedscrewedconduitis,therefore,generallyusedformostinstallation.

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b.CopperconduitAtsomeplaces,copperconduitisusedasitresistscorrosionandprovidesexcellentcontinuity.However,theuseislimited
becausethecostcouldprovetobeprohibitive.Copperconduitcanbescrewedinthesamemannerassteelconduitalthoughthescrewingof
copperismoredifficultthanmildsteel.Connectionsaregenerallymadebysoldering.Bronzejunctionboxesshouldpreferablybeused.

Fig.32MethodsofFixingScrewedConduitatClearanceEntriesinMetalCasingorBoxes
c.PVCconduitWhenfirstintroduced,suchconduitshadmanydisadvantagescomparedtosteelthematerialwasmechanicallyweak,greatly
affectedbychangesintemperature,didnotretainsets,maintainedcombustion(andemittedtoxicfumes)andtendedtoseparateatjoints.These
problemshavenowbeenovercomeand,insomerespects,plasticsconduitshavemanyadvantagesoversteel.Itismuchlighterand,therefore,
easiertohandleandinstall,providesasmoothersurfaceforthedrawingofthecables,isnotsubjecttocorrosionandrusting,andthesuperhigh
impactmaterialsnowusedmakeitsuitableformostapplications.
d.FlexibleconduitSeveraldifferenttypesofflexibleconduitareavailable,rangingfromconvolutedplasticstoreinforcedcorrugatedsteelcovered
bothinternallyandexternallywithselfextinguishingplastics,thelatterbeingthemostappropriateforgeneraluse.Itisparticularlyusefulfor
finalconnectionstomachinerysubjecttovibrationinplaceofthealternativemethodsofflexiblecableorcoiledmineralinsulatedcoppercables
(MICCs).FlexibleconduitshallconformtorelevantIndianStandard.
6.7.1.2Cablesinconduits
ThetypesofcableswhichmaybeinstalledinconduitsarePVCsinglecoreinsulated,butylorsiliconerubberinsulated,withcopperor
aluminiumconductors.PVCinsulatedandsheathedcablesaresometimesinstalledinconduitswhentheextrainsulationandprotectionisdesirable.
Undernocircumstancesmayordinaryflexiblecordsbedrawnintoconduit.
6.7.1.3Selectionofcorrectsizeofconduit
Afterselectionofthecorrectsizeofcablesforagivenelectricalloadismade,theselectionoftheappropriatesizeofconduittoaccommodate
thesecablesistobedone.Thenumberofcableswhichmaybedrawnintoanyconduitmustbesuchthatitallowseasydrawing
Table8SpacingofSupportsforConduits
(Clause6.7.1.0)
SlNo.

NominalSizeofConduit
mm

MaximumDistancebetweenSupports
RigidMetal
Horizontal
m

(1)

(2)

i) Notexceeding16

RigidInsulation

Vertical
m

(3)

Horizontal
m

(4)

Pliable

Vertical
m

(5)

Horizontal
m

(6)

Vertical
m

(7)

(8)

0.75

1.0

0.75

1.0

0.3

0.5

ii) Exceeding16andnotexceeding25

1.75

2.0

1.5

1.75

0.4

0.6

iii) Exceeding25andnotexceeding40

2.0

2.25

1.75

2.0

0.6

0.8

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iv) Exceeding40

2.25

2.5

2.0

2.0

0.8

1.0

NOTEAflexibleconduitisnotnormallyrequiredtobesupportedinitsrun.
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in,andinnocircumstancesmayitbeinexcessofthemaximumgiveninPart1/Section20ofthisCode.Forlargercablesitispreferableto
installcablesintrunking.Asthenumberofcablesorcircuitsinagivenconduitortrunkingincrease,thecurrentcarryingcapacitiesofthecables
decrease.Thereforeitisadvisablenottoincreasethesizeoftheconduitortrunkinginordertoaccommodatemorecables,buttousetwoormore
conduits.Theconduitinstallationmustbecompletebeforecablesaredrawnin.Thisistoensurethatsubsequentwiringcanbecarriedoutjustas
readilyastheoriginal.Alsotheinstallationmustbearrangedsothatcablesarenotdrawnroundmorethantworigidanglebends.Thisconduitis
completeandreadyforwiring,andwillbeconcealedwhenthewallpanelsarefitted.
6.7.1.4Conduitsystem
Therearetwodistinctconduitsystems,thesurfacesystem,andtheconcealedsystem.
6.7.1.4.1Surfacesystem
a.ChoiceofrunsThemostsuitablerunshouldbechosenfortheconduits.Whenthereareseveralconduitsrunninginparallel,theymustbe
arrangedtoavoidcrossingatthepointwheretheytakedifferentdirections.Theroutesshouldbechosensoastokeeptheconduitsasstraightas
possible,onlydeviatingifthefixingsarenotgood.Therunsshouldalsobekeptawayfromgasandwaterpipesandobstructionswhichmight
provedifficulttonegotiate.Locationswheretheymightbecomeexposedtodampnessorotheradverseconditionsshouldbeavoided.
b.ConduitfittingsBends,inspectionteesandelbows,madeinaccordancewithrelevantIndianStandardsmaybeused.However,bendscanbe
madebysettingtheconduit,andwherethereareseveralconduitsrunninginparallelwhichchangedirection,itisnecessaryforthesebendsto
bemadesothattheconduitsfolloweachothersymmetricallywhichisnotpossibleifmanufacturedbendsareused.Theuseofinspectionelbows
andteesisnotgoodpractice,asthereisinsufficientroomfordrawingincablesand,inaddition,theinstallationpresentsashoddyappearance.
RoundboxesinaccordancewithrelevantIndianStandardsmay,insteadbeused.Theseboxeshaveamuchbetterappearance,provideplentyof
roomfordrawingincables,andcanaccommodatesomeslackcablewhichshouldbestowedinalldrawinpoints.Forconduitsupto25mm
diameter,thesmallcircularboxesshouldbeused.Circularboxesarenotsuitableforconduitslargerthan32mm,andfortheselargersizes
rectangularboxesshouldbeusedtosuitthesizeofcablestobeinstalled.Theinspectionsleeveisaveryusefuldrawinfitting,becauseitslength
permitstheeasydrawinginofcablesanditsrestrictedwidthenableconduitstoberunincloseproximitywithouttheneedtosettheconduits
atdrawinpoints.Wheretwoormoreconduitsruninparallel,itisagoodpracticetoprovideatdrawinpointsanadaptableboxwhichembraces
alloftheconduits.Thispresentsamuchbetterappearancethanprovidingseparatedrawinboxesandhastheadvantageofprovidingjunctions
intheconduitsystemwhichmightproveusefulifalterationshavetobemadeatalaterdate.Wheretwoormoreconduitsareruninparallel,itis
goodpracticetoembraceallconduitswithanadaptableboxasshowninFig.35.Anadvantageoftheconduitsystemisthatthecablescanbe
renewedoralteredeasilyatanytime.Itis,therefore,necessarythatalldrawinboxesshouldbereadilyaccessible,andsubsequentlynothing
shouldbefixedoverorinfrontofthemsoastorendertheminaccessible.Theneedfortheconduitsystemtobecompleteforeachcircuit,
beforecablesaredrawnin,istoensurethatsubsequentwringcanbecarriedoutjustasreadilyastheoriginalitpreventscablesbecoming
damagedwheretheyprotrudefromsharpendsofconduit,andavoidsthepossibilityofdrawingtheconduitoverthecablesduringthecourseof
erection.
c.RadiusofconduitbendsFacilitiessuchasdrawinboxes,mustbeprovidedsothatcablesarenotdrawnroundmorethantworightanglebends
ortheirequivalent.Theradiusofbendsmustnotbelessthanthestandardnormalbend(seealsoFig.36andTable9).
d.MethodsoffixingconduitThereareseveralmethodsoffixingconduit,andtheonechosengenerallydependsuponwhattheconduithastobe
fixedto.
1.ConduitclipsConduitclipstaketheformahalfsaddle,andhaveonlyonefixinglug.Thereasonforusingclipsinsteadofsaddlesisto
saveanadditionalfixingscrew.Theyarenotsatisfactoryiftheconduitissubjectedtoanystrain.
2.OrdinarysaddlesOrdinarysaddlesprovideaverysecurefixing(seeFig.37).Theyshouldbefixedbymeansoftwo

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Fig.33BendingofConduit

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Fig.34FittingsofConduits

Fig.35ConduitsRuninParallel

Fig.36DrawingofCablesinBends
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Table9MinimumInternalRadiiofBendsinCablesforFixedWiring
[Clause6.7.1.4.1(c)]
Sl
No.

Insulation

(1)

(2)

i) XLPE,PVCorrubber(circular,orcircular

Finish

Overall
Diameter

(3)

Nonarmoured

strandedcopperoraluminiumconductors)

FactortobeAppliedtoOverallDiameter1)ofCableto
DetermineMinimumInternalRadiusofBend

(4)

Not

(5)

3(2)2)

exceeding
10mm
Not

4(3)2)

exceeding
25mm
Exceeding 6
25mm

ii) XLPE,PVCorrubber(solidaluminiumor

Armoured

Any

Armouredornonarmoured

Any

Copperofaluminiumsheath

shapedcopperconductors)
iii) Mineral

withorwithoutPVCovering
1)

Forflatcablesthefactoristobeappliedtothemajoraxis.
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1)Forflatcablesthefactoristobeappliedtothemajoraxis.
2)Thefigureinbracketsrelatestosinglecorecircularconductorsofstrandedconstructioninstalledinconduit,ductingortrunking.

screwsandshouldbespacednotmorethan1.3mapart.Nailsmustnotbeusedforfixing(seeFig.37).Theconduitboxestowhich
luminariesaretobefixedshouldbedrilledatthebackandfixed,otherwiseasaddleshouldbeprovidedclosetoeachsideofthebox(see
Fig.38).

Fig.37SpacingSaddleswithOvalHoles

Fig.38Saddle
3.SpacerbarsaddlesSpacerbarsaddlesareordinarysaddlesmountedonaspacingplate.Thisspacingplateisapproximatelythesame
thicknessasthesocketsandotherconduitfittingsand,therefore,servestokeeptheconduitstraightwhereitleavesthesefittingsaswell
astopreventtheconduitfrommakingintimatecontactwithdampplasterandcementwallsandceilingswhichwouldresultincorrosion
oftheconduitanddiscolorationofthedecorations.Whenconduitisfixedtoconcreteahighpercentageoftheinstallationtimeisspentin
pluggingforfixing,andtheuseofthespacerbarsaddlewhichhasonlyaoneholefixinginitscentrehasanadvantageovertheordinary
saddle.Sometypesofspacerbarsaddlesareprovidedwithsaddleshavingslotsinsteadofholes.Theideaisthatthesmallfixingscrews
needonlybeloosenedtoenablethesaddletoberemoved,slippedovertheconduitandreplaced(seeFig.31and40).Thisadvantageis
offsetbythefactthatwhenthesaddleisfixedundertensionthereistendencyforittoslipsidewaysclearofitsfixingscrews,andthereis
alwaysariskofthishappeningduringthelifeoftheinstallationifascrewshouldbecomeslightlyloose.Forthisreasonholesratherthan
slotsaregenerallymoresatisfactoryinthesesaddles.Whenselectingthelargersizesofspacerbarsaddlesitisimportanttomakesurethat
theslottedholewhichaccommodatesthecountersunkfixingscrewisproperlyproportioned.

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4.DistancesaddlesThesearedesignedtospaceconduitsapproximately10mmfromthewallorceiling.Distancesaddlesaregenerallymade
ofmalleablecastiron.Theyaremuchmoresubstantialthanothertypesofsaddles,andastheyspacetheconduitfromthefixingsurface
theyprovidebetterprotectionagainstcorrosion.Theuseofthistypeofsaddleeliminatesthepossibilityofdustanddirtcollectingbehind
andnearthetopoftheconduitwhereitisgenerallyinaccessible.Forthisreasondistancesaddlesareusuallyspecifiedforhospitals,
kitchens,andothersituationwheredusttrapsmustbeavoided.
5.MultiplesaddlesWheretwoormoreconduitsfollowthesamerouteitisgenerallyanadvantagetousemultiplesaddlesasitsavesa
considerableamountoffixingtimebecauseonlytwoscrewsarerequired,andalsoallconduitsareproperlyandevenlyspaced(seeFig.39
and42).

Fig.39MultipleSaddle

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Fig.40InstallationofConduitwithSpacingSaddle

Fig.41MultipleSaddle
6.GirderclipsWhereconduitsarerunalongoracrossgirders,trussesorothersteelframework,standardspringclipsmaybeusedforbe
quickandeasyfitting.Othermethodsincludearangeofboltondevicesandifitisintendedtorunnumberofconduitsonaparticular
routeandstandardclipsarenotsuitable,itmaybeadvisabletomakethesetosuitsiteconditions,multiplegirderclipscanbemadetotake
anumberofconduitsruninparallel.Asanalternativetogirderclips,multiplesaddlescanbeweldedtosteelwork,orthesteelworkcould
bedrilledincasethereisnoadverseeffectonitsstructuralproperties.
Whenconduitsaresuspendedacrosstrussesorsteelworkthereisapossibilityofsagging,especiallyifluminariesaresuspended
fromtheconduitbetweenthetrusses.Theseconduitsshouldeitherbeofsufficientsizetopreventsagging,orbesupportedbetweenthe
trusses.Theycansometimesbesupportedbyironrodsfromtheroofabove(seeFig.42and43).Ifthetrussesarespaced3mmormore
apartitisnotverysatisfactorytoattempttorunanyconduitacrossthem,unlessthereisadditionalmeansofsupport.Itisfarbetterto
taketheextratroubleandruntheconduitatrooflevelwhereafirmfixingmaybefound.

Fig.42AUsectionFastenedtoaConcreteCeilingwithRagBoltsUsedtoCarryaNumberofSaddlesoftheRequiredSize
e.Avoidanceofgas,waterandotherpipesAllconduitsmustbekeptclearofgasandwaterpipes,eitherbyspacingorinsulation.Theymustalso

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bekeptclearofcablesandpipeswhichfeedtelephones,bellsandotherservices,unlessthesearewiredtothesamestandardaslighting,heating
orpowercircuits.Oneexemptiontothisisthatconduitsmaybefittedtoelectricallyoperatedgasvalves,andthelike,iftheyareconstantly
underelectricallyskilledsupervision.Anotheristhatconduitsmaymakecontactwithwaterpipesiftheyareintentionallybondedtothem.They
mustnotmakecasualcontactwithwaterpipes.Ifconduitshavetoberunneargasorwaterpipesandthereisariskoftheirmakingcontact,
theyshouldbespacedapartwithwoodorotherinsulatingmaterial.Iftheconduitsystemreachesahighpotentialduetodefectivecablesinthe
conduitandineffectiveearthcontinuity,andthisconduitmakescasualcontactwithagasorwaterpipe,eitherofwhichwouldbeatearth
potential,thenarcingwouldtakeplacebetweentheconduitandtheotherpipe.Thismightresultinpuncturingthegaspipeandignitingthegas.
Thereisgreaterlikelihoodofthishappeningifthegasorwaterpipeisoflead.

Fig.43SupportingSeveralConduitsfromAngleIronTruss
f.ProtectionofconduitsAlthoughheavygaugeconduitaffordsexcellentmechanicalprotectiontothecablesitencloses,itispossibleforthe
conduititselftobecomedamagedifstuckbyheavyobjects.Suchdamageisliabletooccurinworkshopswheretheconduitisfixednearthefloor
levelandmaybestruckbytrolleyorheavyequipmentbeingmovedorslungintoposition.Protectioncanbeaffordedbythreadingawaterpipe
overtheconduitduringerection,orbyscreeningitwithsheetsteelorchanneliron.Anothermethodofprotectionis,ofcourse,tofixthe
conduitbehindthesurfaceofthewall.

Fig.44ASupportingFittingfromTangentTeeBox

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Fig.45AConduitSuspendedAcrossRoofTrusses
g.TerminationofconduitatswitchpositionsAtswitchpositionstheconduitmustterminatewithametalboxorintoanaccessoryorrecesslined
withincombustiblematerial.
80

h.TerminationofconduitatotherthanswitchpositionsWhereconduitterminatesaceilingorwallpointsotherthanatswitchpositions,itmust
terminatewithamealbox,orrecess,orablockofincombustiblematerial.

Fig.46TypicalMethodsofTerminatingSurfaceandConcealedSystems

Fig.47OutletPositions
i.RemovalofburrsfromendsofconduitWhensteelconduitiscutbyahacksaw,aburrisformedupontheinnerboreoftheconduit.Ifthis
burrwerenotremoveditwouldcauseconsiderabledamagetotheinsulationofthecablesdrawnintotheconduit.Endsoflengthsofconduit
shouldbefreefromburrs,andwheretheyterminateatboxes,trunkingandaccessoriesnotfittedwithspoutentries,shouldbetreatedsoasto
eliminatedamagetocables.
j.ConduitInstalledindampconditionsIfmetallicconduitsareinstalledexternallyorindampsituations,theyshouldeitherbegalvanized,

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sherardized,orbemadeofcopper,andallclipsandfixings(includingfixingscrews)shallbeofcorrosionresistingmaterialandshouldbefree
fromburrs.Whenthereisadangerofcondensationforminginsideconduit(forexample,wheretheremaybechangesoftemperature)suitable
precautionsshouldbetaken.Holesmaybedrilledatthelowestpointsoftheconduitsystemor,alternatively,conduitboxeswithdrainageholes
shouldbefitted.Drainageoutletsshouldbeprovidedwherecondensedwatermightotherwisecollect.Wheneverpossibleconduitrunsshould
designedsoastoavoidtrapsformoisture.
k.ContinuityoftheconduitsystemAscrewedconduitsystemmustbemechanicallyandelectricallycontinuousacrossalljointssothatthe
electricalresistanceoftheconduit,togetherwiththeresistanceoftheearthinglead,measuredfromtheearthelectrodetoanypositioninthe
conduitsystemshallbesufficientlylowsothattheearthfaultcurrentoperatestheprotectivedevice.Toachievethisitisnecessarytoensurethat
allconduitconnectionsaretightandthattheenamelisremovedformadaptableboxesandotherconduitfittingswherescrewedentriesarenot
provided.Toensurethecontinuityoftheprotectiveconductorthroughoutthelifeoftheinstallation,aseparatecircuitprotectiveconductoris
drawnintotheconduitforeachcircuitintheconduit.Conduitsmustalwaysbetakendirectintodistributionboards,switchfuses,switches,
isolators,starters,motorterminalboxes,etc,andmustbeelectricallyandmechanicallycontinuousthroughout.Conduitsmustnotbeterminated
withabushandunprotectedcablestakeninto

Fig.48ConnectingTwoLengthsofConduitNeitherofWhichcanbeTurned,byUseofCouplerandLockout
81

switchgearandotherequipment.Theswitchgearmustbeconnectedmechanicallyeitherwithsolidconduits,orwithflexiblemetallic
conduits.
l.FlexiblemetallicconduitFlexiblemetallicconduitsareusedforfinalconnectionstomotorssoastoprovideforthemovementofthemotorif
fixedonsliderails.Italsopreventsanynoiseorvibrationbeingtransmittedfromthemotor,orthemachinetowhichitmaybecoupled,toother
partsofthebuildingthroughtheconduitsystem(seeFig.49).Theseflexibleconduitsshouldpreferablybeofthewatertightpatternandshould
beconnectedtotheconduitbymeansofbrassadaptors.Theseadaptorsaremadetoscrewontotheflexibletubingandalsointotheconduit.It
isgoodpracticetobrazetheadaptortothemetallictubing,otherwiseitislikelytobecomedetachedandexposethecablestomechanical
damage.TheuseofflexiblemetallictubingwhichiscoveredwithPVCsleevingsisrecommendedasthisouterprotectionpreventsoilfrom
causingdamagetotherubberinsertioninthejointsofthetubing.

Fig.49TerminationConduitatSwitchandStarter

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m.SurfaceconduitfeedingluminairesandclocksWhensurfaceconduitruntofeedwallorceilingaccessorylikeluminaries/clocketcwhichare
fixeddirecttothewallorceiling,itisadvisable,ifpossible,tosettheconduitintothewallashortdistancefromthepositionoftheaccessoryas
showninFig.50.

Fig.50SurfaceConduitSystemwhenFitting/AccessorymustbeFlushonWallorCeiling
n.Drawingcablesintoconduits
1.Cablesmustnotbedrawnintoconduitsuntiltheconduitsystemforthecircuitconcernediscomplete,exceptforprefabricatedflexible
conduitsystemswhicharenotwiredinsitu.
2.Whendrawingincablestheymustfirstofallberunoffthereelsordrums,orthereelsmustbearrangedtorevolvefreely,otherwiseifthe
cablesareallowedtospiraloffthereelstheywillbecometwisted,andthiswouldcausedamagetotheinsulation.Ifonlyalimitedquantity
ofcableistobeuseditmaybemoreconvenienttodispenseitdirectfromoneoftheboxedreelswhicharenowonthemarket.
3.Cablemustnotbeallowedtospiraloffreelsoritwillbecometwistedandtheinsulationdamaged.
4.Ifanumberofcablesarebeingdrawnintoconduitatthesametime,thecablereelsshouldbearrangedonastandorsupportsoasto
allowthemtorevolvefreely.

82

5.Innewbuildingsandindampsituationsthecableshouldnotbedrawnintoconduitsuntilithasbeenmadecertainthattheinteriorsof
theconduitsaredryandfreefrommoisture.Ifindoubt,adrawwirewithaswabattheendshouldbedrawnthroughtheconduitsoasto
removeanymoisturethatmayhaveaccumulatedduetoexposureorbuildingoperations.
6.Itisusualtocommencedrawingincablesfromamidpointintheconduitsystemsoastominimizethelengthofcablewhichhastobe
drawnin.Adrawintapeshouldbeusedfromonedrawinpointtoanotherandtheendsofthecablesattached.Theendsofthecables
mustbebaredforadistanceofapproximately50mmandthreadedthroughaloopinthedrawtape.Whendrawinginanumberofcables
theymustbefedinverycarefullyatthedeliveryendwhilstsomeonepullsthematthereceivingend.
7.Thecablesshouldbefedintotheconduitinsuchamannerastopreventanycablescrossing,andalsotoavoidthembeingpulledagainst
thesidesoftheopeningofthedrawinbox.Inhotweatherorunderhotconditions,thedrawingincanbeassistedbyrubbingFrench
chalkonthecables.Alwaysleavesomeslackcableinalldrawinboxesandmakesurethatcablesarefedintotheconduitsoasnotto
finishupwithtwistedcableatthedrawinpoint.
8.Thisoperationneedscareandtheremustbesynchronizationbetweenthepersonwhoisfeedingandthepersonwhoispulling.Ifinsight
ofeachotherthiscanbeachievedbyamovementofthehead,andifwithinspeakingdistancebywordofcommandgivenbyperson
feedingthecables.Ifthetwopersonsarenotwithinearshot,thentheprocessissomewhatmoredifficult.Agoodplanisforthe
individualfeedingthecablestogiveprearrangedsignalsbytappingtheconduitwithapairofpliers.
9.Insomecases,itmaybenecessaryforathirdpersontobestationedmidwaybetweenthetowpositionstorelaythenecessaryinstructions
fromthepersonfeedingtothepersonpulling.Otherwisecablesmaybecomecrossedandthismightresultinthecablesbecomingjammed
insidetheconduit.
10.Thenumberofcablesdrawnintoaparticularsizeconduitshouldbesuchthatnodamageiscausedtoeitherthecablesortotheir
enclosureduringinstallation.Itwillbenecessary,afterdecidingthenumberandsizeofcablestobeplacedinaparticularconduitrun,to
determinethesizeofconduittobeused.Eachcableandconduitsizeisallocatedafactorandbysummingthefactorsforallthecablesto
beruninaconduitroute,theappropriateconduitsizetousecanbedetermined.
6.7.1.4.2Concealedconduitsystem
6.7.1.4.2.1Screwedmetalconduitisparticularlysuitableforconcealedwiring.Theconduitcanbeinstalledduringbuildingoperationsandcan
besafelyburiedinfloorsandwallswhetherthefloorsorwallsareconstructedofwood,brick,hollowtilesorsolidconcrete,insuchamannerthatthe
cablescanbedrawninatanytimeafterthecompletionofthebuilding.Theconduitsystem,ifpropertyinstalled,canberelieduponadequatelyto
protectthecablesandallowsthemtobereplacedatanytimeifdesired.Mostmodernbuildings,includingblocksofflats,areconstructedwithsolid

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floorsandsolidwallsanditisnecessaryfortheconduit(ifconcealed)tobeerectedduringtheconstructionofthebuilding.Inothertypesofbuilding
wheretherearewoodenjoistsandplasterceilings,conduitwillhavetoberunbetweenandacrossthejoists.
a.RunningconduitinwoodenfloorsWhereconduitisrunacrossthejoists,theywillhavetobeslottedtoenabletheconduittobekeptbelow
thelevelofthefloorboards.Whenslotsarecutinwoodenjoiststheymustbekeptasnearaspossibletothebearingssupportingthejoists,and
theslotsshouldnotbedeeperthanabsolutelynecessary,otherwisethejoistswillbeundulyweakened(seeFig.51).Theslotsshouldbearranged
soastobeinthecentreofanyfloorboards,iftheyareneartheedgethereisthepossibilityofnailsbeingdriventhroughtheconduit.Theslots
cutinthejoistsshouldbenodeeperthannecessaryandkeptasnearaspossibletothebearingofthejointssoasnottoweakenthemunduly.
Trapsshouldbeleftatthepositionofalljunctionboxes.Thesetrapsshouldconsistofashortlengthoffloorboard,screweddownandsuitably
marked.

Fig.51RunningConduitinWoodFloorstoFeedLightingPoints
83

b.RunningconduitsinsolidfloorsWheretherearesolidfloors,itisimpossibletoleavejunctionboxesinthefloors,unlessthereisacavityabove
thetopofthefloorslab,inwhichcasetheconduitsmayberuninthecavityandinspectionboxesarrangedsoastobeaccessiblebelowthefloor
boards.Otherwisetheconduitneedstobearrangedsothatcablescanbedrawninthroughceilingorwallpoints.Thismethodsisknownasthe
loopinginsystem,anditisshowninFig.52andFig.53andconduitboxesareprovidedwithholesatthebacktoenabletheconduittobe
loopedfromoneboxtoanother.Theseboxesaremadewithtwo,threeorfourholessothatitispossiblealsototeeofftoswitchesandadjacent
ceilingorwallpoints.Ifthefloorsareofreinforcedconcrete,itmaybenecessarytoerecttheconduitsystemontheshutteringandtosecureit
inpositionbeforetheconcreteispoured.Whereverconduitistobeburiedbyconcrete,specialcaremustbetakentod)ensurethatalljointsare
tight,otherwiseliquidcementmayentertheconduitandformasolidblockinside.Preferablythejointsshouldbepaintedwithbitumasticpaint,
andtheconduititselfshouldalsobepaintedwheretheenamelhasbeenremovedduringthreadingofsetting.Sometimestheconduitscanbe
runinchasescutintoconcretefloorstheseshouldbearrangedsoastoavoidtrapsintheconduitwherecondensationmaycollectanddamage
thecables.
c.ConduitrunstooutletsinwallsSocketsnearskirtinglevelshouldpreferablybefedfromtheflooraboveratherthanthefloorbelow,becausein
thelattercaseitwouldbedifficulttoavoidtrapsintheconduit(Fig.54).Whentheconduitisruntoswitchandotherpositionsinwallsitis
usuallyruninachasesinthewall.Thesechasesmustbedeepenoughtoallowatleast10mmofcementandplastercoveringotherwiserust
fromtheconduitmaycomethroughtothesurface.Conduitsburiedinplastershouldbegivenacoatofprotectivepaint,orshouldbegalvanised.
Theplastershouldbefinishedneatlyroundtheoutsideedgesofflushswitchandsocketboxes,otherwisethecoverplatesmaynotconcealany
deficienciesintheplasterfinish.Wheninstallingflushboxesbeforeplastering,itisadvisabletostufftheboxeswithpapertopreventtheirbeing
filledwithplaster.
d.CeilingpointsAtceilingpointstheconduitboxeswillbeflushwiththefinishoftheconcreteceiling.Iftheceilingistohaveaplaster
rendering,thiswillleavethefrontoftheboxesrecessedabovetheplasterfinish.Toovercomethisitispossibletouseextensionringsfor
standardconduitboxes.Atthepositionofceilingpointspitisusualtopprovideastandardfoundconduitbox,withanearthterminal,butany
metalboxorincombustibleenclosuremaybeused,althoughanearthterminalmustbeprovided.

Fig.52TypicalArrangementofConcealedConduitsFeedingLightingPointsbyLoopingtheConduitintotheBackofOutletBoxes
84

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Fig.53DetailsofConduitBoxandMethodofHasteningConduit

Fig.54RightandWrongMethodsofFeedingSocketNearSkirtingLevel

85

e.RunningsunkconduitstosurfacedistributionboardsWheresurfacemounteddistributionboardsareusedwithasunkconduit,theproblems
arisesastothebestmethodofterminatingflushconduitsintothesurfaceboards.Onemethodistosettheconduitsouttotherequired
distanceintothesurfaceboardsbutthisisnotrecommended.Abettermethodistofitaflushadaptableboxinthewallbehindthedistribution
boardandtotaketheflushconduitsdirectlyintoit.Holescanbedrilledinthebackofthedistributionboardandbushed.Spareholesshouldbe
providedforfutureconduits.Alternatively,anadaptableboxcanbefittedatthetopofthedistributionboard,partlysunkintothewalltoreceive
theflushconduits,andpartlyonthesurfacetoboltonthetopofthedistributionboard.Distributionboardsmustbebondedtotheadaptable
boxes.
f.BeforewiringsunkconduitBeforewiring,theconduitsforeachcircuitmustbeerectedcomplete.Notonlyshouldtheybecompletebutthey
mustbecleananddryinsideotherwisethecablesmaysufferdamage.Noattemptshouldbemadetowireconduitswhichareburiedincement
untilthebuildinghasdriedoutandthentheconduitsshouldbeswabbedtoremoveanymoistureorobstructionwhichmayhaveenteredthem.
g.ThelightmechanicalstressunscrewedconduitsystemThelightmechanicalstressconduitsystemconsistsofconduits,thewallsofwhichare
notofsufficientthicknesstoallowthemtobethreaded.Insteadofscrewedsocketsandfittingsgriptypefittingsareused.
h.InsulatedconduitsystemNonmetallicconduitsarenowbeingincreasinglyusedforalltypesofinstallationwork,bothforcommercialand
housewiring.ThePVCrigidconduitismadeinvarioussizesandtherearevarioustypesofconduitfittings,includingboxesavailableforusewith
thisconduit.Thetypeofuniversalconduitboxismadeofaplasticmaterial,andfittedwithspecialsockets,andenabletheconduittobemerely
slippedintoposition,andsecuredbylockingring.Nocementisrequired,exceptthatitisrecommendedindampsituations.Theadvantageofthe
insulatedconduitsystemisthatitcanbeinstalledmuchmorequicklythansteelconduit,itisnoncorrosive,impervioustomostchemicals,
weatherproof,anditwillnotsupportcombustion.Thedisadvantagesarethatitisnotsuitablefortemperaturesbelow5Corabove60C,and
whereluminariesaresuspendedfromPVCconduitboxes,precautionsmustbetakentoensurethattheheatfromthelampdoesnotresultinthe

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PVCboxreachingatemperatureexceeding60C.Forsurfaceinstallationsitisrecommendedthatsaddlesbefittedatintervalsof800mmfor20
mmdiameterconduit,andintervalsof1600mmto2000mmforlargersizes.Thespecialsocketsandsaddlesforthistypeofconduitmust
haveprovisiontoallowforlongitudinalexpansionthatmaytakeplacewithvariationsinambienttemperature.Itisnecessarytoprovideacircuit
protectiveconductorinallinsulatedconduit,andthismustbeconnectedtotheearthterminalinallboxesforswitches,socketsandluminaries.
TheonlyexceptionisinconnectionwithClass2equipment,thatis,equipmenthavingdoubleinsulation.Inthiscaseaprotectiveconductor
mustnotbeprovided.FlexiblePVCconduitsarealsoavailable,andthesecanbeusedwithadvantagewherethereareawkwardbends,orunder
floorboardswhererigidconduitswouldbedifficulttoinstall.
6.7.1.4.2.2Installationofplasticconduit
Plasticconduitsandfittingscanbeobtainedfromanumberofdifferentmanufacturersandthetechniquesneededtoinstallthesearenot
difficulttoapply.Careishoweverneededtoassembleaneatinstallationandthepointsgivenbelowshouldbeborneinmind.Aswithanyother
installationgoodworkmanshipandtheuseofgoodqualitymaterialsisessential.
Itshouldbenotedthatthethermalexpansionofplasticconduitisaboutsixtimesthatofsteel,andsowheneversurfaceinstallationofstraight
runsexceeding6mistobeemployed,somearrangementmustbemadeforexpansion.Thesaddlesusedhaveclearancetoallowtheconduittoexpand.
Jointsshouldbemadewithanexpansioncoupler,whichisattachedwithsolventcementtooneofthelengthsoftube,butallowedtomoveinthe
other.
Cuttingtheconduitcanbecarriedoutwithafinetoothsaworusingthespecialtool.Aswithsteelconduit,itisnecessarytoremoveanyburrs
androughnessattheendofthecutlength.
Bendingthesmallsizesofplasticconduitupto25mmdiametercanbecarriedoutcold.Abendingspringisinsertedsoastoretainthecross
sectionalshapeofthetube.Itisimportanttousethecorrectsizeofbendingspringforthetypeoftubebeingemployed.Withcoldbending,thetube
shouldinitiallybebenttoaboutdoubletherequiredangle,andthenreturnedtotheanglerequired,asthisreducesthetendencyofthetubetoreturn
toitsstraightform.Tobendlargersizesoftube,32mmdiameterandabove,judiciousapplicationofheatisneeded.Thismaybeappliedbyblowlamp,
electricfireorboilingwater.Ifanakedflameisused,extremecaremustbetakentoavoidoverheatingtheconduit.Oncewarm,insertabending
springandbendthetuberoundasuitableformer.Abucketissuitable,butdonotuseabendingmachineformer,asthisconduitsawaytheheattoo
rapidly.Theformedtubeshouldassoonaspossiblebesaddledafterbending.
Jointsaremadeusingsolventadhesives,whichcanbeobtainedspecificallyforthepurpose.Theseadhesivesareusuallyhighlyflammableand
careisneededinhandlinganduse.Goodventilationisessential,andit

86

isimportantnottoinhaleanyfumesgivenoff.Themanufacturersinstructionsforuseofthesolventadhesiveshouldbestrictlyfollowed.If
sealingisneededtowaterproofthejoint,useaspecialnonsettingadhesiveorgrease.Threadedadaptorsareavailableforusewhenitisrequired.
Drawingincablesiscarriedoutbymakinguseofanylondrawintape.Thesmoothboreoftheplastictubeaidsthepullinginoperation.Liquidsoapor
Frenchchalkmaybeusedtoprovidelubricationtohelpthepullinginprocess.Capacitiesofplasticconduitsmaybecalculatedinasimilarwaytothat
usedforsteelsystems.Eachtypeofcableisallocatedafactor,andcorrespondingfactorsareallocatedforvarioussizesofconduit.Table10andTable
11givethefactorsapplicabletocablesandconduits.Thisrequiresthatwhencablesaredrawnintoconduitdamagetobothcablesandconduitis
avoided.Theuseofplasticconduitissuitablewhencablerunsrequiretobelocatedinprecastconcrete.Aswillbeappreciateditisessentialthatsound
jointsaremadesothatwhentheconcreteiscast,theconduitrunsdonotseparate.Themaximumpermissiblenumberof1.1kVgradecablesthatcan
bedrawnintorigidsteelconduitsaregivenatTable3ofPart1/Section20ofthisCode.Themaximumpermissiblenumberof1.1kVgradesinglecore
cablesthatmaybedrawnintorigidnonmetallicconduitsaregiveninTable4ofPart1/Section20ofthisCode.Table1ofPart1/Section20gives
diameterandmaximumallowableresistanceoffusewiresoftinnedcopper.
6.7.2CableTrunkingandDuctingSystems

6.7.2.0General
Cabletrunkingandcableductingsystemsareusedfortheaccommodation,andwherenecessaryforthesegregationofconductors,cablesor
cordsand/orotherelectricalequipmentinelectricalinstallations(seeFig.55).Thesystemsaremounteddirectlyonwallsorceilings,flushorsemi
flushorindirectlyonwallsorceilings,oronstructuresawayfromonwallsorceilings.SeeIS14927(Part1)forgeneralrequirementsofthecable
trunkingandductingsystems.Forgeneraluse,cabletrunkingisnowavailableinvariousmaterialssuchassteel,PVC,aluminiumandphenyleneoxide
(Noryl),inawiderangeofsizesofbothsquareandrectangularcrosssection.Steelcabletrunkingissuppliedinvariousstandardlengthswithprovision
forslottingtogetherandboltingtomaintainelectricalcontinuityforbonding.Ifrequired,trunkingisavailablewithpinsupportsatregularintervalsfor
separatingcircuitsand,whereitisessentialtocompletelysegregatewiring,suchassafetyservicesandextralowvoltage,continuousbarriersare
provided.
Wherealargenumberofcableshastoberuntogether,itisoftenconvenienttoputthemintrunking.Trunkingforelectricalpurposesis
generallymadeof1.2mmsheetsteel,andisavailableissizerangingfrom50mm50mmto600mm150mm,commonsizesbeing50mm50
mm,75mm100mm,150mm75mmand150mm150mmalthough50mm100mmand100mm100mmarealsoavailable.SeeTable12
forspacingofsupportsfortrunkingandTable13forpreferreddimensionsofcabletrunkingandducting.
6.7.2.1Typesoftrunking
a.MetallictrunkingTrunkingforindustrialandcommercialinstallationsisoftenusedinplaceofthelargersizesofconduit.Itcanbeusedwith
advantageinconjunctionwith16mmto32mmconduits,thetrunkingformingthebackgroundorframeworkofthesystemwithconduits
runningfromthetrunkingtolightingorsocketoutletpoints.Forexample,inalargeofficebuilding,trunkingcanberunabovethesuspended
ceilingalongthecorridorstofeedcorridorpoints,androomsoneithersidecanbefedfromthistrunkingbyconduit.
Inmultistoreyedbuildingstrunkingofsuitablecapacity,andwiththenecessarynumberofcompartments,istobeprovidedandrun
verticallyintheriserductsandconnectedtodistributionboardsitcanalsoaccommodatecircuitwiring,controlwiring,alsocablesfeedingfire
alarms,telephones,emergencylightingandotherservicesassociatedwithamodernbuilding.
Cablesfeedingfirealarmsandemergencycircuitsneedtobesegregatedbyfireresistingbarriersfromthosefeedinglowvoltagecircuits
(thatis50Vto1000Vac).Itisusualfortelecommunicationscompaniestoinsistthattheircablesarecompletelysegregatedfromallother
wiringsystems.Itmaythereforebenecessarytoinstall3or4compartmenttrunkingtoensuretherequirementsfordataand

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telecommunicationscircuitsarecompliedwith.Cablesfeeingemergencylightingandfirealarmmustalsobesegregatedfromthewiringofany
othercircuitsbymeansofrigidandcontinuouspartitionsofnoncombustiblematerial.
b.NonmetallictrunkingAnumberofversatileplastictrunkingsystemshavebeendevelopedinrecentyearsandtheseareoftensuitablefor
installationworkindomesticorcommercialpremises,particularlywhererewiringofexistingbuildingsisrequired.

87

Table10ConduitFactorsforRunsIncorporatingBends
(Clause6.7.1.4.2.2)
SlNo.

LengthofRun

16

20

Straight
25

32

16

OneBend
20

25

32

16

TwoBends
20

25

32

16

ThreeBends
20

25

32

16

FourBends
20

25

32

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

(17)

(18)

(19)

(20)

(21)

(22)

i) 1

188 303

543

947

177

286

514

900

158

256

463

818

130

213

388

692

ii) 1.5

182

294

528

923

167

270

487

857

143

233

422

750

111

182

333

600

iii) 2

177

286

514

900

158

256

463

818

130

213

388

692

97

159

292

529

iv) 2.5

171

278

500

878

150

244

442

783

120

196

358

643

86

141

260

474

v) 3

167

270

487

857

143

233

422

750

111

182

333

600

179

290 521

911

162

263

475

837

136

222

404

720

103

169

311

563

vi) 3.5
vii) 4

177

286

514

900

158

256

463

818

130

213

388

692

97

159

292

529

viii) 4.5

174

282

507

889

154

250

452

800

125

204

373

667

91

149

275

500

ix) 5

171

278

500 878

150

244

442

783

120

196

358

643

86

141

260

474

x) 6

167 270

487 857

143

233

422

750

111

182

333

600

xi) 7

162 263

475

837

136

222

404

720

103

169

311

563

xii) 8

158 256

463 818

130

213

388

692

97

159

292

529

xiii) 9

154

452

800

125

204

373

667

91

149

275

500

xiv) 10

150 244

442 783

120

196

358

643

86

141

260

474

250

88

Fig.55CableTrunking
Table11CableFactorsforLongStraightRuns,orRunsIncorporatingBendsinConduit
(Clause6.7.1.4.2.2)
TypeofConductor

Solidorstranded

Conductor,CrossSectionalArea

Factor

1.0

16

1.5

22

2.5

30

4.0

43

6.0

58

10.0

105

c.MinitrunkingFordomesticorsimilarsmallinstallations,minitrunkingsystemssimilarinformtocabletrunkingbutoflessobstructivecross
section,rangingfrom16mmto75mmwideby12mmto30mmdeepcanbeused.Therearenumerousaccessoriesforbends,junctionsand
outletsand,withtheexceptionoftheoutletswhichareusuallysurfacemounted.Acompleteinstallationcanbemadequiteinconspicuouslyby
closefittingtoskirtings,picturerailsanddoorarchitraves.Becauseofthesmallsection,runsonwallsoracrossceilingscanbeusedwithout
spoilingtheaestheticsofanarea.Minitrunkingandcovetrunkingareparticularlysuitableforareaswhichmaybesubjecttochangesoflayouts,
orforrewiring,toavoidmajorunheavalsinadditiontonewinstallations.Thesimplicityofinstallationsandthedegreeofaccessibilityprovided
bythesesystemscanreducelabourcoststremendously.
d.LightingtrunkingsystemSteeloralloylightingtrunkingwasoriginallydesignedtospantrussesothersupportsinordertoprovideaneasyan
economicalmethodofsupportingluminariesinindustrialpremisesathighlevel.

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e.Underfloortrunkingsystem/FloordistributionsystemOpenplanofficeandothertypesofcommercialbuildingsmaywellneedpowerand
datawiringtooutletsatvariouspointsinthefloorarea.Themostappropriatewayofprovidingthisisbyoneoftheunderfloorwiringsystems
nowavailable.Bothsteelandplasticconstructiontrunkingcanbeobtained,andifrequiredpowerpolescanbeinsertedatappropriatelocations
tobringthesocketoutletstoaconvenienthandheight.Withtheincreasingusebeingmadeofcomputers,and
Table12SpacingofSupportsforTrunking
(Clause6.7.2.0)
SlNo.

MaximumDistanceBetweenSupports

CrosssectionalArea,mm2

Metal

Insulating

Horizontal
m
(1)

(2)

Vertical
m

(3)

Horizontal
m

(4)

Vertical
m

(5)

(6)

i) Exceeding300andnotexceeding700

0.75

1.0

0.5

0.5

ii) Exceeding700andnotexceeding1500

1.25

1.5

0.5

0.5

iii) Exceeding1500andnotexceeding2500

1.75

2.0

1.25

1.25

iv) Exceeding2500andnotexceeding5000

3.0

3.0

1.5

2.0

3.0

3.0

1.75

2.0

v) Exceeding5000

otherelectronicdatatransmissionsystems,theflexibilityoftheunderfloorwiringcanbeusedtogoodadvantage.

89

f.SteelfloortrunkingUnderfloortrunkingmadeofsteelisusedextensivelyincommercialandsimilarbuildings,anditcanbeobtainedinvery
shallowsectionswithdepthofonly22mm,whichisveryusefulwherethethicknessofthefloorscreedislimited.
g.PlasticunderfloortrunkingPlasticmaterialsarenowoftenusedinsteadoftheirmetalcounterpartsfortheenclosuresofunderfloorsystems.
Underfloortrunkingsystemsmadewiththismaterialcanbedividedintotwomaintypes,thesebeingraisedfloorsystemsandunderfloor
systems.
h.CarpettrunkingsystemAcarpettrunkingisprovidedforfixingtoafinishedfloor,whichhasatotaldepthof9.6mm.Itiscompletewitha
snaponoverlappinglidwhich,whenitplace,formsaretainerforabuttingcarpet.
NOTETherearemanydifferentdesigns,theparticularrequirementsofwhicharecoveredinotherpartsofIS14927.
6.7.2.2Trunkingandductingsystemsshallbesodesignedandconstructedthatwhererequiredtheyensurereliablemechanicalprotectionto
theconductorsand/orcablescontainedtherein.Whererequired,thesystemshallalsoprovideadequateelectricalprotection.Inaddition,thesystem
componentsshallwithstandthestresseslikelytooccurduringtransport,storage,recommendedinstallationpracticeandusage.SystemComponents
arepartsusedwithinthesystem,whichincludelengthsoftrunkingorducting,trunkingorductingfittings,fixingdevices,apparatusmountingdevices,
andotheraccessories.
NOTETheabovementionedcomponentsmaynotnecessarilybeincludedalltogetherinasystem.Differentcombinationsof
componentsmaybeused.
Inaddition,forcabletrunkingandductingsystemsintendedformountingonwallsorceilings,themanufacturersinstructiononclassification
oftheCT/DSandoninstallationofthesystemshouldbefollowed.Ifthesystemisintendedforthesuspensionofloads,themanufacturersonthe
maximumloadandmethodofsuspensionshouldbefollowed.
Thesizesofthecabletrunkingandductingotherthanthosespecifiedarealsoacceptableaspertheagreementbetweenthepurchasersandthe
manufacturersprovidedthattheheightandwidtharefromthecombinationofthefollowingdimensionshavingtolerancesof0.2mmonbothheight
andwidthdimensions.12mm,16mm,20mm,25mm,32mm,38mm,50ram,75mmand100mm.
Wallthicknessforcabletrunkingandductingforanytypeofcombinationwithrespecttoheightandwidthasgiveninclauseshallbeasfollows:
a.Anycombinationwheresizeisupto32mmthewallthicknessshallbeatleast1.20mm.
b.Anycombinationwheresizeisupto38mm,thewallthicknessshallbeatleast1.30mm.
c.Anycombinationwheresizeisupto50mmthewallthicknessshallbeatleast1.50mm.
d.Anycombinationwheresizeisabove50mmthewallthicknessshallbeatleast1.80mm.
6.7.2.3Accesstoliveparts
Trunking/ductingsystemsshallbesodesignedthatwhentheyareinstalledandfittedwithinsulatedconductorsandapparatusinnormaluse,
partsarenotaccessible.
6.7.2.4Designsofconduitsystem
Aschematicoftrunkingandductingsystemsforwall,ceilinginstallationandfloorinstallationisgivenatFig.56.
Table13PreferredDimensionsofCableTrunkingandDucting
(Clause6.7.2.0)
Size

ApproximateInternalCrossSectional

OuterWidth

OuterHeight

WallThicknessMin

mm

mm2

mm

mm

mm

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

1212

119.50

12.00.2

12.00.2

1.20

1612

153.00

16.00.2

12.00.2

1.20

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1616

196.00

16.00.2

16.00.2

1.20

2512

239.10

25.00.2

12.00.2

1.20

2516

307.40

25.00.2

16.00.2

1.20

2525

510.80

25.00.2

25.00.2

1.20

3816

474.40

38.00.2

16.00.2

1.30

3825

793.00

38.00.2

25.00.2

1.30

5016

611.00

50.00.2

16.00.2

1.50

5050

2209.00

50.00.2

50.00.2

1.50

7575

5098.00

75.00.2

75.00.2

1.80

10050

4473.00

100.00.2

50.00.2

1.80

90

a)TypesandApplicationofTrunkingandDuctingSystemforWallandCeilingInstallation
No.on
Fig.56

Definition

(1)

For

(2)

Trunkingand

accessories

Mounting

(3)

(4)

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Surfaceonwallandceiling,onwallsmountedhorizontally
orvertically,ceilingsuspended

11
12
13
15
3

Trunkingand

accessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Flushinwallandceiling,inwallsmountedhorizontallyor

Trunkingand

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords,mountingdevicesforapparatus

Surfaceonwallandceiling,onwallsmountedhorizontally

accessories

(switches,socketoutlets,circuitbreakers,etc

orvertically

Ductingand

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Surfaceonwallandceiling,onwallsmountedhorizontally

10

accessories

vertically

orvertically,ceilingsuspended

8
4

Ductingand

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Embeddedinwallandceiling,inwallsmounted

accessories

horizontallyorvertically

91

b)TrunkingandDuctingSystemsforFloorInstallation
No.onFig.56

Definition

For

(1)

(2)

(3)

Mounting
(4)

Trunkingandaccessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Flushfloor

Trunkingandaccessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Surfaceonfloor

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5

6
2

Ductingandaccessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords,

Flushfloor

Ductingandaccessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Infloor(embedded)

Electricalserviceunit

Apparatus

Flushfloor

Electricalserviceunit

Apparatus

Surfaceonfloor

Skirtingtrunkingandaccessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords

Surfaceonwallandceiling

Notshown

Skirtingtrunkingandaccessories

Insulatedconductors,cables,cords,countingdevicesforapparatus

Surfaceonwallandceiling

Notshown

Socketplinth

Mountingapparatus(socketoutlets)

Surfaceonwall

Skirtingsystems
6
15

Fig.56TypesofTrunkingandDuctingSystems
7EQUIPMENT,FITTINGSANDACCESSORIES
7.0

Animportantstageofelectricalinstallationworkisthefixingofaccessories,suchasceilingroses,holders,switches,socketoutletsand
luminaries.Thisworkrequiresexperienceandathoroughknowledgeoftheregulationswhichareapplicable,becausedangerfromshockfrequently
resultsfromtheuseofincorrectaccessoriesoraccessoriesbeingwronglyconnected.
Allequipmentshallbesuitableforthemaximumpowerdemandedbythecurrentusingequipmentwhenitisfunctioninginitsintended
manner.Inwiringotherthanconduitwiring,allceilingroses,brackets,pendantsandaccessoriesattachedtowallsorceilingsshallbemountedon
substantialteakwoodblockstwicevarnishedafterallfixingholesaremadeinthem.Blocksshallnotbelessthan4cmdeep.Brassscrewsshallbeused
forattachingfittingsandaccessoriestotheirbaseblocks.Whereteakorhardwoodboardsareusedformountingswitches,regulators,etc,theseboards
shallbewellvarnishedwithpureshellaconallfoursides(bothinsideandoutside),irrespectiveofbeingpaintedtomatchthesurroundings.Thesize
ofsuchboardsshalldependonthenumberofaccessoriesthatcouldconvenientlyandneatlybearranged.Wherethereisdangerofattackbywhite
ants,theboardsshallbetreatedwithsuitableantitermitecompoundandpaintedonbothsides.
Similarpartofallswitches,lampholders,distributionfuseboards,ceilingroses,brackets,pendants,fansandallotherfittingsshallbesochosen
thattheyareofthesametypeandinterchangeableineachinstallation.Electricalequipmentwhichformintegralpartofwiringintendedforswitching
orcontrolorprotectionofwiringinstallationsshallconformtotherelevantIndianStandardswherevertheyexist.
7.1CeilingRoses

7.1.1

Ceilingroseshallnotbeusedonacircuitthevoltageofwhichnormallyexceeds250V.Ceilingrosesmaybeofthe2platepatternandmust
haveanearthterminal.The3platetypeisusedtoenablethefeedtobeloopedattheceilingroseratherthantouseanextracablewhichwouldbe
neededtoloopitattheswitch.Figure57givesdifferenttypesofceilingroses.
7.1.2

ForPVCsheathedwiringitispossibletoeliminatetheneedforjointboxesif3plateceilingrosesareemployed.Noceilingrosemaybeusedon
acircuithavingavoltagenormallyexceeding250V.Notmorethantwoflexiblecordsmaybeconnectedtoanyoneceilingroseunlessthelateris
speciallydesignedformultiplependants.
7.1.3

Special3and4pinfittingsratedat2or6Amaybeobtainedandthesecanbeinstalledwherelightingfittingsneedtoberemovedorrearranged.
Theabilitytoremovelightingeasilycanassistin
92

Fig.57CeilingRose
carryingourmaintenance.Althoughthefittingisasocketoutlet,itcannotbeusedforsupplyinghandheldequipment.

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7.1.4

Fortheconduitsystemofwiringitisusualtofitceilingroseswhichscrewdirectontoastandardconduitbox,theboxbeingfittedwithanearth
terminal.
7.2Luminaries

7.2.1

Everyluminaireorgroupofluminariesmustbecontrolledbyaswitchorasocketoutletandplug,placedinareadilyaccessibleposition.
LuminaireshouldconformtorelevantIndianStandardwhereexisting.
7.2.2

Indampsituations,everyluminaireshallbeofthewaterprooftype,andinsituationswherethereislikelihoodofpresenceofflammableor
explosivedust,vapour,orgas,theluminariesmustbeoftheflameprooftypeinaccordancewiththerecommendationofPart7ofthisCodeand
relevantIndianStandard(seeIS5571).Flammableshadeshallnotformapartoflightingfittingsunlesssuchshadeiswellprotectedagainstallrisksof
fire.Celluloidshadeorlightingfittingsshallnotbeusedunderanycircumstances.Generalandsafetyrequirementsforelectricallightingfittingsshall
beinaccordancewithgoodpractice.ThelightingfittingsshallconformtorelevantIndianStandardswheretheyexist.
Theuseoffittingswireshallberestrictedtotheinternalwiringofthelightingfittings.Wherefittingswireisusedforwiringfittings,thesub
circuitloadsshallterminateinaceilingroseorboxwithconnectorsfromwhichtheyshallbecarriedintothefittings
7.2.3FlexibleCordsandCables

7.2.3.1TheconductorofflexiblecordsandcablesshallbeaccordingtoflexibilityClass5ofIS8130.Flexiblecords,ifnotproperlyinstalledand
maintained,canbecomeacauseoffireandshock.Flexiblecordsmustnotbeusedforfixedwiring.Flexiblecordsmustnotbeusedwhereexposedto
dampnessorimmediatelybelowwaterpipes.Theyshouldbeopentoviewthroughouttheirentirelength,exceptwherepassingthroughaceilingwhen
theymustbeprotectedwithaproperlybushednonflammabletube.Flexiblecordsmustneverbeheldinpositionbymeansofinsulatedstaples.
Connectionsbetweenflexiblecordsandcablesshallbeeffectedwithaninsulatedconnector,andthisconnectormustbeenclosedinaboxorinpartof
aluminaire.Ifanextensionofaflexiblecordismadewithaflexiblecordconnectorconsistingofpinsandsockets,thesocketsmustbefedfromthe
supply,sothattheexposedpinsarenotalivewhendisconnectedfromthesockets.Allflexiblecordsusedforportableappliancesshallbeofthe
sheathedcirculartypeand,thereforetwistedcordsmustnotbeusedforportablehandlamps,floorandtablelamps,etc.Allflexiblecordsshouldbe
frequentlyinspected,especiallyatthepointwheretheyenterlampholdersandotheraccessories,andrenewediffoundtobeunsatisfactory.Flexible
cordsusedinworkshopsandotherplacessubjectedtoriskofmechanicaldamageshallbesheathedorarmoured.
7.2.3.2Whereflexiblecordssupportluminariesthemaximumweightwhichmaybesupportedisasfollows:
NominalCrosssectionalAreaofFlexibleCord
mm2

MaximumPermissibleWeight
kg

(1)

(2)

0.5

0.75

1.0

Ifnecessarytwoormoreflexiblecordsshallbeusedsothattheweightsupportedbyanycorddoesnotexceedtheabovevalues.

93

7.2.3.3Inkitchensandsculleries,andinroomswithafixedbath,flexiblecordsshallbeofthePVCsheathedoranequallywaterprooftype.
7.2.3.4Inindustrialpremisesluminariesshallbesupportedbysuitablepipe/conduits,bracketsfabricatedfromstructuralsteel,steelchainsor
similarmaterialsdependinguponthetypeandweightofthefittings.Wherealightingfittingissupportedbyoneormoreflexiblecords,themaximum
weighttowhichthetwinflexiblecordsmaybesubjectedshallbeasfollows:
NominalCrosssectionalAreaofTwinCord
mm2

MaximumPermissibleWeight
kg

(1)

(2)

0.5

0.75

1.0

1.5

5.3

2.5

8.8

4.0

14.0

7.2.3.5Wherethetemperatureoftheluminaireislikelytoexceed60C,specialheatresistingflexiblecordsshouldbeused,includingfor
pendantorenclosedtypeluminaries.Theflexiblecordshouldbeinsulatedwithheatproofinsulationsuchasbutylorsiliconerubber.OrdinaryPVC
insulatedcordsarenotlikelytowithstandtheheatgivenoffbytungstenfilamentlamps.Flexiblecordsfeedingelectricheatersmustalsohave
heatproofinsulationsuchasbutylorsiliconerubber.
7.3LampHolders

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7.3.1

Insulatedlampholdersshouldbeusedwhereverpossible.Lampholdersfittedwithswitchesmustbecontrolledbyafixedswitchorsocketoutlet
inthesameroom.LampholdershouldconformtorelevantIndianStandards.
7.3.2

LampholdersforuseonbracketsandthelikeshallbeinaccordancewithIndianStandardsandallthoseforusewithflexiblependantsshallbe
providedwithcordgrip.Alllampholdersshallbeprovidedwithshadecarriers.TheouterscrewedcontactofEdisonscrewtypelampholdersmust
alwaysbeconnectedtotheneutralofthesupply.SmallEdisonscrewlampholdersmusthaveaprotectivedevicenotexceeding6A,butthelargersizes
mayhaveaprotectivedevicenotexceeding16A.ThesmallBayonetCap(BC)lampholdermusthaveaprotectivedevicenotexceeding6A,andforthe
largerBClampholderstheprotectivedevicemustnotexceed16A.Figure58showsdifferenttypesofBClampholders.
7.3.3

Nolampholdermaybeusedoncircuitsexceeding250Vandallmetallampholdersmusthaveanearthterminal.Inbathroomsandother
positionswheretherearestonefloorsorexposedextraneousconductiveparts,lampholdersshouldbefittedwithinsulatedskirtstopreventinadvertent
contactwithlivepinswhenalampisbeingremovedorreplaced.
7.4Lamps

7.4.1

Alllampsunlessotherwiserequiredandsuitablyprotected,shallbehungataheightofnotlessthan2.5mabovethefloorlevel.Allelectric
lampsandaccessoriesshallconformtorelevantIndianStandards.Portablelampsshallbewiredwithflexiblecord.Handlampsshallbeequippedwith
ahandleofmouldedcompositionorothermaterialapprovedforthepurpose.Handlampsshallbeequippedwithasubstantialguardattachedtothe
lampholderorhandle.Metallicguardsshallbeearthedsuitably.
7.4.2

Abushingortheequivalentshallbeprovidedwhereflexiblecordentersthebaseorstemofportablelamp.Thebushingshallbeofinsulating
materialunlessajacketedtypeofcordisused.Allwiringshallbefree

Fig.58DifferentTypesofBayonetHolders
94

fromshortcircuitsandshallbetestedforthesedefectspriortobeingconnectedtothecircuit.Exposedlivepartswithinporcelainfixturesshall
besuitablyrecessedandsolocatedastomakeitimprobablethatwireswillcomeincontactwiththem.Thereshallbeaspacingofatleast125mm
betweenlivepartsandthemountingplaneofthefixture.
7.4.3

Externalandroadlampsshallhaveweatherprooffittingsofapproveddesignsoastoeffectivelypreventtheingressofmoistureanddust.Flexible
cordandcordgriplampholdersshallnotbeusedwhereexposedtoweather.Inverandahsandsimilarexposedsituationswherependantsareused,
theseshallbeoffixedrodtype.
7.5SocketOutletsandPlugs

7.5.1

Socketoutletsareusedforcircuitsnotexceeding250V.Figure59showsvariousaccessoriesandtheiruse.Each16Asocketoutletprovidedin
buildingsfortheuseofdomesticappliancesshallbeprovidedwithitsownindividualfuseorminiaturecircuitbreaker(MCB),withsuitable
discriminationwithbackupfuseorminiaturecircuitbreakerprovidedinthedistribution/subdistributionboard.Thesocketoutletshallnot
necessarilyembodythefuseorMCBasanintegralpartofit.Eachsocketoutletshallalsobecontrolledbyaswitchwhichshallpreferablybelocated
immediatelyadjacenttheretoorcombinedtherewith.Theswitchcontrollingthesocketoutletshallbeonthelivesideoftheline.Ordinarysocket
outletmaybefixedatanyconvenientplaceataheightabove20cmfromthefloorlevelandshallbeawayfromdangerofmechanicalinjury.Socket
outletsinstalledinoldpeopleshomesandindomesticpremiseslikelytobeoccupiedbyoldordisabledpeople,shouldbeinstalledatnotlessthan1m

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fromfloorlevel.
Insituationswhereasocketoutletisaccessibletochildren,itisnecessarytoinstallaninterlockedplugandsocketoralternativelyasocket
outletwhichautomaticallygetsscreenedbythewithdrawalofplug.Inindustrialpremisessocketoutletofrating16Aandaboveshallpreferablybe
providedwithinterlockedtypeswitch.SocketoutletsshouldconformtorelevantIndianStandards.
7.5.2

Inanearthedsystemofsupply,asocketoutletwithplugshallbeofthreepintypewiththethirdterminalconnectedtotheearth.Whensuch
socketoutletswithplugsareconnectedtoanycurrentconsumingdeviceofmetaloranynoninsulatingmaterialorboth,conductorsconnectingsuch
currentconsumingdevicesshallbeofflexiblecordwithanearthingcoreandtheearthingcoreshallbesecuredbyconnectingbetweentheearth
terminalofplugandthebodyofcurrentconsumingdevices.
Inindustrialpremisesthreephaseandneutralsocketoutletsshallbeprovidedwithaearthterminaleitherofpintypeorscrappingtypein
additiontothemain

Fig.59PlugSocketOutletandAssociatedAccessories
pinsrequiredforthepurpose.Inwiringinstallations,metalcladswitch,socketoutletandplugsshallbeusedforpowerwiring.

95

ArecommendedscheduleofsocketoutletsinaresidentialbuildingisgivenatTable2ofPart3ofthisCode.
Although16Asocketoutletisextensivelyusedinindustrialpremises,otherindustrialtypesocketoutletsincludesinglephaseandthreephase
socketswithratingsupto125A.
Thelowvoltageelectricalequipment(safety)standardsrequireequipmenttobesafe.Anypartintendedtobeelectrifiedshouldbeadequately
protestedsuchthatitisnotaccessibletoafinger,includingthatofachild.Thisprotectioncanbeachievedbypartlyshroudingthelivepinsofplugsso
thatwhentheplugisintheprocessofbeinginsertedeventhesmallestfingercannotmakecontactwithlivemetal.
Wheninstallingsocketoutletsthecablesmustbeconnectedtothecorrectterminals,whichare
a.redwire(phaseorouterconductor)toterminalmarkedL.
b.blackwire(neutralormiddleconductor)toterminalmarkedN.
c.yellow/greenearthwiretoterminalmarkedE.
7.5.3

Ifwrongconnectionsaremadetosocketoutletsitmaybepossibleforapersontoreceiveanelectricshockfromanappliancewhenitis
switchedoff.Socketoutletadaptorswhichenabletwoormoreappliancestobeconnectedtoasinglesocketshouldcontainfusestopreventthe
socketoutletfrombecomingoverloaded.
7.6Switches

7.6.1

Therearevarioustypesofswitchesavailable,themostcommonbeingthe6Aswitchwhichisusedtocontrollights.Thereisalsothe16A
switchforcircuitscarryingheaviercurrents.Foraccircuitsthemicrogapswitchisalsobeinguseditismuchsmallerthantheoldertypeandmore
satisfactoryforbreakinginductiveloads.
Quickmakeandslowbreakswitchesarerecommendedforac.Aquickbreakswitchconnectedtoanacsupplyandloadedneartoitscapacity
willtendtobreakdowntoearthwhenusedtoswitchoffaninductiveload(suchasfluorescentlamps).
7.6.2

Inaroomcontainingafixedbath,switchesmustbefixedoutofreachofthepersoninthebath,preferablyoutsidethedoor,orbeoftheceiling

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typeoperatedbyacord.Allsinglepoleswitchesshallbefittedinthesameconductorthoughouttheinstallation,whichshallbethephaseconductor
ofthesupply.
7.6.3

Indampsituations,everyswitchshallbeofthewaterprooftypewithsuitablescrewedentriesorglandstopreventmoisterenteringtheswitch.
Topreventcondensedmoisturefromcollectinginsideawatertightswitchbox,averysmallholeshouldbedrilledinthelowestpartoftheboxtoenable
themoisturetodrainaway.
7.6.4

Flameproofswitchesmustbefittedinallpositionsexposedtoflammableorexplosivedust,vapour,gas.
7.7Fans

7.7.1CeilingFans

CeilingfansincludingtheirsuspensionshallconformtoIndianStandards.Thefollowingshouldbeadheredtoduringinstallation:
a.Controlofaceilingfanshallbethroughitsownregulatoraswellasaswitchinseries.
b.Allceilingfansshallbewiredwithnormalwiringtoceilingrosesortospecialconnectorboxestowhichfanrodwiresshallbeconnectedand
suspendedfromhooksorshackleswithinsulatorsbetweenhooksandsuspensionrods.Thereshallbenojointinthesuspensionrod,butif
jointsareunavoidablethensuchjointsshallbescrewedtospecialcouplersof50mmminimumlengthandbothendsofthepipesshalltouch
togetherwithinthecouplers,andshallinadditionbesecuredbymeansofsplitpinsalternatively,thetwopipesmaybewelded.Thesuspension
rodshallbeofadequatestrengthtowithstandthedeadandimpactforcesimposedonit.Suspensionrodsshouldpreferablybeprocuredalong
withthefan.

96

c.Fanclampsshallbeofsuitabledesignaccordingtothenatureofconstructionofceilingonwhichtheseclampsaretobefitted.Inallcasesfan
clampsshallbefabricatedfromnewmetalofsuitablesizesandtheyshallbeasclosefittingaspossible.Fanclampsforreinforcedconcreteroofs
shallbeburiedwiththecastingandduecareshallbetakenthattheyshallservethepurpose.Fanclampsforwoodenbeams,shallbeofsuitable
flatironfixedontwosidesofthebeamandaccordingtothesizeandsectionofthebeamoneortwomildsteelboltspassingthroughthebeam
shallholdbothflatironstogether.Fanclampsforsteeljoistshallbefabricatedfromflatirontofitrigidlytothebottomflangeofthebeam.Care
shallbetakenduringfabricationthatthemetaldoesnotcrackwhilehammertoshape.Otherfanclampsshallbemadetosuittheposition,but
inallcasescareshallbetakentoseethattheyarerigidandsafe.
d.Canopiesontopandbottomofsuspensionrodsshalleffectivelyconcealsuspensionsandconnectionstofanmotors,respectively.
e.Theleadinwireshallbeofnominalcrosssectionalareanotlessthan1.0mm2copperor1.5mm2aluminiumandshallbeprotectedfrom
abrasion.
f.Unlessotherwisespecified,theclearancebetweenthebottommostpointoftheceilingfanandthefloorshallbenotlessthan2.4m.The
minimumclearancebetweentheceilingandtheplaneofthebladesshallbenotlessthan300mm.
NOTEAllfanclampsshallbesofabricatedthatfansrevolvesteadily.
7.7.2ExhaustFans

Forfixingofanexhaustfan,acircularholeshallbeprovidedinthewalltosuitthesizeoftheframewhichshallbefixedbymeansofragbolts
embeddedinthewall.Theholeshallbeneatlyplasteredwithcementandbroughttotheoriginalfinishofthewall.Theexhaustfanshallbeconnected
toexhaustfanpointwhichshallbewiredasneartotheholeaspossiblebymeansofaflexiblecord,carebeingtakenthatthebladesrotateinthe
properdirection.
7.7.3Fannage

7.7.3.1Whereceilingfansareprovided,thebaysizesofabuilding,whichcontrolfanpointlocations,playanimportantpart.Fansnormally
coveranareaof9m2to10m2andthereforeingeneralpurposeofficebuildings,foreverypartofabaytobeservedbytheceilingfans,itisnecessary
thatthebaysshallbesodesignedthatfullnumberoffanscouldbesuitablylocatedforthebay,otherwiseitwillresultinillventilatedpockets.In
general,fansinlonghallsmaybespacedat3minboththedirections.Ifbuildingmodulesdonotlendthemselvesforproperpositioningofthe
requirednumberofceilingfans,suchasaircirculatorsorbracketfanswouldhavetobeemployedfortheareasuncoveredbytheceilingfans.Forthis,
suitableelectricaloutletsshallbeprovidedalthoughresultwillbedisproportionatetocostonaccountoffans.
7.7.3.2Properaircirculationcouldbeachievedeitherbylargernumberofsmallerfansorsmallernumberoflargerfans.Theeconomicsofthe
systemasawholeshouldbeaguidingfactorinchoosingthenumberandtypeoffansandtheirlocations.
Exhaustfansarenecessaryforspaces,suchascommunitytoilets,kitchens,canteensandgodownstoprovidetherequirednumberofair
changes(seePart1/Sec11ofthisCode).Sincetheexhaustfansarelocatedgenerallyontheouterwallsofaroomappropriateopeningsinsuchwalls
shallbeprovidedforintheplanningsite.
Positioningoffansandlightfittingsshallbechosentomaketheseeffectivewithoutcausingshadowsandstroboscopiceffectontheworking
planes.

ANNEXA
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LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSRELATEDTOINSTALLATION
(Clause2)
ISNo.

Title

371:1999

CeilingrosesSpecification

732:1989

Codeofpracticeforelectricalwiringinstallations

1255:1983

Codeofpracticeforinstallationandmaintenanceofpowercablesuptoandincluding33kVrating

1293:2005

Plugsandsocketoutletsofratedvoltagesuptoandincluding250Vandratedcurrentuptoandincluding16A
Specification

97

1646:1997

Codeofpracticeforfiresafetyofbuildings(general):Electricalinstallations

2412:1975

Linkclipsforelectricalwiring

2667:1988

Fittingsforrigidsteelconduitsforelectricalwiring

3043:1987

Codeofpracticeforearthing

3419:1988

Fittingsforrigidnonmetallicconduits

3480:1966

Flexiblesteelconduitsforelectricalwiring

3808:1979

Methodoftestfornoncombustibilityofbuildingmaterials

3837:1976

Accessoriesforrigidsteelconduitsforelectricalwiring

3854:1997

Switchesfordomesticandsimilarpurposes

3961

Recommendedcurrentratingsforcables:

(Part1):1967

Paperinsulatedleadsheathedcables

(Part2):1967

PVCinsulatedandPVCsheathedheavydutycables

(Part3):1968

Rubberinsulatedcables

(Part5):1968

PVCinsulatedlightdutycables

4289

Specificationforflexiblecablesforliftsandotherflexibleconnections:

(Part1):1984

Elastomerinsulatedcables

(Part2):2000

PVCinsulatedcircularcables

4649:1968

Adaptorsforflexiblesteelconduits

5571:2000

Guideforselectionofelectricalequipmentforhazardousareas

5572:1994

Classificationofhazardousareas(otherthanmines)havingflammablegasesandvapoursforelectricalinstallation

6946:1990

PVCinsulatedcablesforworkingvoltagesuptoandincluding1100V

8130:1984

Conductorsforinsulatedelectriccablesandflexiblecords

8623

Specificationforlowvoltageswitchgearandcontrolgearassemblies:

(Part1):1993/IEC604391:

Requirementsfortypetestedandpartiallytypetestedassemblies

1985(Part2):1993/IEC604392:

Particularrequirementsforbusbartrunkingsystems(busway)

1987

(Part3):1993/IEC604393:

Particularrequirementsforequipmentwhereunskilledpersons

1990

haveaccessfortheiruse

9537

Conduitsforelectricalinstallations:

(Part2):1981

Rigidsteelconduits

(Part3):1983

Rigidplainconduitsofinsulatingmaterials

(Part4):1983

Pliableselfrecoveringconduitsofinsulatingmaterials

(Part5):2000

Pliableconduitsofinsulatingmaterial

(Part6):2000

Pliableconduitsofmetalorcompositematerials

(Part8):2003

Rigidnonthreadableconduitsofaluminiumalloy

11000(Part2/Sec1):1984/IEC695

Firehazardtesting:Part2Testmethods,Section1Glowwiretestandguidance

21:1980
11353:1985

Guideforuniformsystemofmarkingandidentificationofconductorsandapparatusterminals

13703(Part1):1993/IEC2691:1986 LVFusesforvoltagesnotexceeding1000Vacor1500Vdc:Part1Generalrequirements
14255:1995

Aerialbunchedcablesforworkingvoltagesuptoandincluding1100VSpecification

14763:2000

ConduitsforelectricalpurposesOutsidediametersofconduitsforelectricalinstallationandthreadsforconduitsand
fittingsSpecification

14768(Part1):2000

ConduitfittingsforelectricalinstallationsSpecification:Part1Generalrequirements

14772:2000

GeneralrequirementsforenclosuresofaccessoriesforhouseholdandsimilarfixedelectricalinstallationsSpecificationsfor
anaccessoryorluminaries

14927

Cabletrunkingandductingsystemsforelectricalinstallations:

(Part1):2001

Generalrequirements

(Part2):2001

Cabletrunkingandductingsystemsintendedformountingonwallsorceilings

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14930

Conduitsystemsforelectricalinstallations:

(Part1):2001

Generalrequirements

(Part2):2001

ParticularrequirementsConduitsystemsburiedunderground

SP69:2000

BankingandrelatedfinancialservicesInformationsecurityguidelines

ANNEXB
CLASSIFICATIONCODINGFORCONDUITSYSTEMS
(Clause6.7.1.0)
Theclassificationcodingformatfordeclaredpropertiesoftheconduitsystemwhichmayeitherbeincorporatedinthemanufacturersliterature
ormarkedontheproductshallbeasshownbelow.Whentheconduitismarkedwiththeclassificationcode,itincludesatleastthefirstfourdigits.
a.FirstdigitResistancetocompression
[See6.1.1ofIS14930(Part1)]
Verylightcompressionstrength

Lightcompressionstrength

Mediumcompressionstrength

Heavycompressionstrength

Veryheavycompressionstrength

b.SeconddigitResistancetoimpact
[See6.1.2ofIS14930(Part1)]
Verylightimpactstrength

Lightimpactstrength

Mediumimpactstrength

Heavyimpactstrength

Veryheavyimpactstrength

c.ThirddigitLowertemperaturerange
[SeeTable1ofIS14930(Part1)]
+5C

5C

15C

25C

5C

d.FourthdigitUppertemperaturerange
[SeeTable2ofIS14930(Part1)]
+60C

+90C

+105C

+120C

+150C

+250C

+400C

e.FifthdigitResistancetobending
[See6.1.3ofIS14930(Part1)]
Rigid

Pliable

Pliable/Selfrecovering

Flexible

f.SixthdigitElectricalcharacteristics
[See6.3ofIS14930(Part1)]
Nonedeclared

Withelectricalcontinuitycharacteristics

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Withelectricalinsulatingcharacteristic

Withelectricalcontinuityandinsulatingcharacteristics

g.SeventhdigitResistancetoingressofsolidobjects
[See6.4.1ofIS14930(Part1)]
Protectedagainstsolidforeignobjects2.5mmdiameterandgreater

Protectedagainstsolidforeignobjects1.0diameterandgreater

Dustprotected

Dusttight

h.EightdigitResistancetoingressofwater
[See6.4.2ofIS14930(Part1)]
Nonedeclared

Protectedagainstverticallyfallingwaterdrops

Protectedagainstverticallyfallingwaterdrops

whenconduitsystemtilteduptoanangleof15Protectedagainstspraying/water

Protectedagainstsplashingwater

Protectedagainstwaterjets

Protectedagainstpowerfulwaterjets

protectedagainsttheeffectsoftemporaryimmersioninwater

i.NinthdigitResistanceagainstcorrosion
[See6.4.3ofIS14930(Part1)]
Lowprotectioninsideandoutside

Mediumprotectioninsideandoutside

Mediumprotectioninside,highprotectionoutside

Highprotectioninsideandoutside

j.TenthdigitTensilestrength
[See6.1.4ofIS:14930(Part1)]

99

Nonedeclared

Verylighttensilestrength

Lighttensilestrength

Mediumtensilestrength

Heavytensilestrength

Veryheavytensilestrength

k.EleventhdigitResistancetoflamepropagation
[See6.5ofIS14930(Part1)]
Nonflamepropagating

Flamepropagating

l.TwelfthdigitSuspendedloadcapacity
[See6.1.5ofIS14930(Part1)]
Nonedeclared

Verylightsuspendedloadcapacity

Lightsuspendedloadcapacity

Mediumsuspendedloadcapacity

Heavysuspendedloadcapacity

Veryheavysuspendedloadcapacity

m.ThirteenthdigitFireeffects
(Underconsideration)
100

SECTION10SHORTCIRCUITCALCULATIONS
0FOREWORD

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Circuitcalculationsareperformedforcheckingtheadequacyoftheelectricalequipmentforanyelectricalsystemthatischaracterizedbythe
typeofdistributionsystemcomprisingoftransformers,bus,cablesetc.
TheessentialrequirementsandmethodsassociatedwithfollowingcalculationsarecoveredinthisSection:
a.Shortcircuitcalculationsin3phaseacsystems.
b.CurrentcarryingcapacityandVoltagedropcalculationsforcablesandflexiblecords.
AssistanceforthisSectionhasbeenderivedfromthefollowingstandards:
ISNo.

Title

13234:1992

Guideforshortcircuitcalculationinthreephaseacsystems

13235:1991/IEC865(1986)

Calculationoftheeffectsofshortcircuitcurrents

1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section10coversguidelinesandgeneralrequirementsassociatedwithcircuitcalculationsnamely,shortcircuitcalculationsand
voltagedrop,calculationsforcablesandflexiblecords.
2REFERENCES
ThefollowingIndianStandardshavebeenreferredinthissection:
ISNo.

Title

2086:1993

Carriersandbasesusedinrewirabletypeelectricfusesforvoltagesupto650V

9926:1981

Fusewiresusedinrewirabletypeelectricfusesupto650V

13703(Part2/Sec1):1993/lEC

Specificationforlowvoltagefusesforvoltagesnotexceeding1000Vacor1500Vdc:Part2Fusesforusebyauthorized

602692:1986

persons,Section1Supplementaryrequirements

13703(Part2/Sec2):1993/IEC

LVfusesforvoltagesnotexceeding1000Vacor1500Vdc:Part2Fusesforusebyauthorizedpersons,Section2Examplesof

602692:1987

standardizedfuses

IS/IEC608981:2002

ElectricalaccessoriesCircuitbreakersforoverprotectionforhouseholdandsimilarinstallations:Part1Circuitbreakersforac
operation

3GENERALCONSIDERATIONS
3.0General

3.0.1

Thissubjectofcircuitcalculationscoverstheguidelinesrelatingtotheshortcircuitwithstandcapabilityoftheelectricalequipmentandtocheck
permissiblevoltagedropincablesandflexiblecordsuptotheequipmentterminals.
3.0.2

Theobjectiveofthecircuitcalculationistoensurethattheselectionofequipmentunderconsiderationisdesignedforsafeandreliablelong
periodofoperation.
4CIRCUITCALCULATIONS
4.1ShortCircuitCalculations

4.1.1DesignConsiderations

4.1.1.1Acompletecalculationoftheshortcircuitcurrentsshouldgivethecurrentsasafunctionoftimeattheshortcircuitlocationfromthe
initiationoftheshortcircuituptoitsend,correspondingtotheinstantaneousvalueofthevoltageatthebeginningoftheshortcircuit.
4.1.1.2Inmostofthepracticalcasesitissufficienttodeterminether.m.svalueofsymmetricalACcomponentandthepeakvalueipofthe
shortcircuitcurrentfollowingtheoccurrenceofashortcircuit.ThevalueofipdependsontimeconstantofthedecayingaperiodiccomponentiDC
withfrequencydependingontheX/Rratiooftheshortcircuitimpedance.
4.1.1.3Fordeterminationofasymmetricalshortcircuitbreakingcurrent,thedecayingaperiodiccomponentiDCmaybecalculatedwith
sufficientaccuracyby:

where
=

initialsymmetricalshortcircuitcurrent(A),

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nominalsystemfrequency(Hz),

timedurationoffault(s),and

timeconstantbasedonsystemX/R.

4.1.1.4Thecalculationofmaximumandminimumshortcircuitcurrentarebasedonthefollowingconsiderations:
a.Forthedurationoftheshortcircuitthereisnochangeinthenumberofcircuitsinvolved,thatis,athreephaseshortcircuitremainsasthree
phaseandsimilarlyalinetoearthshortcircuitremainslinetoearthduringtheshortcircuit.
101

b.Tapchangersofthetransformerareatnominalposition.
c.Arcresistancesarenottakenintoaccount.
4.1.1.5Insituationswheretherewillbenosignificantchangeinaccomponentdecayduetofardistancefromgenerator(seeFig.1),short
circuitcurrentcanbeconsideredasthesumofthefollowingtwocomponents:
a.Theaccomponentwithconstantamplitudeduringthewholeshortcircuit.
b.TheaperiodiccomponentbeginningwithinitialvalueAanddecayingtozero.
4.1.1.6ForthesystemswheretherewillbesignificantchangeinaccomponentdecayduetocloselocationnearGenerator(seeFig.2),short
circuitcurrentcanbeconsideredasthesumofthefollowingtwocomponents:

Fig.1ShortCircuitataSystemFarFromGenerator

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Fig.2ShortCircuitCurrentataSystemNeartoGenerator
102

a.Theaccomponentwithdecayingamplitudeduringthewholeshortcircuit.
b.TheaperiodiccomponentbeginningwithinitialvalueAanddecayingtozero.
4.1.2CalculationMethods

4.1.2.1General
EquivalentcircuitsaretobedrawnforthesystembeforecalculationofshortcircuitcurrentwithexampleasperFig.3.
4.1.2.1.1Balancedshortcircuit
Thebalancedthreephaseshortcircuitofathreephaseacsystemoftenleadstothehighestvaluesofprospective(available)shortcircuitcurrent
andthecalculationbecomesparticularlysimpleonaccountofthebalancednatureoftheshortcircuit.
Incalculatingtheshortcircuitcurrent,itissufficienttotakeintoaccountonlythepositivesequenceshortcircuitimpedance,Z(1)=Zk asseen
fromthefaultlocation.
4.1.2.1.2Unbalancedshortcircuit
Thefollowingtypesofunbalanced(asymmetrical)shortcircuitsaretobeconsidered:

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Fig.3IllustationforCalculatingtheInitialSymmetricalShortCircuitCurrent InCompliancewiththeProcedurefortheEquivalentVoltage
Source
a.linetolineshortcircuitwithoutearthconnection
b.linetolineshortcircuitwithearthconnection
c.linetoearthshortcircuit
Normally,thethreephaseshortcircuitcurrentisthelargestamongtheabovelistedtypeoffaults.Intheeventofashortcircuitneartoa
transformerwithneutralearthingoraneutralearthingtransformer,thelinetoearthshortcircuitcurrentmaybegreaterthanthethreephaseshort
circuitcurrent.ThisappliesinparticulartotransformersofvectorgroupYz,DyandDzwhenearthingtheyorzwindingonthelowvoltagesideof
thetransformer.
Inthreephasesystemsthecalculationofthecurrentvaluesresultingfromunbalancedshortcircuitsissimplifiedbytheuseofthemethodof
symmetricalcomponentswhichrequiresthecalculationofthreeindependentsystemcomponents,avoidinganycouplingofmutualimpedances.
Usingthismethod,thecurrentsineachlinearefoundbysuperposingthecurrentsofthreesymmetricalcomponentsystems:
a.positivesequencecurrentI(1),
b.negativesequencecurrentI(2),and

103

c.zerosequencecurrentI(0).
TakingthelineLIasreferencethecurrentsIL1,IL2andIL3aregivenby:
IL1

I(1)+I(2)+I(0)

(1a)

IL2

a2I(1)+aI(2)+I(0)

(1b)

IL3

aI(1)+a2I(2)+I(0)

(1c)

Eachofthethreesymmetricalcomponentsystemshasitsownimpedance.
Themethodofthesymmetricalcomponentspostulatesthatthesystemimpedancesarebalanced,forexampleinthecaseoftransposedlines.
Theresultsoftheshortcircuitcalculationhaveanacceptableaccuracyalsointhecaseofuntransposedlines.
4.1.2.1.3Shortcircuitimpedances
Whilecalculatingtheimpedances,thereshallbecleardistinctionbetweenshortcircuitimpedancesattheshortcircuitlocationandshortcircuit
impedancesofindividualelectricalequipment.Accordinglythecalculationswithsymmetricalcomponentsnamely,positivesequence,negative

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sequenceandzerosequenceshortcircuitimpedancestobeperformed.
4.1.3EffectsDuetoShortCircuit
4.1.3.1Theelectromagneticeffectonrigidandslack(line)conductors
Withthecalculationmethods,forcesoninsulators,stressesinrigidconductorsandtensileforcesinslackconductorsaretobeestimated.
4.1.3.1.1Mechanicalforcesduetoshortcircuitcurrents
Currentsinparallelconductorswillinduceelectromagneticforcesbetweentheconductors.Whentheparallelconductorsarelongcomparedto
thedistancebetweenthem,theforceswillactevenlydistributedalongtheconductors.
Whenthecurrentsareinoppositedirectionstheelectromagneticforceisarepulsionwhichtendstoinducedeformationsthatwouldincrease
inductanceofthecircuit.
Thevalueoftheforceinagivendirectioncanbecalculatedbyconsideringtheworkdoneinthecaseofavirtualdisplacementintheactual
direction.Astheworkisdonebytheelectromagneticforce,itmustbeequaltothechangeintheenergyinthemagneticfieldcausedbythisvirtual
displacement.
Theforcebetweentwoconductorsisproportionaltothesquareofthecurrent,ortotheproductofthetwocurrents.Asthecurrentisa
functionoftime,theforcewillalsobeafunctionoftime.Inthecaseofashortcircuitcurrentwithoutadccomponenttheforcewillvarywithtwice
thefrequencyofthecurrent.Adccomponentintheshortcircuitcurrentwillgiverisetoanincreaseofthepeakvalueoftheforceandtoa
componentofforcevaryingwiththesamefrequencyasthecurrent.Thepeakvalueoftheforceisofparticularinterestinthecaseofmechanically
rigidstructures.
Theforcewillresultinbendingstressonrigidconductors,tensionstressanddeflectioninflexibleconductorsandbending,compressionor
tensionloadsonthesupports.
4.1.3.1.2Stressesinrigidconductorsandforcesonsupports
Theconductorsmaybesupportedindifferentmanners,eitherfixedorsimpleorinacombinationofboth,andmayhavetwo,three,fouror
severalsupports.Dependingonthekindofsupportandthenumberofsupports,thestressintheconductorsandtheforcesonthesupportswillbe
differentforthesameshortcircuitcurrent.
Thestressesintheconductorsandtheforcesonsupportsalsodependontheratiobetweenthenaturalfrequencyofthemechanicalsystemand
thefrequencyoftheelectromagneticforce.Especiallyinthecaseofresonance,orneartoresonance,thestressesandforcesinthesystemmaybe
amplified.
4.1.3.1.3Tensileforcesinslackconductors(lineconductors)
Ashortcircuitcurrentinaslackconductorwillcauseatensileforceintheconductorwhichwillaffectinsulators,supportstructuresand
apparatus.Itisnecessarytodistinguishbetweenthetensileforceduringshortcircuitandthetensileforceaftershortcircuit,whentheconductorfalls
backtoitsinitialposition.
4.1.3.2Thermaleffectonhareconductors
Theheatingofconductorsduetoshortcircuitcurrentsinvolvesseveralphenomenaofanonlinearcharacterandotherfactorsthathavetobe
eitherneglectedorapproximatedinordertomakeamathematicalapproachpossible.
Forthepurposeofthiscalculation,thefollowingassumptionscanbeenmade:
a.Proximityeffect(magneticinfluenceofnearbyparallelconductors)hasbeendisregarded.
b.Resistancetemperaturecharacteristichasbeenassumedlinear.

104

c.Thespecificheatoftheconductorisconsideredconstant.
d.Theheatingisgenerallyconsideredadiabatic.
4.1.3.2.1Calculationoftemperaturerise
Thelossofheatfromaconductorduringtheshortcircuitisverylow,andtheheatingcangenerallybeconsideredadiabatic.Hencethe
calculationforthiscanalsobebasedonadiabaticconditions.
Whenrepeatedshortcircuitsoccurwithashorttimeintervalbetweenthem(thatisrapidautoreclosure)thecoolingdownintheshortdead
timeisofrelativelylowimportance,andtheheatingcanstillbeconsideredadiabatic.Incaseswherethedeadtimeintervalisoflongerduration(that
isdelayedautoreclosure)theheatlossmaybetakenintoaccount.
Thecalculationneednottakeintoaccounttheskineffect,thatisthecurrentisregardedasevenlydistributedovertheconductorcrosssection
area.Thisapproximationisnotvalidforlargecrosssections,andthereforeforcrosssectionsabove600mm2theskineffectshallbetakeninto
account.
NOTEIfthemainconductoriscomposedofsubconductors,unevencurrentdistributionbetweenthesubconductorswill
influencethetemperatureriseofsubconductors.
4.1.3.2.2Calculationofthermalequivalentshortcircuitcurrent
Thethermalequivalentshortcircuitcurrentistobecalculatedusingtheshortcircuitcurrentr.m.s.valueandthefactorsmandnforthetime
dependentheateffectsofthedcandaccomponentsoftheshortcircuitcurrent
Thethermalequivalentshortcircuitcurrentcanbeexpressedby:
wheremandnarenumericalfactors,Ik ther.m.s.valueoftheinitialsymmetricalshortcircuitcurrentinathreephasesystem,thebalanced
threephaseshortcircuitisdecisive.Thevaluesmandnareusuallydefinedasfunctionsofthedurationoftheshortcircuitcurrent.Foradistribution
networkusuallyn=1.

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NOTETherelationIk IIk isdependentontheimpedancebetweentheshortcircuitandthesource.
Whenanumberofshortcircuitsoccurwithashorttimeintervalinbetween,theresultingthermalequivalentshortcircuitcurrentisobtained
from:

and

4.1.3.2.3Calculationoftemperatureriseandratedshorttimecurrentdensityforconductors
Thetemperatureriseinaconductorcausedbyashortcircuitisafunctionofthedurationoftheshortcircuitcurrent,thethermalequivalent
shortcircuitcurrentandtheconductormaterial.
NOTEThemaximumpermittedtemperatureofthesupporthastobetakenintoaccount.
4.1.3.2.4Calculationofthethermalshortcircuitstrengthfordifferentdurationsoftheshortcircuitcurrent
Electricalequipmenthassufficientthermalshortcircuitstrengthaslongasthefollowingrelationsholdforthethermalequivalentshortcircuit
currentIth:

whereIthristheratedshorttimecurrentandTkrtheratedshorttime.
ThethermalshortcircuitstrengthforabareconductorissufficientwhenthethermalequivalentshortcircuitcurrentdensitySthsatisfiesthe
followingrelation:

WithTkr=1sandforallTk theratedshorttimecurrentdensitySthrisshowninFig4.
4.2CalculationsforCurrentCarryingCapacityandVoltageDropforCablesandFlexibleCords

4.2.1ConductorOperatingTemperature

Thecurrenttobecarriedbyanyconductorforsustainedperiodsduringnormaloperationshallbesuchthattheconductoroperating
temperaturegivenintheappropriatetableofcurrentcarryingcapacityinthissectionisnotexceeded.
Whereaconductoroperatesatatemperatureexceeding70Citshallbeascertainedthattheequipmentconnectedtotheconductorissuitable
fortheconductoroperatingtemperature.
4.2.2CablesConnectedinParallel

Exceptforaringfinalcircuit,cablesconnectedin
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Fig.4RelationBetweenRatedShorttimeCurrentDensity(Tkr=1s)andConductorTemperature
106

parallelshallbeofthesameconstruction,crosssectionalarea,lengthanddisposition,withoutbranchcircuitsandarrangedsoastocarry
substantiallyequalcurrents.

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4.2.3CablesConnectedtoBareConductorsorBusBars

Whereacableistobeconnectedtoabareconductororbusbaritstypeofinsulationand/orsheathshallbesuitableforthemaximumoperating
temperatureofthebareconductororbusbar.
4.2.4CablesinThermalInsulation

Whereacableistoberuninaspacetowhichthermalinsulationislikelytobeapplied,thecableshallwhereverpracticablebefixedinaposition
suchthatitwillnotbecoveredbythethermalinsulation.Wherefixinginsuchapositionisimpracticablethecrosssectionalareaofthecableshallbe
appropriatelyincreased.
Forasinglecablelikelytobetotallysurroundedbythermallyinsulatingmaterialoveralengthofmorethan0.5m,thecurrentcarryingcapacity
shallbetaken,intheabsenceofmorepreciseinformation,as0.5timesthecurrentcarryingcapacityforthatcableclippeddirecttoasurfaceand
open.
Whereacableistobetotallysurroundedbythermalinsulationforlessthan0.5mthecurrentcarryingcapacityofthecableshallbereduced
appropriatelydependingonthesizeofcable,lengthinsulationandthermalpropertiesoftheinsulation.Thederatingfactorshavetobeappropriateto
conductorsizes.
4.2.5MetallicSheathsand/orNonMagneticArmourofSingleCoreCables

Themetallicsheathsand/ornonmagneticarmourofsinglecorecablesinthesamecircuitshallnormallybondedtogetheratbothendsoftheir
run(solidbonding).Alternativelythesheathsorarmourofsuchcableshavingconductorsofcrosssectionalareaexceeding50mm2andanon
conductingoutersheathmaybebondedtogetheratonepointintheirrun(singlepointbonding)withsuitableinsulationattheunbondedends,in
whichcasethelengthofthecablesfromthebondingpointshallbelimitedsothat,atfullload,voltagesfromsheathsand/orarmourtoEarth,
a.donotexceed25V
b.donotcausecorrosionwhenthecablesarecarryingtheirfullloadcurrent,and
c.donotcausedangerordamagetopropertywhenthecablesarecarryingshortcircuitcurrent.
4.2.6CorrectionFactorsforCurrentCarryingCapacity

Thecurrentcarryingcapacityofcableforcontinuousserviceisaffectedbyambienttemperatureandbyfrequency.ThisClauseprovides
correctionfactorsintheserespectsasfollows.
4.2.6.1Ambienttemperature
Inpracticetheambientairtemperaturesmaybedeterminedbythermometersplacedinfreeairascloseaspracticabletothepositionatwhich
thecablesareinstalledoraretobeinstalled,subjecttotheprovisothatthemeasurementsarenottobeinfluencedbytheheatarisingfromthecables
thusifthemeasurementsaremadewhilethecablesareloaded,thethermometersshouldbeplacedabout0.5mortentimestheoveralldiameterof
thecablewhicheveristhelesser,fromthecables,inthehorizontalplane,or150mmbelowthelowestofthecables.
Wherecablesaresubjecttosuchradiationduetosolarorotherinfrared,thecurrentcarryingcapacitymayneedtobespeciallycalculated.
4.2.6.2Grouping
Appropriatecorrectionfactorstobeappliedtothemanufacturedeclaredcurrentcarryingcapacitywherecablesorcircuitsaregrouped.
4.2.7EffectiveCurrentCarryingCapacity

Thecurrentcarryingcapacityofcablecorrespondstothemaximumcurrentthatcanbecarriedinspecifiedconditionswithouttheconductors
exceedingthepermissiblelimitofsteadystatetemperatureforthetypeofinsulationconcerned.
Thevaluesofcurrentcalculatedrepresenttheeffectivecurrentcarryingcapacityonlywherenocorrectionfactorisapplicable.Otherwisethe
currentcarryingcorrespondstothevaluemultipliedbytheappropriatefactorsforambienttemperature,groupingandthermalinsulation,as
applicable.
Irrespectiveofthetypeofovercurrentprotectivedeviceassociatedwiththeconductorsconcerned,theambienttemperaturecorrectionfactors
tobeusedwhencalculatingcurrentcarryingcapacity(asopposedtothoseusedwhenselectingcablesize).
4.2.8OverloadProtection

Whereoverloadprotectionisrequired,thetypeofprotectionprovideddoesnotaffectthecurrentcarryingcapacityofacableforcontinuous
service(Iz)butitmayaffectthechoiceofconductorsize.Theoperatingconditionsofacableareinfluencednotonlybythelimitingconductor
temperatureforcontinuousservice,butalsobytheconductortemperaturewhichmightbe
107

attainedduringtheconventionaloperatingtimeoftheoverloadprotectiondevice,intheeventofanoverload.
Thismeansthattheoperatingcurrentoftheprotectivedevicemustnotexceed1.45Iz.WheretheprotectivedeviceisafuseasperIS13703(Part
2/Section1)andIS13703(Part2/Section2)orIS2086oraminiaturecircuitbreakerasperIS/IEC60898,thisrequirementissatisfiedbyselectinga
valueofIznotlessthanIn

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Inpractice,becauseofthestandardstepsinnominalratingoffuseandcircuitbreakers,itisoftennecessarytoselectavalueofInexceedingIb.
Inthatcase,becauseitisalsonecessaryforIzinturntobenotlessthantheselectedvalueofIn,thechoiceofconductorcrosssectionalareamaybe
dictatedbytheoverloadconditionsandthecurrentcarryingcapacity(Iz)oftheconductorswillnotalwaysbyfullyused.
ThesizeneededforaconductorprotectedagainstoverloadbyaIS9926fusefixinrewirabletypefusecanbeobtainedbytheuseofacorrection
factor,1.45/2=0.725whichresultsinthesamedegreeofprotectionasthataffordedbyotheroverloadprotectivedevices.Thisfactoristobeapplied
tothenominalratingofthefuseasadivisor,thusindicatingtheminimumvalueofItrequiredoftheconductortobeprotected.Inthiscasealso,the
choiceofconductorsizeisdictatedbytheoverloadconditionsandthecurrentcarryingcapacity(Iz)oftheconductorscannotbefullyused.
4.2.9DeterminationoftheSizeofCabletobeUsed

Havingestablishedthedesigncurrent(Ib)ofthecircuitunderconsideration,theconductorsizehastobesizednecessarilyfromconsideration
oftheconditionsofnormalloadandoverloadisthendetermined.AllcorrectionfactorsaffectingIz(thatis,thefactorforambienttemperature,
groupingandthermalinsulation)can,ifdesired,beappliedtothevaluesofItasmultipliers.Thisinvolvesaprocessoftrialanderroruntilacross
sectionalareaisreachedwhichensuresthatIzisnotlessthanIbandnotlessthanInofanyprotectivedeviceitisintendedtoselect.Inanyevent,ifa
correctionfactorforprotectionbyasemienclosedfuseisnecessary,thishastobeappliedtoInasadivisor.Itisthereforemoreconvenienttoapplyall
thecorrectionfactorstoInasdivisors.
4.2.10VoltageDropinConsumersInstallations

4.2.10.1Acceptablevaluesofvoltagedrop
Undernormalserviceconditionsthevoltageattheterminalsofanyfixedcurrentusingequipmentshallbegreaterthanthelowerlimit
correspondingtotheIndianStandardrelevanttotheequipment.
WherethefixedcurrentusingequipmentconcernedisnotthesubjectofIndianStandardthevoltageattheterminalsshallbesuchasnotto
impairthesafefunctioningoftheequipment.
Therequirementsaredeemedtobesatisfiedforasupplygivenifthevoltagedropbetweentheoriginoftheinstallation(usuallythesupply
terminal)andthefixedcurrentusingequipmentdoesnotexceed5percentofthenormalvoltageofthesupply.
Agreatervoltagedropmaybeacceptedforamotorduringstartingperiodsandforotherequipmentwithhighinrushcurrentsprovideditis
verifiedthatthevoltagevariationsarewithinthelimitsspecifiedintherelevantIndianStandardsfortheequipmentor,intheabsenceofanIndian
Standard,inaccordancewiththemanufacturersrecommendations.
4.2.10.2Calculationofvoltagedrop
Foragivenrun,tocalculatethevoltagedrop(mV/A/m)thevalueforthecableconcernedhastobemultipliedbythelengthoftherunin
metresandbythecurrentthecableisintendedtocarry,namelythedesigncurrentofthecircuitIbinamperes.
ForthreephasecircuitsthecalculatedmV/A/mvaluesrelatetothelinevoltageandbalancedconditionshavetobeassumed.
Thedirectuseofthecalculated(m/V/A/m)ror(mV/A/m)zvalues,asappropriatemayleadtopessimisticallyhighcalculatedvaluesofvoltage
dropor,inotherwords,tounnecessarilylowvaluesofpermittedcircuitlengths.
Wherethedesigncurrentofacircuitissignificantlylessthantheeffectivecurrentcarryingcapacityofthecablechosen,theactualvoltagedrop
wouldbelessthanthecalculatedvaluebecausetheconductortemperature(andhenceitsresistance)willbelessthanthatonwhichthecalculated
mV/A/mhadbeenbased.
Insomecasesitmaybeadvantageoustotakeaccountoftheloadpowerfactorwhencalculatingvoltagedrop.
4.2.10.3CorrectionFactorforoperatingtemperature
Forcableshavingconductorsofcrosssectionalarea16mm2orlessthedesignvalueofmV/A/misobtainedbymultiplyingthecalculatedvalue
byafactorCt,givenby

wheretp=maximumpermittednormaloperatingtemperature,inC.
NOTEForconvenience,theaboveformulaisbasedontheresistancetemperaturecoefficientof0.004perCat20Cforboth
copperandaluminumconductors.
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Forverylargeconductorsizeswheretheresistivecomponentofvoltagedropismuchlessthanthecorrespondingreactivepart(thatiswhenx/r
3)thiscorrectionfactorneednotbeconsidered.
4.2.10.4Correctionforloadpowerfactor
Forcableshavingconductorsofcrosssectionalareaof16mm2orlessthedesignvalueofmV/A/misobtainedapproximatelybymultiplyingthe
calculatedvaluebythepowerfactoroftheload,cos.
Forcableshavingconductorsofcrosssectionalareagreaterthan16mm2thedesignvalueofm/V/A/misapproximately:
Cos[Calculated(m/V/A/m)r]+sin[Calculated(m/V/A/m)x]

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Forsinglecorecablesinflatformationthecalculatedvaluesapplytotheoutercablesandmayunderestimateforthevoltagedropbetweenan
outercableandthecentrecableforcrosssectionalareasabove240mm2andpowerfactorsgreaterthan0.8.
4.2.10.5Combinedcorrectionforbothoperatingtemperatureandloadpowerfactor
WhereitisconsideredappropriatetocorrectthecalculatedmV/A/mvaluesoforbothoperatingtemperatureandloadpowerfactor,thedesign
valuesofmV/A/maregivenby:
a.forcablehavingconductorsof16mm2orlesscrosssectionalareaCtcos(CalculatedmV/A/m)
b.forcableshavingconductorsofcrosssectionalareagreaterthan16mm2Ctcos(CalculatedmV/A/m)r)+sin

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SECTION11ELECTRICALASPECTSOFBUILDINGSERVICES
0FOREWORD
Mostofthemoderndayservicesinbuildingsdependonelectricalenergy.Theseservices,broadlyare:
a.Lightingandventilation,
b.Airconditioningandheating,and
c.Liftsandescalators.
Fromthepointofviewofconservationofenergyandsafetyinitsuse,itisfoundessentialtodrawattentiontoessentialdesignprinciplesfor
buildingservices.
Apartfromthethreemajorpowerconsumingservicesinabuildingthereareotherfunctional/safetyservicesthatarebasicallylightcurrent
installations,whoseproperfunctioningisimportant.Theseare:
a.Electricalaudiosystems,
b.Firealarmandfightingsystems,
c.Electriccallbellsystems,
d.Electricclocksystems,
e.Computersystem,
f.Telephonesystems,and
g.Buildingmanagementsystems.
Attentionshouldbepaidtotherequirementstobecompliedwithinthedesignandconstructionofbuildingservices.ThisSectionprovidesbasic
informationontheelectricalaspectsofbuildingservices.FurtherdetailscanbehadfromtherelevantIndianStandards.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section11oftheCodecoversrequirementsforinstallationworkrelatingtobuildingservicesthatuseelectricpower.
NOTESP7NationalBuildingCodeofIndiashouldbereferredfornonelectricalaspectsofbuildingservices.
2REFERENCES
AlistofIndianStandardsrelatedtobuildingservicesisgivenatAnnexA.
3GENERALGUIDELINES
3.1

ExtensiveguidelinesonbuildingdesignaspectshavebeencoveredinSP7fromthepointofviewofensuringeconomicservicesinanoccupancy.
Theseshallbereferredtofromthepointofviewofensuringgooddesignofbuildingservicesandearlycoordinationamongstallconcerned.
3.2OrientationofBuilding

3.2.1

Thechiefaimoforientationofbuildingsistoprovidephysicallyandpsychologicallycomfortablelivinginsidethebuildingsbycreating
conditionswhichsuitablyandsuccessfullywardofftheundesirableeffectsofsevereweathertoaconsiderableextentbyjudicioususeofthe
recommendationsandknowledgeofclimaticfactors.
3.2.2

Fromthepointofviewoflightingandventilation,thefollowingclimaticfactorsinfluencetheoptimumorientationofthebuildings:

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a.Solarradiationandtemperature,
b.Clouds,
c.Relativehumidity,and
d.Prevailingwinds.
IS7662Part1)givesrecommendationsonorientationofbuildings.
4ASPECTSOFLIGHTINGSERVICES
4.1PrinciplesofGoodLighting

4.1.1

Goodlightingisnecessaryforallbuildingsandhasthreeprimaryaims.Thefirstistopromotetheworkandotheractivitiescarriedonwithin
thebuildingsthesecondistopromotethesafetyofpeopleusingthebuildingandthethirdistocreate,inconjunctionwiththestructureand
decoration,apleasingenvironmentconducivetointerestandasenseofwellbeing.
Realizationoftheseaimsinvolves:
a.Carefulplanningofthebrightnessandcolourpatternswithintheworkingareaandthesurroundingssothatattentionisdrawnnaturallytothe
importantareas,detailisseenquicklyandaccuratelyandtheroomisfreefromanysenseofgloomormonotony.
b.Usingdirectionallighting,whereappropriate,toassistpreceptionoftaskdetailandtogivegoodmodelling.
c.Controllingdirectandreflectedglarefromlightsourcestoeliminatevisualdiscomfort,
d.Inartificiallightinginstallations,minimizingflickerfromcertaintypesoflampandpayingattentiontothecolourrenderingpropertiesofthe
light.
e.Correlatinglightingthroughoutthebuildingtopreventexcessivedifferencesbetweenadjacentareasandsoastoreducetheriskofaccidents,and
f.Installingemergencylightingsystemswherenecessary.

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4.1.2

Goodlightingdesignshalltakeintoaccountthefollowing:
a.Planningthebrightnesspatternfromthepointofviewofvisualperformance,safetyandamenityandsurroundings
b.Formoftextureinthetaskareaandsurroundings
c.Controllingglare,stroboscopiceffectandflicker
d.Colourrendering
e.Lightingformovement
f.Provisionforemergency
g.Maintenancefactorsinlightinginstallationand
h.Maximumenergyeffectivenessofthelightingsystemusedconsistentwiththespecificneedsofvisualtasksperformed.
4.1.3

GuidelinesonprinciplesofgoodlightingdesigncanbehadfromIS3646(Part1).ReferenceshouldbemadetoNationalLightingCode,which
coversallaspectsoflighting.
4.2DesignAspect

4.2.1IlluminationLevels

Thelevelofilluminationforaparticularoccupationdependsonthefollowingcriteria:
a.Adequacyforpreventingbothstraininseeingandliabilitytoaccidentscausedbypoorvisibility,
b.Adequacyforrealizingmaximumvisualcapacity,
c.Adequacyfortheperformanceofvisualtasksatsatisfactoryhighlevelsofefficiency,and
d.Adequacyforpleasantnessoramenity.
4.2.2DesigningforDaylight

ReferenceshallbemadetoIS2440andNationalLightingCode.
4.2.3LightingProblemsandEconomics

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ReferenceisdrawntoAnnexesCandDofIS3646(Part1)andNationalLightingCode.
5ASPECTSOFVENTILATION
5.0General

5.0.1

Ventilationofbuildingsisrequiredtosupplyfreshairforrespirationofoccupants,todiluteinsideairtopreventvitiationbybodyodoursandto
removeanyproductsofcombustionorothercontaminantsinairandtoprovidesuchthermalenvironmentsaswillassistthemaintenanceofheat
balanceofthebodyinordertopreventdiscomfortandinjurytohealthoftheoccupants.
5.0.2

Thefollowinggoverndesignconsiderations:
a.Supplyoffreshairforrespiration,
b.Removalofcombustionproductsorothercontaminantsandtopreventvitiationbybodyodours,
c.Recommendedscheduleofvaluesofairchangesforvariousoccupancies,and
d.Thelimitsofcomfortandheattoleranceoftheoccupants.
5.1MethodsofVentilation

Generalventilationinvolvesprovidingabuildingwithrelativelylargequantitiesofoutsideairinordertoimprovegeneralenvironmentof
building.Thismaybeachievedinoneofthefollowingways:
a.Naturalsupplyandnaturalexhaustofair,
b.Naturalsupplyandmechanicalexhaustofair,
c.Mechanicalsupplyandnaturalexhaustofair,and
d.Mechanicalsupplyandmechanicalexhaustofair.
5.2MechanicalVentilation

ReferenceshouldbemadetoIS3103andIS3362whichcovermethodsofmechanicalventilation.
6ASPECTSOFAIRCONDITIONINGANDHEATINGSERVICES
6.1General

Theobjectofairconditioningfacilitiesinbuildingsshallbetoprovideconditionsunderwhichpeoplecanliveincomfort,worksafelyand
efficiently.Itshallaimatcontrollingandoptimizingfactorsinthebuildinglikeairpurity,airmovement,drybulbtemperature,relativehumidity,noise
andvibration,energyefficiencyandfiresafety.
6.1.1

Thedesignofthesystemanditsassociatedcontrolsshouldtakeintoaccountthefollowing:
a.Thenatureoftheapplication,
b.Thetypeofconstructionofbuilding,
c.Externalandinternalloadpatterns,
d.Desiredspaceconditions,
e.Permissiblecontrollimits,
f.Controlmethodsforminimizinguseofprimaryenergy,
g.Opportunitiesforheatrecovery,
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h.Economicfactors(includingprobablefuturecostandavailabilityofpower),
i.Outdoorairquality,
j.Energyefficiency,
k.Filterationstandard,
l.Hoursofuse,
m.Outdoorairquality,and
n.Diversityfactor.
6.1.2

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Theoperationofthesysteminthefollowingcircumstancesshouldbeconsideredwhenassessingthecompletedesign:
a.Insummer
b.Inmonsoon
c.Inwinter
d.Inintermediateseasons
e.Atnight
f.Atweekendsandholidays
g.Underfrostconditions,whereapplicable
h.Ifelectricitysupplyfailureoccursandwhenthesupplyisrestoredand
i.Ifextendedlowvoltageconditionspersist.
6.1.3

Considerationshouldbegiventochangesinbuildingloadandthesystemdesignsothatmaximumoperationalefficiencyismaintainedunder
partloadconditions.Similarly,thetotalsystemshouldbeseparatedintosmallerincrementshavingsimilarloadrequirementssothateachareacanbe
separatelycontrolledtomaintainoptimumoperatingconditions.
6.2ElectricalRequirements

6.2.1Conduits

Whereconduitsareusedforcarryinginsulatedelectricalconductorsandwhensuchconduitspassfromanonairconditionedareaintoanair
conditionedareaorintoafanchamberofduct,ajunctionboxshallbeinstalledorothermeansshallbeadoptedtobreakthecontinuityofsuch
conduitatthepointofentryorjustoutside,andtheconduitshouldbesealedroundtheconductorstopreventairbeingcarriedfromoneareaintothe
otherthroughtheconduitandtherebygivingrisenotonlytoleakageandinefficiencybutalsototheriskofcondensationofmoistureinsidethe
conduits.Thesamemethodappliesequallytoothertypesofwiring,likewoodsheathingorductswhichallowairtopassthrougharoundthe
conductors.
6.2.2

Incaseofairconditioningplantswherereheatingisused,asafetydeviceshallbeincorporatedintheinstallationtocutoffautomaticallythe
sourceofheating,suchassteamorelectricitybymeansofathermostatorsomeotherdevice,assoonasthetemperatureoftheroomreachesa
predeterminedhighlevelnotexceeding44C,unlessahighertemperatureisrequiredforanindustrialprocesscarriedonintheairconditioned
enclosure.
6.2.3

Incaseofairconditioningplantswhereheatingbymeansofanelectricheaterdesignedtooperateinanaircurrentisused,asafetydeviceshall
beincorporatedintheinstallationtocutoffthesupplyofelectricitytotheheatingdevicewheneverthereisfailureoftheaircurrentinwhichthe
heaterisrequiredtooperate.Seriousharmtotheplantandsometimesfiresmaybecausedbynegligenceinthisrespect.
Thesurfacetemperatureofallelectricheatersusedinanairconditionedplantshouldbelimited,preferablyto400C,andinanycaseitshall
notexceed538C,whenmeasuredinstillair.
6.2.4

Airconditioningandventilatingsystemscirculatingairtomorethanonefloororfireareashallbeprovidedwithdampersdesignedtoclose
automaticallyincaseoffireandtherebypreventspreadoffireorsmoke.Suchsystemshallalsobeprovidedwithautomaticcontrolstostopfansin
caseoffire,unlessarrangedtoremovesmokefromafire,inwhichcasetheseshallbedesignedtoremaininoperation.
6.2.5

Airconditioningsystemservinglargeplacesofassembly(over1000persons),largedepartmentalstoresorhotelswithover100roomsina
singleblockshallbeprovidedwitheffectivemeansforpreventingcirculationofsmokethroughthesysteminthecaseofafireinairfiltersorfrom
othersourcesdrawnintothesystemeventhoughthereisinsufficientheattoactuateheatsensitivedevicescontrollingfansordampers.Suchmeans
shallconsistofsuitablephotoelectricorothereffectivesmokesensitivecontrols,ormaybemanuallyoperatedcontrols.
7ELECTRICALASPECTSOFLIFTSANDESCALATORSERVICES
7.0General

7.0.1

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Fortheinformationoftheelectricalengineer,thelift/escalatormanufacturershouldadvisethearchitect/engineerofthebuildingofhis
structuralandelectricalrequirements.Thisshouldbeavailableearlyintheplanningstagetoensureproperelectricalprovisionstobemadeforthe
serviceandsuitablecablesandswitchgears.Duringpreliminaryplanningofthebuilding,theaspectofliftsandescalatorsinstallationshallbediscussed
withallconcernedpartiesnamely,client,architect,consultingengineerand/orliftmanufacturer.

112

7.0.2

Thefollowingaspectsshallbetakenintoaccounttodecidetheelectricalrequirementsforlifts:
a.Numberoflifts,size,capacityandposition
b.Numberoffloorsservedbythelift
c.Heightbetweenfloorlevels
d.Provisionsformachineroomandproperaccesstoit
e.Provisionsforventilationandlighting
f.Electricsupplyrequired
g.Detailsofwiringandapparatusrequired
h.Quantity/qualityofservice
i.Occupantloadfactors
j.Carspeed
k.Controlsystem
l.Operationandmaintenance
m.Provisionforliftanddepth
n.Numberofentrances
o.Provisionoftelephoneoralarmbellinsidetheliftcar
p.Provisionofbatterybackupemergencylightinsidetheliftcarand
q.Providingbatterybackupautomaticrescuedeviceoruninterruptedpowersupply(UPS).
7.1DesignandOperation

ReferenceisdrawntoIS14665(Part2/Sec1),IS14665(Part2/Sec2),IS14665(Part3/Sec1)andIS14665(Part3/Sec2).
7.2ElectricalInstallationRequirements

7.2.1General

Therequirementsformainswitchesandwiringwithreferencetorelevantregulationsmaybeadheredto.Theliftmakershouldspecify,ona
schedule,particularsoffullloadcurrent,startingcurrent,maximumpermissiblevoltagedrop,sizeofswitchesandotherdetailstosuitrequirements.
Formultipleliftsadiversityfactormaybeusedtodeterminethecablesizeandshouldbestatedbytheliftmanufacturer.
Itisimportantthattheswitchesattheintakeandinthemachineroomwhichareprovidedbytheelectricalcontractorareofcorrectsize,so
thatcorrectlyratedfusescanbefitted.NoformofNoVolttriprelayshouldbeincludedanywhereinthepowersupplyofthelift.
Theliftmakershouldprovideovercurrentprotectionforpowerandcontrolcircuits,eitheronthecontrollerorbyacircuitbreaker,butthe
followingarenotincludedinthecontract.
a.PowersupplymainsTheliftsubcircuitfromtheintakeroomshouldbeseparatefromotherbuildingservice.
Eachliftshouldbecapableofbeingisolatedfromthemainssupply.Thismeansofisolationshouldbelockable.
b.Forbanksofinterconnectedlifts,aseparatesubcircuitisrequiredforthecommonsupervisorysystem,inorderthatanycarmaybeshutdown
withoutisolatingthesupervisorycontroloftheremainder.
c.LightingMachineroomsandallotherroomscontainingliftequipmentshouldbeprovidedwithadequateilluminationandwithaswitchfixed
adjacenttotheentrance.Atleastonesocketoutlet,suitableforlampsortools,shouldbeprovidedineachroom.
Thecarlightingsupplyshouldbeindependentofthepowersupplymainsandshouldbeconnectedtotheinvertersystemwithbatterybackup.
Pitsshouldbeprovidedwithalight,theswitchforwhichshouldbeintheliftwell,andaccessiblefromthelowerterminalfloorentrance.
Whenthealarmsystemisconnectedtoatransformerortricklecharger,thesupplyshouldbetakenfromthemachineroomlighting.
7.2.2ElectricalWiringandApparatus

7.2.2.1Allelectricalsupplylinesandapparatusinconnectionwiththeliftinstallationshallbesoconstructedandshallbesoinstalled,
protected,workedandmaintainedthattheremaybenodangertopersonstherefrom.
7.2.2.2Allmetalcasingsormetalliccoveringscontainingorprotectinganyelectricsupplylinesofapparatusshallbeefficientlyearthed.
7.2.2.3Nobareconductorshallbeusedinanylifecarasmaycausedangertopersons.
7.2.2.4Allcablesandotherwiringinconnectionwiththeliftinstallationshallbeofsuitablegradeforthevoltageatwhichtheseareintended

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tobeworkedandifmetalliccoveringisuseditshallbeefficientlyearthed.
7.2.2.5Suitablecautionnoticeshallbeaffixedneareverymotororotherapparatusoperatingatavoltageexceeding250V.
7.2.2.6Circuitswhichsupplycurrenttothemotorshallnotbeincludedinanytwinormulticoretrailingcableusedinconnectionwiththe
controlandsafetydevices.
7.2.2.7Asingletrailingcableforlightingcontrolandsignalcircuitshallbepermitted,ifalltheconductorsofthistrailingcableareinsulatedfor
maximumvoltagerunningthroughanyoneconductorofthiscable.
7.2.2.8Emergencysignalortelephone

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Itisrecommendedthatliftcarshouldbeprovidedeitherwithanemergencysignalthatisoperativefromtheliftcarandaudibleoutsidethelift
wellorwithatelephone.
Whenanalarmbellistobeprovided,eachcarisfittedwithanalarmpushwhichiswiredtoaterminalboxintheliftwellatthegroundfloorby
theliftmaker.Thisalarmbell,tobesuppliedbytheliftmaker(withindicatorformorethanonelift),shouldbefixedinanagreedpositionandwired
totheliftwell.Thesupplymaybefromabattery(ortransformer)fixedinthemachineroomor,whenavailable,fromthebuildingfirealarmsupply.
Whenatelephoneistobeprovidedintheliftcar,theliftmakershouldfitthecabinetinthecarandprovidewiringfromthecartoaterminal
boxadjacenttotheliftwell.
7.2.2.9BuildingManagementSystemInterfaceforLifts
Wheremorethanthreeliftsareprovidedinabuildingandespeciallywhentheseareprovidedatdifferentlocationsinthebuilding,aformof
centralmonitoringmaybeprovided.SuchcentralmonitoringmaybethroughaBuildingManagementSystem,ifprovidedinthebuildingorthrougha
displaypanel.
7.2.2.10Earthing
Theterminalfortheearthingoftheframeofthemotor,thewindingmachine,theframeofthecontrolpanel,thecasesandcoversofthetappet
switchandsimilarelectricapplianceswhichnormallycarrythemaincurrentshallbeatleastequivalenttoa10mmdiameterbolt,studorscrew.The
crosssectionalareaofcopperearthingconductorshallbenotsmallerthanthosespecifiedinPart1/Sec14oftheCode.
Theterminalfortheearthingofthemetalliccasesandcoversofdoorsinterlocks,doorcontacts,callandcontrolbuttons,stopbuttons,car
switches,limitswitches,junctionboxesandsimilarelectricalfittingswhichnormallycarryonlythecontrolcurrentshallbe,atleastequivalenttoa5
mmbrassscrew,suchterminalbeingspeciallyprovidedforthispurpose.
TheearthingconductorshallbesecuredtoearthingterminalinaccordancewiththerecommendationsmadeinIS3043andalsoinconformity
withtheprovisionsofIndianElectricityRules1956.
Wherescrewedconduitscrewsintoelectricfittingscarryingcontrolcurrentandmakingthecaseandcoverelectricallycontinuouswiththe
conduit,theearthingoftheconduitmaybeconsideredtoearththefitting.Whereflexibleconduitisusedforleadingintoafitting,thefittingandsuch
lengthofflexibleconduitshallbeeffectivelyearthed.
Onesideofthesecondarywindingofbelltransformersandtheircasesshallbeearthed.
7.3AdditionalRequirementsforEscalators

7.3.1ConnectionBetweenDrivingMachineandMainDriveShaft

Thedrivingmachineshallbeconnectedtothemaindriveshaftbytoothedgearing,acoupling,orachain.
7.3.2DrivingMotor

Anelectricmotorshallnotdrivemorethanoneescalator.
7.3.3Brake

Eachescalatorshallbeprovidedwithanelectricallyreleased,mechanicallyappliedbrakecapableofstoppingtheupordowntravellingescalator
withanyloaduptoratedload.Thisbrakeshallbelocatedeitheronthedrivingmachineoronthemaindriveshaft.
Whereachainisusedtoconnectthedrivingmachinetothemaindriveshaft,abrakeshallbeprovidedonthisshaft.Itisnotrequiredthatthis
brakebeoftheelectricallyreleasedtype,ifanelectricallyreleasedbrakeisprovidedonthedrivingmachine.
7.3.4

Nobareconductorshallbeusedinanyescalatorasmaycausedangertopersons.
7.3.5

Electricalconductorsshallbeencashedinrigidconduits,electricaltubingsorwirewayswhichshallbesecurityfastenedtothesupporting
structure.
7.3.6

Allelectricalsupplylinesandapparatusintheescalatorshallbeofsuitableconstructionandshallbesoinstalled,protected,workedand
maintainedthatthereisnodangertopersonsfromthem.

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Allmetalcasingsormetalliccoverings,containingorprotectinganyelectricsupplylineorapparatusshallbeefficientlyconnectedwithearth.
7.3.7DisconnectSwitch

Anenclosed,fusedswitchoracircuitbreakershallbeinstalledandshallbeconnectedintothepowersupplylinetothedrivingmachinemotor.
Disconnectingswitchesorcircuitbreakersshallbeofthemanuallyclosedmultipoletype.Theswitchshallbesoplacedthatitisclosedtoandvisible
fromtheescalatormachinetowhichthesupplyiscontrolled.
Withdcpowersuppliesthemaindisconnectingswitchandanycircuitbreakershallbesoarrangedandconnectedthatthecircuitofbrake
magnetcoilisopenedatthesametimethatthemaincircuitisopened.
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7.3.8EnclosureofElectricalParts

Allelectricsafetyswitchesandcontrollersshallbeenclosedtoprotectagainstaccidentalcontact.
7.3.9CautionNotice

SuitableCAUTIONnoticeshallbeaffixedneareverymotororotherapparatusoperatingatavoltageexceeding250V.
7.3.10Insulation

Theelectricalpartsofstartingandstoppingdevices,otheroperatingandsimilardevices,controllersandsimilarotherpartsshallbeefficiently
insulatedandtheinsulationshallbecapableofwithstandingforaperiodofoneminutethecontinuousapplicationofaactestvoltageequaltoten
timesthevoltageatwhichtheseelectricalpartsareenergized,subjecttoamaximumvoltageof2000Vwhenthetestvoltageisappliedbetween
contactsorsimilarpartsintheopenposition,andbetweensuchcontactsandearthedparts.
8ELECTRICALASPECTSOFAUDIOSYSTEMSERVICES
8.0General

8.0.1

Thisclausecoversessentialinstallationdesignaspectsofelectricalaudiosystemsforindoorandoutdoorusebothfortemporaryandpermanent
installations.
8.0.2

Thisappliestosounddistributionsystemsandpublicaddresssystemsbutdoesnotcoverinstallationsinconferencehallswhereboth
microphonesandloudspeakeraredistributedamongsttheaudience.
8.0.3

Specificrequirementsifany,forindividualoccupanciesarecoveredinindividualSectionsoftheCode.
8.0.4

Forguidanceonselectionofequipmentandtheirinstallationandmaintenance,referenceshallbemadetoIS1881andIS1882.
8.1ExchangeofInformation

8.1.1

Theinitialandultimaterequirementsoftheinstallationsshouldbeascertainedasaccuratelyaspossiblebypriorconsultations.Plansshallshow,
a.detailsoftheinstallationproposed,
b.accommodationandlocationofthecentralamplifierequipment,and
c.ductsandoverheadlinesrequiredforwiring.
8.2DesignRequirements

8.2.0

Theoutputfromthemicrophone,gramophone,taperecorderorradioreceiverorCDplayerfromasoundfilmisamplifiedandpresented
throughasystemofloudspeakersinstalledatchosenlocations.Thedesignofthisinstallationshallbesuchthat,dependingonthenatureof
occupancy,thequalityofreproductionisasdesired.Referenceisdrawnto5.2ofIS1881andIS1882onthequalityofreproductionsuitablefor

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differentpurposes,andtheacousticpowerrequirementstherein.Thechoiceofequipmentsuchastheseforinputsignals,amplifying
equipment/systemandloudspeakershallbegovernedbytheconsiderationsenumeratedinIS1881andIS1882.
8.2.1WiringforAudioSystem

8.2.1.0Allequipmentsshallbesecurelyinstalledinroomsguardedagainstunauthorizedaccess.Precautionsshallbetakentokeepdustaway.
8.2.1.1Allpresentcontrolsshouldbemountedbehindcoverplatesanddesignedforadjustmentonlywiththehelpoftools.Allcontrolsshallbe
mechanicallyandelectricallynoiseless.
8.2.1.2Thepositioningofequipmentshallbesuchthatthelengthsoftheinterconnectingcablesiskepttotheminimum.
8.2.1.3Incasethenumberoftheequipmentislarge,theyshallbemountedonracksofsuitabledimensionsofmetalorwood,insucha
mannerthatthecontrolsarewithineasyreach.Thepatchcordsshallbeneatlyarranged.
8.2.1.4Indeterminingthepositioningofthemicrophonesandloudspeakersintheinstallation,adviceofanacousticalexpertshallbesought
forbestaccuracyandreproducibility.
8.2.1.5Foroutdoorinstallations,thelinematchingtransformersshallbemountedinweatherproofjunctionboxes.
8.2.1.6Inlargeopengroundssuchasanoutdoorstadium,careshallbetakentoensurethatthesoundheardfromdifferentloudspeakersdo
nothaveanynoticeabletimelag.
8.2.1.7Theplugsandsocketsusedinelectricalaudiosystemsshallnotbeinterchangeablewiththosemeantforpowercurrents.
8.2.1.8Microphoneandgramophonecablesshallpreferablyusetwistedpairsofconductorswithsufficientinsulationscreenedcontinuously
withaclosemeshoftinnedcopperbraid.Thecopperbraidingshouldbesheathedwithaninsulatingcovering.Theseshallbeisolatedfrompower,
loudspeakerandtelephonecables.Jointsinthecablesshallbeavoided.Microphonecablesshallbelaidwithoutsharpbends.Indoorcablescanbelaid
ontheflooralongthewallsorunderthecarpet.Whenlaidintheopen,theyshallbeeitherburiedinthegroundatadepthnotlessthan20cm,or
insideanironpipeatthatdepthifheavy
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mechanicalmovementisexpectedabove.Thismayalsobelaidoverheadataheightnotlessthan3.5m,clippedsecurelytoabearerwire.Any
wiringrequiredtoberunalongcorridorsoroutsidewallsbelow1.8mshallbeprotectedbyaconduit.
8.2.1.9TheloudspeakercablesshallbesochosenthatthelinelossesdonotexceedthevaluesgiveninTable1ofIS1882.
8.2.2PowerSupplies

8.2.2.1Theequipmentshouldnormallyoperatefrom230V,singlephase50Hzacmainssupply.Avoltageregulatingdeviceshallbeprovidedif
theregulationispoorerthan5percent.Intheabsenceofacmainssupplythesystemshallbesuitableforoperatingfromastoragebattery.
8.2.2.2ThesupplymainsshallbecontrolledbyaMCBofadequatecapacity.
8.2.3Earthing

Properearthingoftheequipmentshallbemadeinaccordancewithgoodpractice.
8.3InspectionandTesting

Thecompletedinstallationshallbeinspectedandtestedbytheengineertoensurethattheworkhasbeencarriedoutinthemannerspecified.
8.4MiscellaneousProvisions

Wherenecessary,thatisininstallationswherethebreakdownofthesounddistributionsystemsshouldberestoredinstantaneouslyorwithina
limitedtime,thestandbyequipmentshallbereadilyavailable.
9ELECTRICALASPECTSOFFIREALARMANDFIGHTINGSYSTEMS
9.0General

9.0.1

Thisclausecoverstheelectricalaspectsoftheinstallationoffirealarm/protectionsysteminbuildings.
9.0.2

Thisclauseisapplicableingeneraltoalltypesofoccupancies,whilespecificrequirementsifanyorindividualsituationsarecoveredinthe
respectivesectionsoftheCode.
9.0.3

Fortotalrequirementsforfireprotectionofbuildings,includingnonelectricalaspectssuchaschoiceanddispositionoffirefightingequipment,
dependingonthenatureofoccupancyinstallationandmaintenanceaspects,etc.,referenceshallbemadetoSP7andtherelevantIndianStandards.

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9.1FireDetectors

9.1.1

Thefollowingtypesoffiredetectorsareavailableforinstallationinbuildings:
a.Heatdetectors(seeIS2175):
1.Pointorspottypedetector
2.Linetypedetector.
NOTEThesemaybeoffixedtemperaturedetectororrateofrisedetector.
b.Smokedetectors:
1.Opticaldetectors.
2.Ionizationchamberdetector,
3.Chemicallysensitivedetector.
c.Flamedetectors.
9.1.2

Forguidanceontheirchoiceandsitingintheinstallation,seeSP7.
9.2WiringforFireAlarmSystems

9.2.1

Theequipmentandwiringofthefirealarmsystemshallbeindependentofanyotherequipmentorwiring,andshallbespacedatleast5cm
awayfromeachotherandotherwiring.Thewiringofthefirealarmsystems,shallbeinmetallicconduits.Thewiringshallbekeptawayfromlift
shafts,staircasesandotherfluelikeopening.
9.2.2

Alarmsoundersshallbeofthesamekindinaparticularinstallation.
9.2.3

Forlargeorintricatepremises,itisnecessarythattheoriginofacallbeindicated.Forthis,thepremisesshallbedividedintosectionszones.All
callpointsinasectionshallbeconnectedtothesameindicator.Thevariousdropsorlampindicatorsshallbegroupedtogetheronthemainindicator
boardorcontrolpanel.Whenthepremisesareextensive,anumberofmainindicatorboardsmaybeusedcoveringdifferentsectors.Theseshallbe
supplementedbysectorindicatorsforthevarioussectorsatacentralcontrolpoint.
9.2.4

Atthecontrolpointtheindicatorboardorthezoneandsectionindicatingboardsandallcommoncontrolapparatusandsupervisoryequipment
shallbelocated.Foreveryinstallationacontrolpointshallbeprovided,whereitcanbeunderconstantobservation.Themaincontrolcentreshallbe
locatedonthegroundfloorandshouldbesegregatedfromtherestofthebuildingbyfirebreakwall.
9.2.5

Nosectionshallhavemorethan200firedetectorsconnectedtogether.
9.2.6

Theoriginofthecallsmaybeindicatedbytheuseoflampindicators.Eachindicatorshallinclude:
a.twolampsconnectedinparallelassociatedwitheachindication,soarrangedthatfailureofeitherofthelampsisreadilyapparent,or
b.onelampglowingduringnormaloperationofthesystemforeachsectionandthealarmindicatedbytheextinguishingofthelampforthe
sectionwherethecalloriginates.Alarmsshouldnotsoundonthefailureoftheindicator.
116

9.2.7

Thearrangementofthecircuitsandtheelectricalconnectionsshallbesuchthatacallorfaultinanycircuitdoesnotpreventthereceiptofcalls
onanyothercircuit.

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9.2.8

Theindicatingdeviceassociatedwiththevariouscallpointsandsectionsshallbegroupedtogetheronthemainindicatorboard.Ifnecessary
remoteindicatingpanel,withaudiblealarmsinthenightquartersofthecaretakerofthebuildingshouldbeprovided.
9.2.9

Thesilencingswitches/pushbuttonsintheiroffpositionshallgiveanindicationofthisfactonthemaincontrolpaneloperationofsilencing
switchesshallnotpreventsoundingofalarmfromanyotherzonesimultaneously,orcanceltheotherindicationsofthealarmorfault.
9.2.10

Forfirealarmsystems,cablesofthefollowingtypesshallbeused:
a.Mineralinsulatedaluminiumsheathedcables
b.PVCinsulatedcables,
c.Rubberinsulatedbraidedcables,
d.PVCorrubberinsulatedarmouredcables,and
e.Handmetalsheathedcables.
ThelayingofthecablesshallbedoneinaccordancewithPart1/Section1oftheCode.
9.2.11

Thesourceofsupplyforthealarmsystemshallbeasecondarybatterycontinuouslytrickle/floatchargedfromacmains,withfacilitiesfor
automaticrechargingin8hsufficientlytosupplythemaximumalarmloadatanadequatevoltageforatleast2h.Thecapacityofbatteryshallbesuch
thatitiscapableofmaintainingthemaximumalarmloadonthesystematanadequatevoltageforatleast1hplusthestandingloadorlossesforat
least48h.Suitableoverloadprotectivedevicesshallbeprovidedtopreventdischargingofthebatteriesthroughthechargingequipment.
9.3FireFightingEquipment

9.3.0

ThechoiceoffirefightingequipmentandtheirinstallationdetailsshallbegovernedbytherequirementsspecifiedinSP7.
9.3.1RequirementsforElectricalDrivesforPumpsinHydrantandSprinklerSystems

9.3.1.1Fulldetailsoftheelectricsupplyshallbefurnishedtogetherwithdetailsofgeneratorplanttotheappropriateauthorities.
9.3.1.2Sufficientpowershallbemadeavailableforthepurposeandthepowersourceshallbeentirelyindependentofallotherequipmentin
thepremisesandshallnotbeinterruptedatanytimebythemainswitchcontrollingsupplytothepremises.Anindicatorlampshallcontinuouslyglow
inaprominentpositiontoindicatestatusofpowerinthesubstationandinthefirepumproom.
9.3.1.3Pumpingsetsshallbedirectcoupledtype,andshallworksatisfactorilyatvaryingload.
9.3.1.4Allmotorsandelectricalequipmentshallbecontinuouslyrated,dripproofwithairinletsandoutletsprotectedwithmeshedwirepanels
whererequiredmotorsshallhaveasuitablefixedwarmingresistancetomaintainthemindrycondition.
9.3.1.5Thestartingequipmentofthesetshallincorporateanammeterandclearlymarkedtoshowfullloadcurrent.Theyshallnotincorporate
novolttrips.
9.3.1.6Theelectriccircuitforfirefightingsystemshallbeprovidedatitsoriginwithasuitableswitchforisolation,butoverloadandnovolt
protectionshallnotbeprovidedintheswitch.
10ELECTRICALCALLBELLSERVICES
10.0General

10.0.1

GuidanceoninstallationofelectricbellsandcallsystemsarecoveredinIS8884.
10.0.2

Onthebasisofinformationcollectedontheextentofinstallationofelectricbellsandbuzzers,orindicatorcallsysteminthebuilding,the
followingaspectsshallbeascertainedincollaborationwiththepartiesconcerned:
a.Accommodationrequiredforcontrolapparatus,locationanddistributionpointsand

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b.Detailsofchases,ductsandconduitsrequiredforwiring.
10.1EquipmentandMaterials

10.1.1

Ifwoodenbasesareusedforbellsandbuzzers,thecomponentpartsshallberigidlyheldtogetherindependentlyofthebase,sothattheyare
unaffectedbyanywarping.
10.1.2

Bellsandbuzzerswhichhaveamakeorbreakcontactshallbeprovidedwithmeansofadjustingthecontactgapandpressureandmeansfor
lockingthearrangement.
10.1.3

Equipmentforoutdooruseshallbesuitablyprotectedagainsttheenvironmentalconditions.
117

10.1.4

Bellpushswitchesshallbeofrobustconstruction.Terminalsshallbeofadequatesizeandshouldbesoarrangedthatthelooseningofaterminal
screwdoesnotdisturbthecontactassembly.Anyflexiblechordsattachedtothemshouldbecoveredwithhardwearingbraid.
10.1.4.1Relaysmayberequiredforthefollowingsituations:
a.Wheremainsoperateddeviceistobecontrolledbyacircuitoperatingatavoltagenotexceeding24V,
b.Forrepeatingacallindicationuntilatadistantpointorpoints,and
c.Formaintainingacallindicationuntilanindicationisreset.
10.1.5

Theindicationsshallbeoneofthefollowingtypes:
a.Lamptypewheresoundofbellisundesirableforexampleinhospitalsorinnoisylocationssuchasforges,mills,etc.
b.Flagtypewherepositiveindicationisrequiredwhichremaininpositionuntilrestored.
c.Pendulumtypeforsmallinstallationshavingupto20callpoints.
10.2ChoiceofCallBellSystem

Thefollowingguidelinesarerecommended:
a.SimplecallbellsystemFordwellingsandsmalloffices(seeFig.1).
b.MultiplecallbellsystemHotels,hospitalsorsimilarlargebuildingswherecallpointsarenumerous(seeFig.2).
c.TimebellsystemFactories,schools.
10.3PowerSupply

Thesystemmaybeoperatedatthenormalmainsvoltage,thoughitispreferableforthecontrolcircuittobeoperatedatavoltagenotexceeding
24V.
10.4Wiring

ThewiringshallbedoneinaccordancewithPart1/Section9oftheCode.
11CLOCKSYSTEMS
11.1DesignConsiderations

11.1.1

Referenceisdrawnto5.1ofIS8969.AschematicdiagramisshowninFig.3.
11.1.2

Theenclosureoftheclocksshallhavenoopeningsgivingaccesstolivepartsorfunctional

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Fig.1SimpleElectricCallBellSystem
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Fig.2MultipleCallBellSystem

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insulatedpartsorfunctionalinsulationotherthantheopeningsnecessaryfortheuseandworkingoftheclocks.Wheresuchopeningsare
necessary,sufficientprotectionagainstaccidentalcontactwithlivepartsshallbeprovided.
11.1.3

Toensurenecessarycontinuityofsupply,directconnectionofthesystemtothesupplymainsisnotrecommended.Batteriesshouldalwaysbe
provided.Thecapacityofthebatteryshallbeatleastsufficienttosupplytheinstallationfor48h,notlessthan10Ah.
11.1.3.1Wherethesupplyisac,singlebatteryonconstanttricklechargeisrecommended,meansbeingprovidedforchargingatahigherrate
whennecessary.
11.1.3.2Wherethesupplyisdc,twobatteriesshouldbeprovidedwithchangeoverswitch.
11.2LocationofClocks

11.2.1

Themasterclockshallbeplacedinaroomnotsmallerthan2.4m3.6m.
11.2.2

Thelocationandsizeofslaveclocksmayfrequentlydependuponaestheticrequirements,butfromthepointofviewofreadability,aratioof
0.30mdiameterofdialtoevery2.7mofheightisacceptable.Thefollowingisadequate:

119

DiaofClock

HeightfromFloor

0.30m

2.70m

0.45m

3.30m

0.60m

4.50m

11.3Wiring

ThewiringshallbedoneinaccordancewithPart1/Section9oftheCode.Specialconductorshallbeprovided,ortheconduitmaybecolour
codedfordistinctionfromothercircuits.
12ELECTRICALASPECTSOFCOMPUTERCONTROLOFENVIRONMENTALSYSTEMS
12.0General

12.0.1

Buildingusersrequireservicestomeettheenvironmentalandfunctionalneedsassociatedwithaparticulartypeofbuilding,andtheseservices
varyconsiderablyaccordingtothetypeofbuildinginvolved.However,thebasicrequirementsareforcomfort,safetysecurity,efficiency,reliabilityand
operationalutilities.Theincreasedapplicationrequirementcallsforcoordinatedandefficientcontrolofthevarioussystemsandtheirsubsystems.
Configurationofthesesystemsinacomputerprogrammeisanecessicitynow.
12.0.2

Generalbuildingclassificationsareresidential,commercial,industrial,public,medicalestablishmentsandindustrialpremises.Therequirements
differaccordingtotheparticularpurposeofthebuilding.Thecomplexitiesoftheservicesalsorelatetotherequirementsandadditionallytothesize
andclasstypeofthebuilding.
12.1ExchangeofInformation

12.1.0

Thearchitectshouldexchangeinformationwiththeengineerconcernedwhenthebuildingplansarebeingprepared.Thechiefpurposeofsuch
anexchangeistoobtaininformationregardingthearchitecturalandelectricalfeaturesofthebuildingsothatdueprovisionmaybemadetoretainthe
aestheticfeaturesandtheessentialserviceswhileplanningthelocationsofthevariousdevicesandequipmentoftheenvironmentalservices.
Informationmayalsobeobtainedatanearlystageregardingotherservices,suchaselectricalinstallation,gasandwaterpipesetc.
12.1.1

Scaledrawingsshowingplansandelevationsofthestructure,electricalwiringsshallbeobtained

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Fig.3ImpulseMasterClockSystem
andthenatureandlocationofthedevices,sensorsandcontrollersoftheenvironmentalservicesshallbeindicatedonthem.

120
12.1.2

Theinitialandfinalrequirementsoftheinstallationsshouldbeascertainedasaccuratelyaspossiblebypriorconsultations.Plansshallshow,
a.detailsoftheinstallationsproposed
b.accommodationandlocationsofthecentralcontrolunits,server,monitor,etcand
c.ductsandcableroutingrequiredforwiring.
12.2BuildingManagementSystem(BMS)

12.2.0

Thermalcomfort,lighting,ventilation,airconditioning,security,safety,firedetectionandcontrolsystemandelectricalpowerarealways
required,andresidentialbuildingrepresentsthisbasiclevelofneed.
12.2.1

Themanagementofbuildingservicessystemsforalargerestablishmentismoredifficultduetothevariety,increasedcomplexity,lackof
individualresponsibilityandhighcapitalandoperatingcostsforthesystemsinvolved.Themorecomplexcontrolsystemsaretermedbuilding
managementsystems(BMS).Theyareemployedincommercial,publicandindustrialbuildingsandcontroltheservicesofheating,ventilation,air
conditioning,steam,refrigeration,gas,water,generalandemergencylighting,emergencyelectricalsystems,powerdistribution,mechanical
transportation,firedetectionalarmandfightingsystems,generalandnoxiousfumeventilation,securityandwastedisposal.
12.2.2

Thebuildingmanagementsystems(BMS)meansthatallservicescanbemonitoredandresetfromacentrallocationwithoutdelayormovement

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bytheengineer.BMScanalsoadviseonpreventativemaintenanceschedules,therebyimprovingoverallplantreliabilityandoperatingefficiency.
Consequently,plantoperationisgreatlysimplifiedbyallowinganengineertoresetanycontrollevel,monitorenergyconsumption,organize
maintenanceandmakefaultdiagnosisfromacentrallocation.Remedialactionisquickerandcanoftenbecarriedoutbyasmallerengineeringstaff
thanwouldberequiredotherwise.
12.3BMSArchitecture

12.3.1

BMSarchitectureandperformancerequirementsshallbebasedonadistributedsystemofintelligent,standalonecontrollers,operatingBMS
incorporatescontrolandmonitoringofallsystemssuchasenvironmental,fireandsecuritybut,insomecases,separatededicatedfireprotection
systemsarefavouredbytheauthoritiesandreferencetolocalfirecodesandregulationsisessential.Theintegrationoffireprotectionandsecurity
systemsintoBMSshallbesubjecttotheapprovalofthelocalfirepreventionauthority.Itispossibletokeepthefireprotectionsystempanelseparate
whilestillprovidingcommunicationlinkswiththeBMSforalarmandreportingpurposes.
12.3.2

BackuppowersuppliessuchastheUPSsystems,althoughrequiredforanyBMS,needmoreconsiderationforcentralizedintelligencesystems.
Aparallelsystemsstructureandduplicationofequipmenttoprovideredundancyfacilitiesmayalsobenecessary,dependingonthelevelofreliability
requiredortheimportanceofthefunctions.
12.4DesignRequirements

12.4.1

TheBMSshallincludeallworkstationsoftwareandhardware,ProcessControlUnits(PCU),TerminalControllers,LocalController,LocalArea
Network(LAN),sensors,controldevices,actuators,systemsoftware,Interconnectingcable,installationandcalibration,supervision,Distributed
intelligencesystemsalsohaveacentralcomputer,withtheadditionofremoteintelligentoutstationscapableofcarryingoutallcontrolfunctions
independentofthemaincomputer.Outstationsarelocatedneartothebuildingzonewhichtheyserve,asintheearliersystems,andareprogrammed
toperformtherequiredcontrolfunctions.Theoutstationcan,however,beinterrogatedandresetfromthemaincomputerandalsocommunicate
routineinformationandalarmsasrequiredbytheplantoperator.
12.4.2

SystemadministrationshallbeavailablefromtheWorkstationinControlRoomonEthernetLAN(LocalAreaNetwork)WAN(WideArea
Network)inthesystem.Thesystemspecificallymusthavethecapabilitytosupportmultipleworkstations,dependingoncomplexityandmagnitudeof
theservices,connectedontheLANorWANnetworkatthesametime.Thebuildingmanagementsystemshallallowallconnectedworkstationsto
functioninatruemultiuser,multitaskingenvironmentemployinguserfriendlyWindowsplatformusingTCP/IPProtocoloranyotheropen
protocol.
12.4.3

Thesystemarchitectureshallbecapableofsupportingsinglesiteand/orcampusesaswellasmultiplesiteslocatedindifferentgeographical
locations.
12.4.4

Thesystemshallbecapableofmodularexpansionwithoutsoftwareupgradesorwiringrevisions.
12.5GeneralCharacteristicofSoftware

12.5.1

Softwareshallbemodularindesignforflexibilityinexpansionorrevisionofthesystem.
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12.5.2

ThesoftwareshallincludeaGeneralPurposeOperatingSystem,whichwillbebasedonauserfriendlyopenplatform.Thearchitectureofthe
system,andtheapplicationsoftware/firmwareshallgenerallybecompiledforfasterexecutionspeeds.
12.6HardwareRequirements

12.6.0

TheBMSconsistsofmanysubsystemsandequipment,sensorsandperipheraldevices.However,theserversprovideasingleinterfacepointfor

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operations,maintenanceandmanagementanalysis.Varioussubsystemsandsystemsareconnectedtoprovideinformationondifferentparametersat
differentlocations.
12.6.1

Theonsiteoperatorworkstationshallbeuserfriendly,operatorinterfacewiththecompletesystem.Asanexample,therequirementsofa
workstationequipmentaregivenbelow:
a.WorkstationequivalenttoPentiumIV1GHzorhigherprocessor,
b.256MBRandomAccessMemory,
c.40GBHardDiskorbetter,
d.3.5IN,1.44MBDisketteDrive,
e.Read/WriteCDROM52XorFaster
f.SerialPort,
g.ParallelPrinterPort,
h.USBPort,
i.19SVGColourMonitor,
j.ColourGraphicsCardwithatleast6MBRAM,
k.101Keyboard,
l.3buttontrackballwithscrollwheel/opticalmouse,
m.3COMEtherlinkIIIwithmodem,and
n.Printer.
12.6.2SystemControllers

Itisdesirabletomonitorand/orcontrolallpointsinthesystemthroughIntelligentDistributedControlUnits.EachDistributedControlUnitin
thesystemshallcontainitsownmicroprocessorandmemorywithaminimum300hbatterybackup.Eachdistributedcontrolunitshallbea
completelyindependentstandalonemasterwithitsownhardwareclockcalendarandallfirmwareandsoftwaretomaintaincompleteonan
independentbasis.
12.6.2.1Communicationbackbone
12.6.2.2Thecentralcomputercommunicateswiththeoutstationsthroughastandardinterfaceandeitheradedicatedline,aleasedlineora
telephoneswitchedline.Smallersystemsononesiteareusuallyconnectedusingatwistedpairineitheraring,starortreenetwork.
12.6.2.3Opticfibretransmissioniscurrentlybeinginstalledandallowsveryfastandhighbandwidthtransmission.AsBMSbecomesmore
widelyaccepted,itislikelythatsystemcapacitieswillincreasetoalevelthatwillmakeopticfibretechnologyanattractiveproposition.
12.6.2.4Fortransmissiondistanceswithinthebuildingorsiteuptoabout1.6km,telephonelinesareusuallyemployed.Thecomputerand
outstationsareconnectedtothetelephonelineviaamodem,whichconvertstheinputsignalstopulseswhicharetransmittableonthetelephoneline,
thusenablinginformationtobetransmittedandreceived.
12.6.2.5Inmanycases,particularlyforremotesitesanautodialmodemrestrictstheuseandcostoftelephonelinesbyautomatically
communicatingonlywhenrequired.Autodialmodemsarethereforeusedforlargeormultiplesitesandthetelephonelinesareaccessedthroughthe
existingtelecomsystem.Modemsgenerallyoperateoverarangeofspeeds(baudrate)withgenerallyincreasedcostforthehigherspeed,forexample,9
600baudisnowcommon.(1baud=1bit/second.)Thebaudrateissoftwaresettosuittheparticularsystem,andsomemanufacturersusehigher
transmissionratesfordirectlywiredsystems.
12.6.2.6Autodialcommunicationwiththecomputercanbeeitherdirectdiallingbytheoperator,programmeddownloadingofdataat
predeterminedtimes,orpriorityalarmreports.
12.6.2.7Itisadvisabletohavemorethanonelineperstation,oneofwhichisdedicatedtopriorityreportingandtheothertoroutinereporting
andmonitoring.Thisallowseachfunctiontobeeffectivewithoutconflictwiththeother.
12.6.3ControlMonitoringStations

12.6.3.1Atypicalcontrolmonitoringstationconsistsofamicrocomputer,visualdisplayunit(VDU),backingstoreandprinter.Onestationis
usuallyinstalledinacentrallocation,butsystemswithseveralstationsworkingonamaster/slaveprinciplecanbeobtainedforlargesites.
12.6.3.2Buildingsunderphaseddevelopmentcanbeprovidedwithadistributedintelligencesystemwithoutacentralcomputer.Underthese
circumstances,theoutstationcanbeprogrammedandinterrogateddirectlybyportablehandheldmicrocomputers,whicharetakenaroundthesiteby
personnelandpluggedintotheoutstationasrequired.Acentralcomputercanbeaddedtothesystematalaterdate,whenthedevelopmentis
completeorfinancesallow.
122

12.6.3.3Thelocationofthecentralcomputerrequirescarefulconsiderationandshouldbeprovidedwithacleanpowersupplywithbackup,as
referredtopreviously.Ifconnectedtofiresafetysystems,itshouldbelocatedwhereitcanbeeasilyaccessedandinterrogatedbythefirebrigade.The
firealarmprotectionsystemmaybeconnecteddirectlytothefirebrigade,buttheinformationsuppliedatthecontrolstationislikelytobemore
comprehensiveandusefulfordirectingfirefightingoperationsandcontrollingservicesthatmayaffectsafetyorthespreadoffire.Smokeremovaland
staircasepressurizationsystemsforhighrisebuildingsareoftenanintegralpartofthemechanicalventilationorairconditioningsystem.Whenthisis
thecase,readyaccessbythefirebrigadeforsystemstatusandcontrolisessential.

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12.6.4VDUsandKeyBoards

12.6.4.1HighresolutionVDUsenabletextandgraphicstobedisplayed.Communicationwiththesystemsoftwarecanbethroughkeyboard,
mouseortouchscreen.ThetouchscreenisthesimplestbutleastflexiblemethodandhasnotbeenwidelyadoptedbyBMSmanufacturers.
12.6.5Printers

12.6.5.1Theoutputofdataandinformationfromthesystemistransferredtopapercopybyaprinter.Thisisessentialsothatareadablelogof
thesystemperformanceisavailablefordistributiontootherinterestedmembersoftheengineeringandmanagementteam.
12.6.6LANs

12.6.6.1TheControllerLANutilizesapeertopeer,tokenpassingprotocoltocommunicatebetweennodesonthenetwork.TheProcess
ControlUnitshallprovidedirectcontrolandmonitoringofprocessfunctionsfromaPeertoPeerLANbasedcontroller.Theseprocessfunctions
includeenvironmentalcontrol,trending,energymanagement,andprocesscontrol,whichmaybeexecutedlocallyinastandalonemodeorglobalized
acrosstheTokenPassingLAN,reports.
12.6.7DataCommunications

12.6.7.1Thestandardspecificationsofgenerallyacceptableratingsareindicatedhereunder:
a.PCport
1.Protocol:Asynchronous,Polling,RS232
2.BaudRate:300,1200,2400or9600Bps
b.HostLAN
1.Protocol:TokenPassing,RS485
2.BaudRate:9600or19200Bps
c.Cables
1.LAN
22AWG(0.324mm)shielded,twistedpair(Belden9184),5000(1500mm)maximumor24AWG(0.206mm)shielded,twisted
pair(Belden9841)4000(1200mm)maximumpersegment.
2.Communicationports
i.ControllerLAN:RS48519,200or9600baud,SDLC,tokenpassing.
ii.HandHeldConsolePort:RJ11Modular,1200baud,TTL.
iii.RS232Port:PC@9600baud(7801TAPfunction),orHayesdirectdialasynchronousmodem@1200,2400baudor9600baud.
iv.RS232ExpansionBoardPort:Supportssynchronousmodem,directortwowaydialSDLC(78061or78035TAPfunctions)@baud
ratesof1200to9600baud.Requiresoptionalplugonmodule.
3.Networkwiringrequirements
CableSupported:Twistedpair,shielded.22AWG(0.324mm2)orlarger,30pF/ft.orlessbetweenconductors,55pF/ft.orless
conductortoshield,85to150OhmimpedanceBelden9841orequivalent.
4.ControllerLANlength
i.1500mpersegment.
ii.7600mwithrepeaters
5.ControllerLAN
RS48519200or9600baud,SDLC,tokenpassing.
6.DoorcontrollerLAN
RS4859600baud,asynchronous,polling.
7.Handheldconsoleport
RJIIModular1200baud,TTL.
8.RS232port
PC@9600baud(7801TAPfunction)orHayesdirectdialasynchronousmodem@1.200,2400or9600baud.
9.RS232expansionboardport
Supportssynchronousmodem,directortwowaydialSDLC(78061or78035TAPfunctions)@baudrateof1200to9600baud,
Requiresoptionalplugonmodule.
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10.Networkwiringrequirements
i.ControllerLANlength
1500mpersegment7600mwithrepeaters

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ii.MicrocontrollersubLANlength1500m
1.Cablesupported
Twistedpair,shielded,22AWG(0.324mm2)orlarger,30pF/ft.orlessbetweenconductors,55pF/ft.orless
conductortoshield,85to150ohmimpedance.
2.Autodialsupporttelephonenumbers
8storedinNOVRAM,NumberofDigits31perphonenumberSupportedPhone,Beeper,Pager.
12.6.8Input/OutputSensors

Theinputdevices,dependingonapplicationandusageare:
a.Spaceairtemperaturesensor,
b.Relativehumiditysensor,
c.Airflowswitch,
d.Waterflowswitch,
e.Waterflowmeasuringtransducer,
f.Tankfloatswitch,
g.Currentsensor,
h.kWhtransducer,
i.Current,voltageandwatttransducers,
j.Occupancysensor,
k.Personalattendancesensor,
l.Motiondetector,
m.Electronicdoorlock,
n.Cardreader,
o.Accesscontroller,
p.Damperandvalveandtheiractuators,and
q.Electronictopneumatictransducers.
12.7Installation

Alldevicesshallbeinstalledinpreengineeringlocationstobeshownonthedrawingsinaccordancewithstandardindustrypractice.
12.7.1Cables

12.7.1.1Cablesinconduits
Itshallbesecuredfrombuildingstructure,notfromotherservices.
12.7.1.2Cablesontraysandladders
Cablesshallbefixedneatlytotraysandladdersinsinglelayersandparalleltothetrayedgetoavoidunnecessarycrossovers.Cablesshallbefixed
atintervalsnotexceeding48bymeansofnoncorrosivefasteningmaterials.
12.7.1.3Segregation
DatacablingshallbephysicallysegregatedfrompowerandSMSinput/outputcablingandmainscabling.
12.7.2Panels

12.7.2.1General
PanelsandControllersshallbeinstalledwithinadedicatedmetalenclosure.
12.7.2.2Documentation
Terminalnumbers,pointslist,pointaddressesandshortandlongdescriptionsshallbedescribedinsideaplasticfadefreeinapocket.
12.7.3SmallPointControllers

Smallpointcontrollersshallbeinstalledadjacenttothecontrolleddevice,accessibleformaintenanceandcontainedinasuitableenclosure.
12.7.4TransmissionSystems

12.7.4.1TheBMSshallutilizetheaboveLANarchitecturetoallowalloftheControlUnitstosharedataaswellastoglobalizealarms.The
ControllerLANshallbebasedonapeertopeer,tokenpassingtechniquewithadataspeedofnotlessthan19.2kB.Theturnaroundtimeforaglobal

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pointtobereceivedbyanynode,includingoperatorstations,shallbelessthan3s.
12.7.4.2FiberOpticPathways,FiberOpticMediashallbeused,asrequired,betweenbuildingsfortheControllerLANs.WherevertheOptical
Fiberentersorleavesthebuilding,provideafibertohardcopperinterfacedevice.TheFOIshallregeneratedatapriortotransmittingthisdatato
eitherthefiberorhardcopperchannels,soasnottoresultinthedegradationofsignalandtominimizetheaccumulationoferrorsbetweenmultiple
FOIs.TheFOIshallincludejabberprotection,suchthatcontinuousdatafromadefectivecomponentwillnotdestroycommunicationsontheLAN.
Providevisualindicationofreceivingandtransmittingdataactivityonthehardwireddrop.Providevisualindicationofdatatransmissiononthefiber
media,jabberpresenceoffiberandhardcopperchannels,andbadsignalqualityonthehardcopperchannel.

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12.8TestingandCommissioning

12.8.1General

ThecontractorshallperformalltestssubmittedintheTestProcedureandremainonsiteuntiltheBMSisfullyoperational.
12.8.2FactoryTesting

Demonstratesuchcontrolloopshallbedemonstratedincludingallcalculationsandglobalfunctions.Analogvaluesshallbesimulated,if
required.Attendancebythree(3)personsnominatedbytheOwnershallbeallowed.AfterTest,summaryofresultsandnecessarymodificationsshall
besubmitted.
12.8.3FinalAcceptanceTest

Acceptanceofthesystemshallrequireademonstrationofthestandbyofthesystem.Thistestshallnotstartuntilthecustomerhasobtained30
daysbeneficialuseofthesystem.
13TELEPHONESYSTEMS
13.0General

13.0.1

Telephonesystemsareclassifiedascommunicationssystems.Telephonecommunicationthroughthepublicnetworkisinmostcountriesthe
responsibilityoftheTelecomadministrations.Thesearesystems,whichmustmeetmorestringentrequirementsforreliabilityoftransmission.
13.0.2ElectronicPrivateAutomaticBranchExchanges(EPABX)

Electronicprivatebranchexchangesareconnectedtothepublicexchangesthroughexchangelines.Operationallytheyformpartofthe
subscriberequipmentofthepublictelephonesystem.EPABXpermitinternalcommunicationbetweentheextensionsofasystemandexternal
communication,forapprovedbranchsystems,overtheexchangelines.Communicationwithintheprivatebranchsystem,normally,doesnotattract
charges.
13.0.3BackboneCabling

Generallytheinterfloor/interbuildingbackbonecablingisincludedinthescopeofmainbuildingdesign.Thebackbonecablingshould
accommodateanalogvoicesignalaloneoranaloganddatasignalssimultaneously,asthecasemaybe.Itisthespeedofdatatransmissionand
bandwidth,whichmattermostinthedesignofthecommunicationbackbone.
13.1ExchangeofInformation

13.1.1

TheexactrequirementofthesubscribersshallbeassessedbeforedrawingoutthespecificationoftheEPABXsystem.Thismeansthat
informationonnumberofsubscribersinthebuilding,distributionofthephonesinthefloorsandotherareas,natureoftrafficetcaretobecollected.
13.1.2

Theinitialandfinalrequirementsoftheinstallationsshouldbeascertainedasaccuratelyaspossiblebypriorconsultations.Plansshallshow:
a.detailsoftheinstallationsproposed
b.theaccommodationandlocationoftheEPABXconsole,monitor,etcand
c.theductsandcableroutingrequiredforwiring.
13.2DesignRequirements

13.2.1

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Thebasicarchitectureandperformancerequirementsofthemoderndaycommunicationsystemismicroprocessorbasedpulsecodemodulated
(PCM)/TimeDivisionMultiplexing(TDM)technology.
13.2.2

TheenvironmentalconditionsfortheEPABXshouldpreferablybecontrolledsothattheroomairtemperatureismaintainedbetween10Cand
40Candrelativehumiditybetween50percentand95percent.
13.2.3

IntegratedServicesDigitalNetwork(ISDN)isacommonrequirementnowadaysforcommercialbuildingssinceitispossibletohandle
simultaneouscallsofdifferenttypesnamelyvoice,dataandimagestransfer(Tele&Videoconferencing)withoutanylossofdata,ataminimumspeed
of64kBps,whichcanbeincreasedfurtherdependingonrequirement.EPABXsystemshallbecapableofinterfacingwithotherEPABXsystem
throughappropriateprotocol.
13.2.4HardwareRequirement

13.2.4.1Electronicprivateautomaticbranchexchange
InEPABXsystemtheindividualcallstationsareconnectedeachbyatwistedpairofwirestotheautomaticexchange(seeFig.4).Thisisalsothe
terminationfortheexchangelinesand,wherenecessary.
13.2.4.2Powersupply
Dependingonthesizeandtypeofinstallation,thetelephonesystemrequiresforitsoperationadcpowersupplyof24Vor48V,whichis
obtainedfromthepowermainsthrougharectifier.Therectifiers,providedwithclosedloopcontrolandforsmallandmediumsizedsystems,are
accommodatedintheexchangehousing.Forlargesystemsrectifiers(controlled)aresuppliedinseparatecabinets.
13.2.5StandbyBatteries

Standbybatteriescanbeprovidedasanadjuncttothe
125

rectifier.Thesearenecessaryforimportantinstallationssuchaspolicestations,firestations,etc,tocoverpossiblemainsupplyfailures.
13.2.6SpaceRequirements

13.2.6.1TheswitchingequipmentforthetelephonesystemsandsmallEPABXstakesuplittleroom.Apartfromthetelephones,onlyrelatively
smallwallmountedjunctionboxesorexchangeunitsarerequired.Theexchanges,furthermore,producelittleornonoise,sothattheycanbe
accommodatedinanofficeifdesired.Forlargesystemsaseparateroomshouldbeprovidedfortheexchangeequipment,andsimilarlyforthe
answeringpanel.Spaceshouldbeallowedinplanningforadditionalcabinetsorracks,exchangeequipmentplatformsetcthatmaybenecessitatedby
futureenlargementofthesystems.Thesizeofthebatteryroomdependsuponthetypeofpowersupplyequipmentused.
13.2.7Features

TherearevariousfeaturesavailablewiththepresentdayEPABXwithintroductionofconcernedcardsandfeaturestobeincorporatedhaveto
bedecideddependingonfunctionalrequirement.SomeofthemostcommonfeaturesincludedareAbbreviatedDialing,RecordedAnnouncement
System,Lastnumberredial,Executiveoverride,multipartyconference,callforwarding,DirectInwardDialing(DID),Automaticalarmmakeupcall,
STDbarring,grouphunting,networkingfacility.
13.3Installation

13.3.1WiringInstallation

Forwiringwithinbuildings,wireismainlyinstalledinembeddedPVCconduit,orwiringcableswithconductorsof0.6mmor0.8mmdiameter
forsurfacewiring.
13.3.1.1Inrunningthewiresitisimportanttomaintainaseparationofatleast10mmbetweenthecommunicationswiringandpowercables.
13.3.1.2Ifconductorsbelongingtodifferentcommunicationssystemsareruntogetherforexample,telephonewiresandloudspeakerwires,or
heavilyloadedslaveclockcircuitsthereisariskofmutualinterferencebetweenthem.Insuchcasesitisadvisabletousescreenedcables.

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Fig.4ExampleoftheArrangementofaBasicEPABXSysteminLargeBuilding
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13.3.1.3Incommunicationcablesthecoresaretwistedtogethereitherinpairsorinstarquadformation.Forspeechtransmissiontoavoid
crosstalkeitheratwistedpairor,inthecaseofthestarquadapairofoppositecoresshouldbeused.
13.3.2Ducts,AperturesandChannels

Inthecourseofconstructingtheshellofthebuildingtheappropriatechannelsandductsshouldbeformedinthemasonryandleadthrough
aperturesprovidedinwalls,ceilings,joistsandpillars.Suitableaccommodationshouldbeprovidedforthedistributionboardsinlargecommunications
system(forexamplerecesses,shaftsetc).
13.3.2.1Conduits
PVCconduitcanbeusedfortheindividualsectionsofconduitnetworksinresidentialbuildingsfortheriserconduitfromfloortofloor,
horizontalbranchesinthefloorsuptothedistributionboxesintheapartments,andbetweenthedistributionboxesintheapartmentsandtheflush
typejunctionboxes.
13.3.3ConnectionofTelephones

13.3.3.1Atthepositionsallocatedforthetelephonestheconduitshouldbeterminatedinflushtypeboxes.Forjunctionboxesandsocket
outletsfortheconnectionoftelephones,flushtypeboxes(switchboxes)tostandardsareadequate.Amaximumoftwotelephonescanbeconnectedto
ajunctionbox.
13.3.3.2Inmostcasesthetelephoneisconnectedpermanentlytothesubscriberslinethroughajunctionbox.Ifitisrequiredtobeabletouse
itinanumberofrooms,socketoutletsandplugsshouldbeprovided.Unitsforflushandsurfacemountingareavailableforbothmethodsof
connection.

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Fig.5TypicalConduitWiringSystem
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13.3.4InstallationofTelephoneWiring

13.3.4.1Wiringinresidentialbuilding
Inresidentialbuildingsaconcealedwiringarrangementismostconvenientlyandeconomicallyinstalledinanadequatelydimensionedconduit
network.Ithasbeenfoundsatisfactorytoprovideriserconduitsorcableductsandhorizontalbranchconduitstotheapartments,withdistribution
boxesatthejunctions(Fig.5).Withaconcealedinstallationofthiskinditispossibleatanytimetoalterthewiringoraddtoitwithoutinconvenience
totheoccupier.
13.3.4.2Wiringinnonresidentialbuildings
Inofficebuildings,manufacturingplants,departmentstoresetc.particularimportanceisattachedtoflexiblearrangementandutilisationofthe
accommodation.Tothisendthe,communicationwiringcanberuninunderfloortrunkingsystemsorwindowsealedtrunkingratherthanonthe
walls.
13.3.5AccessoryInstallation

13.3.5.1Maindistributionboard
Allthelinesarecollectedinthemaindistributionboard.Themaindistributionboardshouldbelocatedinthesamepartofthebuildinginthe
immediatevicinityofthetelephoneequipment.Ifthetelephoneequipmentextendsoverseveralbuildings,eachbuildingisconnectedtothemain
distributionboardbyamaincable.
13.3.5.2Floordistributionboard
Thefloordistributionboardsshouldbeaccommodatedclosetothestairwell.Therisingmainsarerunverticallytothefloors.
13.3.5.3Preventivefireprecautions(forexamplefireproofbarriers)shouldbeconsideredatanearlystageofplanning
13.3.5.4Risercables

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TheductsandceilingaperturesfortherisercablesshouldbesufficientlylargetopermitthelateradditionofcablesorPVCconduitswithout
greatexpense.
13.3.5.5Spareconduits
Inadditionatleastoneextraconduitshouldbeprovidedfromonefloordistributionboardtothenext.
13.4InspectionandTesting

13.4.1

Thecompletedinstallationshallbeinspectedandsimulationtestingtobedonetoensurethatallthedesignedfunctionsareavailableasperthe
standardsandnormsofspecifiedbythemanufacturer.
14SUPPLIESFORSAFETYSERVICES
14.0General

14.0.1

Forasafetyservice,asourceofsupplyshallbeselectedwhichwillmaintainasupplyofadequateduration.
14.0.2

Forasafetyservicerequiredtooperateinfireconditions,allequipmentshallbeprovided,eitherbyconstructionorbyerection,withprotection
providingfireresistanceofadequateduration.
14.0.3

Aprotectivemeasureagainstindirectcontactwithoutautomaticdisconnectionatthefirstfaultispreferred.InanITsystem,continuous
insulationmonitoringshallbeprovidedtogiveaudibleandvisibleindicationsofafirstfault.
14.0.4

Equipmentshallbearrangedtofacilitateperiodicinspection,testingandmaintenance.
14.1Sources

14.1.1

Asourceforsafetyservicesshallbeoneofthefollowing:
a.Aprimarycellorcells.
b.Astoragebattery.
c.Ageneratorsetcapableofindependentoperation.
d.Aseparatefeedereffectivelyindependentofthenormalfeeder(providedthatanassessmentismadethatthetwosuppliesareunlikelytofail
concurrently).
14.1.2

Asourceforasafetyserviceshallbeinstalledasfixedequipmentandinsuchamannerthatitcannotbeadverselyaffectedbyfailureofthe
normalsource.
14.1.3

Asourceforasafetyserviceshallbeplacedinasuitablelocationandbeaccessibleonlytoskilledorinstructedpersons.
14.1.4

Asinglesourceforasafetyserviceshallnotbeusedforanotherpurpose.However,wheremorethanonesourceisavailable,suchsourcesmay
supplystandbysystemsprovidedthat,intheeventoffailureofonesource,theenergyremainingavailablewillbesufficientforthestartingand
operationofallsafetyservicesthisgenerallynecessitatestheautomaticoffloadingofequipmentnotprovidingsafetyservices.
14.1.5

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Clauses14.1.3and14.1.4donotapplytoequipmentindividuallysuppliedbyaselfcontainedbattery.
14.1.6

Thelocationofthesourceshallbeproperlyandadequatelyventilatedsothatanyexhaustgases,smokeorfumesfromthesourcecannot
penetrate,toahazardousextent,areasoccupiedbypersons.
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14.2Circuits

14.2.1

Thecircuitofasafetyserviceshallbeindependentofanyothercircuitandanelectricalfaultoranyinterventionormodificationinonesystem
shallnotaffectthecorrectfunctioningoftheother.
14.2.2

Thecircuitofasafetyserviceshallnotpassthroughanylocationexposedtoabnormalfireriskunlessthewiringsystemusedisadequatelyfire
resistant.
14.2.3

Theprotectionagainstoverloadinthecircuitmaybeomitted.
14.2.4

Everyovercurrentprotectivedeviceshallbeselectedanderectedsoastoavoidanovercurrentinonecircuitimpairingthecorrectoperationof
anyothersafetyservicescircuit.
14.2.5

Switchgearandcontrolgearshallbeclearlyidentifiedandgroupedinlocationsaccessibleonlytoskilledorinstructedpersons.
14.2.6

Everyalarm,indicationandcontroldeviceshallbeclearlyidentified.
14.3UtilizationEquipment

14.3.1

Inequipmentsuppliedbytwodifferentcircuits,afaultoccurringinonecircuitshallnotimpairtheprotectionagainstelectricshocknorthe
correctoperationoftheothercircuit.
14.4SpecialRequirementsforSafetyServicesHavingSourcesnotCapableofOperationinParallel

14.4.1

Precautionsshallbetakentopreventtheparallelingofthesources,forexamplebybothmechanicalandelectricalinterlocking.
14.4.2

Therequirementsoftheregulationsforprotectionagainstfaultcurrentandagainstindirectcontactshallbemetforeachsource.
14.5SpecialRequirementsforSafetyServicesHavingSourcesCapableofOperationinParallel

14.5.1

Therequirementsoftheregulationsforprotectionagainstshortcircuitandindirectcontactshallbemetwhethertheinstallationissuppliedby
eitherofthetwosourcesorbybothinparallel.
14.5.2

Precautionsshallbetaken,wherenecessary,tolimitcurrentcirculation,particularlythereofthirdharmonicsormultiplesthereof,inthe

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connectionbetweentheneutralpointsofsources.

ANNEXA
LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSRELATEDTOBUILDINGSERVICES
(Clause2)
ISNo.

129

Title

1881:1998

Codeofpracticeforindoorinstallationofpublicaddresssystems

1882:1993

Codeofpracticeforoutdoorinstallationofpublicaddresssystem

2175:1988

Specificationforheatsensitivefiredetectorsforuseinautomaticfirealarmsystem

2440:1975

Guidefordaylightingofbuildings

3103:1975

Codeofpracticeforindustrialventilation

3043:1987

Codeofpracticeforearthing

3362:1977

Codeofpracticefornaturalventilationofresidentialbuildings

3646(Part1):1992

Codeofpracticeforinteriorillumination:Part1Generalrequirementsandrecommendationsforweldinginteriors

7662(Part1):1974

Recommendationsfororientationofbuildings:Part1Nonindustrialbuildings

8884:1978

Codeofpracticefortheinstallationofelectricbellsandcallsystem

8969:1978

Codeofpracticeforinstallationandmaintenanceofimpulseandelectronicmasterandslaveelectricclocksystems

14665(Part2/Sec1):2000

Electrictractionlifts:Part2Codeofpracticeforinstallation,operationandmaintenance,Section1Passengerandgoodslifts

14665(Part2/Sec2):2000

Electrictractionlifts:Part2Codeofpracticeforinstallation,operationandmaintenance,Section2Servicelifts

14665(Part3/Sec1):2000

Electrictractionlifts:Part3Safetyrules,Section1Passengerandgoodslifts

14665(Part3/Sec2):2000

Electrictractionlifts:Part3Safetyrules,Section2Servicelifts

SP7:2005

NationalBuildingCodeofIndia

SP72:2010

NationalLightingCode

SECTION12SELECTIONOFEQUIPMENT
FOREWORD
SeveralIndianStandardsexist,whichcoverdetailsofselection,installation,andmaintenanceofelectricpowerequipment.ThisPartl/Section
12oftheCodeisformulatedinsuchamannerastobringoutonlytheessentialcriteriaforselectionofequipment,andusersoftheCodeare
recommendedtomakereferencetoindividualproductcodesfordetailedguidelines.
1SCOPE
ThisPartl/Section12oftheCodecoversgeneralcriteriaforselectionofequipment.
NOTEThisPart1/Section12shallbereadinconjunctionwiththeIndianStandard/Codesonindividualequipment.
2SELECTIONOFEQUIPMENT
2.1ConformitytoIndianStandards

EveryitemofelectricalequipmentusedintheinstallationshallconformtotherelevantIndianStandards,whereveravailable.
2.2Characteristics

Everyitemofelectricalequipmentselectedshallhavesuitablecharacteristicsappropriatetothevaluesandconditionsonwhichthedesignof
theelectricalinstallation(see3.2ofPartl/Section7)isbasedandshall,inparticular,fulfilltherequirementsgivento2.2.1to2.2.4.
2.2.1Voltage

Electricalequipmentshallbesuitablewithrespecttothemaximumsteadyvoltage(rmsvalueforac)likelytobeapplied,aswellasovervoltages
likelytooccur.
NOTEForcertainequipment,itmaybenecessarytotakeaccountofthelowestvoltagelikelytooccur.
2.2.2Current

Allelectricalequipmentshallbeselectedwithrespecttothemaximumsteadycurrent(rmsvalueforac)whichithastocarryinnormalservice,
andwithrespecttothecurrentlikelytobecarriedinabnormalconditionsandtheperiod(forexample,operatingtimeofprotectivedevices,ifany)
duringwhichitmaybeexpectedtoflow.

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2.2.3Frequency

Iffrequencyhasaninfluenceonthecharacteristicsofelectricalequipment,theratedfrequencyoftheequipmentshallcorrespondtothe
frequencylikelytooccurinthecircuit.
2.2.4Power

Allelectricalequipmenttobeselectedonthebasisofitspowercharacteristics,shallbesuitableforthedutydemandedoftheequipment,taking
intoaccounttheloadfactorandthenormalserviceconditions.
2.3ConditionsofInstallation

Allelectricalequipmentshallbeselectedsoastowithstandsafelythestressesandtheenvironmentalconditions(see3.2ofPartl/Section7of
thisCode)characteristicofitslocationtowhichitmaybeexposed.Thegeneralcharacteristicsofbuildinginstallationsareassessedaccordingtothe
guidelinesgiveninPart1/Section8ofthisCode.If,however,anitemofequipmentdoesnothavebydesignthepropertiescorrespondingtoits
locationitmaybeusedonconditionthatadequateadditionalprotectionprovidedaspartofthecompletedelectricalinstallation.
2.4PreventionofHarmfulEffects

Allelectricalequipmentshallbeselectedsothatitwillnotcauseharmfuleffectson,otherequipmentorimpairthesupplyduringnormalservice
includingswitchingoperations.Inthiscontext,thefactorswhichmayhaveaninfluenceinclude
a.Powerfactor.
b.Inrushcurrent,
c.Asymmetricalload,and
d.Harmonics.
2.5

GuidelinesontheselectionofspecificequipmentarecoveredintherelevantIndianStandards.Guidelinesonselectionofprotectivedevicesare
givenatPart1/Section14ofthisCode.
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SECTION13ERECTIONANDPRECOMISSIONINGTESTINGOFINSTALLATION
0FOREWORD
Testingandensuringthattheinstallationconformstothepredeterminedconditionsbeforetheinstallationcouldbeenergized,isanecessary
prerequisiteunderthestatutoryprovisions.Severalaspects/parametersarerequiredtobeverifiedbeforeaninstallationcouldbecertifiedasreadyfor
energizinganduse.
WhileageneralchecklistofitemstobecheckedandnecessaryteststobedoneareincludedinthisSection,individualproductstandardsand
individualCodesofpracticecovermoredetailedguidelinesonprecommissioningchecksforindividualequipment.
Inadditiontoinitialtesting,periodictestingandpreventivemaintenancechecksarenecessary,thenatureandfrequencyofsuchmeasures
dependingonthenatureoftheelectricalinstallationinquestion.GuidelinesonsuchaspectsareoutsidethepurviewoftheCode.However,areference
couldbemadetoindividualequipmentcodeswhichcovermaintenanceschedules.
1SCOPE
ThisPartl/Section13oftheCodecoversgeneralprinciplesoferectionofinstallationandguidelinesoninitialtestingbeforecommissioning.
2REFERENCES
AlistofrelevantIndianStandardsisgivenatAnnexA.
3ERECTION
3.1

Fortheerectionoftheelectricalinstallation,goodworkmanshipbysuitablyqualifiedpersonnelandtheuseofpropermaterialsshallbeensured.
3.2

Thecharacteristicsoftheelectricalequipment,asdeterminedinaccordancewithPartl/Section12shallnotbeimpairedintheprocessof
erection.
3.3

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Protectiveconductorsandneutralconductorsshallbeidentifiableatleastattheirterminationsbycolouringorothermeans.Theseconductors
inflexiblecordsorflexiblecablesshallbeidentifiablebycolouringorothermeansthroughouttheirlength(see3.6ofPartl/Section4).
3.4

Connectionsbetweenconductorsandbetweenconductorsandotherelectricalequipmentshallbemadeinsuchawaythatsafeandreliable
contactsareensured.Forelectricalwiringinstallation,IS732shouldbefollowed.AlsoseePartl/Section14oftheCode.
3.5

Allelectricalequipmentshallbeinstalledinsuchamannerthatthedesignedcoolingconditionsarenotimpaired.
3.6

Allelectricalequipmentlikelytocausehightemperaturesorelectricarcsshallbeplacedorguardedsoastoeliminatetheriskofignitionof
flammablematerials.Wherethetemperatureofanyexposedpartsofelectricalequipmentislikelytocauseinjurytopersons,thesepartsshallbeso
locatedastopreventaccidentalcontacttherewith.
3.7

SeveralIndianStandardsexistoninstallationofspecificelectricalequipment.Theseshallbeadheredtoduringerectionoftheinstallation.
4INSPECTIONANDTESTING
4.1GeneralRequirements

4.1.1

Beforethecompletedinstallation,oranadditiontotheexistinginstallation,isputintoservice,inspectionandtestingshallbecarriedoutin
accordancewiththeIndianElectricityRules,1956.Intheeventofdefectsbeingfound,theseshallberectified,assoonaspracticable,andthe
installationretested.
4.1.2

Afterputtingtheinstallationintoserviceperiodicinspectionandtestingshallbecarriedoutinordertomaintaintheinstallationinasound
condition.
4.1.3

Whereanadditionistobemadetothefixedwiringofanexistinginstallationthelattershallbeexaminedforcompliancewithrecommendations
ofthisCode.
4.2InspectionoftheInstallation

4.2.0General

Atthecompletionofwiring,ageneralinspectionshallbecarriedoutbycompetentpersonneltoverifythattheprovisionsofthisCodeandthat
ofIndianElectricityRules,1956havebeencompliedwith.This,amongotherthings,shallincludecheckingwhetherallequipment,fittings,
accessories,wiresandcables,usedintheinstallationareofadequateratingandqualitytomeettherequirementsoftheload.Generalworkmanshipof
theelectricalwiringwithregardtothelayoutandfinishshallbeexaminedforneatnessthatwouldfacilitateeasyidentificationofcircuitsofthe
system,adequacyofclearances,soundnessofterminationwithrespecttotightness,contactpressureandcontactarea.Acompletecheckshallalsobe
madeofalltheprotectivedevices,withrespecttotherating,rangeofsettingsandforcoordinationbetweenthevariousprotectivedevices.
131

4.2.1SubstationInstallations

Insubstationinstallationitshallbecheckedwhether,
1.theinstallationhasbeencarriedoutinaccordancewiththeapproveddrawings
2.phasetophaseandphasetoearthclearancesareprovidedasrequired
3.allequipmentsareefficientlyearthedandproperlyconnectedtotherequirednumberofearthelectrodes
4.therequiredgroundclearancetoliveterminalsisprovided
5.suitablefencingisprovidedwithgatewithlockablearrangements
6.therequirednumberofcautionboards,firefightingequipments,operatingrods,rubbermats,etc,arekeptinthesubstation
7.incaseofindoorsubstation,sufficientventilationanddrainingarrangementsaremade

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8.allcabletrenchesareprovidedwithnonflammablecovers
9.freeaccessibilityisprovidedforallequipmentfornormaloperation
10.allnameplatesarefixedandtheequipmentarefullypainted
11.allconstructionmaterialsandtemporaryconnectionsareremoved
12.oillevels,busbartightness,transformertapposition,etc,areinorder
13.earthpipetroughsandcoverslabsareprovidedforearthelectrodes/earthpits.Neutralandlightningarresterearthpitsaremarkedforeasy
identification
14.earthelectrodesareofGIpipesorCIpipesorMSrodsorcopperplates.Forearthconnections,brassboltsandnutswithleadwashersare
providedinthepipes/plates
15.earthpipetroughs,oilsumps/pitsarefreefromrubbishanddirtandstonejellyandtheearthconnectionsarevisibleandeasilyaccessible
16.Panelsandswitchgearsareallverminanddampproofandallunusedopeningsorholesareblockedproperly
17.theearthbusbarsfortightnessandforcorrosionfreejointsurface
18.controlswitchfusesareprovidedatanaccessibleheightfromground
19.adequateheadroomisavailableinthetransformerroomforeasytoppingupofoil,maintenance,etc
20.safetydevices,horizontalandverticalbarriers,busbarcovers/shrouds,automaticsafetyshutters/doorsinterlock,handleinterlockforsafeand
reliableoperationinallpanelsandcubicles
21.clearancesinthefront,rearandsidesoftheswitchboards,areadequate
22.thegapinthehorngapfuseandthesizeoffuseadequate
23.theswitchoperatesfreely,allthebladesmakecontactatthesametime.Thearcinghornscontactinadvance,andthehandlesareprovidedwith
lockingarrangements
24.Insulatorsarefreefromcracks,andareclean
25.inthecaseoftransformers,thereisanyoilleak
26.connectionstobushingsintransformersaretightenedandhavegoodcontact
27.bushingsarefreefromcracksandareclean
28.accessoriesoftransformerslikebreathers,ventpipe,buchholzrelay,etc,areinorder
29.connectionstogasrelayintransformersareinorder
30.oilandwindingtemperaturearesetforspecificrequirementsintransformers
31.incaseofcablecellars,adequatearrangementstopumpoutwaterthathasenteredduetoseepageorotherreasonisprovidedand
32.allincomingandoutgoingcircuitsofpanelsareclearlyandindeliblylabelledforidentificationsbothatthefrontandattherear.
4.2.2InstallationatVoltagenotexceeding650V

Itshallbecheckedwhether:
a.allblockingmaterialsthatareusedforsafetransportationinswitchgears,contractors,relays,etc,areremoved
b.allconnectionstotheearthingsystemarefeasibleforperiodicalinspection
c.sharpcablebendsareavoidedandcablesaretakeninasmoothmannerinthetrenchesoralongsidethewallsandceilingsusingsuitablesupport
clampsatregularintervals
d.suitablelinkedswitchorcircuitbreakerorlockablepushbuttonisprovidednearthemotors/apparatusforcontrollingsupplytothemotor
apparatusinanyeasilyaccessiblelocation
e.twoseparateanddistinctearthconnectionsareprovidedforthemotorapparatus
f.controlswitchfuseisprovidedatanaccessibleheightfromgroundforcontrollingsupplytooverheadtravellingcranehoists,overheadbusbar
trunking
132

g.themetalrailsonwhichthecranetravelsareelectricallycontinuousandearthedandbondingofrailsandearthingatbothendsaredone
h.fourcorecablesareusedforoverheadtravellingcraneandportableequipments,thefourthcorebeingusedforearthing,andseparatesupplyfor
lightingcircuitistaken
i.ifflexiblemetallichouseisusedforwiringtomotorsandequipments,thewiringisenclosedtothefulllengths,andthehosesecuredproperly
j.thecablesarenottakenthroughareaswheretheyarelikelytobedamagedorchemicallyaffected
k.thescreensandarmoursofthecablesareearthedproperly
l.thebeltsofthebeltdrivenequipmentsareproperlyguarded
m.adequateprecautionsaretakentoensurethatnolivepartsaresoexposedastocausedanger
n.ammetersandvoltmetersaretestedandcalibrated
o.therelaysareinspectedvisuallybymovingcoversfordepositsordustsorotherforeignmatter
p.flatwashersbackedupbyspiringwashersareusedformakingendconnectionsand
q.numberofwiresinaconduitconformtoprovisionsofthisCode.
4.3TestingofInstallation

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4.3.0General

Afterinspection,thefollowingtestsshallbecarriedout,beforeaninstallationoranadditiontotheexistinginstallationisputintoservice,any
testingoftheelectricalinstallationinanalreadyexistinginstallationshallcommenceafterobtainingpermittoworkfromtheengineerinchargeand
afterensuringthesafetyprovisions.
4.3.1Switchboards

Switchboardsshallbetestedinthemannerindicatedbelow:
a.allswitchboardsshallbetestedfordielectrictestinthemannerrecommendedinIS8623(Part1),
b.allearthconnectionsshallbecheckedforcontinuity,
c.theoperationofallprotectivedevicesshallbetestedbymeansofsecondaryorprimaryinjectiontests,
d.theoperationofthecircuitbreakersshallbetestedfromallcontrolstations,
e.indication/signallinglampsshallbecheckedforworking,
f.theoperationofthecircuitbreakersshallbetestedforallinterlock,
g.theclosingandopeningtimingsofthecircuitbreakersshallbetestedwhereverrequiredforautotransferschemes,
h.contactresistanceofmainandisolatorcontactsshallbemeasured,and
i.thespecificgravityoftheelectrolyteandthevoltageofthecontrolbatteryshallbemeasured.
4.3.2Transformers

AllcommissioningtestsaslistedinIS10028(Part2)shallbecarriedout.
4.3.3Cables

CableinstallationsshallbecheckedaslaiddowninIS1255.
4.3.4MotorsandOtherEquipment

Thefollowingtestsaremadeonmotorandotherequipment:
a.Theinsulationresistanceofeachphasewindingagainsttheframeandbetweenthewindingsshallbemeasured.Megohmmeterof500Vor1
000Vratingshallbeused.Starpointsshouldbedisconnected.Minimumacceptablevalueoftheinsulationresistancevarieswiththerated
powerandtheratedvoltageofthemotor.
Thefollowingrelationmayserveasareasonableguide:

where
Ri

insulationresistanceinMat25C,

En

ratedphasetophasevoltage,and

ratedpowerkW.

Iftheresistanceismeasuredatatemperaturedifferentfrom25C,thevalueshallbecorrectedto25C.

133

b.Theinsulationresistanceasmeasuredatambienttemperaturedoesnotalwaysgiveareliablevalue,sincemoisturemighthavebeenabsorbed
duringshipmentandstorage.Whenthetemperatureofsuchamotorisraised,theinsulationresistancewillinitiallydropconsiderably,even
belowtheacceptableminimum.Ifanysuspicionexistsonthisscore,motorwindingshallbedriedout.
4.3.5Energymeters

IS15707shouldbefollowedincaseofenergymeters.
4.3.6WiringInstallation

Thefollowingtestsshallbedone:
a.Theinsulationresistanceshallbemeasuredbyapplyingbetweenearthandthewholesystemofconductororanysectionthereofwithallfusesin
placeandallswitchesclosed,andexceptinearthedconcentricwiring,alllampsinpositionorbothpolesofinstallationotherwiseelectrically
connectedtogether,adcvoltageofnotlessthantwicetheworkingvoltage,providedthatitdoesnotexceed500Vformediumvoltagecircuits.
Wherethesupplyisderivedfromthreewire(acordc)orapolyphasesystemtheneutralpoleofwhichisconnectedtoeartheitherdirector
throughaddedresistance,theworkingvoltageshallbedeemedtobethatwhichismaintainedbetweentheouterorphaseconductorandthe
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b.Theinsulationresistanceinmegohmsofaninstallationmeasuredasin(a)shallbenotlessthan50dividedbythenumberofpointsonthe
circuits,providedthatthewholeinstallationneednotberequiredtohaveaninsulationresistancegreaterthan1M.
c.Controlrheostats,heatingandpowerappliancesandelectricsigns,may,ifdesired,hedisconnectedfromthecircuitduringthetest,butinthat
eventtheinsulationresistancebetweenthecaseorframework,andalllivepartsofeachrheostat,applianceandsignshallbenotlessthanthat
specifiedintherelevantIndianStandardorwherethereisnosuchspecificationshallbenotlessthan0.5M.
d.Theinsulationresistanceshallalsobemeasuredbetweenallconductorsconnectedtoonepoleorphaseconductorofthesupplyandallthe
conductorsconnectedtothemiddlewiretotheneutralontotheotherpoleofphaseconductorsofthesupply.Suchatestshallbemadeafter
removingallmetallicconnectionsbetweenthetwopolesoftheinstallationandinthesecircumstancestheinsulationresistancebetween
conductorsoftheinstallationshallbenotlessthanthatspecifiedin(b).
e.Oncompletionofanelectricalinstallation(oranextensiontoaninstallation)acertificateshallbefurnishedbythecontractor,countersignedby
thecertifiedsupervisorunderwhosedirectsupervisiontheinstallationwascarriedoutthiscertificateshallbeinaprescribedformasrequiredby
thelocalelectricsupplyauthority.
4.3.7Earthing

Forcheckingtheefficiencyofearthingthefollowingtestsarerecommended(seeIS3043):
a.Theearthresistanceofeachelectrodeismeasured.
b.Theearthresistanceofearthinggridismeasured.
c.Allelectrodesareconnectedtothegridandtheearthresistanceoftheentireearthingsystemismeasured.
Thesetestsshallpreferablybedoneduringthesummermonths.
134

ANNEXA
LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSONINSTALLATION
(Clause2)
ISNo.

135

Title

732:1989

Codeofpracticeforelectricalwiringinstallations

1255:1983

Codeofpracticeforinstallationandmaintenanceofpowercablesuptoandincluding33kVrating

1646:1997

Codeofpracticeforfiresafetyofbuildings(general):Electricalinstallations

3043:1987

Codeofpracticeforearthing

4051:1967

Codeofpracticeforinstallationandmaintenanceofelectricalequipmentinmines

5571:2000

Guideforselectionofelectricalequipmentforhazardousareas

8623(Part1):1993/IEC604391:

Specificationforlowvoltageswitchgearandcontrolgearassemblies:Part1Requirementsfortypetestedandpartiallytype

1985

testedassemblies

10028(Part2):1981

Codeofpracticeforselection,installationandmaintenanceoftransformers:Part2Installation

14927

Cabletrunkingandductingsystemsforelectricalinstallations:

(Part1):2001

Generalrequirements

(Part2):2001

Cabletrunkingandductingsystemsintendedformountingonwallsorceilings

14930

Conduitsystemsforelectricalinstallations:

(Part1):2001

Generalrequirements

(Part2):2001

ParticularrequirementsConduitsystemsburiedunderground

15707:2006

Testing,evaluation,installationandmaintenanceofacelectricitymetersCodeofpractice

SECTION14EARTHING
FOREWORD
Earthingprovidessafetyofpersonsandapparatusagainstearthfaults.Anysystemischaracterisedbythetypeofdistributionsystem,which
includetypesofsystemsofliveconductorsandtypesofsystemearthing.ThedifferenttypesofearthingsystemsarealsocoveredunderthisPart
l/Section14oftheCode.Thechoiceofonesystemortheotherwoulddependonseveralconsiderationsaseachofferdifferentdegreeof
performance/safety.
ThisPart1/Section14oftheCodesummarisestheessentialrequirementsassociatedwithearthinginelectricalinstallations.Theserelateto
generalconditionsofsoilresistivity,designparametersofearthelectrode,earthbusandearthwiresandmethodsofmeasurements.Particular
requirementsforearthingdependingonthetypeofinstallationarecoveredinrespectiveSectionsoftheCode.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section14oftheCodecoversgeneralrequirementsassociatedwithearthinginelectricalinstallations.Specificrequirementsfor
earthinginindividualinstallationsarecoveredinrespectivePartsoftheCode.
NOTES

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1.ThisSectionshallbereadinconjunctionwiththeprovisionsofIS3043.
2.AdditionalrulesapplyingtoearthleakagecircuitbreakersystemsarecoveredinAnnexA.
2REFERENCES
Forfurtherdetails,thefollowingstandardsmaybereferred:
ISNo.

Title

732:1989

Codeofpracticeforelectricalwiringinstallations(thirdrevision)

3043:1987

Codeofpracticeforearthing(firstrevision)

IS8437(Part1):1993

Guideoneffectsofcurrentpassingthroughhumanbody:Part1Generalaspects

IS8437(Part2):1993

Guideoneffectsofcurrentpassingthroughhumanbody:Part2Specialaspects

IS/IEC609472:2006

Lowvoltageswitchgearandcontrolgear:Part2Circuitbreakers

IS/IEC6094741:2002 Lowvoltageswitchgearandcontrolgear:Part4Contactorsandmotorstarters,Section1Electromechanicalcontactorsandmotor
starters

3GENERALREMARKS
3.0General

3.0.1

Thesubjectofearthingcoverstheproblemsrelatingtotheconductionofelectricitythroughearth.Thetermsearthandearthinghavebeenused
inthisCode,irrespectiveofreliancebeingplacedontheearthitself,todenotealowimpedancereturnpathofthefaultcurrent.Asamatteroffact,the
earthnowrarelyservesasapartofthereturncircuitbutisbeingusedmainlyforfixingthevoltageofsystemneutrals.Theearthconnectionimproves
servicecontinuityandavoidsdamagetoequipmentanddangertohumanlives.
3.0.2

Theobjectofanearthingsystemistoprovideasnearlyaspossibleasurfaceunderandaroundastationwhichshallbeatauniformpotential
andasnearlyzeroorabsoluteearthpotentialaspossible.Thepurposeofthisistoensurethatingeneralallpartsofapparatus,otherthanliveparts,
shallbeatearthpotential,aswellastoensurethatoperatorsandattendantsshallbeatearthpotentialatalltimes.Alsobyprovidingsuchanearth
surfaceofuniformpotentialunderandsurroundingthestation,asnearlyaspossible,therecanexistnodifferenceofpotentialinashortdistancebig
enoughtoshockorinjureanattendantwhenshortcircuitsorotherabnormaloccurrencetakeplace.
3.0.3

Earthingassociatedwithcurrentcarryingconductorisnormallyessentialtothesecurityofthesystemandisgenerallyknownassystem
earthing,whileearthingofnoncurrentcarryingmetalworkandconductorisessentialtothesafetyofhumanlife,ofanimalsandofpropertyandis
generallyknownasequipmentearthing.
3.0.4

EarthingshallgenerallybecarriedoutinaccordancewiththerequirementsofIndianElectricityRules,1956asamendedfromtimetotime,and
therelevantregulationsoftheelectricitysupplyauthorityconcerned.ThefollowingclausesofTheIndianElectricityRules,1956areparticularly
applicable:
32,51,61,62,67,69,88(2)and90.
3.0.5

Almediumvoltageequipmentshallbeearthedbytwoseparateanddistinctconnectionswithearththroughanearthelectrode.Inthecaseof
highandextrahighvoltagestheneutralpointsshallbeearthedbynotlessthantwoseparateanddistinctconnectionswitheartheachhavingitsown
electrodeatthegeneratingstationorsubstationandmaybeearthedatanyotherpointprovidednointerferenceiscausedbysuchearthing.If
necessary,theneutralmaybeearthedthroughasuitableimpedance.
136

3.0.5.1Incaseswheredirectearthingmayproveharmfulratherthanprovidesafety(forexample,highfrequencyandmainsfrequencycoreless
inductionfurnaces),relaxationmaybeobtainedfromthecompetentauthority.
3.0.6

Earthelectrodesshallbeprovidedatgeneratingstations,substationsandconsumerpremisesinaccordancewiththerequirements.
3.0.7

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Allfaraspossibleallearthterminalsshallbevisible.
3.0.8

Allconnectionsshallbecarefullymadeiftheyarepoorlymadeorinadequateforthepurposeforwhichtheyareintended,lossoflifeorserious
personalinjurymayresult.
3.0.9

Eachearthsystemshallbesodevisedthatthetestingofindividualearthelectrodeispossible.Itisrecommendedthatthevalueofanyearth
systemresistanceshallnotbemorethan5.0,unlessotherwisespecified.
3.0.10

Itisrecommendedthatadrawingshowingthemainearthconnectionandearthelectrodesbepreparedforeachinstallation.
3.0.11

Noadditiontothecurrentcarryingsystemeithertemporaryorpermanent,shallbemade,whichwillincreasethemaximumavailableearthfault
currentoritsdurationuntilithasbeenascertainedthattheexistingarrangementofearthelectrodes,earthbusbar,etc,arecapableofcarryingthenew
valueofearthfaultcurrentwhichmaybeobtainedbythisaddition.
3.0.12

Nocutout,linkorswitchotherthanalinkedswitcharrangedtooperatesimultaneouslyontheearthedorearthedneutralconductorandthe
liveconductorsshallbeinsertedonanysupplysystem.Thishowever,doesnotincludethecaseofaswitchforuseincontrollingageneratorora
transformeroralinkfortestpurposes.
3.0.13

Allmaterials,fittings,etc,usedinearthingshallconformtoIndianStandardswherevertheseexist.InthecaseofmaterialsforwhichIndian
Standardspecificationsdonotexist,thematerialsshallbeapprovedbythecompetentauthority.
3.1DesignConsiderations

3.1.1SystemEarthing

3.1.1.1Theregulationsthateverymedium,highandextrahighvoltageequipmentshallbeearthedbynotlessthantwoseparateanddistinct
connectionswithearthisdesignedprimarilytopreservethesecurityofthesystembyensuringthatthevoltageoneachliveconductorisrestrictedto
suchavaluewithrespecttothepotentialofthegeneralmassoftheearthasisconsistentwiththelevelsofinsulationapplied.Distinctconnectionwith
theearthshallbeprovidedforlightningprotectionsystemforbuildingsorotherinstallations.Distinctearthingsystemshallbeprovidedforcentralized
electronicsystemofanybuilding.
3.1.1.2Theearthsystemresistanceshouldbesuchthatwhenanyfaultoccursagainstwhichearthingisdesignedtogiveprotection,the
protectivegearwilloperatetomakethefaultyportionsofplantharmless.Inmostcasessuchoperationinvolvesisolationofthefaultymainorplantby
circuitbreakerorfuses.Inthecasesofundergroundsystemtheremaybenodifficulty,butinthecaseofoverheadlinesystemprotectedonlybyfuses
theremaybedifficultyinsoarrangingthevalueoftheearthresistancethataconductorfallingandmakinggoodcontactwithearthshallcausethe
fusesinthesupplytooperate.
NOTEEarthingmaynotgiveprotectionagainstfaultswhicharenotessentiallyearthfaults.Forexample,ifaphaseconductorof
anoverheadspurlinebreaks,andthepartremotefromthesupplyfallstotheground,itisunlikelythatanyprotectivegearrelyingon
earthingwilloperatesincethemajorfaultistheopencircuitagainstwhichearthinggivesnoprotection.
3.1.2EquipmentEarthing

Theobjectofequipmentearthingistoensureeffectiveoperationoftheprotectivegearintheeventofleakagethroughsuchmetalwork,the
potentialofwhichwithrespecttoneighbouringobjectsmayattainavaluewhichwouldcausedangertolifeorriskorfire.
3.1.3SoilResistivity

3.1.3.1Theresistancetoearthofanelectrodeofgivendimensionsisdependentontheelectricalresistivityofthesoilinwhichitisinstalled.It
follows,therefore,thatanoverridingconsiderationindecidingwhichofthealternativemethodofprotectionistobeadoptedforaparticularsystemor
locationisthesoilresistivityintheareaconcerned.
3.1.3.2ThetypeofsoillargelydeterminesitsresistivityandrepresentativevaluesforsoilsgenerallyfoundinIndiaaregivenatAnnexB.Earth
conductivityis,however,essentiallyelectrolyticinnatureandisaffectedthereforebymoisturecontentofthesoilanditschemicalcompositionand

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concentrationofsaltsdissolvedinthecontainedwater.Grainsizeanddistributionandclosenessofpackingarealsocontributoryfactorssincethey
controlthemannerinwhichthemoistureisheldinsoil.Manyofthesefactorsvarylocallyandsomeseasonallyand,therefore,thevaluesgivenin
AnnexBshouldbetakenonlyasageneralguide.Localvaluesshouldbeverifiedbyactualmeasurementandthisisespeciallyimportantwherethesoil
isstratified,asowingtothedispositionofearthcurrent,theeffectiveresistivitydependsnotonlyon
thesurfacelayersbutalsoontheunderlyinggeologicalformation.

137

3.1.3.3Thesoiltemperaturealsohassomeeffectonsoilresistivitybutisimportantonlynearandbelowfreezingpoint,necessitatingthe
installationofearthelectrodeatdepthstowhichfrostwillnotpenetrate.
3.1.3.4Whilethefundamentalnatureandpropertiesofasoilinagivenareacannotbechanged,usecanbemadeofpurelylocalconditionsin
choosingsuitableelectrodesitesandofmethodsofpreparingthesiteselected,tosecureoptimumresistivity.ReferenceisdrawntoIS3043.
3.1.4PotentialGradients

Itisnecessarytoensure,especiallyincaseoflargeelectricalinstallations,thatapersonwalkingonthegroundortouchinganearthedobjects,in
oraroundthepremisesshallnothavelargedangerouspotentialdifferencesimpressedacrosshisbodyincaseofafaultwithinoroutsidethepremises.
Suchdangermayariseifsteeppotentialgradientsexistwithinthepremisesorbetweenboundaryofthepremisesandanaccessiblepointoutside.For
thisthesteppotentialandtouchpotentialshouldbeinvestigatedandkeptwithinsafelimits.Withinanearthinggrid,thestepandtouchpotentials
maybeloweredtoanyvaluebyreducingthemeshintervalofthegrid.Thesituationismoredifficultinthezoneimmediatelyoutsidetheperiphery
wheretheproblemsmayexistevenforthetheoreticalcaseofasingleplatecoveringthesubstationarea.Thisproblemmaybeseriousinsmallstations
wherethegridmaycoveronlyalimitedarea.Attemptsshouldbemadetodesignasubstationsoastoeliminatethepossibilityoftouchcontactbeyond
theearthsystemperiphery,whenthelimitationsonsteppotentialbecomelessexacting.Whileassessingthetouchpotential,themethodofearthingof
theobjecttouched,forexample,whetheritiseartheddirectlybeloworremotelyshouldbekeptinviewinordertoconsiderthepossibilityof
occurrenceoflargepotentialdifferences.
Specialattentionshouldbepaidtothepointsneartheoperatinghandlesofapparatusand,ifnecessary,potentialequalizergrillagesofcloser
meshsecurelybondedtothestructureandtheoperatinghandleshouldbeburiedbelowthesurfacewheretheoperatormaystandwhenoperatingthe
switch.
3.1.5

Atconsumerspremiseswheretheapparatusisprotectedbyfuses,thetotalearthcircuitimpedanceshallnotbemorethanthatobtainedby
graphsgiveninFig.1.
4EARTHELECTRODES
4.1Material

4.1.1

Althoughelectrodematerialdoesnotaffectinitialearthresistance,careshouldbetakentoselectamaterialwhichisresistanttocorrosioninthe
typeofsoilinwhichitwillbeused.

Fig.1RecommendedEarthCircuitImpedanceofResistanceforDifferentValuesofFuseRating
138

4.1.2

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Underordinaryconditionsofsoil,useofcopper,ironormildsteelelectrodesisrecommended.
4.1.3

Incaseswheresoilconditionspointtoexcessivecorrosionoftheelectrodeandtheconnections,itisrecommendedtouseeithercopper
electrodeorcoppercladelectrodeorzinccoated(galvanized)ironelectrodes.
4.1.4

Indirectcurrentsystem,however,duetoelectrolyticactionwhichcausesseriouscorrosion,itisrecommendedtouseonlycopperelectrodes.
4.1.5

Theelectrodeshallbekeptfreefrompaint,enamelandgrease.
4.1.6

Itisrecommendedtousesimilarmaterialforearthelectrodesandearthconductorsorotherwiseprecautionsshouldbetakentoavoid
corrosion.
4.2CurrentLoading

4.2.1

Anearthelectrodeshouldbedesignedtohavealoadingcapacityadequateforthesysteminwhichitformsapart,thatis,itshouldbecapableof
dissipatingwithoutfailure,energyintheearthpathatthepointatwhichitisinstalledunderanyconditionofoperationofthesystem.Failureis
fundamentallyduetoexcessiveriseoftemperatureatthesurfaceoftheelectrodeandisthusafunctionofcurrentdensityanddurationaswellas
electricalandthermalpropertiesofsoil.
4.2.2

Twoconditionsofoperationoccurinsystemoperation,namely
a.Longdurationoverloadingaswithnormalsystemoperation,and
b.Shorttimeoverloadingasunderfaultconditionsindirectlyearthedsystem.
4.3VoltageGradient

4.3.1

Underfaultconditionstheearthelectrodeisraisedtoapotentialwithrespecttothegeneralmassoftheearth.Thisresultsintheexistenceof
voltagesinthesoilaroundtheelectrodewhichmaybeinjurioustotelephoneandpilotcableswhosecoresaresubstantiallyatearthpotentialowingto
thevoltagetowhichthesheathsofsuchcablesareraised.Thevoltagegradientatthesurfaceoftheearthmayalsoconstitutedangertolife.
4.3.2

Earthelectrodesshouldnotbeinstalledinproximitytoametalfencetoavoidthepossibilityofthefencebecominglive,andthusdangerousat
pointsremotefromthesubstation,oralternativelygivingrisetodangerwithintheresistanceareaoftheelectrodewhichcanbereducedonlyby
introducingagoodconnectionwiththegeneralmassoftheearth.Ifthemetalfenceisunavoidable,itshouldbeearthed.
4.4TypesofEarthElectrodes

Thefollowingtypesofearthelectrodesareconsideredstandard:
a.Rodandpipeelectrodes,
b.Striporconductorelectrodes,
c.Plateselectrodes,and
d.Cablesheaths.
Fordetailsregardingtheirdesign,referenceshallbemadetoIS3043.
4.5DesignDataonEarthElectrodes

4.5.1

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ThedesigndataonthevarioustypesofearthelectrodesisgiveninTable1.
4.5.2EffectofShapeonElectrodeResistance

Theresistanceofanyelectrodeburiedintheearthisinfactrelatedtothecapacitanceofthatelectrodeanditsimageinfreespace.The
relationshipisgivenby:

where
R

=resistanceinaninfinitemedium

=resistivityofthemedium(soil)inohmmetreand

=capacitanceoftheelectrodeanditsimageinfreespace.

Inpracticalcase,thecapacitanceisdividedintotwobytheplaneofearthssurfacesothat,

a.Forrodorpipeelectrodes,theformulais

where
l

=lengthofrodorpipe,incmand

=diameterofrodorpipe,incm.

b.Forstriporroundconductorelectrodes,

where

139

=lengthofthestrip,incmand

=width(strip)ortwicethediameter(conductors),incm.

c.Forplateelectrodes,

where
A=areaofbothsidesofplate,inm2.
4.5.3EffectofDepthofBurial

Toreducethedepthofburialwithoutincreasingtheresistance,anumberofrodsorpipesshallbeconnectedtogetherinparallel(seeFig.4).
Theresistanceinthiscaseispracticallyproportionaltothereciprocalofthenumberofelectrodesusedsolongaseachissituatedoutsidetheresistance
areaoftheother.Thedistancebetweentwoelectrodesinsuchacaseshallpreferablybenotlessthantwicethelengthoftheelectrode.
5EARTHBUSANDEARTHWIRES
5.0General

5.0.1

Theminimumallowablesizeofearthwireisdeterminedprincipallybymechanicalconsiderationfortheyaremoreliabletomechanicalinjury
andshouldthereforebestrongenoughtoresistanystrainthatislikelytobeputuponthem.
5.0.2

Allearthwiresandearthcontinuityconductorsshallbeofcopper,galvanizediron,orsteeloraluminium.
NOTEBarealuminiumshallnotbeusedunderground.
5.0.3

Theyshallbeeitherstrandedorsolidbarsorflatrectangularstripsandmaybebareprovidedduecareistakentoavoidcorrosionand

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mechanicaldamagetoit.Whererequired,theyshallberuninsidemetallicconduits.
5.0.4

Interconnectionsofearthcontinuityconductorsandmainandbranchearthwiresshallbemadeinsuchawaythatreliableandgoodelectrical
connectionsarepermanentlyensured.
NOTEWelded,boltedandclampedjointsarepermissible.Forstrandedconductors,sleeveconnectors(forexample,indented,
rivetedorboltedconnectors)arepermissible.Boltedconnectorsandtheirscrewsshallbeprotectedagainstanypossiblecorrosion.
5.0.5

Thepathoftheearthwireshall,asfaraspossible,beoutofreachofanyperson.
5.0.6

Ifthemetalsheathandarmourhavebeenusedasanearthcontinuityconductorthearmourshallbebondedtothemetalsheathandthe
connectionbetweentheearthwireandearthingelectrodeshallbemadetothemetalsheath.
5.0.7

Ifaclamphasbeenusedtoprovideconnection
Table1DesignDataonEarthElectrodes
(Clause4.5.1)
Alldimensionsinmillimetres.
SINo.

Measurement

TypeofElectrodes
Rod

Pipe

Strip

RoundConductor

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

16mm1)

38mm1)

12.5mm2)

100mm2)

ii) Lengthofconductor/rod

3500mm

iii) Depthuptowhichburied
iv) Size

(1)

(2)

i) Diameter(notlessthan)

v) Thickness

Plate(seeNote2)
(7)

3500mm

500mm

15000mm

1500mm

3750mm

3550mm

3200mm

25mm1.60mm2)

3.0mm22)

1200mm1200mm3)

25mm4mm1)

6mm21)

600mm600mm1)

6.30mm2)

3.15mm1)

3.5mm1)
1)Steelorgalvanizediron.
2)Copper.
3)Castiron.

NOTES
1.AtypicalillustrationofpipeearthelectrodeisgiveninFig.2.
2.AtypicalillustrationofplateelectrodeisgiveninFig.3.Iftwoormoreplatesareusedinparallel,theyshallbeseparatedbynotlessthan3.0m.
3.Adequatequantityofwatertobepouredintosumpeveryfewdaystokeepthesoilsurroundingtheearthpipepermanentlymoist.

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Fig.2ATypicalIllustrationofPipeEarthElectrode
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Fig.3ATypicalIllustrationofPlateEarthElectrode
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Fig.4ResistanceofElectrodeatVariousDepthsandSoilResistances
betweentheearthwireandthemetalsheathandarmour,itshallbesodesignedandinstalledastoprovidereliableconnectionwithoutdamage
tothecable.
5.0.8

Theneutralconductorshallnotbeusedasearthwire.
5.0.9

TheminimumsizesofearthcontinuityconductorsandearthwiresshallbeasgivenintherelevantpartoftheCode.
6MEASUREMENTOFEARTHELECTRODERESISTANCE
6.1FallofPotentialMethod

Inthismethodtwoauxiliaryearthelectrodes,besidesthetestelectrode,areplacedatsuitabledistancesfromthetestelectrode(seeFig.5).A
measuredcurrentispassedbetweentheelectrodeAtobetestedandanauxiliarycurrentelectrodeCandthepotentialdifferencebetweenthe
electrodeAandtheauxiliarypotentialelectrodeBismeasured.TheresistanceofthetestelectrodeAisthengivenby:

where
R

=resistanceofthetestelectrode,inohms

=readingofthevoltmeter,inVand

=readingoftheammeter,inamperes.

Fig.5MethodofMeasurementofEarthElectrodeResistance
6.1.1

Ifthetestismadeatpowerfrequency,thatis,50Hz,theresistanceofthevoltmetershouldbehighcomparedtothatoftheauxiliarypotential
electrodeBandinnocaseshouldbelessthan20000.

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NOTEInmostcasestherewillbestraycurrentsflowinginthesoilandunlesssomestepsaretakentoeliminatetheireffect,they
mayproduceseriouserrorsinthemeasuredvalue.Ifthetestingcurrentisofthesamefrequencyasthestraycurrent,thiselimination
becomesverydifficultanditisbettertouseanearthtesterincorporatingahanddrivengenerator.Theseearthtestersusuallygenerate
directcurrentandhaverotarycurrentreverserandsynchronousrectifiermountedonthegeneratorshaftsothatalternatingcurrentis
suppliedtothetestcircuitandtheresultingpotentialsarerectifiedformeasurementbyadirectreadingmovingcoilohmmeter.The
presenceofstraycurrentsinthesoilisindicatedbyawanderingoftheinstrumentpointer,butanincreaseordecreaseofgenerator
handlespeedwillcausethistodisappear.
6.1.2

Thesourceofcurrentshallbeisolatedfromthesupplybyadoublebyadoublewoundtransformer.
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6.1.3

Atthetimeoftest,wherepossible,thetestelectrodeshallbeseparatedfromtheearthingsystem.
6.1.4

Theauxiliaryelectrodesusuallyconsistof12.5mmdiametermildsteelroddrivenupto1mintotheground.
6.1.5

Allthetestelectrodesandthecurrentelectrodesshallbesoplacedthattheyareindependentoftheresistanceareaofeachother.Ifthetest
electrodeisintheformofrod,pipeorplate,theauxiliarycurrentelectrodeCshallbeplacedatleast30mawayfromitandtheauxiliarypotential
electrodeBshallbeplacedmidwaybetweenthem.
6.1.6

Unlessthreeconsecutivereadingsoftestelectroderesistancewithdifferentspacingsofelectrodesagree,thetestshallberepeatedbyincreasing
thedistancebetweenelectrodesAandCupto50mandeachtimeplacingtheelectrodeBmidwaybetweenthem.
6.2AlternativeMethod

6.2.1

Themethoddescribedin6.1maynotgivesatisfactoryresultsifthetestelectrodeisofverylowimpedance(1ohmorless).Thisapplies
particularlywhilemeasuringthecombinedresistanceoflargeinstallations.Inthesecases,thefollowingmethodmaybeadopted.
6.2.1.1Twosuitabledirections,atleast90apart,arefirstselected.Thepotentialleadislaidinonedirectionandanelectrodeisplaced250to
300mfromthefence.Thecurrentleadistakenintheotherdirectionandthecurrentelectrodelocatedatthesamedistanceasthepotential
electrode.Areadingistakenunderthiscondition.Thecurrentelectrodeisthenmovedoutin30mstepsuntilthesamereadingisobtainedforthree
consecutivelocations.Thecurrentelectrodeisthenleftinthelastforegoingpositionandthepotentialelectrodeismovedoutin30mstepsuntilthree
consecutivereadingsareobtainedwithoutachangeinvalue.Thelastreadingsthencorrespondtothetruevalueofearthresistance.
7EARTHINGOFINSTALLATIONSINBUILDINGS
7.1

Theearthingarrangementsoftheconsumersinstallationshallbesuchthatonoccurrenceofafaultofnegligibleimpedancefromaphaseor
nonearthedconductortoadjacentexposedmetal,acurrentcorrespondingtonotlessthanthreeandahalftimestheratingofthefuseoroneanda
halftimesthesettingoftheoverloadearthleakagecircuitbreakerwillflowexceptwhereresidualcurrentoperateddevicesorvoltageoperatedearth
leakagecircuitbreakersareusedandmakethefaultycircuitdead.Wherefusesareusedtodisconnectthefaultysectionofaninstallationintheevent
ofanearthfault,thetotalpermissibleimpedanceoftheearthfaultpathmaybecomputedfromthefollowingformula(foranormalthreephase
systemwithearthedneutral).

where
Z=permissibleimpedance,inohm.
NOTEThefactorofsafetyincalculatingthepermissibleimpedanceshouldbelefttothediscretionofthedesigner.
7.1.1

Thefactorofsafetyintheaboveformulaensuresthatinmostcasesthefusewillblowinatimewhichissufficientlyshorttoavoiddangerand
allowingforanumberofcircumstances,suchasthegradingoffuserating,increaseofresistanceduetodryingoutoftheearthelectrodesindry

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weather,inevitableextensionstoinstallationsinvolvingincreaseinlengthofthecircuitconductorsandtheearthcontinuityconductors,etc.
7.1.2

Itwillbeobservedthatthisrequirementdeterminestheoverallimpedanceanddoesnotcontainaspecificreferencetoanypartofthecircuit
suchastheconduitorotherearthcontinuityconductortogetherwiththeearthinglead.Infact,inlargeinstallationstheoverallimpedance
permissiblemaybelessthan1ohm,sothatconsiderablylessthanthismightbeallowablefortheearthcontinuitysystem.
7.2

Itisdesirablewhenplanninganinstallationtoconsultthesupplyauthorityoranelectricalcontractorhavingknowledgeoflocalconditions,in
ordertoascertainwhichofthetwo,namely,theuseoffusesofoverloadcircuitbreakers,forprotectionagainstearthleakagecurrentsislikelytoprove
satisfactory.
7.3

Itisrecommendedthatthemaximumsustainedvoltagedevelopedunderfaultconditionsbetweenexposedmetalrequiredtobeearthedandthe
consumersearthterminalshallnotexceed32Vrms.
7.4

Onlypipe,rodorplateearthelectrodesarerecommendedandtheyshallsatisfytherequirementsof4.5.
7.5EarthContinuityConductors

7.5.1

Connectiontoearthofthosepartsofaninstallationwhichrequiretobeearthedshallbemadebymeansofanearthcontinuityconductor
whichmaybeaseparateearthconductor,themetalsheathofthecablesortheearthcontinuityconductorcontainedinacable,flexiblecableor
flexiblecord.
7.5.2EarthContinuityConductorsandEarthWiresnotContainedintheCables

Thesizeoftheearthcontinuityconductorsshouldbe
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correlatedwiththesizeofthecurrentcarryingconductors,thatis,thesizesofearthcontinuityconductorsshouldnotbelessthanhalfofthe
largestcurrentcarryingconductors,providedtheminimumsizeofearthcontinuityconductorsisnotlessthan1.5mm2forcopperand2.5mm2for
aluminiumandneednotbegreaterthan70mm2forcopperand120mm2foraluminium.Asregardsthesizesofgalvanizedironandsteelearth
continuityconductors,theymaybeequaltosizeofcurrentcarryingconductorswithwhichtheyareused.Thesizeofearthcontinuityconductorsto
beusedalongwithaluminiumcurrentcarryingconductorsshouldbecalculatedonthebasisofequivalentsizeofthecoppercurrentcarrying
conductors.
7.5.3EarthContinuityConductorsandEarthWiresContainedintheCables

Forflexiblecables,thesizeoftheearthcontinuityconductorsshouldbeequaltothesizeofthecurrentcarryingconductorsandformetal
sheathed,PVCandtoughrubbersheathedcablesthesizesoftheearthcontinuityconductorsshallbeinaccordancewithrelevantIndianStandards.
7.5.4CableSheathsUsedasEarthContinuityConductors

Wherethemetalsheathsofcablesareusedasearthcontinuityconductors,everyjointinsuchsheathsshallbesomadethatitscurrentcarrying
capacityisnotlessthanthatofthesheathitself.Wherenecessary,theyshallbeprotectedagainstcorrosion.
Wherenonmetallicjointboxesareused,meansshallbeprovidedtomaintainthecontinuity,suchasametalstriphavingaresistancenot
greaterthanthatofthesheathofthelargestcableenteringthebox.
7.5.5MetalConduitPipeUsedasonEarthContinuityConductor

Metalconduitpipeshouldgenerallynotbeusedasanearthcontinuityconductorbutwhereusedasveryhighstandardofworkmanshipin
installationisessential.Jointsshallbesomadethattheircurrentcarryingcapacityisnotlessthanthatoftheconduititself.Slacknessinjointsmay
resultindeteriorationandevencompletelossofcontinuity.Plainsliporpingripsocketsareinsufficienttoensuresatisfactoryelectricalcontinuityof
joints.Inthecaseofscrewedconduit,locknutsshouldalsobeused.
7.5.6PipesandStructuralSteelWork

Pipes,suchaswaterpipe,gaspipe,ormembersofstructuralsteelworkshallnotbeusedasearthcontinuityconductor.

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8MEASUREMENTOFEARTHLOOPIMPEDANCE
8.1

Thecurrentwhichwillflowunderearthfaultconditionsandwillthusbeavailabletooperatetheoverloadprotectiondependsuponthe
impedanceoftheearthreturnloop.Thisincludesthelineconductor,fault,earthcontinuityconductorandearthinglead,earthelectrodesat
consumerspremisesandsubstationsandanyparallelmetallicreturntothetransformerneutralaswellasthetransformerwinding.Totesttheoverall
earthingforanyinstallationdependingforprotectionontheoperationofovercurrentdevices,forexample,fuses,itisnecessarytomeasurethe
impedanceofthisloopunderpracticalfaultconditions.Afterthesupplyhasbeenconnectedthisshallbedonebytheuseofanearthloopimpedance
testerasshowninFig.6.Theneutralisusedinplaceofthephaseconductorforthepurposeofthetest.Theopencircuitvoltageofthelooptester
shouldnotexceed32V.
9TYPESOFSYSTEMEARTHING
9.1

Internationally,ithasbeenagreedtoclassifytheearthingsystemsasTNSystem,TTSystemandITSystem.
9.1.1TNSystem

Thistypeofsystemhasoneormorepointsofthesourceofenergydirectlyearthed,andtheexposedandextraneousconductivepartsofthe
installationareconnectedbymeansofprotectiveconductorstotheearthedpoint(s)ofthesource,thatis,thereisametallicpathforearthfault
currentstoflowfromtheinstallationtotheearthedpoint(s)ofthesource.TNsystemsarefurthersubdividedintoTNC,TNSandTNCSsystems.
9.1.2TTSystem

Thistypeofsystemhasoneormorepointsofthesourceofenergydirectlyearthedandtheexposedandextraneousconductivepartsofthe
installationareconnectedtoalocalearthelectrodeorelectrodesandareelectricallyindependentofthesourceearth(s).
9.1.3ITSystem

Thistypeofsystemhasthesourceeitherunearthedorearthedthroughahighimpedanceandtheexposedconductivepartsoftheinstallation
areconnectedtoelectricallyindependentearthelectrodes.
9.1.4

Itisalsorecognizedthat,inpractice,asystemmaybeanadmixtureoftypes.ForthepurposeofthisCode,earthingsystemsaredesignatedas
follows:
a.TNSsystem(for240Vsinglephasedomestic/commercialsupply)Systemswherethereareseparateneutralandprotectiveconductors
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Fig.6CircuitDiagramofEarthLoopImpedanceTester
throughoutthesystem.Asystemwherethemetallicpathbetweentheinstallationandthesourceofenergyisthesheathandarmouringof
thesupplycable(seeFig.7A).
b.IndianTNSSystem(for415Vthreephasedomesticcommercialsupply)Anindependentearthelectrodewithintheconsumerspremisesis
provided(seeFig.7B).

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c.IndianTNCSystemTheneutralandprotectivefunctionsarecombinedinasingleconductorthroughoutthesystem(forexampleearthed
concentricwiring(seeFig.7C).

d.TNCSSystemTheneutralandprotectivefunctionsarecombinedinasingleconductorbutonlyinpartofthesystem(seeFig.7D).
e.TTNSSystem(for6.6/11kVthreephasebulksupply)Theconsumersinstallation,aTNSsystemreceivingpoweratacaptivesubstation
throughadeltaconnectedtransformerprimary(seeFig.7E).
f.TTSystem(for415Vthreephaseindustrialsupply)Sameas9.1.2(seeFig.7F)
g.ITSystemSame9.1.3(seeFig.7G).

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Fig.7TypesofSystemEarthing
10SELECTIONOFDEVICESFORAUTOMATICDISCONNECTIONOFSUPPLY
10.1General

Ingeneral,everycircuitisprovidedwithameansofovercurrentprotection.Iftheearthfaultloopimpedanceislowenoughtocausethese
devicestooperatewithinthespecifiedtimes(thatis,sufficientcurrentcanflowtoearthunderfaultconditions),suchdevicesmayberelieduponto
givetherequisiteautomaticdisconnectionofsupply.Iftheearthfaultloopimpedancedoesnotpermittheovercurrentprotectivedevicestogive
automaticdisconnectionofthesupplyunderearthfaultconditions,thefirstoptionistoreducethatimpedance.Itmaybepermissibleforthistobe
achievedbytheuseofprotectivemultipleearthingorbyadditionalearthelectrodes.Therearepracticallimitationstobothapproaches.
Incaseofimpedance/arcingfaults,seriesprotectivedevicesmaybeineffectivetoclearthefaults.Analternateapproachistobeadoptedforthe
completesafetyoftheoperatingpersonnelandequipmentfromthehazardsthatmayresultfromearthfaults.Thisisto
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useresidualcurrentdeviceswithappropriatesettingstoclearthefaultswithinthepermissibletime,basedontheprobablecontactpotential.
Thismethodisequallyapplicablewhereearthloopimpedancescannotbeimproved.
InTTsystems,thereisanadditionaloptionoftheuseoffaultvoltageoperatedprotectivedeviceswhilstthesedeviceswillalwaysgiveprotection
againstshockrisk,providedtheyarecorrectlyinstalled,thepresenceofparallelearthsfromthebondingwillreducetheeffectivenessofthefirerisk
protectiontheyoffer.Theseare,therefore,moresuitedforisolatedinstallationsthatdonothaveinterconnectionstootherinstallations.Itshouldalso
berememberedthateverysocketoutletcircuitthatdonothaveearthingfacilityinahouseholdorsimilarinstallationshouldbeprotectedbyaresidual
currentdevicehavingaratedresidualoperatingcurrentnotexceeding30mA.
Onallothersystemswhereequipmentissuppliedbymeansofasocketoutletnothavingearthingfacilityorbymeansofaflexiblecableorcord
usedoutsidetheprotectivezonecreatedbythemainequipotentialbondingoftheinstallationsuchequipmentshouldbeprotectedbyaresidualcurrent
operateddevicehavinganoperatingcurrentof30mAorless.
NOTEInformationoncascading,limitationanddiscriminationisgivenatAnnexC.
10.2UseofOverCurrentProtectiveDevicesforEarthFaultProtection

Whereovercurrentprotectivedevicesareusedtogiveautomaticdisconnectionofsupplyincaseofearthfaultinordertogiveshockrisk

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protection,thebasicrequirementisthatanyvoltageoccurringbetweensimultaneouslyaccessibleconductivepartsduringafaultshouldbeofsuch
magnitudeanddurationasnottocausedanger.Thedurationwilldependonthecharacteristicoftheovercurrentdeviceandtheearthfaultcurrent
which,inturn,dependsonthetotalearthfaultloopimpedance.Themagnitudewilldependontheimpedanceofthatpartoftheearthfaultlooppath
thatliesbetweenthesimultaneouslyaccessibleparts.
Thebasicrequirementcanbemetif,
a.acontactpotentialof65Viswithinthetolerablelimitsofhumanbodyfor10s.Henceprotectiverelayordevicecharacteristicshouldbesuch
thatthis65Vcontactpotentialshouldbeeliminatedwithin10sandhighervoltageswithshortertimes.
b.avoltageof250Vcanbewithstoodbyahumanbodyforabout100ms,whichrequiresinstantaneousdisconnectionofsuchfaults,givingriseto
potentialriseof250Vormoreabovethegroundpotential.
Themaximumearthfaultloopimpedancecorrespondingtospecificratingsoffuseorminiaturecircuitbreakerthatwillmeetthecriteriacanbe
calculatedonthebasisofanominalvoltagetoearth(U0 )andthetimecurrentcharacteristicsofthedeviceassumingworstcaseconditions,thatis,the
slowestoperatingtimeacceptedbytherelevantstandards.Thus,ifthesevaluesarenotexceeded,compliancewiththisCodecoveringautomatic
disconnectionincaseofanearthfaultisassured.
Whereitisrequiredtoknowthemaximumearthfaultloopimpedanceacceptableinacircuitfeeding,afixedapplianceorsetofappliancesand
protectedbyanovercurrentdevice,theminimumcurrentthatmaybenecessarytoensureoperationoftheovercurrentdevicewithinthepermissible
timeof10sforacontactpotentialof65Visfoundfromthecharacteristiccurveofthedeviceconcerned.ApplicationoftheOhmsLawthenenables
thecorrespondingearthfaultloopimpedancetobecalculated.
Forcircuitssupplyingsocketoutlets,thecorrespondingearthfaultloopimpedancecanbefoundbyasimilarcalculationforearthedequipment.
Whenequipmentarenotearthedandconnectedtosocketoutletswithoutearthingfacility,disconnectionshouldbeensuredfor30mAwithin10sand
withappropriatedecrementsintimeforhighercurrents.
Thismethodrequiresaknowledgeofthetotalearthloopimpedancealone(ratherthanindividualcomponents)andis,therefore,quickand
directinapplication.Itssimplicitydoesexcludesomecircuitarrangementsthatcouldgivetherequiredprotection.
Whilecalculationsgivethemaximumearthfaultlooporprotectiveconductorimpedancetoensureshockriskprotectionunderfaultconditions
itisalsonecessarytoensurethatthecircuitprotectiveearthconductorisprotectedagainstthethermaleffectsofthefaultcurrent.Theearthfaultloop
impedanceshould,therefore,belowenoughtocausetheprotectivedevicetooperatequicklyenoughtogivethatprotectionaswell.Thisconsideration
placesasecondlimitonthemaximumearthloopimpedancepermissibleandcanbecheckedbysuperimposingonthetimecurrentcharacteristicof
theoverloaddevice,theadiabaticlinehavingtheequation:

Detailsofthemaximumpermissibleearthloopimpedanceforthethermalprotectionofcablesbyfusescanalsobecomputed.However,the
timecurrentcharacteristicsofaminiaturecircuitbreakeraresuchthatiftheloopimpedanceislowenoughtogiveautomaticdisconnectionwithin
safedisconnectingtime
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soprovidingshockriskprotection,itwillalsogivethenecessarythermalprotectiontotheearthconductorlikelytobeusedwithabreakerof
thatspecificrating.Figure8showstherelationshipbetweentheadiabaticlineandthecharacteristicoffusesandminiaturecircuitbreaker.

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Fig.8RelationshipBetweenAdiabaticLinesandCharacteristics
Inorderthatthedeviceswillgivethermalprotectiontotheprotectiveconductor,operationhastoberestrictedtotheareatotherightofpoint
Awherethesecurvescross.Thus,themaximumearthfaultloopimpedanceforthermalprotectionofthecableisthatcorrespondingtotheminimum
earthfaultcurrentforwhichthedevicegivesprotection.Thevalueofthiscurrentcanbereadfromthecurveandthecorrespondingloopimpedance
canbecalculatedfrom:

where
Zs

=earthfaultloopimpedance,

Uo

=nominalvoltagetoearth,and

It

=earthfaultcurrent.

Foragivenapplication,themaximumpermittedearthfaultloopimpedancewouldbethelowerofthetwovaluescalculatedforshockrisk
protectionorthermalrestraintrespectively.
ItwillbenotedthattheadiabaticlinecrossesthecharacteristiccurveforaminiaturecircuitbreakeratasecondpointB.Thisdenotesthe
maximumfaultcurrentforwhichabreakerwillgivethermalprotectionbutitwillgenerallybefoundinpracticethatthisvalueishigherthanthe
prospectiveshortcircuitcurrentthatoccursinthecircuitinvolvedandcannot,therefore,berealized.
10.3EarthFaultProtectiveDevices

Therearetwobasicformsofsuchdevicesthatcanbeusedforindividualnonearthed/earthed(withlimitedapplication)equipmentasfollows:
10.3.1ResidualCurrentOperatedDevices(RCD)

AnRCDincorporatestwocomponentitems.Acorebalancetransformerassemblywithawindingforeachrecognizingtheoutofbalance
currentthatthefaultproducesinthemainconductors.Thisinducesacurrentthatisusedtooperatethetrippingmechanismofacontactsystem.For
operatingcurrentsof0.5Aormore,theoutputfromsuchatransformerassemblycanoperateaconventionaltripcoildirectly.Forlowervaluesof
operatingcurrent,itisnecessarytointerposeadelaydevice,eithermagneticorsolidstate.
Devicesforloadcurrentsgreaterthan100Ausuallycompriseaseparatetransformerassemblywithacircuitbreakerorcontactrelay,mounted

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togetherwithinacommonenclosure.Devicesforloadcurrentsbelow100Ausuallyincludethetransformerandcontactsystemwithinthesamesingle
unit,whichisthendescribedasaresidualcurrentoperatedcircuitbreaker(RCB).SuchanRCBshouldbeconsideredaparticulartypeofRCBalthough
itisthemostusualform.
Awidechoiceofoperatingcurrentsisavailable(typicalvaluesarebetween10mAand20A)RCBsarenormallynonadjustablewhilstRCDsare
oftenmanufacturedsothatoneofseveraloperatingcurrentsmaybechosen.Singlephaseandmultiphasedeviceswithorwithoutintegralovercurrent
facilitiesareavailable.
Whereresidualcurrentbreakersof30mAoperatingcurrentorlessarebeingused,thereisachoicebetweendevicesthatareentirely
electromechanicalinoperationandthosethatemployasolidstatedetector.Theelectromechanicaltypesaregenerallysmallandcompactandwill
operateonthepowerbeingfedtothefaultalonewhereasthesolidstatetypewhichtendtobebulkiertorequireapowersupplytoensureoperation.
Wherethispowersupplyisderivedfromthemains,itmaybe

150

necessarytotakeaddedprecautionagainstfailuresofpartofthatmainssupply.Devicessuitablefortimegradingaremorelikelytobeofthe
solidstateformasarethosehavinghigherthroughfaultcapacity.
AtestdeviceisincorporatedtoallowtheoperationoftheRCDtobechecked.Operationofthisdevicecreatesanoutofbalancecondition
withinthedevice.TrippingoftheRCDbymeansofthetestdeviceestablishesthefollowing:
a.Theintegrityoftheelectricalandmechanicalelementsofthetrippingdeviceand
b.Thatthedeviceisoperatingatapproximatelythecorrectorderofoperatingcurrent.
Itshouldbenotedthatthetestdevicedoesnotprovideameansofcheckingthecontinuityoftheearthingleadortheearthcontinuity
conductor,nordoesitimposeanytestontheearthelectrodeoranyotherpartoftheearthingcircuit.
AlthoughanRCDwilloperateoncurrentsequaltoorexceedingitsoperatingcurrent,itshouldbenotedthatitwillonlyrestrictthetimefor
whichafaultcurrentflows.Itcannotrestrictthemagnitudeofthefaultpercentcurrentwhichdependssolelyonthecircuitconditions.
10.3.2FaultVoltageOperatedEarthLeakageCircuitBreakers(ELCB)

Avoltageoperatedearthleakagecircuitbreakercomprisesacontactswitchingsystemtogetherwithavoltagesensitivetripcoil.Oninstallations,
thiscoilisconnectedbetweenthemetalworktobeprotectedandasgoodaconnectionwithearthascanbeobtained.Anyvoltageriseaboveearthon
thatmetalworkexceedingthesettingofthecoilwillcausethebreakertotripsogivingindirectshockriskprotection.
Trippingcoilsaredesignedsothatafaultvoltageoperateddevicewilloperateona40Vrisewhentheearthelectroderesistanceis500Wor24
Vona200Welectrode.Singleandmultiphaseunits,withorwithoutovercurrentfacilities,areavailableforloadcurrentsupto100A.
Atestdeviceisprovidedonavoltageoperatedunittoenabletheoperationofthecircuitbreakertobechecked,operationofthedeviceappliesa
voltagetothetripcoilsosimulatingafault.Trippingofthecircuitbreakerbymeansofthetestdeviceshowstheintegrityoftheelectricalmechanical
elementsthattheunitisoperatingwiththecorrectorderofoperatingvoltageand,inaddition,provestheconductorfromthecircuitbreakertothe
earthelectrode.Itcannotproveotherfeaturesoftheinstallation.
Whilstthevoltageoperated(ELCB)willoperatewhensubjectedtoafaultvoltageof20Vormore,itshouldbenotedthatitcannotrestrictthe
voltageinmagnitudeonlyinduration.
10.3.3CurrentOperatedEarthLeakageCircuitBreakers

Forindustrialapplications,earthleakagecircuitbreakersoperatingonmilliampereresidualcurrentsorworkingonfaultvoltageprincipleareof
littleuse,sincemilliamperesofearthleakagecurrentforanextensiveindustrialsystemisanormaloperatingsituation.Trippingbasedonthese
currentswillresultinnuisanceforthenormaloperation.Milliamperesofcurrentinasystem,whereexposedconductivepartsofequipmentsare
effectivelyearthedandfaultloopimpedanceiswithinreasonablevalues,willgiveriseonlytoagroundpotential/contactpotentialriseofafew
millivolts.Thiswillinnowaycontributetoshockorfirehazard.Hereobjectionablefaultcurrentswillbeafeworafewtenthsofamperes.Insuch
cases,residualcurrentoperateddevicessensitivetothesecurrentsmustbemadeuseofforearthfaultcurrentandstableoperationoftheplantwithout
nuisancetripping.Thisisachievedeitherbyseparaterelaysorinbuiltreleasesinitiatingtripsignalstothecircuitbreakers
10.4SelectionofEarthFaultProtectiveDevices

Ingeneral,residualcurrentoperateddevicesarepreferredandmaybedividedintotwogroupsaccordingtotheirfinalcurrentoperating
characteristics.
10.4.1RCDshavingMinimumOperatingCurrentsGreaterthan30mA

Thesedevicesareintendedtogiveindirectshockriskprotectiontopersonsincontactwithearthedmetal.
10.4.2RCDshavingMinimumOperatingCurrentof30mAandBelow

Thesedevicesaregenerallyreferredtoashavinghighsensitivityandcangivedirectshockriskprotectiontopersonswhomaycomeincontact
withliveconductorsandearthprovidedthattheRCDoperatingtimesarebetterthanthosegiveninIS8437(Part1)andIS8437(Part2).Itshouldbe
notedthatsuchRCDscanonlybeusedtosupplementanearthconductorandnotreplaceone.
InadditiontogivingprotectionagainstindirectcontactordirectcontactRCDsmayalsogivefireriskprotection,thedegreeofprotectionbeing
relatedtothesensitivityofthedevice.
AnRCDshouldbechosenhavingthelowestsuitableoperatingcurrent.Thelowertheoperatingcurrentthegreaterthedegreeofprotection

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given,itcanalsointroducepossibilitiesofnuisancetrippingandmaybecomeunnecessarilyexpensive.Theminimumoperatingcurrentwillbeabove
anystandingleakage

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thatmaybeunavoidableonthesystem.Afurtherconsiderationarisesifitisintendedtohaveseveraldevicesinseries.Itisnotalwayspossible
tointroducetimegradingtogivediscriminationwhereasalimitedamountofcurrentdiscriminationcanbeobtainedbygradingthesensitivitiesalong
thedistributionchain.
Themaximumpermittedoperatingcurrentdependsontheearthfaultloopimpedance.Theproductofthenetresidualoperatingcurrentloop
impedanceshouldnotexceed65V.
Itisoftenacceptableoncommercialgroundstohaveseveralfinalcircuitsprotectedbythesameresidualcurrentdevices.This,however,does
resultinseveralcircuitsbeingaffectedifafaultoccursononeofthecircuitssoprotectedandthefinancialadvantageshavetobeweighedagainstthe
effectsofloosingmorethanonecircuit.
ItshouldalsobenotedthatdifferenttypesofRCDindifferentcircuitsmayreactdifferentlytothepresenceofaneutraltoearthfaultonthe
loadside.Suchanearthconnectiontogetherwiththeearthingofthesupplyattheneutralpointwillconstituteashuntacrosstheneutralwindingon
theRCDtransformer.Consequently,aportionoftheneutralloadcurrentwillbeshuntedawayfromthetransformeranditmayresultinthedevice
tripping.Ontheotherhand,suchashuntmayreducethesensitivityofthedeviceandpreventitstrippingevenunderlinetoearthfaultconditions.In
general,therefore,careshouldbetakentoavoidaneutraltoearthfaultwhereRCDsareinuse,althoughtherearesomedesignsbeingdevelopedthat
willdetectandoperateundersuchconditions.OninstallationswithseveralRCDs,careshouldbetakentoensurethatneutralcurrentsarereturnedvia
thesamedevicethatcarriesthecorrespondingphasecurrentandnoother.Failuretoobservethispointcouldresultindevicestrippingeveninthe
absenceofafaultonthecircuittheyareprotecting.
WhenusingfaultvoltageoperatedELCBs,themetalworktobeprotectedshouldbeisolatedfromearthsothatanyfaultcurrentpassesthrough
thetrippingcoilgivesbothshockandfireriskprotection.However,thisisolationisnotalwayspracticableandthepresenceofasecondparallelpathto
earthwillreducetheamountoffireriskprotectionoffered.Becausethecoilisvoltagesensitive,thepresenceofsuchaparallelpathwillnotreducethe
shockriskprotectionofferedprovidedthatthissecondpathgoestoearthwellclearofthepointatwhichtheearthleakagecircuitbreakertripcoilis
earthed.Itisrequiredthattheearthingconductorisinsulatedtoavoidcontactwithotherprotectiveconductorsoranyexposedconductivepartsor
extraneousconductivepartssoastopreventthevoltagesensitivityelementfrombeingshunted,alsothemetalworkbeingprotectedshouldbeisolated
fromthatassociatedwithothercircuitsinordertopreventimportedfaults.
NOTEForhybridIndianTNSsystemitisrecommendedthatRCDprotectionisprovidedinadditiontotheovercurrent
protectionprovidedforearthfaultprotection.Thiswillensurerequiredprotectionincaseofanybreakincontinuityoftheprotective
earthconductor.

ANNEXA
ADDITIONALRULESFOREARTHINGS
(Clause1)
A1ADDITIONALRULESAPPLYINGTOTHEDIRECTEARTHINGSYSTEM
Whereadrivenorburiedelectrodeisused,theearthresistanceshallbeaslowaspossible.
NOTEThevalueofearthresistanceisunderconsideration.
A2ADDITIONALRULESAPPLYINGTOTHEMULTIPLEEARTHNEUTRALSYSTEM
Thissystemshallbeusedonlywheretheneutralandearthislowenoughtoprecludethepossibilityofadangerousriseofpotentialinthe
neutral.
A3ADDITIONALRULESAPPLYINGTOTHEEARTHLEAKAGECIRCUITBREAKERSYSTEM
A3.1

InstallationoftheEarthLeakageCircuitBreakerSystem(seeFig.9)
Allpartsrequiredtobeearthedshallbeconnectedtoanearthelectrodethroughthecoilofanearthleakagecircuitbreakerwhichcontrolsthe
supplytoallthosepartsoftheinstallationwhicharetobeprotectedandtoaseparateearthelectrode.
A3.2SelectiveProtection

Ifselectiveoperationofearthleakagecircuitbreakerisrequired,thecircuitbreaker,electrodesandearthingconductorsshallbeinstalledinone
ofthefollowingways:
a.ArrangementGivingCompleteSelectivityAllmetalframes,conduits,earthingconductors,etc,whicharetobeprotectedasaunitshallbe
electricallyseparatedfromallothersuchpartsandfromanyotherearthedmetal.Eachparttobeprotectedasaunitshall
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Fig.9ConnectionofEarthLeakageCircuitBreakerSimpleInstallation

153

Fig.10ConnectionofEarthLeakageCircuitBreakerforCompleteSelectivity
beconnectedtoanearthelectrodethroughthecoilofanearthleakagecircuitbreaker.(seeFig.10)
Alltheseparatelyprotectedportionsoftheinstallationsmaybeconnectedtooneelectrodetotheearthleakagecircuitbreaker.
b.ArrangementGivingPartialSelectivity(CompleteSelectivitywithRespecttoFaultsinApparatus,butnoSelectivitywithRespecttoFaultsin
WiringinConduit)(seeFig.9)Alltheconduitsandassociatedfittingsshallbebondedtogetherandconnectedtoanearthelectrode,allshall
alsobeconnectedtoanotherearthelectrodethroughanearthleakagecircuitbreakerwhichcontrolsalltheactiveconductorssupplyingthe
wholeorportionsoftheinstallationsconcerned.Eachparttobeprotectedasaunitshallbeconnectedtoanearthelectrodethroughthecoilof
aseparateearthleakagecircuitbreakerwhichcontrolsalltheactiveconductorssupplyingthatportionoftheinstallationonly.Alltheseportions
maybeconnectedtooneelectrode,butthiselectrodeshallbeseparatedfromtheelectrodetowhichtheconduitsareconnected.
NOTES
1.Adoubleinsulatedwiringsystemisused,forexample,toughrubbersheathedcables.Anyconduituseddoesnotthenneedtobeearthed.
2.Theearthingconductorisinsulatedfromtheconduit.

ANNEXB
REPRESENTATIVEVALUESOFSOILRESISTIVITYINVARIOUSPARTSOFINDIA
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(Clause3.1.3.2)
SI
No.

Locality

(1)

TypeofSoil

(2)

Orderof
Resistivity
m

(3)

Remarks

(4)

(5)

1.

Kakarapar,DisttSurat,Gujarat

Clayeyblacksoil

623

UnderlyingbedrockDeccantrap

2.

TapteeValley

Alluvium

624

do

3.

NarmadaValley

Alluvium

411

Underlyingbedrocksandstoneshaleandlimestones,Deccantrapand

4.

PurnaValley(Deogaon)

Agricultural

36

5.

Dhond,Mumbai

Alluvium

640

do

6.

BijapurDistt,Karnataka

a)Blackcottonsoil

210

do

1050

do

gneisses

b)Moorm
7.

Garimenapenta,DisttNelloreAndhra

Alluvium(highlyclayey)

UnderlyingbedrockDeccantrap

Underlyingbedrockgneisses

Pradesh
8.

Kartee

a)Alluvium

9.

Delhi

a)Najafgarh

a)Alluvium(drysandy

b)Alluvium

35

Underlyingbedrocksand

921

stone,traporgneisses

75170

do

3850

do

soil)
b)Loamytoclayeysoil
c)Alluvium(saline)

154

10.

b)Chhatarpur

Drysoil

Korba,M.P.

a)Moistclay

1.59
36109
23

b)Alluviumsoil

1020

do
Underlyingbedrockquartzites
Underlyingbedrocksandstoneorshale

11.

Cossipur,Kolkata

Alluvium

12.

Bhagalpur,Bihar

a)Alluvium

25(approx)

13.

Kerala(TrivandrumDistt)

Lateriticclay

14.

Bharatpur

Sandyloam(saline)

15.

Kalyadi,Mysore

Alluvium

60150

16.

KolarGoldFields

Sandysurface

45185

do

17.

Wajrakarur,AndhraPradesh

Alluvium

50150

do

18.

Koyana,SataraDistt

Lateritic

19.

KutchKandla(AmjarArea)

a)Alluvium(clayey)

450

b)Alluvium(sandy)

60200

914
25

Underlyingbedrocktraps,sandstoneorgneisses
Underlyingbedrocklaterite,charnockiteorgranites

614

Underlyingbedrockgneisses

8001200(dry) Underlyingbedrocksandlateriteortrap

do

20.

Villupuram,Chennai

Clayeysands

21.

Ambaji,Banaskantha,Gujarat

Alluvium

170

Underlyingbedrockgranitesandgneisses

22.

RamanathapuramDistt,Chennai

a)Alluvium

25

Underlyingbedrocksandstonesandgneisses

b)Lateriticsoil

11

Underlyingbedrocksandstone,shaleortap

Underlyingbedrockgranite

300(approx)

do

NOTEThesoilresistivitiesaresubjecttowideseasonalvariationastheydependverymuchonthemoisturecontent.

155

ANNEXC
CASCADING,DISCRIMINATIONANDLIMITATION
(Clause10.1)
C1CASCADING
Theutilizationofthecurrentlimitingcapacityofacircuitbreakeratagivenpointtoenableinstallationoflowerratedcircuitbreakersinbranch
isknownascascadingorbackupprotection.Themain(upstream)circuitbreakersactsasabarrieragainstshortcircuitcurrentsandbranch
(downstream)circuitbreakerswithlowerbreakingcapacitiesthantheprospectiveshortcircuit(attheirpointofinstallation)operateundertheir
normalbreakingconditions.Thelimitingcircuitbreakerhelpsthecircuitbreakerplaceddownstreambylimitinghighshortcircuitcurrentsthus
enablinguseofdownstreamcircuitbreakerwithabreakingcapacitylowerthantheshortcircuitcurrentcalculatedatitsinstallationpointthus
enablingeconomicalselectionofcircuitbreakers.
Cascadingconcernsalldevicesinstalleddownstreamofthecircuitbreaker,andcanbeextendedtoseveralconsecutivedevices,eveniftheyare
usedindifferentswitchboards.Theupstreamdevicemusthaveanultimatebreakingcapacitygreaterthanorequaltotheassumedshortcircuitcurrent
attheinstallationpoint.Fordownstreamcircuitbreakers,theultimatebreakingcapacitytobeconsideredistheultimatebreakingcapacityenhanced
bycoordination.
Theassociationoftheupstreamanddownstreamcircuitbreakersallowsanincreaseinperformanceofthebreakers.Thus,theelectromagnetic,
electrodynamicandthermaleffectsofshortcircuitcurrentsarereduced.Installationofasinglelimitingcircuitbreakeralongwithlowerratedcircuit

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breakersresultsinconsiderableeconomyandsimplificationofinstallationwork.
D1andD2arethetwocircuitbreakers(seeFig.11).Assoonasthetwocircuitbreakerstrip(asfrompointIB),anarcvoltageUAD1onseparation
ofthecontactsofD1isaddedtovoltageUAD2andhelps,byadditionallimitation,circuitbreakerD2toopen.
TheassociationD1+D2allowsanincreaseinperformanceofD2asshowninFig.12,whichdepicts,
limitationcurveofD2,
enhancedlimitationcurveofD2byD1,
IcuD2enhancedbyD1.
AnnexAofIS/IEC609472definescoordinationundershortcircuitconditionsbetweencircuitbreakerandanothershortcircuitprotective
device(SCPD)associatedinthesamecircuitandtheteststobeperformed.Cascadingisnormallyverifiedbytestsforcriticalpoints.Thetestsare
performedwithanupstreamcircuitbreakerD2withamaximumovercurrentsettingandadownstreamcircuitbreakerD2withaminimumsetting.
C2LIMITATION
C2.1

Thetechniqueoflimitationallowsthecircuitbreakertoconsiderablyreduceshortcircuitcurrents.Itensuresattenuationoftheharmful
electromagnetic,thermalandmechanicaleffectsofshortcircuitsandisthebasisofthecascadingtechnique.
TheassumedfaultcurrentIsc istheshortcircuitcurrentthatwouldflowatthepointoftheinstallationwherethecircuitbreakerisplaced,if
therewerenolimitation.Sincethefaultcurrentiseliminatedinlessthanonehalfperiod,onlythefirstpeakcurrent(asymmetricalpeakI)is
considered.Thisisafunctionoftheinstallationfaultcos.ReductionofthispeakIto

Fig.11OperationofCircuitBreakersinCascade
156

Fig.12LimitationCurvesforCircuitBreakers

Fig.13EffectofLimitationonFaultCurrent

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limitedILcharacterizescircuitbreakerlimitation.Limitationconsistsofcreatingabackelectromotiveforceopposingthegrowthoftheshort
circuitcurrent.Effectivenessoflimitationdependsoninterventiontime,thatisthetimetswhenthebackelectromotiveforce(bemf)appears,therate
atwhichbemfincreasesandthevalueofbemf.ThebackelectromotiveforceisthearcvoltageUaduetotheresistanceofthearcdevelopingbetween
thecontactsonseparation.Itsspeedofdevelopmentdependsonthecontactseparationspeed.AsshowninFig.13,asfromthetimetswhenthe
contactsseparate,thebacklessthantheassumedfaultcurrentflowthroughwhenashortcircuitoccurs.
C2.2CircuitBreakerLimitationCapacity

Thecircuitbreakerlimitationcapacitydefinesthewayhowitreducestheletthroughcurrentinshortcircuitconditions(seeFig.14and15).The
thermalstressofthelimitedcurrentisthearea(shaded)definedbythecurveofthesquareofthelimitedcurrent
(t).Ifthereisnolimitation,this
stresswouldbethearea,farlarger,thatwouldbedefinedbythecurveofthesquareoftheassumedcurrent.ForanassumedshortcircuitcurrentIsc ,
limitationofthiscurrentto10percentresultsinlessthan1percentofassumedthermalstress.Thecabletemperatureriseisdirectlyproportionalto
thethermalstress.
NOTEOnashortcircuit,adiabatictemperatureriseofconductorsoccurs(withoutheatexchangewiththeoutsideduetothe
speedoftheenergysupply).TheincreasedtemperatureforaconductorwithacrosssectionSis:

whereI2dtisthethermalstress(A2s)

Fig.14CurrentLimitation

Fig.15ThermalStressLimitation
Limitationconsiderablyattenuatestheharmfuleffectsofshortcircuitsontheinstallation.Consequently,limitationcontributestothedurability
ofelectricalinstallations.Duetolimitation,theharmfuleffectsofshortcircuitsonamotorfeederaregreatlyattenuated.Properlimitationensures
easyaccesstoaType2coordinationasperIS/IEC6094741,withoutoversizingofcomponents.Thistypeofcoordinationensuresoptimumuseof
theirmotorfeeders.
157

C2.3LimitationCurves

Acircuitbreakerslimitingcapacityisexpressedbylimitationcurvesthatgive,
a.thelimitedpeakcurrentasafunctionofthermscurrentoftheassumedshortcircuitcurrent.Forexampleona160Afeederwheretheassumed
lscis90kArms,thenonlimitedpeaklscis200kA(asymmetryfactorof2.2)andthelimitedISCis26kApeak.
b.thelimitedthermalstress(inA2s)asafunctionofthermscurrentoftheassumedshortcircuitcurrent.Forexample,onthepreviousfeeder,the
thermalstressmovesfrommorethan100106A2sto6106A2s.
C3DISCRIMINATION
C3.1

Discriminationisthecoordinationoftheoperatingcharacteristicsoftwoormoreovercurrentprotectivedevicessuchthat,ontheincidenceof
overcurrentswithinstatedlimits,thedeviceintendedtooperatewithintheselimitsdoesso,whiletheother(s)does(do)not(seeFig.16).

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Distinctionismadebetweenseriesdiscriminationinvolvingdifferentovercurrentprotectivedevicespassingsubstantiallythesameovercurrent
andnetworkdiscriminationinvolvingidenticalprotectivedevicespassingdifferentproportionsoftheovercurrent.InLVnetworks,discriminationis
recommendedinordertoobtainhigherlevelsofsupplycontinuityandprotection,ensuringbettersafetyofinstallationsandminimumcostoverruns.
CascadingprincipleinlimitingCBscanenhancethediscriminationlevels.Itisrecommendedthatthemanufacturerprovidetherelevantdatain
termsofdiscriminationchartsandcascadinglevelsforvariouscombinationofCBs(upstreamanddownstream)andfaultcurrentasperthelaboratory
testresults.
AdiscriminationcurrentISisdefinedsuchthatif
a.Ifault>Is:bothcircuitbreakerstrip,and
b.Ifault<Is:onlyD2eliminatesthefault.

Fig.16DisciminationandSequenceofTripping
C3.2DiscriminationQuality

ThevalueISiscomparedwithassumedIsc (D2)atpointD2oftheinstallation.
a.totaldiscrimination:IS>ISC(D2)discriminationisqualifiedastotal,thatiswhateverthevalueofthefaultcurrent,D2onlywilleliminateit.
b.partialdiscrimination:IS<ISC(D2)discriminationisqualifiedaspartial,thatisuptoIS,onlyD2eliminatesthefault.BeyondIS,bothD1and
D2open.
where
ISC(D1):

shortcircuitcurrentatthepointwhereD1isinstalled,

IcuD1:

ultimatebreakingcapacityofD1.

C3.3TypesofDiscriminations

C3.3.1CurrentDiscrimination

ThistechniqueisdirectlylinkedtothestagingoftheLongTime(LT)trippingcurvesoftwoserialconnectedcircuitbreakers(seeFig.17).

Fig.17CurrentDiscrimination
ThediscriminationlimitIsis,
a.IS=Isd2ifthethresholdsIsdlandIsd2aretoocloseormerge,and
b.IS=IsdlifthethresholdsIsdlandIsd2aresufficientlyfarapart.
Currentdiscriminationisachievedwhen,
a.Ir1/Ir2<2

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b.Isdl/Isd2>2
Thediscriminationlimitbeing
Is=Isd1

158

C3.3.1.1Discriminationquality
DiscriminationistotalifIs>ISC(D2),thatisIsdl>ISC(D2).
Thisnormallyimplies,
arelativelylowlevelISC(D2),
alargedifferencebetweentheratingsofcircuitbreakersD1andD2.
Currentdiscriminationisnormallyusedinfinaldistribution.
C3.3.2TimeDiscrimination

Thisistheextensionofcurrentdiscriminationandisobtainedbystagingovertimeofthetrippingcurves.Thistechniqueconsistsofgivinga
timedelayofttotheShortTime(ST)trippingofD1(seeFig.18).

Fig.18TimeDiscrimination
Thethresholds(Irl,Isdl)ofD1and(Ir2,Isd2)complywiththestagingrulesofcurrentdiscrimination.ThediscriminationlimitIsofthe
associationisatleastequaltoIi1theinstantaneousthresholdofD1
C3.3.2.1Discriminationquality
Fordiscriminationonfinaland/orintermediatefeeders,Acategorycircuitbreakerscanbeusedwithtimedelayedtrippingoftheupstream
circuitbreaker.ThisallowsextensionofcurrentdiscriminationuptotheinstantaneousthresholdIi1oftheupstreamcircuitbreaker:Is>Ii1.If
ISC(D2)isnottoohigh(caseofafinalfeeder)totaldiscriminationcanbeobtained.
OntheincomersandfeedersoftheMSB,ascontinuityofsupplytakespriority,theinstallationcharacteristicsallowuseofBcategorycircuit
breakersdesignedfortimedelayedtripping.Thesecircuitbreakershaveahighthermalwithstand(Icw>50percentIcnfort=Is):Is>Icw1.Evenfor
highISC(D2),timediscriminationnormallyprovidestotaldiscrimination:Icw1>Isc (D2).
NOTEUseofBcategorycircuitbreakersmeansthattheinstallationmustwithstandhighelectrodynamicandthermalstresses.
Consequently,thesecircuitbreakershaveahighinstantaneousthresholdIithatcanbeadjustedanddisabledinordertoprotectthe
busbarsifnecessary.
C3.4EnhancementofCurrentandTimeDiscrimination

C3.4.1EnhancementbyLimitingDownstreamCircuitBreakers

Useofalimitingdownstreamcircuitbreakerenablesthediscriminationlimittobepushedback.

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Fig.19EnhancementofDiscrimination
OnreferringtoFig.19,afaultcurrentIdwillbeseenbyD1,
equaltoIdforanonlimitingcircuitbreaker,andequaltoILd<Idforalimitingcircuitbreaker.
ThelimitofcurrentandtimediscriminationIsoftheassociationD1+D2isthuspushedbacktoavaluethatincreaseswhenthedownstream
circuitbreakerisrapidandlimiting.
C3.4.2DiscriminationQuality

Useofalimitingcircuitbreakerisextremelyeffectiveforachievementoftotaldiscriminationwhenthresholdsettings(currentdiscrimination)
and/ortheinstantaneoustrippingthreshold(timediscrimination)oftheupstreamcircuitbreakerD1aretoolowwithrespecttothefaultcurrentIdin
D2Isc (D2).
C3.4.2.1LogicdiscriminationorLogicDiscriminationZone(ZSI)
Thistypeofdiscriminationcanbeachievedwithcircuitbreakersequippedwithspeciallydesignedelectronictripunits.OnlytheShortTime
Protection(STP)andGroundFaultProtection(GFP)functionsofthecontrolleddevicesaremanagedbyLogicDiscrimination.Inparticular,the
InstantaneousProtectionfunction(inherentprotectionfunction)isnotconcerned.
159

Fig.20LogicDiscrimination(ZSI)
C3.4.2.2Settingsofcontrolledcircuitbreakers
a.Timedelay:staging(ifany)ofthetimedelaysoftimediscriminationtobeapplied(tD1,>tD2>tD3)
b.Thresholds:naturalstagingoftheprotectiondeviceratingsmustbecompliedwith(IcrD1>IcrD2>IcrD2).
NOTEThistechniqueensuresdiscriminationevenwithcircuitbreakersofsimilarratings.
C3.4.2.3Principles
ActivationoftheLogicDiscriminationfunctionisviatransmissionofinformationonthepilotwireforZSIinput,
a.Lowlevel(nodownstreamfaults):theProtectionfunctionisonstandbywithareducedtimedelay(<0.1)
b.Highlevel(presenceofdownstreamfaults):therelevantProtectionfunctionmovestothetimedelaystatussetonthedevice.
ActivationoftheLogicDiscriminationfunctionisviatransmissionofinformationonthepilotwireforZSIoutput,
a.Lowlevel:thetripunitdetectsnofaultsandsendsnoorders.
b.Highlevel:thetripunitdetectsafaultandsendsanorder.
C3.4.2.4Operation
Apilotwireconnectsincascadingformtheprotectiondevicesofaninstallation(seeFig.20).Whenafaultoccurs,eachcircuitbreaker
upstreamofthefault(detectingafault)sendsanorder(highleveloutput)andmovestheupstreamcircuitbreakertoitsnaturaltimedelay(highlevel
input).Thecircuitbreakerplacedjustabovethefaultdoesnotreceiveanyorders(lowlevelinput)andthustripsalmostinstantaneously.
C3.4.2.5Discriminationquality
Thistechniqueenableseasyachievementasstandardofdiscriminationon3levelsormore,easyachievementofdownstreamdiscrimination
withnoncontrolledcircuitbreakers,eliminationofimportantstressesontheinstallation,relatingtotimedelayedtrippingoftheprotectiondevice,in
eventofafaultdirectlyontheupstreambusbars.Alltheprotectiondevicesarethusvirtuallyinstantaneous.
C3.5DiscriminationRules

C3.5.1OverloadProtection

Foranyovercurrentvalue,discriminationisguaranteedonoverloadifthenontrippingtimeoftheupstreamcircuitbreakerD1isgreaterthan
themaximumbreakingtimeofcircuitbreakerD2.

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TheconditionisfulfillediftheratioofLongTime(LT)andShortTime(ST)settingsisgreaterthan2.ThediscriminationlimitIsisatleastequal
tothesettingthresholdoftheupstreamShortTime(ST)timedelay.
C3.5.2ShortcircuitProtection

C3.5.2.1Timediscrimination
TrippingoftheupstreamdeviceD1istimedelayedbyt,theconditionsrequiredforcurrentdiscriminationmustbefulfilledandthetimedelayt
oftheupstreamdeviceD1mustbesufficientforthedownstreamdevicetobeabletoeliminatethefault.Timediscriminationincreasesthe
discriminationlimitIsuptotheinstantaneoustrippingthresholdoftheupstreamcircuitbreakerD1(seeFig.21).
DiscriminationisalwaystotalifcircuitbreakerD1isofcategoryB,hasanICWcharacteristicequaltoitsIcu.
DiscriminationistotalintheothercasesiftheinstantaneoustrippingthresholdoftheupstreamcircuitbreakerD1isgreaterthantheassumed
Isc inD2.
C3.5.2.2Logicdiscrimination
Discriminationisalwaystotal.
C3.5.2.3Generalcase
Therearenogeneraldiscriminationrules.Thetime/currentcurvesclearlysupplyavalueofIsc (limitedorassumed)lessthantheShortTime
trippingoftheupstreamcircuitbreakerdiscriminationisthentotal.Ifthisisnotthecase,onlytestscanindicatediscriminationlimitsof
coordination,inparticularwhencircuitbreakersareofthelimitingtype.ThediscriminationlimitIsisdeterminedbycomparisonofcurves,
a.intrippingenergyforthedownstreamcircuitbreaker,and
160

b.innontrippingenergyfortheupstreamcircuitbreaker.
ThepotentialintersectionpointofthecurvesgivesthediscriminationlimitIs.Themanufacturersindicateintablesthetestedperformanceof
coordination.
C3.6EarthLeakageProtectionDiscrimination

C3.6.1

AccordingtotheEarthingSystem,discriminationonlyusescoordinationofovercurrentprotectiondevices.Whentheinsulationfaultistreated
specificallybyearthleakageprotectiondevices(forexampleintheTTsystem),discriminationoftheresidualcurrentdevices(RCDs)withoneanother
mustalsobeguaranteed.Discriminationofearthleakageprotectiondevicesmustensurethat,shouldaninsulationfaultoccur,onlythefeeder
concernedbythefaultisdeenergized.Theaimistooptimizeenergyavailability.

Fig.21DiscriminationatVariousFaultCurrents
C3.6.2TypesofEarthLeakageProtectionDiscrimination

C3.6.2.1Verticaldiscrimination
Inviewofrequirementsandoperatingstandards,discriminationmustsimultaneouslymeetboththetimeandcurrentconditions(seeFig.22).

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C3.6.2.1.1Currentcondition
TheRCDmusttripbetweenInandIn/2,whereInisthedeclaredoperatingcurrent.Theremustthereforeexistaminimumratioof2between
thesensitivitiesoftheupstreamdeviceandthedownstreamdevice.Inpractice,thestandardizedvaluesindicatearatioof3.
C3.6.2.1.2Timecondition
Theminimumnontrippingtimeoftheupstreamdevicemustbegreaterthanthemaximumtrippingtimeofthedownstreamdeviceforall
currentvalues.
NOTEThetrippingtimeofRCDsmustalwaysbelessthanorequaltothetimespecifiedintheinstallationstandardstoguarantee
protectionofpeopleagainstindirectcontacts.

Fig.22VerticalDiscrimination
Forthedomesticarea,standardsIS12640(Part1)(residualcurrentcircuitbreakers)andIS12640(Part2)(residualcurrentdevices)define
operatingtimes.ThevaluesinthetablecorrespondtocurvesGandS.CurveG(General)correspondtonondelayedRCDsandS(Selective)tothose
thatarevoluntarilydelayed(seeFig.23).

Fig.23OperatingTimeCurves
C3.6.2.2Horizontaldiscrimination
Sometimesknownascircuitselection,itallowssavingsatthesupplyendoftheinstallationofanRCDplacedinthecubicleifallitsfeedersare
protectedbyRCDs.Onlythefaultyfeederisdeenergized,thedevicesplacedontheotherfeedersdonotseethefault(seeFig.24).
161

Fig.24HorizontalDiscrimination
Table2StandardizedValuesofOperatingTimes
Type

In

In

StandardizedValuesofOperatingTimeandNonoperatingTime(ins)at:
In

2In

5In

500A

Generalinstantaneous

Allvalues

Allvalues

0.3

0.15

0.04

0.04

Maximumoperatingtime

Selective

>25

>0.030

0.5

0.2

0.15

0.15

Maximumoperatingtime

0.13

0.06

0.05

0.04

Maximumoperatingtime

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162

0.13

0.06

0.05

0.04

Maximumoperatingtime

SECTION15LIGHTNINGPROTECTION
0FOREWORD
ForthepurposesoftheNationalElectricalCode,thefixedinstallationforlightningprotectionisconsideredpartoftheelectricalinstallation
designandconstitutesamajorareawheretheinstallationdesignengineerhastoensurepropercoordination.
ThisSectioncoverstheessentialdesignandconstructiondetailsoflightningprotectivesystems.Itis,however,intendedtoserveonlyasaguide
ofgeneralnatureontheprinciplesandpracticesintheprotectionofstructuresagainstlightning,andaccounthastobetakenofseveralotherlocal
conditionssuchasvariationsinthearchitecture,topographyoftheregion,atmosphericconditions,etc.
Lightningprotectionofindustrialinstallationswhicharecategorizedashazardous,requirespecialconsiderations.ThesearesummarisedinPart
7oftheCode.
AssistancehasbeenderivedfromIS2309:1989Codeofpracticefortheprotectionofbuildingsandalliedstructuresagainstlightning(second
revision)forthisSection.
1SCOPE
1.1

This(Part1/Section15)oftheCodecoversguidelinesonthebasicelectricalaspectsoflightningprotectivesystemsforbuildingsandthe
electricalinstallationformingpartofthesystem.
1.2

Additionalguidelinesifany,forspecificoccupanciesfromthepointoflightningprotectionarecoveredinrespectivesectionsoftheCode.
2REFERENCES
ThefollowingIndianStandardsonlightningprotectionmaybereferredforfurtherdetails:
ISNo.

Title

IS2309:1989

Codeofpracticefortheprotectionofbuildingsandalliedstructuresagainstlightning(secondrevision)

IS15086:Part5/IEC600995:1996

Surgearresters:Part5Selectionandapplicationrecommendations

3TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposesofthisSection,thefollowingdefinitionsshallapply.
3.1

AirTermination(LightningConductor)orAirTerminationNetworkThosepartsofalightningprotectivesystemthatareintended
tocollectthelightningdischargesfromtheatmosphere.
3.2

BondsElectricalconnectionbetweenthelightningprotectivesystemandothermetalwork,andbetweenvariousportionsofthelatter.
3.3

DownConductorsConductorswhichconnecttheairterminationswiththeearthterminations.
3.4

EarthTerminationsorEarthTerminationsNetworkThosepartofthelightningprotectivesystemwhichareintendedtodistributethe
lightningdischargesintothegeneralmassoftheearth.Allpartsbelowthetestingpointinadownconductorareincludedinthisterm.
3.5

EarthElectrodesAmetalplate,pipeorotherconductororanyarrayofconductorselectricallyconnectedtothegeneralmassoftheearth
theseincludethoseportionsoftheearthterminationsthatmakedirectelectricalcontactwiththeearth.
3.6

FastenersDevicesusedtofastentheconductorstothestructures.

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3.7

IsoceraunicLevelItisthenumberofdaysinayearonwhichthethunderisheardintheparticularregionaveragedoveranumberofyears.
3.8

JointsThemechanicalandelectricaljunctionsbetweentwoormoreportionsofthelightningprotectivesystemorothermetalbondedtothe
systemorboth.
3.9

LightningProtectiveSystemThewholesystemofinterconnectedconductorsusedtoprotectastructurefromtheeffectsoflightning.
3.10

MetalcladBuildingAbuildingwithsidesmadeoforcoveredwithsheetmetal.
3.11

MetalroofedBuildingAbuildingwithroofmadeoforcoveredwithsheetmetal.
3.12

SideFlashAsparkoccurringbetweennearbymetallicobjectsorbetweensuchobjectsandthelightningprotectivesystemortoearth.
3.13

TestingPointsJointsindownconductorsorinbondsorinearthconductorsconnectingearthelectrodes,sodesignedandsituatedasto
enableresistancemeasurementstobemade.
3.14

ZoneofProtectionThespacewithinwhichthelightningconductorisexpectedtoprovideprotectionagainstadirectlightningstroke.
4EXCHANGEOFINFORMATION
4.1

Thearchitectshouldexchangeinformationwith
163

theengineerconcernedwhenthebuildingplansarebeingprepared.Theprimaryobjectofsuchanexchangeistoobtaininformationregarding
thearchitecturalfeaturesofthestructuresothatdueprovisionmaybemadetoretaintheaestheticfeaturesofthebuildingwhileplanningthelocation
ofthelightningconductorsanddownconductorsofthelightningprotectivesystem.Informationmayalsobeobtainedatanearlystageregarding
otherservices,suchaselectricalinstallation,gasandwaterpipesaswellasclimaticandsoilconditions.
4.2

Scaledrawingsshowingplansandelevationsofthestructureshouldbeobtained,andthenature,sizeandpositionofallthemetalcomponent
partsofthelightningprotectivesystemshouldbeindicatedonthem.Inaddition,agroundplanshouldshowallthetallobjects,suchas,buildings,
masts,transmissiontowers,talltrees,etc,withinthezoneofprotection.
5CHARACTERISTICSOFLIGHTNINGDISCHARGES
5.1

Theprincipaleffectsoflightningdischargetostructureareelectrical,thermalandmechanical.Theseeffectsaredeterminedbythecurrent
whichisdischargedintothestructure.Thesecurrentsareunidirectionalandmayvaryinamplitudefromafewhundredamperestoabout200kA.The
currentinanylightningdischargerisessteeplytoitscrestvalueinafewmicrosecondsanddecaystozeroinafewmilliseconds.Manylightning
dischargesconsistofasinglestrokebutsomeothersinvolveasequenceofstrokeswhichfollowthesamepathandwhichdischargeseparatecurrents
ofamplitudeanddurationasmentionedabove.Acompletelightningdischargemaythuslastasecondorevenlonger.
5.2ElectricalEffects

Theprincipalelectricaleffectsofalightningdischargearetwofold.
5.2.1

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Thelightningcurrentwhichisdischargedtoearththroughtheresistanceofthelightningconductorandearthelectrodeprovidedforalightning
protectivesystem,producesaresistivevoltagedropwhichmomentarilyraisesthepotentialoftheprotectivesystemwithrespecttotheabsoluteearth
potentialtoaveryhighvalue.Thelightningcurrentalsoproduces,aroundtheearthelectrode,ahighvoltagegradientwhichmaybedangerousto
personsandanimals.
5.2.2

Thelightningcurrentrisessteeplytoitscrestvalue(approximateattherateof10kA/ms)andasafirstapproximationmayberegardedas
equivalenttohighfrequencydischarge.Averticalconductorofthedimensionsgenerallyusedinalightningprotectivesystemhasaninductanceof
about16105H/100m.Therateofriseofcurrentinconjunctionwiththeinductanceofthedischargepathproducesaninductivevoltagedrop
whichwouldbeadded,withdueregardtothetimerelationship,totheresistive(ohmic)voltagedropacrosstheearthingsystem.
5.3ThermalEffects

Thethermaleffectoflightningdischargeresultsinriseintemperatureoftheconductorthroughwhichthelightningcurrentisdischargedtothe
earth.Althoughtheamplitudeofthelightningcurrentmaybeveryhigh,itsdurationissoshortthatthethermaleffectonalightningprotective
systemisusuallynegligible.Thisignoresthefusingorweldingeffectswhichoccurlocallyconsequentupontheruptureofaconductorwhichwas
previouslydamagedorwasofinadequatecrosssectionalarea.Inpracticethecrosssectionalareaofalightningconductorisdeterminedprimarilyby
mechanicalconsiderations.
5.4MechanicalEffects

Whenahighelectriccurrentisdischargedthroughparallelconductorswhichareincloseproximitytoeachother,thesearesubjectedtolarge
mechanicalforces.Thelightningconductorsshould,therefore,beprovidedwithadequatemechanicalfixings.
5.4.1

Adifferentmechanicaleffectexertedbyalightningdischargeisduetothefactthattheairchannel,thatis,thespacebetweenthethundercloud
andthelightningconductor,alongwhichthedischargeispropagated,issuddenlyraisedtoaveryhightemperature.Thisresultsinastrongair
pressurewavewhichisresponsiblefordamagestobuildingsandotherstructures.Itisnotpossibletoprovideprotectionagainstsuchaneffect.
6DETERMINATIONOFTHENEEDFORPROTECTION
6.1RiskIndex

Indetermininghowfartogoinprovidinglightningprotectionforspecificcasesorwhetherornotitisneededatall,itisnecessarytotakeinto
accountthefollowingfactors:
a.Usageofstructure,
b.Typeofconstruction,
c.Contentsorconsequentialeffects,
d.Degreeofisolation,
e.Typeofisolation.
f.Heightofstructure,and
g.Lightningprevalance.
6.1.1

IS2309givesthedetailsofvariousfactorsthataffecttheriskofthestructurebeingstruckandthe
164

consequentialeffectsofastroke.Certainvaluescalledindexfigures,havebeenassignedtothesefactorswhichhelpinarrivingatanoverallrisk
indextoserveasanaidtojudgingwhetherlightningprotection.Theexamplesofsuchstructuresare:
a.thoseinornearwhichlargenumberofpeoplecongregate.
b.thoseconcernedwiththemaintenanceofessentialpublicservices,
c.thoseinareaswherelightningstrokesareprevalent,
d.verytallorisolatedstructures,
e.structuresofhistoricorculturalimportance,and
f.structurescontainingexplosivesandhighlyflammablematerials.
7ZONEOFPROTECTION
7.1

Thezoneofprotectionofalightningconductordenotesthespacewithinwhichalightningconductorprovidesprotectionagainstadirect

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lightningstrokebydivertingthestroketoitself.Examplesoftheprotectionofdifferenttypesandshapesofbuildingsalongwithzoneofprotection
providedbytheirlightningprotectivesystemsaregivenin8.2ofIS2309.
8MATERIALSANDDIMENSIONS
8.1Materials

Thematerialsoflightningconductors,downconductors,earthterminationnetwork,etc,oftheprotectivesystemshallbereliablyresistantto
corrosionorbeadequatelyprotectedagainstcorrosion.Thefollowingmaterialsarerecommended:
a.CopperWhensolidorstrandedcopperwireorflatcopperstripsareused,theyshallbeofgradeordinarilyrequiredforcommercialelectrical
work,generallydesignatedasbeingof98percentconductivitywhenannealed.TheyshallconformtorelevantIndianStandards.
b.CoppercladSteelWherecoppercladsteelisused,thecoppercoveringshallbepermanentlyandeffectivelyweldedtothesteelcore.The
proportionofcopperandsteelshallbesuchthattheconductanceofthematerialisnotlessthan30percentoftheconductanceofsolidcopper
ofthesametotalcrosssectionalarea.
c.GalvanizedSteelIfthereisanydifficultyintheuseofcopperoraluminium,galvanizedsteelofthesamecrosssectionasrecommendedfor
coppermaybeused,inlinewiththeprovisionsofIS2309.Wheresteelisuseditshallbethoroughlyprotectedagainstcorrosionbyazinc
coating.Galvanizedsteelmaybepreferredforsomeshortlifeinstallations,suchasexhibitions.Copperispreferredtogalvanizedironwhere
corrosivegases,industrialpollutionorsaltadenatmosphericconditionsareencountered.
d.AluminiumAluminiumwireandstripsareincreasinglyfindingfavourforuseaslightningconductorsinviewofthefactthataluminiumhasa
conductivityalmostdoublethatofcoppermassformass.Whenused,itshallbeleast99percentpure,ofsufficientmechanicalstrengthand
effectivelyprotectedagainstcorrosion.
e.AlloysWherealloysofmetalsareusedtheyshallbesubstantiallyasresistanttocorrosionascopperundersimilarconditions.
NOTEAluminiumshouldnotbeusedundergroundorindirectcontactwithwalls.
8.2ShapesandSizes

TherecommendedshapeandminimumsizesofconductorsforuseabovegroundandbelowgroundaregiveninTable1andTable2
respectively.
Table1ShapesandMinimumSizesofConductorsforUseAboveGround
(Clause8.2)
SlNo.

MaterialandShape

(1)

(2)

MinimumSize
(3)

i) Roundcopperwireorcoppercladsteelwire

6mmdiameter

ii) Strandedcopperwire

50mm2(or7/3.00mmdiameter)

iii) Copperstrip

20mm3mm

iv) Roundgalvanizedironwire

8mmdiameter

v) Galvanizedironstrip

20mm3mm

vi) Roundaluminiumwire

9mmdiameter

vii) Aluminiumstrip

25mm3.15mm

8.3Corrosion

Wherecorrosionduetoatmospheric,chemical,electrolyticorothercausesislikelytoimpairanypartofthelightningprotectivesystem,suitable
precautionsshouldbetakentopreventitsoccurrence.Thecontactofdissimilarmetalsislikelytoinitiateandacceleratecorrosionunlessthecontact
surfacesarekept
completelydryandprotectedagainsttheingressofmoisture.

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Table2ShapesandMinimumSizesofConductorsforUseBelowGround
(Clause8.2)
SlNo.

MaterialandShape

(1)

(2)

i) Roundcopperwireorcoppercladsteelwire
ii) Copperstrip

MinimumSize
(3)

8mmdiameter
32mm6mm

iii) Roundgalvanizedironwire

10mmdiameter

iv) Galvanizedironstrip

32mm6mm

8.3.1

Dissimilarmetalcontactscanexistwhereaconductorisheldbyfixingdevicesoragainstexternalmetalsurfaces.Corrosioncanarisealsowhere
waterpassingoveronemetalcomesintocontactwithanother.Runoffwaterfromcopper,copperalloysandleadcanattackaluminiumalloysand
zinc.Themetalofthelightningprotectivesystemshouldbecompatiblewiththemetalormetalsusedexternallyonthestructureoverwhichthe

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systempassesorwithwhichitmaymakecontact.
9DESIGN
9.0General

Lightningprotectivesystemsshouldbeinstalledwithaviewtoofferingleastimpedancetothepassageoflightningcurrentbetweenair
terminalsandearth.Thereshallbeatleasttwoparts,andmoreifpracticable.Thisisdonebyconnectingtheconductorstoformacageenclosingthe
building.ThebasicdesignconsiderationsforlightningprotectivesystemsaregiveninIS2309.
Theprincipalcomponentofalightningprotectivesystemare:
a.airterminations,
b.downconductors,
c.jointsandbends,
d.testingpoints,
e.earthterminations,
f.earthelectrodes,and
g.fasteners.
9.1AirTerminations

Forthepurposeoflightningprotection,theverticalandhorizontalconductorsareconsideredequivalentandtheuseofpointedairterminations
orverticalfinialsis,therefore,notregardedasessentialexceptwhendictatedbypracticalconsiderations.Anairterminationmayconsistforavertical
conductorasforaspire,asinglehorizontalandverticalconductorsfortheprotectionofbiggerbuildings.
9.1.1

Averticalairterminationneednothavemorethanonepointandshallprojectatleast30cmabovetheobject,salientpointornetworkon
whichitisfixed.
9.1.2

Horizontalairterminationsshouldbesointerconnectedthatnopartoftheroofismorethan9mawayfromthenearesthorizontalconductor
exceptthatanadditional30cmmaybeallowedforeach30cmbywhichtheparttobeprotectedisbelowthenearestprotectiveconductor.Foraflat
roof,horizontalairterminationsalongtheouterperimeteroftheroofareused.Foraroofofbuildingwithlargerhorizontaldimensionsanetworkof
parallelhorizontalconductorsshouldbeinstalledasshowninIS2309.
NOTESalientpointseveniflessthan9mapartshouldeachbeprovidedwithanairtermination.
9.1.3

Horizontalairterminationsshouldbecoursedalongcontours,suchasridges,parapetsandedgesofflatroofs,andwherenecessaryoverflat
surfacesinsuchawayastojoineachairterminationtotherestandshouldthemselvesformaclosednetwork.
9.1.4

Thelayoutofthenetworkmaybedesignedtosuittheshapeoftheroofandarchitecturalfeaturesofthebuildings.
9.1.5

Theairterminationnetworkshouldcoverallsalientpointsofthestructure.
9.1.6

Allmetallicfinials,chimneys,ducts,ventpipes,railings,guttersandthelike,onorabovethemainsurfaceoftheroofofthestructureshallbe
bondedto,andformpartof,theairterminationnetwork.Ifportionsofastructurevaryconsiderablyinheight,anynecessaryairterminationorair
terminationnetworkofthelowerportionsshould,inadditiontotheirownconductors,bebondedtothedownconductorsofthetallerportions.
9.1.7

Allairterminalsshallbeeffectivelysecuredagainstoverturningeitherbyattachmenttotheobjecttobeprotectedorbymeansofsubstantial
bracesandfixingswhichshallbepermanentlyandrigidlyattachedtothebuilding.Themethodandnatureofthefixingsshouldbesimple,solidand
permanent,dueattentionbeinggiventoclimaticconditionsandpossiblecorrosion.

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9.2DownConductors

Thenumberandspacingofdownconductorsshalllargelydependuponthesizeandshapeofthebuildinganduponaestheticconsiderations.
Theminimumnumberofdownconductorsmay,however,bedecidedonthefollowingconsiderations:
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a.Astructurehavingabaseareanotexceeding100m2mayhaveonedownconductoronlyiftheheightoftheairterminationprovidessufficient
protection.However,itisadvisabletohaveatleasttwodownconductorsexceptforverysmallbuildings.
b.Forstructureshavingabaseareaexceeding100m2,thenumberofdownconductorsrequiredshouldbeworkedoutasfollows:
1.Oneforthefirst100m2plusonemoreforeveryadditional300m2orpartthereof,or
2.Oneforevery30mofperimeter.Thesmallofthetwoshallapply.
c.Forastructureexceeding30minheightadditionalconsiderationasgiveninIS2309shallapply.
9.2.1

Downconductorsshouldbedistributedroundtheoutsidewallsofthestructure.Theyshallpreferablyberunalongthecornersandother
projections,dueconsiderationbeinggiventothelocationofairterminationsandearthterminations.Liftshaftshallnotbeusedforfixingdown
conductors.
9.2.2

Itisveryimportantthatthedownconductorsshallfollowthemostdirectpathpossiblebetweentheairterminationandtheearthtermination,
avoidingsharpbends,upturnsandkinks.Jointsshallasfaraspossiblebeavoidedindownconductors.Adequateprotectionmaybeprovidedtothe
conductorsagainstmechanicaldamage.Metalpipesshouldnotbeusedasprotectionfortheconductors.
9.2.3

Metalpipesleadingrainwaterfromtherooftothegroundmaybeconnectedtothedownconductorsbutcannotreplacethem.Such
connectionsshallhavedisconnectingjointsfortestingpurposes.
9.2.4

Wheretheprovisionofsuitableexternalroutesfordownconductorsisimpracticableorinadvisable,asinbuildingsofcantileverconstruction,
fromthefirstfloorupwards,downconductorsmaybeusedinanairspaceprovidedbyanonmetallicnoncombustibleinternalduct.Anycovered
recessnotsmallerthan75mm15mmoranyverticalserviceductrunningthefullheightofthebuildingmaybeusedforthispurpose,providedit
doesnotcontainanunarmouredornonmetalsheathedcable.
9.2.5

Anyextendedmetalrunningverticallythroughthestructureshouldbebondedtothelightningconductoratthetopandthebottomunlessthe
clearanceareinaccordancewithIS2309fortallstructures.
9.2.6

Astructureonbarerock,shouldbeprovidedwithatleastdownconductorsequallyspaced.
9.2.7

Indecidingontheroutingofthedownconductor,itsaccessibilityforinspection,testingandmaintenanceshouldbetakenintoaccount.
9.3JointsandBonds

9.3.1Joints

Thelightningprotectivesystemshallhaveasfewjointsinitasnecessary.Inthedownconductorsbelowgroundleveltheseshallbe
mechanicallyandelectricallyeffectiveandshallbesomadeastoexcludemoisturecompletely.Thejointsmaybeclamped,screwed,bolted,crimped,
rivertedorwelded.Withoverlappingjointsthelengthoftheoverlapshouldnotbelessthan20mmforalltypesofconductors.Contactsurfacesshould
firstbecleanedandtheninhibitedfromoxidationwithasuitablenoncorrosivecompound.Jointsofdissimilarmetalshouldbesuitablyprotected
againstbimetallicactionandcorrosion.
9.3.1.1Ingeneral,jointsforstripsshallbetinned,soldered,weldedorbrazedandatleastdoubleriveted,weldedorbrazedandatleastdouble
riveted.Clampedorboltedjointsshallonlybeusedontestpointsoronbondstoexistingmetal,butjointsshallonlybeoftheclampedorscrewedtype.
9.3.2Bonds

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Externalmetalonorformingpartofastructuremayhavetodischargethefulllightningcurrent.Therefore,thebondtothelightningprotective
systemshallhaveacrosssectionalareanotlessthanthatemployedforthemainconductors.Ontheotherhand,internalmetalisnotsovulnerable
anditsassociatedbondsare,atmost,onlylikelytocarryaportionofthetotallightningcurrent,apartfromtheirfunctionofequalizingpotential.
Theselatterbondsmay,therefore,besmallerincrosssectionalareathanthoseusedforthemainconductors.Allthebondsshouldbesuitably
protectedagainstcorrosion.Bondsshallbeasshortaspossible.
9.4TestingPoints

Eachdownconductorshallbeprovidedwithatestingpointinapositionconvenientfortestingbutinaccessibleforinterference.Noconnection,
otherthanonedirecttoanearthelectrode,shallbemadebelowatestingpoint.Testingpointsshallbephosphorbronze,gunmetal,copperorany
othersuitablematerial.
9.5EarthTerminations

Eachdownconductorshallhaveanindependentearthtermination.Itshouldbecapableofisolationfortestingpurposes.Suitablelocationfor
theearthterminationshallbeselectedaftertestingandassessingthespecificresistivityofthesoilandwithdueregardtoreliabilityofthesubsoil
watertoensureminimumsoilmoistness.
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9.5.1

Waterpipesystemshouldnotbebondedtotheearthterminationsystem.However,ifadequateclearancebetweenthetwocannotbeobtained,
theymaybeeffectivebondedandthebondsshouldbecapableofisolationandtesting.Thegaspipes,however,shouldinnocasebebondedtothe
earthterminationsystem.
9.5.2

Itisrecommendedthatallearthterminationsshouldbeinterconnected.Commonearthing,besidesequalizingthevoltageatvariousearth
terminationsalsominimizesanyrisktoitofmechanicaldamage.Theconditionforlimitingearthingresistancegivenin12doesnotapplyandinsuch
acasenoprovisionneedbemadeforisolationinearth.
9.5.3

Astructurestandingonbarerockshouldbeequippedwithaconductorencirclingandfixedtothestructureatgroundlevelandfollowing
reasonablycloselythecontouroftheground.Thisconductorshouldbeinstalledsoastominimizeanyrisktoitofmechanicaldamage.Thecondition
forlimitingearthingresistancegivenin12doesnotapplyandinsuchacasenoprovisionneedbemadeforisolationinearthterminationfortesting.
Wherethereisarisktopersonsortovaluableequipment,expertadviceshouldbesought.
9.6EarthElectrodes

EarthelectrodesshallbeconstructedandinstalledinaccordancewithPart1/Section14oftheCode.
9.6.1

Earthelectrodesshallconsistofrods,stripsorplates.Metalsheathsofcablesshallnotbeusedasearthelectrodes.
9.6.2

Whenrodsorpipesareusedtheyshouldbedrivenintothegroundascloseaspracticablebutoutsidethecircumferenceofthestructure.Long
lengthsinsectionscoupledbyscrewedconnectorsorsocketjointscanbebuiltupwherenecessarytopenetratethesubstrateoflowresistivity.Where
groundconditionsaremorefavourablefortheuseofshorterlengthsofrodsinparallel,thedistancebetweentherodsshouldpreferablybenotless
thantwicethelengthoftherods.ThearrangementofearthelectrodesaregiveninFig.24ofIS2309.
9.6.3

Whenstripsareused,theseshouldbeburiedintrenchesorbeneaththestructureatasuitabledepth,butnotlessthan0.5mdeeptoavoid
damagebybuildingoragriculturaloperations.Thestripsshouldpreferablybelaidradiallyintwoormoredirectionsfromthepointofconnectiontoa
downconductor.Butifthisisnotpossibletheymayextendinonedirectiononly.However,ifthespacerestrictionrequiresthestripstobelaidin
paralleloringridformationthedistancebetweentwostripsshouldnotbelessthan2m.
9.6.4

Whenplateelectrodesareusedtheyshallbeburiedintothegroundsothatthetopedgeoftheplateisatadepthnotlessthan1.5mfromthe
surfaceoftheground.Iftwoplateelectrodesaretobeusedinparallelthedistancebetweenthetwoshallnotbelessthan8m.
9.6.5

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Intheneighbourhoodofstructurewherehightemperaturesarelikelytobetheencounteredinthesubsoil,forexamplebrickkilns,theearth
electrodesmayhavetobeinstalledatsuchadistancefromthestructurewherethegroundisnotlikelytobedriedout.
9.7Fasteners

Conductorsshallbesecurelyattachedtothebuildingorotherobjecttobeprotectedbyfastnerswhichshallbesubstantialinconstruction,not
subjecttobreakage,andshallbemadeofgalvanizedsteelorothersuitablematerial.Iffastenersaremadeofsteel,theyshouldbegalvanizedtoprotect
themagainstcorrosion.Iftheyaremadeofanyothermaterialsuitableprecautionsshouldbetakentoavoidcorrosion.Somesamplesoffastenersare
showninIS2309.
9.8EarthResistance

Eachearthterminationshouldhavearesistanceinohmstoearthnotexceedingnumericallytheproductof10andthenumberofearth
terminationstobeprovided.Thewholeofthelightningprotectivesystemshouldhaveacombinedresistancetoearthnotexceeding10ohmsbefore
anybondinghasbeeneffectedtometalinoronthestructureortosurfacebelowground.
10ISOLATIONANDBONDING
10.0

Whenalightningprotectivesystemisstruckwithalightningdischarge,itselectricalpotentialwithrespecttoearthisraised,andunlesssuitable
precautionsaretaken,thedischargemayseekalternativepathstoearthbysideflashingtoothermetalinthestructure.Sideflashingmaybeavoided
bythefollowingtwomethods:
a.Isolation,and
b.Bonding.
10.1Isolation

Isolationrequireslargeclearancesbetweenthelightningprotectivesystemandothermetalpartsinthestructure.Tofindouttheapproximate
clearances,thefollowingtwofactorsshouldbetakenintoaccount:
a.Theresistivevoltagedropintheearthtermination,and
b.Theinductivevoltagedropinthedownconductors.
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10.1.1

Theresistivevoltagedroprequiresaclearanceof0.3mohmofearthingresistancewhiletheinductivevoltagedroprequiresaclearanceof1m
foreach15mofstructureheight.Fortwoormoredownconductorswithacommonairterminationthisdistanceshouldbedividedbythenumberof
downconductors.Thetotalclearancerequiredisthesumofthetwodistancesandmaybeexpressedbythefollowingsimpleequation:

where
D

requiredclearanceinm

combinedearthingresistanceoftheearthtermination,inohms

structureheightinm,and

numberofdownconductorsconnectedtoacommonairtermination.

10.1.2

Theaboveclearancemaybehalvedifaslightriskofoccurrenceofasideflashcanbeaccepted.
10.1.3

Thedrawbackofisolationliesinobtainingandmaintainingthenecessarysafeclearanceandinensuringthatisolatedmetalhasnoconnection
viathewaterpipesorotherserviceswiththeearth.Ingeneral,isolationcanbepractisedonlyinsmallbuildings.
10.2Bonding

Instructureswhichcontainelectricallycontinuousmetal,forexample,aroof,wall,floororcovering,thismetal,suitablybonded,maybeusedas
partofthelightningprotectivesystem,providedtheamountandarrangementofthemetalrenderitsuitableforuseinaccordancewith9.
10.2.1

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Ifastructureissimplyacontinuousmetalframewithoutexternalcoveringsitmaynotrequireanyairterminationordownconductorsprovided
itcanbeensuredthattheconductingpathiselectricallycontinuousandthebaseofthestructureisadequatelyearthed.
10.2.2

Areinforcedconcretestructureorareinforcedconcreteframestructuremayhavesufficientlylowinherentresistancetoearthtoprovide
protectionagainstlightningandifconnectionsarebroughtoutfromthereinforcementatthehighestpointsduringconstruction,atestmaybemade
tovarifythisatthecompletionofthestructure.
10.2.3

Iftheresistancetoearthofthesteelframeofastructureorthereinforcementofareinforcedconcretestructureisfoundtobesatisfactorya
suitableairterminationshouldbeinstalledatthetopofthestructureandbondedtothesteelframeortothereinforcement.Whereregularinspection
isnotpossible,itisrecommendedthatacorrosionresistantmaterialbeusedforbondingtothesteelortothereinforcementandthisshouldbe
broughtoutforconnectiontotheairtermination.Downconductorandearthterminationswill,ofcourse,berequirediftheinherentresistanceofthe
structureisfoundtobeunsatisfactorywhentested.
10.2.4

Wheremetalexistsinastructureasreinforcementwhichcannotbebondedintoacontinuousconductingnetwork,andwhichisnotorcannot
beequippedwithexternalearthingconnections,itspresenceshouldbedisgarded.Thedangerinseparablefromthepresenceofsuchmetalcanbe
minimizedbykeepingitentirelyisolatedfromthelightningprotectivesystem.
10.2.5

Wheretheroofstructureiswhollyorpartlycoveredbymetal,careshouldbetakenthatsuchmetalisprovidedwithacontinuousconducting
pathtoearth.
10.2.6

Inanystructure,metalwhichisattachedtotheoutersurfaceorprojectsthroughawalloraroofandhasinsufficientclearancefromthe
lightningprotectivesystem,andisunsuitableforuseaspartofit,shouldpreferablybebondedasdirectlyaspossibletothelightningprotectives
system.Ifthemetalhasconsiderablelength(forexample,cables,pipes,gutters,rainwaterpipes,stairways,etc)andrunsapproximatelyparalleltoa
downconductororbond,itshouldbebondedateachandbutnotbelowthetestpoint.Ifthemetalisindiscontinuouslengths,eachportionshouldbe
bondedtothelightningprotectivesystemalternatively,wheretheclearancepermits,thepresenceofthemetalmaybedisregarded.
10.2.7

Bondingofmetalenteringorleavingastructureintheformofsheathingorarmouringofcable,electricconduit,telephone,steam,compressed
airorotherserviceswithearthterminationsystem,shouldbeavoided.However,iftheyarerequiredtobebonded,thebondingshouldbedoneas
directlyaspossibletotheearthterminationatthepointofentryorexistoutsidethestructureonthesupplysideoftheservice.Thegappipesshouldin
nocasebebondedwithothermetalparts.However,waterpipesmaybebondedtoothermetalparts,ifisolationandadequateclearancecannotbe
obtained.Inthisoperationallthestatutoryrulesorregulationswhichmaybeinforceshouldbefollowedandthecompetentauthorityshouldbe
consultedforprovidinglightningprotectioninsuchcases.
10.2.8

Massesofmetalinabuilding,suchasbellframeinatower,shouldbebondedtothenearestdownconductorbythemostdirectrouteavailable.
10.2.9

Metalcladingorcurtainwallinghavinga
continuousconductingpathinalldirectionsmaybeusedaspartofalightningprotectivesystem.

169
10.2.10

Inbondingadjacentmetalworktothelightningprotectivesystemcarefulconsiderationshouldbegiventothepossibleeffectssuchbonding
wouldhaveuponmetalworkwhichmaybecathodicallyprotected.
11PROTECTIONOFSPECIALSTRUCTURES
Forguidanceondesignoflightningprotectionsystemsforspecialstructures,referenceshallbemadetoIS2309.Guidancefortheappropriate
authoritiesshallalsobeobtained.

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12INSPECTIONANDTESTING
12.1Inspection

Alllightningprotectivesystemsshallbeexaminedbyacompetentengineeraftercompletion,alterationorextensions,inordertoverifythatthey
areinaccordancewiththerecommendationsoftheCode.Aroutineinspectionshallbemadeatleastonceayear.
12.2Testing

12.2.1

Oncompletionoftheinstallationorofanymodification,theresistanceofeachearthterminationorsectionthereof,shall,ifpossible,be
measuredandthecontinuityofallconductorsandtheefficiencyofallbondsandjointsshallbeverified.
12.2.2

Normallyannualmeasurementofearthresistanceshallbecarriedoutbutlocalcircumstancesinthelightofexperiencemayjustifyincreaseor
decreaseinthisintervalbutitshouldnotbelessthanonceintwoyears.Inthecaseofstructureshousingexplosivesorflammablematerials,the
intervalshallbesixmonths.
12.2.3

EarthresistanceshallbemeasuredinaccordancewithPart1/Section14oftheCode.
12.2.4

Theactualprocedureadoptedforthetestshallberecordedindetailsothatfuturetestsmaybecarriedoutundersimilarconditions.Thehighest
valueofresistancemeasuredshallbenotedastheresistanceofthesoilanddetailsofsaltingorothersoiltreatment,shouldberecorded.
12.2.5

Therecordshallalsocontainparticularsoftheengineer,contractororownerresponsiblefortheinstallationorupkeeporbothofthelightning
protectivesystem.Detailsofadditionsoralterationstothesystem,anddatesoftestingtogetherwiththetestresultsandreports,shallbecarefully
recorded.
12.3Deterioration

Iftheresistancetoearthofalightningprotectivesystemoranysectionofitexceedsthelowestvalueobtainedatthefirstinstallationbymore
than100percent,appropriatestepsshallbetakentoascertainthecausesandtoremedydefects,ifany.
12.4TestingContinuityandEfficacyofConductorsandJoints

12.4.1

Theohmicresistanceofthelightningprotectivesystemcompletewithairtermination,butwithouttheearthconnectionshouldbemeasured
andthisshouldbeafractionofanohm.Ifitexceeds1ohm,thenthereshallbesomefaulteitherelectricalormechanical,whichshallbeinspected
andthedefectrectified.
12.4.2

Forthissystemisbestdividedintoconvenientsectionsattestingpointsbysuitablejoints.Acontinuouscurrentofabout10Ashallbepassed
throughtheportionofthesystemundertestandtheresistanceverifiedagainstitscalculatedorrecordedvalue.Suitableportableprecisiontestingsets
forthispurposesshouldbeused.
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SECTION16PROTECTIONAGAINSTVOLTAGESURGES
FOREWORD
Asuddenchangeintheestablishedoperatingconditionsinanelectricalnetworkcausestransientphenomenatooccur.Transientsmaybe
generatedoutsideofthehomeorbusinessbylightning,otherutilitycustomers,animals,andevennormalutilityswitchingoperations.Insidethehome
orbusiness,transientsaregeneratedbymotorsstartingandstopping,flourescentlighting,copiers,vendingmachines,welders,andmanyother
sources.Inadryenvironment,electricalchargesaccumulateandcreateaverystrongelectrostaticfield.Protectiontomitigatethelargertransients
comingfromoutsidethehomeorbusiness,andpointofusesurgeprotectionforequipmentsensitivetotransientsgeneratedwithinthebuildingneed
tobeconsidered.
AssistanceforthisSectionhasbeenderivedfromIEC61643122008LowvoltagesurgeprotectivedevicesPart12:Surgeprotectivedevices

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connectedtolowvoltagepowerdistributionsystemsSelectionandapplicationprinciples.
1SCOPE
1.1

ThisPart1/Section16coverstheprotectionrequirementsinlowvoltageelectricalinstallationofbuildings.
1.2

ThispartdoesnotcovertheprimaryprotectionagainstlightningwhichiscoveredunderPartI/Section15.
2REFERENCES
AlistofIndianStandardsrelevanttoprotectionagainstvoltagesurgesisgivenatAnnexA.
3TERMINOLOGY
ThedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeandthefollowingshallapply.
3.1

ContinuousOperatingCurrent(Ic)CurrentthatflowsinanSPDwhensuppliedatitspermamentfullwithstandoperatingvoltage(Uc )
foreachmode.Ic correspondstothesumofthecurrentsthatflowintheSPDsprotectioncomponentandinalltheinternalcircuitsconnectedin
parallel.
3.2

DisruptiveDischargeThephenomenaassociatedwiththefailureofinsulationunderelectricalstresswhichincludeacollapseofvoltage
andthepassageofcurrentthetermappliestoelectricalbreakdowninsolid,liquidandgaseousdielectricsandcombinationsofthese.
NOTEAdisruptivedischargeinasoliddielectricproducespermanentlossofelectricalstrengthinaliquidorgaseousdielectric
thelossmaybeonlytemporary.
3.3

FlashoverAdisruptivedischargeoverasolidsurface.
3.4

ImpulseAunidirectionalwaveofvoltageorcurrentwhich,withoutappreciableoscillations,risesrapidlytoamaximumvalueandfalls,
usuallylessrapidly,tozerowithsmall,ifany,loopsofoppositepolarity.Theparameterswhichdefineavoltageorcurrentimpulsearepolarity,peak
value,fronttime,andtimetohalfvalueonthetail.
3.5

ImpulseCurrent(Iimp)ItisdefinedbyacurrentpeakvalueIpeak andthechargeatestedaccordingtothetestsequenceoftheoperating
dutytest.ThisisusedfortheclassificationoftheSPDforClassItest.
3.6

MaximumContinuousOperatingVoltage(Uc)Themaximumr.m.s.ord.c.voltagewhichmaybecontinuouslyappliedtotheSPDs
modeofprotection.Thisisequaltotheratedvoltage.
3.7

MaximumDischargeCurrentforClassIITest(IMax)CrestvalueofacurrentthroughtheSPDhavingan8/20waveshapeand
magnitudeaccordingtothetestsequenceoftheClassIIoperatingdutytest.IMaxisgreaterthanIn.
3.8

NominalDischargeCurrent(In)ThecrestvalueofthecurrentthroughtheSPDhavingacurrentwaveshapeof8/20.Thisisusedforthe
classificationoftheSPDfortheClassIItestandalsoforpreconditioningoftheSPDforClassIandIItests.
3.9

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PunctureAdisruptivedischargethroughasolid.
3.10

RatedNetworkVoltage(Un)Theratedvoltageofthenetwork.
3.11

ResidualVoltage(Ures)ThepeakvalueofthevoltagethatappearsbetweentheterminalsofanSPDduetothepassageofdischarge
current.
3.12

SparkoverofanArresterAdisruptivedischargebetweentheelectrodesofthegapsofanarrester.
3.13

SurgeArresterAdevicedesignedtoprotectelectricalapparatusfromhightransientvoltageandtolimitthedurationandfrequentlythe
amplitudeoffollowcurrent.Thetermsurgearresterincludesanyexternalseriesgapwhichisessentialfortheproperfunctioningofthedeviceas
installedforservice,regardlessofwhetherornotitissuppliedasanintegralpartofthedevice.
171

NOTESurgearrestersareusuallyconnectedbetweentheelectricalconductorsofanetworkandearthalthoughtheymay
sometimesbeconnectedacrossthewindingsofapparatusorbetweenelectricalconductors.
3.14

SurgeProtectiveDevice(SPD)Adevicethatlimitstransientvoltagesurgesandrunscurrentwavestogroundtolimittheamplitudeofthe
voltagesurgetoasafelevelforelectricalinstallationsandequipment.Surgeprotectivedevices(SPDs)areusedtoprotect,underspecifiedconditions,
electricalsystemsandequipmentagainstvariousovervoltagesandimpulsecurrents,suchaslightningandswitchingsurges.
3.15

SwitchingOvervoltagesThesestressesareusuallylowerthanlightningstressesintermsofpeakcurrentandvoltage,butmayhavelonger
duration.However,insomecases,particularlydeepinsideastructureorclosetoswitchingovervoltagesources,theswitchingstresscanbehigherthan
thestressescausedbylightning.TheenergyrelatedtotheseswitchingsurgesneedstobeknowntopermitthechoiceofappropriateSPDs.Thetime
durationoftheswitchingsurges,includingtransientsduetofaultsandfuseoperations,canbemuchlongerthanthelightningsurgeduration.
3.16

TemporaryOvervoltages(UTOV)AnySPDcanbeexposedtoatemporaryovervoltageUTOVduringitslifetimethatexceedsthemaximum
continuousoperatingvoltageofthepowersystem.Atemporaryovervoltagehastwodimensions,magnitudeandtime.Thetimedurationofthe
overvoltageprimarilydependsupontheearthingofthesupplysystem(thisincludesboththehighvoltagesupplysystemaswellasthelowvoltage
systemtowhichtheSPDisconnected).Indeterminingthetemporaryovervoltages,considerationshouldbegiventothemaximumcontinuous
operatingvoltageofthepowersystem(Ucs).
3.17

VoltageProtectionLevel(Up)AparameterthatcharacterizestheperformanceoftheSPDinlimitingthevoltageacrossitsterminals,
whichisselectedfromalistofpreferredvalues.Thisvalueshallbegreaterthanthehighestvalueofthemeasuredlimitingvoltages.
Themostcommonvaluesfora230/400Vnetworkare:
1kV1.2kV1.5kV1.8kV2kV2.5kV
3.18

VoltageSurgeAvoltageimpulseorwavewhichissuperposedontheratednetworkvoltage(seeFig.1).Avoltagesurgedisturbsequipment
andcauseselectromagneticradiation.Thedurationofthevoltagesurge(T)causesasurgeofenergyintheelectricalcircuitswhichislikelytodestroy
theequipment.
4GENERAL
4.1VoltageSurges

Avoltagesurgedisturbsequipmentandcauseselectromagneticradiation.Furthermore,thedurationofthevoltagesurge(T)causesasurgeof
energyintheelectricalcircuitswhichislikelytodestroytheequipment.Therearefourtypesofvoltagesurgeswhichmaydisturbelectricalinstallations
andloads:

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a.Atmosphericvoltagesurges,
b.Operatingvoltagesurges,
c.Transientovervoltageatindustrialfrequency,and
d.Voltagesurgescausedbyelectrostaticdischarge.
4.1.1AtmosphericVoltageSurges

Atmosphericvoltagesurges,thatis,lightning,comesfromthedischargeofelectricalchargesaccumulatedinthecumulonimbuscloudswhich
formacapacitorwiththeground.Stormphenomenacauseseriousdamage.Lightningisahighfrequencyelectricalphenomenonwhichproduces
voltagesurgesonallconductiveelements,andespeciallyonelectricalloadsandwires.ProtectionagainstlightningiscoveredunderPart1/Section15.
4.1.2OperatingVoltageSurges

Asuddenchangeintheestablishedoperatingconditionsinanelectricalnetworkcausestransientphenomenatooccur.Thesearegenerallyhigh
frequencyordampedoscillationvoltagesurgewaves(seeFig.1).
Theyaresaidtohaveaslowgradienttheirfrequencyvariesfromseveraltentoseveralhundredkilohertz.
Operatingvoltagesurgesmaybecreatedby:
Theopeningofprotectiondevices(fuse,circuitbreaker),andtheopeningorclosingofcontroldevices(relays,contactors,etc).
Inductivecircuitsduetomotorsstartingandstopping,ortheopeningoftransformerssuchasMVILVsubstations
Capacitivecircuitsduetotheconnectionofcapacitorbankstothenetwork
Alldevicesthatcontainacoil,acapacitororatransformeratthepowersupplyinlet:relays,contactors,televisionsets,printers,computers,
electricovens,filters,etc.
4.1.3TransientOvervoltagesatIndustrialFrequency

Theseovervoltages(seeFig.2)havethesamefrequencyasthenetwork(50,60or400Hz)andcanbecausedby:
172

Fig.1VoltageSurgeExamples

Fig.2TransientOvervoltageatIndustrialFrequency
a.Phase/frameorphase/earthinsulatingfaultsonanetworkwithaninsulatedorimpedantneutral,orbythebreakdownoftheneutralconductor.
Whenthishappens,singlephasedeviceswillbesuppliedin400Vinsteadof230V.
b.Acablebreakdown,forexampleamediumvoltagecablewhichfallsonalowvoltageline.
c.Thearcingofahighormediumvoltageprotectivesparkgapcausingariseinearthpotentialduringtheactionoftheprotectiondevices.These
protectiondevicesfollowautomaticswitchingcycleswhichwillrecreateafault,ifitpersists.
4.1.4VoltageSurgesCausedbyElectricalDischarge

Inadryenvironment,electricalchargesaccumulateandcreateaverystrongelectrostaticfield.Forexample,apersonwalkingoncarpetwith
insulatingsoleswillbecomeelectricallychargedtoavoltageofseveralkilovolts.Ifthepersonwalksclosetoaconductivestructure,hewillgiveoffan
electricaldischargeofseveralamperesinaveryshortrisetimeofafewnanoseconds.Ifthestructurecontainssensitiveelectronics,acomputerfor
example,itscomponentsorcircuitboardsmaybedamaged.

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4.2MainCharacteristicsofVoltageSurges

Thesurgeprotectivedeviceincludesoneorseveralnonlinearcomponents.Thesurgeprotectivedeviceeliminatesvoltagesurges:
a.Incommonmode:Phasetoearthorneutraltoearth.
b.Indifferentialmode:Phasetophaseorphasetoneutral.
WhenavoltagesurgeexceedstheUc threshold,thesurgeprotectivedevice(SDP)conductstheenergytoearthincommonmode.Indifferential
modethe
divertedenergyisdirectedtoanotheractiveconductor(seeAnnexB).Table1sumsupthemaincharacteristicsofvoltagesurges.

173

Thesurgeprotectivedevicehasaninternalthermalprotectiondevicewhichprotectsagainstburnoutatitsendoflife.Gradually,overnormal
useafterwithstandingseveralvoltagesurges,theSPDdegradesintoaconductivedevice.Anindicatorinformstheuserwhenendoflifeisclose.
Somesurgeprotectivedeviceshavearemoteindication.Inaddition,protectionagainstshortcircuitsisensuredbyanexternalcircuitbreaker.
4.3BasicFunctionsofSurgeProtectionDevices(SPDs)

Thefunctionsofsurgeprotectiondevicesareasfollows:
a.Inpowersystemsintheabsenceofsurges:theSPDshallnothaveasignificantinfluenceontheoperationalcharacteristicsofthesystemto
whichitisapplied.
b.Inpowersystemsduringtheoccurrenceofsurges:theSPDrespondstosurgesbyloweringitsimpedanceandthusdivertingsurgecurrent
throughittolimitthevoltagetoitsprotectivelevel.ThesurgesmayinitiateapowerfollowcurrentthroughtheSPD.
c.Inpowersystemsaftertheoccurrenceofsurges:theSPDrecoverstoahighimpedancestateafterthesurgesandextinguishesanypossible
powerfollowcurrent.
ThecharacteristicsofSPDsarespecifiedtoachievetheabovefunctionsundernormalserviceconditions.Thenormalserviceconditionsare
specifiedbythefrequencyofthepowersystemvoltage,loadcurrent,altitude(thatis,airpressure),humidityandambientairtemperature.
4.4SurgeProtectiveDeviceTests

4.4.1

Threetestclassesaredefinedforsurgeprotectivedevicesconnectedtolowvoltagepowerdistributionsystems:
a.ClassItests:Theyareconductedusingnominaldischargecurrent(In),voltageimpulsewith1.2/50swaveshapeandimpulsecurrentIimp.
TheClassItestsisintendedtosimulatepartialconductedlightningcurrentimpulses.SPDssubjectedtoClassItestmethodsaregenerally
recommendedforlocationsatpointsofhighexposure,forexamplelineentrancestobuildingsprotectedbylightningprotectionsystems.
b.ClassIItests:Theyareconductedusingnominaldischargecurrent(In)voltageimpulsewith1.2/50swaveshape.
c.ClassIIItests:Theyareconductedusingthecombinationwaveform(1.2/50and8/20s).
4.4.2

SPDstestedtoClassIIorIIItestmethodsaresubjectedtoimpulsesofshorterduration.TheseSPDsaregenerallyrecommendedforlocations
withlesserexposure.SPDsareclassifiedinthefollowingthreecategories:
a.Type1:SPDtestedtoClassI,
b.Type2:SPDtestedtoClassII,and
c.Type3:SPDtestedtoClassIII.
4.4.3

TheSPDischaracterisedbyUc ,Up,InandIMax(seeFig.3).
4.4.4

Totestthesurgearrester,standardizedvoltageandcurrentwaveshavebeendefinedVoltagewaveforexample,1.2/50s(seeFig.4)Current
waveforexample,8/20s(seeFig.5).
Otherpossiblewavecharacteristics4/10s,10/1000s,30/60s,10/350s.
Comparisonbetweendifferentsurgeprotectivedevicesmustbecarriedoutusingthesamewavecharacteristics,inordertogetrelevantresults.
Table1CharacteristicsofVoltageSurges
(Clause4.2)
SlNo.

TypeofVoltageSurge

VoltageSurgeCoefficient

Duration

FrontGradientorFrequency

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

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i) Industrialfrequency(insulationfault)
ii) Operation
iii) Atmospheric

1.7
2to4
>4

Long

Industrialfrequency

30to1000ms

(5060400Hz)

Short

Average

1to100ms

1to200kHz

Veryshort

Veryhigh

1to100s

1to1000kV/s

174

Fig.3Voltage/CurrentCharacteristics

Fig.41.2/50sWave

Fig.58/20sWave
5SELECTIONOFPROTECTIONDEVICE
5.1

Fortheselectionofprotectiondevice,thevalueoftheequipmenttobeprotectedshouldbeestimated.Toestimateitsvalue,thecostofthe
equipmentinfinancialtermsandtheeconomicimpactiftheequipmentgoesdownneedstobetakenintoaccount.Protectiondevicesshallbeselected
accordingtotheirenvironmentalconditionsandtheacceptablefailurerateoftheequipmentandtheprotectivedevice.Thesefactorsinclude
equipmenttobeprotectedandsystemcharacteristics,insulationlevels,overvoltages,methodofinstallation,locationofSPDs,coordinationofSPDs,
failuremodeofSPDsandequipmentfailureconsequencesetc.
5.2

RatedresidualvoltageUresofprotectiondevicesmustnotbehigherthanthevalueinthevoltageimpulsewithstandcategoryII(seeTable2).
5.3ChoiceofDisconnector

Thedisconnectorisnecessarytoensurethesafetyoftheinstallation.
Oneofthesurgearresterparametersisthemaximumcurrent(IMax8/20swave)thatitcanwithstandwithoutdegradation.Ifthiscurrentis
exceeded,thesurgearresterwillbedestroyeditwillbepermanentlyshortcircuitedanditisessentialtoreplaceit.
Thefaultcurrentmustthereforebeeliminatedbyanexternaldisconnectorinstalledupstream.
Thedisconnectorprovidesthecompleteprotectionrequiredbyasurgearresterinstallation,thatis:
a.itmustbeabletowithstandstandardtestwaves:
1.itmustnottripat20impulsesatIn,and
2.itcantripatIMaxwithoutbeingdestroyed.
b.thesurgearresterdisconnectsifitshortcircuits.

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Surgearrester/disconnectioncircuitbreakercorrespondencetablearegenerallysuppliedbymanufacturers.
5.4AdditionalRequirements

5.4.0

DependingupontheapplicationoftheSPD,additionalrequirementsmaybeneededsuchasprotectionofSPDsagainstdirectcontact,safetyin
theeventofSPDfailuresetc.AnSPDmayfailsubjectedtoasurgegreaterthanitsdesignedmaximumenergyanddischargecurrentcapability.Failure
modesofSPDsareusuallydividedintoopencircuitandshortcircuitmode.
5.4.1EndoflifeIndicationoftheSurgeArrester

Intheopencircuitmodethesystemtobeprotectedisnolongerprotected.Inthiscase,failureofanSPDisusuallydifficulttodetectsinceithas
almostnoinfluenceonthesystem.ToensurethatthefailedSPDisreplacedbeforethenextsurge,anindicationfunctionmayberequired.Various
indicationdevicesareprovidedtowarntheuserthattheloadsarenolongerprotectedagainstvoltagesurges.Manysurgearrestershavealight
indicatingthatthemoduleisingoodworkingorder.
5.4.2UseofDisconnectingDevices

Intheshortcircuitmode,thesystemisseverelyinfluencedbythefailedSPD.TheshortcircuitcurrentflowsthroughthefailedSPDfromthe
powersource.Energydissipatedduringtheconductionofshortcircuitcurrentmaybeexcessiveandcauseafirehazard.Theshortcircuitwithstand
capabilitytestofcoversthisproblem.IncaseswherethesystemtobeprotectedhasnosuitabledevicetodisconnectthefailedSPD
175

Table2SelectionofEquipmentfortheInstallation
(Clause5.2)
Sl
No.

NominalVoltageoftheInstallation

RequiredImpulseWithstandVoltagefor

V
ThreePhase
Systems

(1)

(2)

i)

kV

SinglePhaseSystemwith
MiddlePoint

EquipmentattheOriginofthe
Installation

EquipmentattheOriginofthe
Installation

Appliances

SpeciallyProtected
Equipment

(ImpulseWithstandCategory
IV

(ImpulseWithstandCategory
III)

(ImpulseWithstand
CategoryIII)

(ImpulseWithstand
CategoryI)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

120240

2.5

1.5

0.8

1.5

iii) 400/690

2.5

iv) 1000

Valuessubjecttosystemengineers

ii) 230/400
277/480
(seeNote1)

NOTES
1Forvoltagestoearthhigherthan300V,theimpulsewithstandvoltagecorrespondingtothenexthighervoltageincol(2)applies.
2CategoryIisaddressedtoparticularequipmentengineering.
3CategoryIIisaddressedtoequipmentforconnectiontothemains.
4CategoryIIIisaddressedtoinstallationmaterialandsomespecialproducts.
5CategoryIVisaddressedtosupplyauthoritiesandsystemengineers.

fromitscircuit,asuitabledisconnectingdevicemayberequiredtobeusedinconjunctionwithaSPDwhichhasashortcircuitfailuremode.
6INSTALLATIONOFSURGEPROTECTIONDEVICES
Wheninstallingsurgeprotectivedevices,severalelementsmustbeconsidered,suchastheearthingsystem,positioningwithrespecttoresidual
currentdevices,thechoiceofdisconnectioncircuitbreakersandcascading.
6.1ProtectionDevicesAccordingtotheEarthingSystem

a.Commonmodeovervoltage:BasicprotectioninvolvestheinstallationofacommonmodesurgearresterbetweenphaseandPEorphaseand
PEN,whatevertypeofearthingsystemisused.
b.Differentialmodeovervoltage:IntheITandTNSearthingsystems,earthingtheneutralleadstodissymmetryduetoearthingimpedances,
whichcausesdifferentialmodevoltagestoappear,whereastheovervoltageinducedbyalightningstrikeisacommonmodevoltage.
6.2InternalArchitectureofSurgeArresters

a.2P,3P,4Psurgearresters(seeFig.6):
TheyprovideprotectionagainstcommonmodeovervoltagesonlyandareappropriateforTNCandITearthingsystems.

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Fig.62P,3P,4PSurgeArresters
b.1P+N,3P+Nsurgearresters(seeFig.7):
TheyprovideprotectionagainstcommonmodeanddifferentialmodeovervoltagesandareappropriateforTT,TNS,andITearthing
systems.

Fig.71P+N,3P+NSurgeArresters
c.Singlepole(IP)surgearresters(seeFig.8).
Theyareusedtosatisfythedemandofdifferentassemblies(accordingtothemanufacturersinstructions)bysupplyingonlyoneproduct.
176

However,specialdimensioningwillberequiredforNPEprotection.

Fig.8ConnectionExample
6.3InstallationofProtectionDevices

Theovervoltageprotectionstudyofaninstallationmayshowthatthesiteishighlyexposedandthattheequipmenttobeprotectedissensitive.
Thesurgearrestermustbeabletodischargehighcurrentsandhavealowlevelofprotection.Thisdualconstraintcannotalwaysbehandledbyasingle
surgearrester.Asecondonewillthereforeberequired(seeFig.9).
Thefirstdevice,P1(incomingprotection)willbeplacedattheincomingendoftheinstallation.

Fig.9CascadingofSurgeArresters
Itspurposewillbetodischargethemaximumamountofenergytoearthwithalevelofprotection=2000Vthatcanbewithstoodbythe
electrotechnicalequipment(contactors,motors,etc).
Theseconddevice(fineprotection)willbeplacedinadistributionenclosure,ascloseaspossibletothesensitiveloads.Itwillhavealow
dischargecapacityandalowlevelofprotectionthatwilllimitovervoltagessignificantlyandthereforeprotectsensitiveloads(=1500V).Cascading
protectionrequiresaminimumdistanceofatleast10mbetweenthetwoprotectiondevices.Thisisvalidwhateverthefieldofapplication,domestic,
tertiaryorindustrial.
InFig.10,thefineprotectiondeviceP2isinstalledinparallelwiththeincomingprotectiondeviceP1.

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IfthedistanceListoosmall,attheincomingovervoltage,P2withaprotectionlevelofU2=1500VwilloperatebeforeP1withalevelofU1=2
000V.P2willnotwithstandanexcessivelyhighcurrent.TheprotectiondevicesmustthereforebecoordinatedtoensurethatP1activatesbeforeP2.
ThisdependsonlengthLofthecable,thatisthevalueoftheselfinductancebetweenthetwoprotectiondevices.Thisselfinductancewillblockthe
currentflowtoP2andcauseacertaindelay,whichwillforceP1tooperatebeforeP2.Ametreofcablegivesaselfinductanceofapproximately11JH.
TheruleU=Ldi/dtcausesavoltagedropofapproximately100V/m/kA,8/20swave.
ForL=10m,wegetUL1=UL2=l000V.
ToensurethatP2operateswithalevelofprotectionof1500Vrequires
U1=UL1+UL2+U2=1000V+1000V+1500V=3500V.
Consequently,P1operatesbefore2000VandthereforeprotectsP2.
NOTEIfthedistancebetweenthesurgearresterattheincomingendoftheinstallationandtheequipmenttobeprotectedexceeds
30m,cascadingthesurgearrestersisrecommended,astheresidualvoltageofthesurgearrestermayrisetodoubletheresidualvoltageat
theterminalsoftheincomingsurgearresterasintheaboveexample,thefineprotectionsurgearrestermustbeplacedascloseaspossible
totheloadstobeprotected.Itshouldbeensuredthattheconnectionbetweenthesurgearresteranditsdisconnectioncircuitbreakerdoes
notexceed50cm.
6.4SurgeProtectionDeviceInstallationConditions

a.Accordingtosupplysystemconfiguration:ThemaximumcontinuousoperatingvoltageUc ofSPDsshallbeequaltoorhigherthanshownin
Table3.
b.Attheoriginoftheinstallation:Ifthesurgearresterisinstalledatthesourceofanelectricalinstallationsuppliedbytheutilitydistribution
network,itsrateddischargecurrentmaybelowerthan5kA.
Ifasurgearresterisinstalleddownstreamfromanearthleakageprotectiondevice,anRCDoftheStype,withimmunitytoimpulse
currentsoflessthan3kA(8/20us),mustbeused.
c.Protectionagainstovercurrentat50HzandconsequencesofaSPDfailure:Protection
177

Fig.10CoordinationofSurgeArresters
againstSPDsshortcircuitsisprovidedbytheovercurrentprotectivedeviceswhicharetobeselectedaccordingtothemaximumrecommended
ratingfortheovercurrentprotectivedevicegiveninthemanufacturersSPDinstructions.
Table3MinimumRequiredUcoftheSPDDependentonSupplySystemConfiguration
(Clause6.4)
SlNo.

SPDsConnectedBetween

(1)

SystemConfigurationofDistributionNetwork

(2)

TT

TNC

TNS

ITwithDistributedNeutral

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

ITwithoutDistributedNeutral
(7)

i)

Lineconductorandneutralconductor

1.1Uo

Notapplicable

1.1Uo

1.1Uo

Notapplicable

ii)

EachlineconductorandPEconductor

1.1Uo

Notapplicable

1.1Uo

3Uo

Linetothevoltage

(seeNote3

(seeNote3)

Uo

Notapplicable

iii)

NeutralconductorandPEconductor

Uo

Notapplicable

Uo(l)

(seeNote3)
iv)

EachlineconductorandPENconductor

Notapplicable

(seeNote3)
1.1Uo

NA

NA

Notapplicable

(seeNote3)
NOTES
1Uoisthelinetoneutralvoltageofthelowvoltagesystem.
2Thesevaluesarerelatedtoworstcasefaultconditions,thereforethetoleranceof10percentisnottakenintoaccount.
3InextendedITsystems,highervaluesofUcmaybenecessary.
178

ANNEXA
LISTOFINDIANSTANDARDSRELEVENTTOPROTECTIONAGAINSTVOLTAGESURGES

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(Clause2)
ISNo.

Title

732:1989

Codeofpracticeforelectricalwiringinstallations

2309:1989

Codeofpracticefortheprotectionofbuildingsandalliedstructuresagainstlightning

11548:1986

Capacitorsforsurgeprotectionforuseinvoltagesystemabove650Vandupto33kV

15086(Part1):2001

Surgearresters:Part1Nonlinearresistortypegappedsurgearrestersforacsystems

15086(Part3):2003/IEC600993:

Surgearresters:Part3Artificialpollutiontestingofsurgearresters

1990
15086(Part5):2001/IEC600995:

Surgearresters:Part5Selectionandapplicationrecommendations

1996
QC420100:1994/IECQC420100:

VaristorsforuseinelectronicequipmentSectionalspecificationforsurgesuppressionvaristors

1991
QC420101:1994/IECQC420101:

VaristorsforuseinelectronicequipmentBlankdetailspecificationforsiliconcarbidesurgesuppressionvaristors

1991

assessmentlevelE

QC420102:1993/IECQC420102:

VaristorsforuseinelectronicequipmentBlankdetailspecificationforzincoxidesurgesuppressionvaristorsAssessment

1991

levelE

ANNEXB
DIFFERENTPROPAGATIONMODESOFVOLTAGESURGE
(Clause4.2)
B1COMMONMODE
Commonmodevoltagesurgesoccurbetweenthelivepartsandtheearth:phase/earthorneutral/earth(seeFig.11).Theyareespecially
dangerousfordeviceswhoseframeisearthedduetotheriskofdielectricbreakdown.

Fig.11CommonMode
B2DIFFERENTIALMODE
Differentialmodevoltagesurgescirculatebetweenliveconductors:Phasetophaseorphasetoneutral(seeFig.12).Theyareespecially
dangerousforelectronicequipment,sensitivecomputerequipment,etc.

Fig.12DifferentialMode
179

SECTION17GUIDELINESFORPOWERFACTORIMPROVEMENT
0FOREWORD
Thevariousadvantagesofmaintainingahighpowerfactorofasystemreflectsonthenationaleconomyofacountry.Theavailableresourcesare
utilizedtoitsfullestpossibleextent.Moreusefulpowerisavailablefortransmissionandutilizationwithoutanyextracost.Moreover,thelifeof
individualapparatusisconsiderablyincreasedandtheenergylossesreduced.
Guidancetotheconsumersofelectricalenergywhotakesupplyoflowandmediumvoltageforimprovementofpowerfactorattheinstallation
intheirpremisesisprovidedinthisSection.Theguidelinesprovidedarebasicallyintendedforinstallationoperatingatvoltagesbelow650V.For
highervoltageinstallations,additionalormorespecificrulesapply.
AssistancehasbeenderivedfromIS7752(Part1):1975Guidefortheimprovementofpowerfactorinconsumerinstallations:Part1Lowand
mediumsupplyvoltages.

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1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section17oftheCodecoverscausesforlowpowerfactorandguidelinesforuseofcapacitorstoimprovethesameinconsumer
installations.
1.2

Specificguidelines,ifany,forindividualinstallationonimprovementofpowerfactorarecoveredintherespectivesectionsoftheCode.
2REFERENCE
ThefollowingIndianStandardonpowerfactorimprovementmaybereferredfordetails:
IS7752(Part1):1975

Guidefortheimprovementof1975powerfactorinconsumerinstallations:Part1Lowandmediumsupplyvoltages

3GENERAL
3.1

Conditionsofsupplyofelectricityboardsorlicenseesstipulatethelowerlimitofpowerfactorwhichisgenerally0.85andconsumerisobligedto
improveandmaintainthepowerfactorofhisinstallationtoconformtotheseconditions.
3.1.1

WhenthetariffsofElectricityBoardsandthelicenseesarebasedonkVAdemandorkWdemandwithsuitablepenaltyrebateforlowhigh
powerfactor,improvementinthepowerfactorwouldeffectsavingsintheenergybills.
3.2

Powerfactorisdependentlargelyonconsumersapparatusandpartlyonsystemcomponentssuchastransformers,cables,transmissionlines,
etc.Systemcomponentshavefixedparametersofinductance,capacitanceandresistance.Thechoiceofthesecomponentstobringupthepower
factordependsoneconomics.
3.3

Incaseofacsupply,thetotalcurrenttakenbyalmosteveryitemofelectricalequipment,exceptthatofincandescentlightingandmostformsof
resistanceheating,ismadeupoftwoparts,namely:
a.inphasecomponentofthecurrent(activeorusefulcurrent)whichisutilizedfordoingworkorproducingheatand
b.quadraturecomponentofthecurrent(alsocalledidleorreactivecurrent)andusedforcreatingmagneticfieldinthemachineryorapparatus.
Thiscomponentisnotconvertibleintousefuloutput.
4POWERFACTOR
4.1

Themajorityofacelectricalmachinesandequipmentdrawfromthesupplyanapparentpower(kVA)whichexceedstherequiredusefulpower
(kW).Thisisduetothereactivepower(kVAR)necessaryforalternatingmagneticfield.Theratioofusefulpower(kW)toapparentpower(kVA)is
termedthepowerfactoroftheload.Thereactivepowerisindispensableandconstitutesanadditionaldemandonthesystem.
4.2

Thepowerfactorindicatestheportionofthecurrentinthesystemperformingusefulwork.Apowerfactorofunity(100percent)denotes100
percentutilizationofthetotalcurrentforusefulworkwhereasapowerfactorof0.70showsthatonly70percentofthecurrentisperforminguseful
work.
4.3PrincipleCausesofLowerPowerFactor

4.3.1

Thefollowingelectricalequipmentandapparatushavealowerfactor:
a.Inductionmotorsofalltypesparticularlywhentheyareunderloaded,
b.Powertransformersandvoltageregulators,
c.Arcwelders,
d.Inductionfurnacesandheatingcoils,

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e.Chokecoilsandmagneticsystems,and
f.Fluorescentanddischargelamps,neonsigns,etc.
4.3.2

Theprincipalcauseofalowpowerfactorisduetothereactivepowerflowinginthecircuit.Thereactivepowerdependsontheinductanceand
capacitanceoftheapparatus.
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4.4EffectofPowerFactortoConsumer

4.4.1

Thedisadvantagesoflowpowerfactorareasfollows:
a.Overloadingofcablesandtransformer,
b.Decreasedlinevoltageatpointofapplication,
c.Inefficientoperationofplant,and
d.Penalpowerrates.
4.4.2

Theadvantagesofhighpowerfactorareasfollows:
a.Reductioninthecurrent
b.Reductioninpowercost
c.Reducedlossesinthetransformersandcables,
d.Lowerloadingoftransformers,switchgears,cables,etc
e.Increasedcapabilityofthepowersystem(additionalloadcanbemetwithoutadditionalequipment)
f.Improvementinvoltageconditionsandapparatusperformanceand
g.Reductioninvoltagedipscausedbyweldingandsimilarequipment.
4.5EconomicsofPowerFactorImprovement

4.5.1

Staticcapacitors,alsocalledstaticcondensers,wheninstalledatornearthepointofconsumption,providenecessarycapacitivereactivepower,
relievedistributionsystembeforethepointofitsinstallationfromcarryingtheinductivereactivepowertothatextent.
4.5.2

Theuseofthestaticcapacitorsisaneconomicalwayofimprovingpowerfactoronaccountoftheircomparativelylowcost,easeofinstallation
lossmaintenance,lowlossesandtheadvantageofextensionbyadditionofrequisiteunitstomeettheloadgrowth.Installationofcapacitorsalso
improvethevoltageregulationandreducesamperesloadingandenergylossesinthesupplyapparatusandlines.
4.5.3

Whenconsideringtheeconomicsconnectedwithpowerfactorcorrection,itismostimportanttorememberthatanypowerfactorimproving
equipmentwill,ingeneral,compensateforlossesandlowertheloadingsonsupplyequipment,thatis,cables,transformers,switchgear,generating
plant,etc.
4.5.4

TheminimumpermissiblepowerfactorprescribedintheconditionsofsupplyofElectricityBoardsorLicenseesandthereductionincharges
offeredinsupplytariffsforfurtherimprovementofpowerfactorshall,alongwithotherconsiderationssuchasreductionoflosses,etc,determinethe
kVARcapacityofthecapacitorstobeinstalled.
4.5.5

IncaseoftwoporttariffwithkVAdemandcharged,thevalueofeconomicimprovedpowerfactor(cos2)maybeobtainedasfollows:
LetthetariffbeRs.AperkVAofmaximumdemandperannumplusRs.PperkWh.
cos1istheinitialpowerfactor,
cos2istheimprovedpowerfactorafterinstallingthecapacitors

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Theeconomicpowerfactorcos2isobtainedfromtheexpression

where
B =

totalcostperkVARperyearofcapacitorinstallationinclusiveofinterest,depreciationandmaintenance.

NOTETheexplanationforthederivationoftheformulaforeconomicpowerfactorcosf2isgiveninAnnexAofIS7752(Part1).
5USEOFCAPACITORS
5.1

Inordertoimprovethepowerfactor,theconsumershallinstallcapacitorswherethenaturalpowerfactorofthisinstallationislow.
5.2

Theaveragevaluesofthepowerfactorfordifferenttypesof3phaseelectricalinstallationsasmeasuredbyoneofmajorutilitiesinthecountry
aregiveninrespectiveSectionsoftheCode.
5.3

CapacitorsforpowerfactorimprovementmaybearrangedasdescribedinIS7752(Part1).Thesuccessfuloperationofpowerfactor
improvementdependsverylargelyonthepositioningofthecapacitoronthesystem.Idealconditionsareachievedwhenthehighestpowerfactoris
maintainedunderallloadconditions.
5.4IndividualCompensation

Whereverpossiblethecapacitorshouldbeconnecteddirectlyacrosstheterminalsofthelowpowerfactorapplianceorequipment.Thisensures
thecontroltobeautomaticthroughthesameswitchingdevicesoftheapparatusofappliance.
5.5GroupCompensation

Inindustrieswherealargenumberofsmallmotorsorotherappliancesandmachinesareinstalledandwhoseoperationisperiodicalitis
economicaltodispensewithindividualinstallationofcapacitors.Abankofcapacitorsmaybeinstalledtoconnectthemtothe
distributioncentreofmainbusbarsofthegroupofmachines.

181

5.6CentralCompensation

Capacitorsmayalsobeinstalledatacentralpoint,thatis,attheincomingsupplyorserviceposition.Inordertoovercomeproblemsofdrawing
leadingcurrentsonlightloads,thesecapacitorsmaybeoperatedmanuallyorautomaticallyasrequired.Theautomaticcontrolispreferredasit
eliminateshumanerrors.Automaticoperationmaybearrangedbymeansofsuitablerelaysinwhichacontractorcontrolsthecapacitorsbankand
maintainsthecorrectamountofkVARinthecircuit.
5.7CombinedCompensation

Capacitorsmaybeconnecteddirectlyacrosstheterminalsofhighercapacityinductiveappliancesorequipments,inadditiontothecapacitors
withAutomaticPowerFactorCorrectionRelayforCentralCompensationconnectedattheincomingsupplyorserviceposition
5.8

ThemethodsofconnectingpowerfactorcapacitorstosupplylineandmotorsaregiveninFig.1andFig.2.
6SELECTIONANDINSTALLATIONOFCAPACITORS
6.1

Capacitorcurrentshallnotexceedmagnetizationcurrentofthemotorwhendirectlyconnectedacrossmotorterminals.
6.2

Capacitorsshallnotbeconnecteddirectlyacrossmotorterminalsifsolidstatestarters/softstartersareused.
6.3

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Capacitorsshallnotbeconnecteddirectlytomotorterminalsifvariablespeeddriveisadopted.
6.4

Capacitorsconnectedtosamebusbarsdischargeinstantaneouslytounchargedcapacitors,atthetimeofswitchingon,withhighinrush
current.Thisshallbetakencareofwhileprovidingcentralcompensationwithautomaticpowerfactorcorrectionrelay.
6.5

Harmonicsmayreducelifeofcapacitors.
6.6

Switching/controllingdevicesforcapacitorsshallhaverequiredcapacitorswitchingduty.
6.7

Chancesofresonatingshallbeconsidered.
6.8

Energyloss/Powerconsumptionofcapacitorsshallbetakencareof.
6.9

Capacitorbanksshallbeproperlyventilated.
6.10

Chancesofovervoltageshallbelookedinto.
6.11

Resistorsshallbeprovidedacrosscapacitorterminalsfordischarging.
7POWERFACTORIMPROVEMENTANDCAPACITORRATING
ForcalculatingthesizeofthecapacitorforpowerfactorimprovementreferenceshouldbemadetoTable5ofPart1/Section20oftheCode.

Fig.1MethodsofConnectingCapacitorstoMotorsforImprovementofPowerFactor
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Fig.2MethodsofConnectingCapacitorstoSupplyLineforImprovementofPowerFactor
183

SECTION18ENERGYEFFICIENCYASPECTS
0FOREWORD
Efficientuseofenergyinputsacquiresaddedsignificancesinceenergysavedisenergygenerated.Economicgrowthisdesirablefordeveloping
countriesandenergyisessentialforeconomicgrowth.Thismeanscommensurateinputofenergyisrequired.However,duetothefactthatourfossil
fuelreservesarelimited,energyconservationisessential.Electricalenergyinputisutilizedinvariousindustrialplants,agriculturalsector,commercial
buildingsandestablishments,intheformofmechanicalmotivepower,heating,lighting,airconditioningandventilationetc.TheIndianIndustrial
Sectoraccountsforhalfofthetotalcommercialenergyusedinthecountry.Energyconservationaimsateliminatingthewasteofenergyand
minimizationoflosses.Inthiscontextproperselectionofelectricalequipmentassumesgreaterimportance.TheEnergyConservationAct,2001,also
emphasisestheneedofenergyconservation.
ThisSectionprovidesguidancetotheconsumersofelectricalenergy,withregardtotheselectionofequipmentfromenergyconservationpoint
ofviewandonenergyaudits.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section18oftheCodecoverstheaspectstobeconsideredforselectionofequipmentfromenergyconservationpointofviewand
guidanceonenergyaudit.
2REFERENCE
ThefollowingIndianStandardhasbeenreferredtointhisSection:
ISNo
IS12615:2004

Title
EnergyefficientinductionmotorsThreephasesquirrelcage

3GENERAL
Energyconservationaimsateliminatingwastageofenergyandminimizinglosses.Themajorfactorstobelookedintointhisregardinclude
systemdesign,selectionofequipment,operationandmaintenancepractices,capacityutilizationfactorsetc.Improvingefficiencytypicallycostsless
thantheenergytariffs.
Inordertostandardizeandbenchmarkthelevelofefficiencyofvariouselectricalandotherenergyconsumingequipment,theBureauofEnergy
EfficiencywasinstitutedinMarch2002.Thestandardsandlabelling/ratingstandardsforvariousequipmentproposedbyBureauofEnergyEfficiency
shallbefollowedwhileselectingequipment.ProvisionsoftheEnergyConservationAct,2001mayalsobetakenintoaccount.
4EQUIPMENTSELECTION
Themaincriterionforequipmentselection,fromenergyconservationpointofview,isthatthepowerlosshastobeminimum.Inotherwords
theoperatingefficiencyshouldbehigh.Propersizingofequipmentisessentialtoensureoptimumutilizationofenergy.Itisalsonecessarytoavoid
overratingorunderratingtheequipment.Itshouldbeensuredthatoperatingpowerfactorofequipmentishigh.
Mostcommonlyencounteredequipmentsinelectricalsystemsarementionedbelow:
4.1Motor

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Motorsshouldpreferablybeenergyefficientmotors,conformingtoIS12615.Preferably,motorsshallconformtoefficiencyclasseff1asperIS
12615asthesearemoreefficientthanmotorswithefficiencyclasseff2.Motorswithhigheroperatingpowerfactorshallbeconsideredduring
selectionasthisresultsinlowercurrentandconsequentlylowerlosses.Useofvariablespeeddriveswillbringsubstantialenergysavingwherever
differentflowconditions/speedsareencounteredintheprocessindustry.Useofvariablespeeddrivesisahighlyefficientmeansofachievingflow
controletc.ascomparedtothrottlingofvalves,dampersetc.ortheuseofsteppedpulleys.
4.2Transformers

Whileprocuringtransformers,normalloadingshallbeindicatedsoastooptimizetransformerefficiencytobemaximumatprojectedloadfor
minimizinglossesundernormaloperatingconditions.Lossesshouldbeaccountedwhileselectingequipment,bywayoflosscapitalizationorspecifying
theminimumacceptablevalueformaximumefficiency.
4.3CablesEquipment

Optimizingcableroute/lengthcanbestreducecablelosses.Thoughthelossescanalsobereducedbyoversizingtheconductors,thisisnot
recommendedduetothepracticalproblemsencounteredwithterminationofoversizedcables.
4.4Lighting

Anefficientlightingsystemcansubstantiallyreduce
184

theenergyconsumption.Theselectioncriteriaforlightingshallincludeamongotherfactors,luminarieswithlightsourcesofhigherluminous
efficiencysuchastubularfluorescentaswellascompactfluorescentlighting.Streetlightingandothertaskswherecolourrenderingpropertiesoflight
arenotofsignificancecanbemoreefficientlyachievedbytheuseofsodiumvapourlampscomparedtomercuryvapourlamps.Theuseof
incandescentlampsshouldbeavoidedexceptforDClightingincriticalareassuchasescaperoutes.NewertechnologiessuchasLEDbasedlighting
systems,buildingautomationsystemsforoptimizingpowerconsumptionthroughnaturallighting,reductioninHVACloaddemandthroughtheuseof
solarfilms,lightscontrolledbysensorswhichgetactivatedbymovement/humanpresenceetc.whichcansignificantlyoptimizetheuseofelectrical
energy,alsoneedtobepromoted.Theuseofsolarenergyforlighting,heatingetc.alsoneedstobemaximized.
Lowlosselectronicballastscanbeemployed,wherefeasible,aftertakingcarethattheharmonicdistortioniswithinpermissiblelimits.
5ENERGYAUDIT
5.1

EnergyAuditmeanstheverification,monitoringandanalysisoftheuseofenergyincludingsubmissionofatechnicalreportcontaining
recommendationsforimprovingenergyefficiencywithcostbenefitanalysisandanactionplantoreduceenergyconsumption.
5.2

Thefunctionofanenergyauditbroadlyincludes:
Reviewoflevelofenergyconsumption.
Creatingadatabase.
Identifyingenergyconservationpotential.
Preparationofnorms/guidelinesforimplementationofenergyconservationmeasures.
Recommendingtheuseofenergyefficientappliances.
5.3

EnergyConservationAct,2001hasbeenenactedandtheregulationsissuedunderthesaidactshallbecompliedwith,withreferencetoEnergy
Audit.Accordingly,designatedconsumersasnotifiedunderEnergyConservationAct,2001,shallgettheenergyauditcarriedoutthroughan
accreditedenergyauditor/firmsandimplementtechnoeconomicviablerecommendations/measures.Everydesignatedconsumershallappointor
designateacertifiedenergymanager,whoseresponsibilityshallbetoassistthedesignatedconsumerincomplyingwiththeenergyconsumptionnorms
andstandardsandothermandatoryprovisions.
5.4

EnergyConservationBuildingCodeformulatedbytheBureauofEnergyEfficiencyandprescribedbytheCentralGovernmentshallbe
implementedfornewbuildingshavingconnectedloadof500kWandaboveorcontractdemandof600kVAandabove,oncethesameormodified
versionhasbeennotifiedbytherespectiveStateGovernments.Listofenergyintensiveindustriesandotherestablishmentsspecifiedasdesignated
consumersisgivenintheEnergyConservationAct,2001.
185

SECTION19SAFETYINELECTRICALWORK
0FOREWORD
Safetyproceduresandpracticesareessentialinelectricalwork.Basicapproachestoelectricalworkfromthepointofviewofensuringsafety

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whichincludeinbuiltsafetyinproceduressuchaspermittoworksystem,safetyinstructionsandsafetypracticesarecoveredinthisSection.
Itisessentialthatsafetyshouldbepreachedandpracticedatalltimesintheinstallation,operationandmaintenancework.Therealbenefitto
bederivedfromtheguidelinescoveredinthisSectionwillberealizedonlywhenthesafetyinstructionsitcontainsareregardedasnormalroutineduty
andnotasinvolvingextraandlaboriousoperations.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section19oftheCodecoversguidelinesonsafetyproceduresandpracticesinelectricalwork.
2REFERENCES
AlistofIndianStandardsonsafetyinelectricalworkareasfollows:
ISNo.

Title

2551:1982

Specificationfordangernoticeplates

IS5216(Part1):1982

Recommendationsonsafetyproceduresandpracticesinelectricalwork:Part1General

IS5216(Part2):1982

Recommendationsonsafetyproceduresandpracticesinelectricalwork:Part2Lifesavingtechniques

8923:1978

Warningsymbolfordangerousvoltages

SP31:1986

Methodoftreatmentofelectricshock

3PERMITTOWORKSYSTEM
3.1

Allworkonmajorelectricalinstallationsshallbecarriedoutunderpermittoworksystemwhichisnowwellestablished,unlessstanding
instructionsareissuedbythecompetentauthoritytofollowotherprocedures.Inextenuatingcircumstance,suchasforthepurposeofsavinglifeor
timeintheeventofanemergency,itmaybecomenecessarytostarttheworkwithoutbeingabletoobtainthenecessarypermittoworkinsuch
cases,theactiontakenshallbereportedtothepersoninchargeassoonaspossible.Thepermittoworkcertificatefromthepersoninchargeof
operationtothepersoninchargeofthemenselectedtocarryoutanyparticularworkensurethattheportionoftheinstallationwheretheworkisto
becarriedoutisrendereddeadandsafeforworking.Allworkshallbecarriedoutunderthepersonalsupervisionofacompetentperson.Ifmorethan
onedepartmentisworkingonthesameapparatus,apermittoworkshouldbeissuedtothepersoninchargeofeachdepartment.
NOTEThewordspermittoworkandpermitaresynonymousforthepurposeofthisSection.
3.2

Noworkshallbecommencedonlivemainsunlessitisspecificallyintendedtobesodonebyspeciallytrainedstaff.Insuchcasesallpossible
precautionsshallbetakentoensurethesafetyofthestaffengagedforsuchwork,andalsoofotherswhomaybedirectlyorindirectlyconnectedwith
thework.Suchworkshallonlybecarriedoutwithproperequipmentprovidedforthepurposeand,aftertakingnecessaryprecautions,byspecially
trainedandexperiencedpersonswhoareawareofthedangerthatexistswhenworkingonornearlivemainsorapparatus.
3.3

Oncompletionoftheworkforwhichthepermittoworkisissued,thepersoninchargeofthemaintenancestaffshouldreturnthepermitduly
dischargedtotheissuingauthority.
3.4

Inallcases,theissueandreturnofpermitsshallberecordedinaspecialregisterprovidedforthatpurpose.
3.5

Thepermitsshallbeissuednotonlytothestaffofthesupplyundertakings,butalsotothestaffofotherdepartments,contractors,engineers,
etc,whomightberequiredtoworkadjacenttoliveelectricalmainsorapparatus.
3.6

AmodelformofpermittoworkcertificateisgiveninIS5216(Part1).
NOTES
1Thepermitistobepreparedinduplicatebythepersoninchargeofoperationonthebasisofmessage,dulylogged,fromthe
personinchargeofthework.
2Theoriginalpermitwillbeissuedtothepersoninchargeofworkandtheduplicatewillberetainedinthepermitbook.For
furtherallocationofworkbythepermitreceivingofficer,tokensmaybeissuedtotheworkersauthorizingthemindividuallytocarryout
theprescribedwork.

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3Oncompletionofthework,theoriginalshallbereturnedtotheissuingofficerdulydischargedforcancellation.
3.7

Permitbooksshouldbetreatedasimportantrecords.Allsheetsinthepermitbooksandthebooksthemselvesshouldbeseriallynumbered.No
pageshouldbedetachedorusedforanyotherexceptbonafidework.Ifanysheetisdetached,adatedand
initiatedstatementshallthenandthereberecordedinthebookbythepersonresponsibleforit.

186
3.8

Permitbooksshallbekeptonlybythepersoninchargeofoperationwhoshallmaintainarecordofthereceiptsandissuesmadebyhim.
4SAFETYINSTRUCTIONS
4.1SafetyInstructionsforWorkingonMainsandApparatusUptoandIncluding650V

4.1.1WorkonDeadLowandMediumVoltageMainsandApparatus

Unlessapersonisauthorizedtoworkonlivemainsandapparatusallmainsandapparatustobeworkeduponshallbeisolatedfromallsources
ofsupplybeforestartingthework,proveddead,earthedandshortcircuited.Forearthingandshortcircuiting,onlyrecognizedmethodsshouldbe
used.Measuresshallbetakenagainst,theinadvertentenergizingofthemainsandapparatus.
4.1.2WorkonLiveMainsandApparatus

Onlycompetent,experiencedandauthorizedpersonsshallworkonlivemainsandapparatus,andsuchpersonsshouldtakeallsafetymeasures
asmayberequired.
Warningboardsshallbeattachedonoradjacenttotheliveapparatusandatthelimitsofthezoneinwhichworkmaybecarriedout.
Immediatelybeforestartingwork,rubbergauntlets,ifused,shallbethoroughlyexaminedtoseewhethertheyareinsoundcondition.Underno
circumstancesshallbepersonworkwithunsoundgauntlets,mass,stools,platformsorotheraccessoriesandsafetydevices.
Nolivepartshouldbewithinunsafedistanceofapersonworkingonlivelowandmediumvoltagemainssothathedoesnotcomeincontact
withitunlessheisproperlyprotected.
4.1.3TestingofMainsandApparatus

Nopersonshallapplytestvoltagetoanymainsunlesshehasreceivedapermittoworkandhaswarnedallpersonsworkingonthemainsofthe
proposedapplicationoftestvoltage.Ifanypartwhichwillthusbecomealiveisexposed,thepersoninchargeofthetestshalltakedueprecautionsto
ensurethattheexposedliveportiondoesnotconstitutedangertoanyperson.Itshouldalsobeensuredbeforetheapplicationoftestvoltage,thatno
otherpermittoworkhasbeenissuedforworkingonthismains.
4.1.4ConnectingDeadMainstoLiveMains

Whendeadmainsareconnectedtolivemains,allconnectionstothelivepartsshallbemadelast,andinallcasesthephasesequenceshouldbe
checkedtoensurethatonlylikephasesareconnectedtogether.Beforeinsertingfusesorlinksinafeederordistributionpillarcontrollingthecableon
whichafaulthasbeencleared,eachphaseshallfirstbeconnectedthroughatestswitchfuse.
4.2SafetyInstructionsforWorkingonMainsandApparatusatVoltagesAbove650V

4.2.1General

Allmainsandapparatusshallberegardedasliveandasourceofdangerandtreatedaccordingly,unlessitispositivelyknowntobedeadand
earthed.
a.Nopersonshallworkon,testorearthmainsorapparatusunlesscoveredbyapermittoworkandafterprovingthemainsdeadexceptforthe
purposeofconnectingthetestingapparatus,etc.whichisspeciallydesignedforconnectingtotheliveparts.
b.Theoperationsofprovingdead,earthingandshortcircuitingofanymainsshallbecarriedoutonlybyanauthorizedpersonunderthe
instructionsofthepersoninchargeofmaintenance
c.Whileworkingonmains,thefollowingprecautionsshallbetaken:
1.Noperson,afterreceivingapermittowork,shallworkon,orinanywayinterferewith,anymainsorconduitsorthroughcontaininga
livemainsexceptunderthepersonalinstructionsandsupervision,onthesiteofwork,ofcompetentperson,
2.Whenanylivemainsistobeearthed,theprocedureprescribedin4.2.4shallbescrupulouslyfollowed,and
3.Theearthsandshortcircuits,specifiedonthepermittoworkshallnotberemovedorinterferedwithexceptbyauthorityfromthe
personinchargeofthework.

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4.2.2MinimumWorkingDistance

Nopersonshallworkwithintheminimumworkingdistancefromtheexposedlivemainsandapparatus.Theminimumworkingdistance
dependsupontheactualvoltages.Itdoesnotapplytooperationscarriedoutonmainsandapparatuswhicharesoconstructedastopermitsale
operationwithinthesedistances.Exposedliveequipmentinthevicinityshallbecordonedoffsothatpersonsworkingonthereleasedequipmentin
service.Thecordoningoffshallbedoneinsuchawaythatitdoesnothinderthemovementof
187

themaintenancepersonnel.Ifnecessary,asafetysergeantcouldbeposted.
4.2.3IsolationofMains

Isolationofmainsshallbeeffectedbythefollowingmethods:
a.Theelectricalcircuitsshallbebrokenonlybyauthorizedpersonsbydisconnectingswitches,isolatinglinks,unboltingconnectionsorswitches
whicharerackedout.Wherepossible,theisolationshouldbevisiblychecked,and
b.Wherethemeansofisolationareprovidedwithadevicetopreventtheirreclosurebyunauthorizedpersons,suchadeviceshallbeused.
4.2.4DevicesforProvingMainsandApparatusDead

4.2.4.1Highvoltageneonlampcontactindicatorsrodsareoftenusedforprovingexposedmainsandapparatusdead.Eachrodisfittedwithan
indicatingneontubeorothermeanswhichglowswhenthecontactendoftherodcomesincontactwithexposedliveparts.Eachrodisclearly
markedforthemaximumvoltageonwhichitmaybesafelyusedandshallnot,underanycircumstances,beusedonhighervoltages.
4.2.4.2Contactindicatorandphasingrodsareprovidedforphasingandprovingexposedmainsandapparatusdead.Asetconsistsoftworods
connectedinseriesbyalengthofinsulatedcables.Bothrodsarefittedwithcontacttipsandindicatingtubes.Whenthecontacttipofonerodis
appliedtoexposedlivepartsandthatoftheotherearthorotherexposedlivepartsprovidedthereissufficientvoltagedifferencebetweenthetwo,the
indicatingtubesshouldglow.Eachsetofrodsisnormallymarkedforthemaximumvoltageonwhichitmaybeusedandshallnot,underany
circumstances,beusedonhighervoltages.
4.2.4.3Useofcontactindicatorandphasingrods
Whileusingthehighvoltagecontactindicatorandphasingrodsforprovingthemainsorapparatusdead,followingprecautionsshouldbetaken:
a.Ensurethattherodiscleananddry,
b.Checktherodbyapplyingittoknownlivepartsofthecorrectvoltage,theindicatingtubeshallglow,
c.Applytherodtoeachphaserequiredtobeproveddead,theindicatingtubeshallnotglow.Beverycarefultobeinapositiontoseetheglow,if
any,appearingintheindicatingtube,and
d.Againchecktherodbyapplyingittolivepartsasin4.2.4.3(b).Againtheindicatingtubesshallglow.
NOTES
1.Alltheaboveoperationsshallbecarriedoutatthesameplaceandatthesametime,ifnolivepartsareavailableonthesite,rodsup
to11kVmaybetestedbyapplyingthemtothetopofthesparkpluginarunningmotorcarengine.Iftherodisinorderthe
indicatingtubewillgloweachtimetheplugsparks.Therefore,theglowwilltointermittent,buttheindicatingtubeshouldglowon
thistestortherodisuselessasameansofprovingthemainsorapparatusdead.
2.Therodshouldbetestedbothbeforeandaftertheuse.
4.2.4.4Testingandmarkingofdevices
Itshallbeensuredthatalldevicesforprovinghighvoltagemainsandapparatusdeadaremarkedclearlywiththemaximumvoltageforwhich
theyareintendedandshouldbetestedperiodically.
4.2.4.5Identificationofcablestobeworkedupon
Acableshallbeidentifiedasthathavingbeenproveddeadpriortocuttingorcarryingoutanyoperationwhichmayinvolveworkonor
movementofthecable.Anoncontactindicatingrod,inductiontestingsetorspikingdevicemaybeusedforprovingthecabledead.
4.2.4.6Earthingandshortcircuitingmains
a.Highvoltagemainsshallnotbeworkeduponunlesstheyaredischargedtoearthaftermakingthemdeadandareearthedandshortcircuited
withearthingandshortcircuitingequipmentisadequatetocarrypossibleshortcircuitcurrentsandspeciallymeantforthepurpose.Allearthing
switcheswhereverinstalledshouldbelockedup.
b.Ifacableisrequiredtobecut,steelwedgeshallbecarefullydriventhroughitatthepointwhereitistobecutorpreferablybymeansofa
spikinggunofapproveddesign.
c.Aftertestingthecablewithdcvoltage,thecableshallbedischargedthrougha2megohmresistanceandnotdirectly,owingtodielectric
absorptionwhichisparticularlyprominentinthedcvoltagetestingofhighvoltagecables.Thecableshallbedischargedforasufficientlylong
periodtopreventrebuildingupofvoltage.
d.Theearthingdevicewhenusedshallbefirstconnectedtoaneffectiveearth.Theotherendofthedeviceshallthenbeconnectedtothe
conductorstobeearthed.
e.Exceptforthepurposeoftesting,phasing,etc,theearthingandshortcircuitingdevicesshallremainconnectedforthedurationofthework.
4.2.4.7Removingtheearthconnections

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Oncompletionofwork,removaloftheearthingandshortcircuitingdevicesshallbecarriedoutinthereverseordertothatadoptedforplacing
them

188

(see4.2.4.6),thatis,theendoftheearthingdeviceattachedtotheconductorsoftheearthedmainsorapparatusshallberemovedfirstandthe
otherandconnectedtoearthsshallberemovedlast.Theconductorshallnotbetouchedaftertheearthingdevicehasbeenremovedfromit.
4.2.4.8Safetyprecautionsforearthing
Theprecautionsmentionedbelowshouldbeadoptedtotheextentapplicableandpossible:
a.Examineearthingdevicesperiodicallyandalwayspriortotheiruse,
b.Useonlyearthingswitchesoranyotherspecialapparatuswhereprovidedforearthing,
c.Verifythatthecircuitisdeadbymeansofdischargingrodorpotentialindicator.Theindicatoritselfshouldfirstbetestedonalivecircuitbefore
andaftertheverification,
d.Earthingshouldbedoneinsuchamannerthatthepersonsdoingthejobareprotectedbyearthconnectionsonbothsidesoftheirworking
zone,and
e.Allthethreephasesshouldbeeffectivelyearthedandshortcircuitedthoughworkmaybeproceedingononephaseonly.
4.2.4.9Workingonmainswherevisibleisolationcannotbecarriedout
Wheretheelectricalcircuitcannotbebrokenvisiblyassetoutin4.2.3thecircuitmaybebrokenbytwocircuitopeningdevices,oneoneach
sideoftheworkzone,whereduplicatefeedisavailableandbyonecircuitopeningdevicewhereduplicatefeedisnotavailableprovidedthefollowing
conditionsarefulfilled:
a.Thepositionofthecontactsofthecircuitopeningdevice(s)openorclosedisclearlyindicatedbythepositionoftheoperatinghandleorby
signallightsorbyothermeans.
b.Thecircuitopeningdevice(s)canbelockedmechanicallyintheopenposition.
c.Themainsandapparatustobeworkedonareadequatelyearthedandshortcircuitedbetweenthecircuitopeningdeviceandthepositionofthe
work.
d.Incaseswhereduplicatefeedisavailable,boththecircuitopeningdevicesareinseriesbetweenthemainsandapparatustobeworkedonand
anysourceofsupply.
e.Incaseswhereduplicatefeedisnotavailable,thecircuitopeningdeviceisbetweenthemainstobeworkedonandanysourceofsupply.
Thecircuitopeningdevicesmentionedaboveshallbelockedintheopenpositionbeforetheworkonthemainsandapparatusiscommenced.
Thelockingdevicesshallberemovedonlybyacompetentpersonandnotuntiltheworkhasbeencompleted,anyshortcircuitingandearthing
removedandthepermittoworkformdulyreturnedandcancelled.
4.2.4.10Workonmainswithtwoormoresections
Whenthemainstobeworkeduponaretobedividedintotwoormoresections,theprovisionsof4.2.3,4.2.4.6and4.2.4.9shallbeobserved
withregardtoeachsection.
5SAFETYPRACTICES
5.1

Inallelectricalworks,itisverynecessarythatcertainelementarysafetypracticesareobserved.Ithasbeenfoundthatquitealargenumberof
accidentsoccurduetotheneglectofthesepractices.ThedetailsofsuchpracticesaregiveninAnnexCofIS5216(Part1).
5.2Equipment,DevicesandAppliances

Generalguidelinesonequipment,devicesandappliancesaregiveninIS5216(Part1).
6SAFETYPOSTERS
6.1

Theownerofeverymedium,highandextrahighvoltageinstallationisrequiredtofixpermanently,inaconspicuouspositionadangernoticein
HindiorEnglishandthelocallanguageofthedistrictoneverymotor,generator,transformer,allsupportsorhighandextrahighvoltageetc.The
dangernoticeplateshallconformtoIS2551.
6.2

ItisalsorecognizedasgoodpracticetoindicatebymeansofthesymbolrecommendedinIS8923onelectricalequipmentwherethehazards
arisingoutofdangerousvoltageexist.
7ACCIDENTSANDTREATMENTFORELECTRICSHOCK
SeeSP31andIS5216(Part2).
189

SECTION20TABLES

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0FOREWORD
Inelectricalengineeringwork,frequentneedarisestomakereferencetocertaindata,which,whenmadeavailableintheformofready
referencetablesfacilitatesthework.ThosetableswhichbasicallyprovidefundamentaldatanotnecessarilyrequiredfortheunderstandingoftheCode
butarerequiredtobereferredtoindesigningtheinstallationaregiveninthisSection.
1SCOPE
ThisPart1/Section20givesfrequentlyreferrredtablesinelectricalengineeringwork.
2REFERENCES
ThefollowingIndianStandardsmaybereferredforfurtherdetails:
ISNo.

Title

3961

Recommendedcurrentratingsforcables:
(Part1):1967 Paperinsulatedleadsheathedcables
(Part2):1967 PVCinsulatedandPVCsheathedheavydutycables
(Part3):1968 Rubberinsulatedcables
(Part4):1968 Polyethyleneinsulatedcables

IS11955:1987

Preferredcurrentratings

Table1DiameterandMaximumAllowableResistanceofFuseWire,TinnedCopper
SlNo.

RatedCurrentofFuseWire

NominalDiameter

Tolerance

Max

Min

mm

mm

/m

/m

(1)

(2)

(3)

PermissibleResistanceat20C

(4)

(5)

(6)

i)

0.20

0.003

0.5644

0.5250

ii)

10

0.35

0.004

0.1834

0.1730

iii)

16

0.50

0.005

0.0898

0.0848

iv)

20

0.63

0.006

0.0566

0.0535

v)

25

0.75

0.008

0.0400

0.0376

vi)

32

0.85

0.009

0.0311

0.0293

vii)

40

1.25

0.011

0.0143

0.0136

viii)

63

1.50

0.015

0.0099

0.0094

ix)

80

1.80

0.018

0.0069

0.0065

x)

100

2.00

0.020

0.0056

0.0053

Table2SizeofWoodCasingandCapping,andNumberofCablesthatmaybeDrawninOneGrooveoftheCasing
SlNo.

WidthofCasingofCapping,mm

38

44

51

64

76

89

102

i)

No.ofgrooves

ii)

Widthofgrooves,mm

13

16

16

19

iii)

Widthofdividingfillet,mm

12

12

13

18

24

35

38

iv)

Thicknessofouterwall,mm

10

10

10

10

11

13

v)

Thicknessofcasing,mm

16

16

19

19

25

32

32

vi)

Thicknessofcapping,mm

10

10

10

13

13

vii)

Thicknessofthebackunderthegroove,mm

10

10

10

13

viii)

Length,m

2.5to3.0

190

Table2(Concluded)
SizeofCable
NominalCrossSectionalArea,mm2

NumberofCablesthatmaybeDrawninOneGroove

NumberandDiameter(inmm)ofWires

1.0

1/1.121)

12

12

1.5

1/1.40

12

12

2.5

1/1.80

10

10

3/1.601)

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4

1/2.24

7/1.851)

1/2.80

7/1.06

10

l/3.552)

7/1.40

16

7/1.70

25

7/2.24

35

7/2.50

50

7/3.002)

1)Forcopperconductorsonly.
2)Foraluminiumconductorsonly.

Table3MaximumPermissibleNumberof1.1kVGradeCablesthatcanbeDrawnintoRigidSteelConduits
SizeofCable
NominalCrossSectionalAreamm2

SizeofConduit,mm

NumberandDiameter(inmm)ofWires

16

20

25

32

40

50

63

NumberofCables,Max

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

(15)

(16)

1.0

1/1.121)

13

10

20 14

1.5

1/1.40

12

10

20 14

2.5

1/1.80

10

18

12

3/1.06 1)

1/2.24

12

10

7/0.851)

11/2.80

10

7/0.6 1)

10

11/3.552)

7/1.401)

16

7/1.70

25

7/2.24

35

7/2.50

60

19/1.80

7/3.0072)

NOTEThetableshowsthemaximumcapacityofconduitsofthesimultaneousdrawingofcablesthetableappliesto1.1kVgradecables.ThecolumnsheadedS
applytorunsofconduitwhichhavedistancenotexceeding4.25mbetweendrawinboxes,andwhichdonotdeflectfromthestraightbyanangleofmorethan15.
ThecolumnsheadedBapplytorunsofconduitwhichdeflectfromthestraightbyanangleofmorethan15.
1)Forcopperconductorsonly.
2)Foraluminiumconductorsonly.

191

Table4MaximumPermissibleNumberof1.1kVGradeSingleCoreCablesthatmaybeDrawnintoRigidNonmetallicConduits
SizeofCable

SizeofConduit,mm
NumberandDiameterofWires,mm

NominalCrossSectionalAreamm2

16

20

25

32

40

50

NumberofCables,Max
(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

1.0

1/1.121)

13

20

1.5

1/1.40

10

14

2.5

1/1.80

10

14

3/1.06 1)

1/2.24

10

14

7/0.851)

1/2.80

11

7/1.401)

10

l/3.552)

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l/3.55

7/1.401)

16

7/1.70

12

25

7/2.24

35

7/2.50

50

7/3.002)

19/1.80

1)Forcopperconductorsonly.
2)Foraluminiumconductorsonly.

Table5CapacitorSizesforPowerFactorImprovement
ExistingImprovedPowerFactor

(1)

ImprovedPowerFactor
0.80

0.85

0.90

0.91

0.92

0.93

0.94

0.95

0.96

0.97

0.98

0.99

1.00

(2)

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

(7)

(8)

(9)

(10)

(11)

(12)

(13)

(14)

MultiplyingFactors

192

0.40

1.537

1.668

1.805

1.832

1.861

1.895

1.924

1.959

1.998

2.037

2.085

2.146

2.288

0.41

1.474

1.605

1.742

1.769

1.798

1.831

1.860

1.896

1.935

1.973

2.021

2.082

2.225

0.42

1.413

1.544

1.681

1.709

1.738

1.771

1.800

1.836

1.874

1.913

1.961

2.022

2.164

0.43

1.356

1.487

1.624

1.651

1.680

1.713

1.742

1.778

1.816

1.855

1.903

1.964

2.107

0.44

1.290

1.421

1.558

1.585

1.614

1.647

1.677

1.712

1.751

1.790

1.837

1.899

2.041

0.45

1.230

1.360

1.501

1.532

1.561

1.592

1.626

1.659

1.695

1.737

1.784

1.846

1.988

0.46

1.179

1.309

1.446

1.473

1.502

1.533

1.567

1.600

1.636

1.677

1.725

1.786

1.929

0.47

1.130

1.260

1.397

1.425

1.454

1.485

1.519

1.552

1.588

1.629

1.677

1.758

1.881

0.48

1.076

1.206

1.343

1.370

1.400

1.430

1.464

1.497

1.534

1.575

1.623

1.684

1.826

0.49

1.030

1.160

1.297

1.326

1.355

1.386

1.420

1.453

1.489

1.530

1.578

1.639

1.782

0.50

0.982

1.112

1.248

.276

1.303

1.337

1.369

1.403

1.441

1.481

1.529

1.590

1.732

0.51

0.936

1.066

1.202

1.230

1.257

1.291

1.323

1.357

1.395

1.435

1.483

1.544

1.686

0.52

0.894

1.024

1.160

1.188

1.215

1.149

1.281

1.315

1.353

1.393

1.441

1.502

1.644

0.53

0.850

0.980

1.116

1.144

1.171

1.205

1.237

1.271

1.309

1.349

1.397

1.458

1.600

0.54

0.809

0.939

1.075

1.103

1.130

1.164

1.196

1.230

1.268

1.308

1.356

1.417

1.559

0.55

0.769

0.899

1.035

1.063

1.090

1.124

1.136

1.190

1.228

1.268

1.316

1.377

1.519

0.56

0.730

0.860

0.996

1.024

1.051

1.085

1.117

1.151

1.189

1.229

1.277

1.338

1.480

0.57

0.692

0.822

0.958

0.986

1.013

1.047

1.079

1.113

1.151

1.191

1.239

1.300

1.442

0.58

0.655

0.785

0.921

0.949

0.976

1.010

1.042

1.076

1.114

1.154

1.202

1.263

1.405

0.59

0.618

0.748

0.884

0.912

0.939

0.973

1.005

1.039

1.077

1.117

1.165

1.226

1.368

0.60

0.584

0.714

0.849

0.878

0.905

0.939

0.971

1.005

1.043

1.083

1.131

1.192

1.334

0.61

0.549

0.679

0.815

0.843

0.870

0.904

0.936

0.970

1.008

1.048

1.096

1.157

1.299

0.62

0.515

0.645

0.781

0.809

0.836

0.870

0.902

0.936

0.974

1.014

1.062

1.123

1.265

0.63

0.483

0.613

0.749

0.777

0.804

0.838

0.870

0.902

0.942

0.982

1.030

1.091

1.233

0.64

0.450

0.580

0.716

0.744

0.771

0.805

0.837

0.871

0.909

0.949

0.997

1.058

1.200

0.65

0.419

0.549

0.685

0.713

0.740

0.774

0.806

0.840

0.878

0.918

0.966

1.027

1.169

0.66

0.388

0.518

0.654

0.682

0.709

0.743

0.775

0.809

0.847

0.887

0.935

0.996

1.138

0.67

0.358

0.488

0.624

0.652

0.679

0.713

0.745

0.779

0.817

0.857

0.905

0.966

1.108

0.68

0.329

0.459

0.595

0.623

0.650

0.684

0.716

0.750

0.788

0.828

0.876

0.937

1.079

0.69

0.299

0.429

0.565

0.593

0.620

0.654

0.686

0.720

0.758

0.798

0.840

0.907

1.049

0.70

0.270

0.400

0.536

0.564

0.591

0.625

0.657

0.691

0.729

0.769

0.811

0.878

1.020

0.71

0.242

0.372

0.508

0.536

0.563

0.597

0.629

0.663

0.701

0.741

0.785

0.850

0.992

0.72

0.213

0.343

0.479

0.507

0.534

0.568

0.600

0.634

0.672

0.712

0.754

0.821

0.963

0.73

0.186

0.316

0.452

0.480

0.507

0.541

0.573

0.607

0.648

0.685

0.727

0.794

0.936

0.74

0.159

0.289

0.425

0.453

0.480

0.514

0.546

0.580

0.618

0.658

0.700

0.740

0.909

0.75

0.132

0.262

0.398

0.426

0.453

0.487

0.519

0.553

0.591

0.631

0.673

0.713

0.882

0.76

0.105

0.235

0.371

0.399

0.426

0.460

0.492

0.526

0.564

0.604

0.652

0.687

0.855

0.77

0.079

0.209

0.345

0.373

0.400

0.434

0.466

0.500

0.538

0.578

0.620

0.661

0.829

0.78

0.053

0.183

0.319

0.347

0.374

0.408

0.440

0.474

0.512

0.552

0.592

0.634

0.803

0.79

0.026

0.156

0.292

0.320

0.347

0.381

0.413

0.447

0.485

0.525

0.567

0.608

0.776

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0.79

0.026

0.156

0.292

0.320

0.347

0.381

0.413

0.447

0.485

0.525

0.567

0.608

0.776

0.80

0.130

0.266

2.294

0.321

0.355

0.387

0.421

0.459

0.499

0.541

0.582

0.750

0.81

0.104

0.240

0.268

0.295

0.329

0.361

0.395

0.433

0.473

0.515

0.556

0.724

0.82

0.078

0.214

0.242

0.269

0.303

0.335

0.369

0.407

0.447

0.489

0.530

0.698

0.83

0.052

0.188

0.216

0.243

0.277

0.309

0.343

0.381

0.421

0.463

0.504

0.672

0.84

0.026

0.162

0.190

0.217

0.251

0.283

0.317

0.355

0.395

0.417

0.450

0.620

0.85

0.136

0.164

0.191

0.225

0.257

0.291

0.329

0.369

0.417

0.450

0.620

0.86

0.109

0.140

0.167

0.198

0.230

0.264

0.301

0.343

0.390

0.424

0.593

0.87

0.083

0.114

0.141

0.172

0.204

0.238

0.275

0.317

0.364

0.395

0.567

0.88

0.054

0.085

0.112

0.143

0.175

0.209

0.246

0.288

0.309

0.369

0.512

0.89

0.028

0.059

0.086

0.117

0.149

0.183

0.230

0.262

0.309

0.369

0.512

0.90

0.031

0.058

0.089

0.121

0.155

0.192

0.234

0.281

0.341

0.484

0.91

0.027

0.058

0.090

0.124

0.161

0.203

0.250

0.310

0.453

0.92

0.027

0.063

0.097

0.134

0.176

0.223

0.283

0.426

0.93

0.032

0.066

0.103

0.145

0.192

0.252

0.395

0.94

0.034

0.071

0.113

0.160

0.220

0.363

0.95

0.037

0.079

0.126

0.186

0.329

0.96

0.042

0.089

0.149

0.292

0.97

0.047

0.107

0.250

0.98

0.060

0.203

0.99

0.143

NOTETheconsumerisadvisedtomakeproperallowanceforlowersupplyvoltageswheretheseexistduringtheworkinghoursandmaychooseslightlyhigher
kVARthanrecommendedinthetableforsuchcases.

NATIONALELECTRICALCODE

194
193

PART2
196
195

PART2ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSINSTANDBYGENERATINGSTATIONSANDCAPTIVESUBSTATIONS
0FOREWORD
ThisNationalElectricalCode(Part2)isprimarilyintendedtocovertherequirementsrelatingtostandbygeneratingstationsandcaptive
substationsintendedforservinganindividualoccupancy.Asthegeneralprovisionsrelatingtosuchinstallationsarecommonandarethemselves
elaborateinnature,itwasfeltessentialtocovertheminaseparatepartprecedingtheotherpartswhichcovertherequirementsforspecific
installations.
GeneratingstationscoveredbythisPart2arethestandbyoremergencysupplyandcaptivesubstationsnormallyhousedinoraroundthe
buildinginquestion.ThisCodedoesnotincludetheswitchingstationsandotherlargegeneratingplantscomingsolelyunderthepreviewofthe
electricsupplyauthorityofametropoliseventhoughtosomeextenttherequirementsstipulatedhereincouldalsobeapplicabletothem.
Specificrequirementsifany,forgeneratingandswitchingsubstationsforindividualbuildingsthatmightvarydependingonthenatureofthe
occupancyorthesizeofthebuildingareenumeratedintherespectivesectionsoftheCode.
IntheformulationofthisCode,notehasbeentakenoftherequirementsstipulatedininstallationCodesofindividualequipmentaswellasthe
firesafetyCodesforgeneratingstationsandsubstations.Itisgenerallynotfeasibletodrawverystrictguidelinesforthedesignandlayoutforsuch
installationsowingtothecomplexityoftheneedsofbuildinginstallationsandhenceonlytheessentialsafetyconsiderationsarelistedoutfor
compliance.Itisessentialtotakerecoursetotheassistanceoflocalauthoritiesforfurtherdetails.
Specificrequirementspertainingtostandbygeneratingstationsandcaptivesubstationsformultistoreyed/highrisebuildingsarecoveredinPart
3/Section7ofthisCode.

197

1SCOPE
1.1

ThisCode(Part2)coversessentialrequirementsforelectricalinstallationsinstandbygeneratingstationsandcaptivesubstationsintendedto
serveabuildingorgroupofbuildings.
1.2

ThisPartisnotintendedtocovercaptivegeneratorsetsofverylargecapacities.ThisPart2coversonlythestandbygeneratingsetsuptothe
capacityof5MW.Similarlythesubstationsuptothecapacitiesof10MVAand33kVarecovered.ThisPart2alsodoesnotapplytothegenerating
stationscomingunderthejurisdictionoftheElectricSupplyAuthorityinacityormetropolis.
2REFERENCES
ThisPart2shouldbereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:

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ISNo.

Title

1641:1988

Codeofpracticeforfiresafetyofbuildings(general):Generalprinciplesoffiregradingandclassification

1642:1989

Codeofpracticeforfiresafetyofbuildings(general):Detailsofconstruction(firstrevision)

1646:1997

Codeofpracticeforfiresafetyofbuildings(general):Electricalinstallation(secondrevision)

1946:1961

Codeofpracticeforuseoffixingdevicesinwalls,ceilingsandofsolidconstruction

2309:1989

Codeofpracticefortheprotectionofbuildingsandalliedstructuresagainstlightning(secondrevision).

3034:1993

Firesafetyofindustrialbuildings:ElectricalgeneratinganddistributingstationsCodeofpractice(secondrevision)

3043:1987

Codeofpracticeforearthing(firstrevision)

10028(Part2):1981

Codeofpracticeforselection,installationandmaintenanceoftransformers:Part2Installations

10118(Part3):1982

Codeofpracticeforselection,installationandmaintenanceofswitchgear:Part3Installation

3TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposeofthisPart,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeshallapply.
4GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFSTATIONINSTALLATIONS
4.1

Indeterminingthegeneralcharacteristicsofstandbygeneratingplantsandbuildingsubstationsinabuilding,theassessmentofcharacteristics
ofthebuildingsbasedonitsoccupancyshallbetakennoteofasspecifiedinindividualParts/SectionsofthisCode.
4.2

Dependingontheexactlocationofthestationinthebuildingpremises,anddependingonwhethertheequipmentareinstalledindooror
outdoor,thedegreeofexternalinfluenceoftheenvironmentshallbedeterminedbasedontheguidelinesgiveninPart1/Section8ofthisCode.
4.3

Itisgenerallypresumedthatgeneratingstationsandsubstationsarerestrictedareasnotmeantforunauthorizedpersons,andsuchelectrical
operatingareasfallunderthecategoryofBA4utilizationforinstructedpersonnel(seePart1/Section8),whichareadequatelyadvisedorsupervisedby
skilledpersonstoavoiddangersthatmayariseowingtotheuseofelectricity.
5EXCHANGEOFINFORMATION
5.1

Informationshallbeexchangedamongstthepersonnelinvolvedregardingthesizeandnatureofsubstationandsupplystationrequirementsto
beprovidedforanoccupancysothatthetypeofequipmentandtheirchoice,aswellastheirinstallationshallbegovernedbythesame.Anassessment
shallalsobemadeofthecivilconstructionneedsofthestationequipmentkeepinginviewapossibleexpansioninfuture.
5.2

Beforeorderingtheequipment,informationshallbeexchanged,regardingtheinstallationandlocationconditions,includingsuchbuilding
featuresasaccessdoors,liftingbeams,oilpumps,cabletrenches,foundationdetailsforheavyequipment,ventilatingarrangement,etc.
6LAYOUTANDBUILDINGCONSTRUCTIONASPECTS
6.1

TheconstructionalfeaturesofallbuildinghousingthestationinstallationshallcomplywithIS1641,IS1642andIS3034.Locatingofsubstation
inlowestbasementisnotrecommended.
6.2

Switchgears,circuitbreakerandtransformers(exceptoutdoortypes)shallbehousedpreferablyindetachedsinglestoreybuildingsofType1
construction.Inthecaseofbuiltupareasincities,multistoreyedconstructionmayalsobeadopted.ConstructionofsuchbuildingsshallconformtoIS
1946.
6.3

ConstructionoffireseparationwallsshallconformwiththerequirementsofrelevantIndianStandards.Doorwayopeningsinseparatingwallsof
transformerorswitchgearroomsshallbeprovidedwithsillsnotlessthan15cminheight.Referenceisdrawnto
198

IS3034.Whereriskofspreadofpossiblefireexists,interconnectingdoorsshouldhavea2hfirerating.

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6.4

Thefoundationofthestandbygeneratingsetsshallpreferablybeisolatedfromthatoftheotherstructuresofthebuildingsothatvibrationsare
notcarriedover.
6.5

Thedieselgenerating(DG)setshouldbeprovidedwithintegralacousticenclosureconformingtotherequirementsaslaiddownin
EnvironmentProtectionAct.
7SELECTIONOFEQUIPMENT
7.1

TheselectionofequipmentshallbedoneinaccordancewiththeguidelinesprovidedinPart1/Section9ofthisCode.
8GENERATINGSETS
8.0

Stationarygeneratingsetsof5kVAandabovearenormallydrivenbydieselengineasthisdriveismosteconomical.Smallersetsaredrivenby
petrol.Duringtheplanningofthebuilding,thedimensionsofthepowerplantroomandthetransportwaysshallbeagreedtobetweenthearchitect
andelectricalcontractor.
8.1

Incaseoflargecapacitysetswhichgenerateappreciableheat,theroomsshallbewellventilatedandprovidedwithairexhaustequipment.
8.2

Thecapacityofthestandbysetforaninstallationshouldbesuchthatinaneventofpowerfailure,theessentialloadscanbesuppliedpower.
Forinstanceincaseofhospitalssuchloadscompriseoperationtheatresandtheirsupportingauxiliariesintensivecareunits,coldstoragein
laboratories,emergencylifts,etc.Inthecaseofindustrieshavingcontinuousprocesses,suchloadsarerequiredtobesuppliedwithpowerallthetime.
Incommercialpremisesandhighrisebuildings,afewliftsandcirculationarealightsandfirefightingequipmenthavetobekeptworkingbysupply
fromstandbysets.Similaristhecaseofessentialloadsinlargehotels.Suchsetscaneitherbemanuallystartedandswitchedontoessentialloadswith
theuseofchangeoverswitchesortheycouldbeautostartonmainsfailureandloadsautochangedovertogeneratorsupply.
8.3

Incaseoflargeelectricalinstallationinwhichessentialloadsarewidelyscattereditbecomesnecessarytorunthegeneratingsetsupplycablesto
theseessentialloadsandintheeventofmainsfailure,changeovertogeneratorsupply,eithermanuallyorthroughautochangeoverconnectors.
8.4

Thefiresafetyrequirementsforfueloilstorageshallconformto5.3ofIS3034.
8.5

ThefiresafetyrequirementsforoilandgasfiredinstallationsshallconformtoIS3034.
8.6

AllequipmentofprimemovershallconformtorelevantIndianStandard(wheretheyexist)forconstruction,temperaturerise,overloadand
performance.
8.7

ThedieselgeneratorsetshouldmeetthepollutionnormsoftheCentralandStateStatutoryAuthorities.
9TRANSFORMERINSTALLATIONS
9.1

ReferenceisdrawntotherequirementsgiveninIS10028(Part2).
9.2

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Transformerofcapacityupto3MVAmaybehousedindoororoutdoor.Thelargerones,becauseoftheirsize,areusuallyofoutdoortype.
9.3

Indoortransformerwillrequireadequateventilationtotakeawayasmuchheataspossible.Oildrainagefacilitiesandpartitionwallsbetween
transformersandbetweentransformerandotherequipmentsuchasoilcircuitbreakersarenecessarytoreducetheriskofspreadoffire.
9.4

Asatransformerstationnormallyhasahighvoltageandalowvoltageswitchgear,allsuchequipmentshouldbeadequatelyseparated.
9.5

Onlydrytypetransformed(s)shallbeusedforinstallationinsidetheresidential/commercialbuildings.Thetransformerroomshouldbelocated
ongroundfloorinsideawellventilatedroom.
10HIGHVOLTAGESWITCHINGSTATIONS
ReferenceisdrawntotherequirementsstipulatedinIS10118(Part3).
11LOWVOLTAGESWITCHINGSTATIONSANDDISTRIBUTIONPANELS
ReferenceisdrawntotherequirementsstipulatedinIS10118(Part3).
12STATIONAUXILIARIES
12.0

Stationauxiliariescouldconsistof:
a.batteriesforstandbygeneratingsets,
b.batteriesforshorttimeemergencylighting,
c.batterychargingequipment,
d.fueloilpumps,
e.ventilatingequipment,and
f.firefightingequipment.
12.1Batteries

12.1.1

Batteriesshallhavecontainersofglassoranyothernoncorrosive,nonflammablematerials.
12.1.2

Batteriesshallbeinstalledinaseparateenclosureawayfromanyotherauxiliaryequipmentorswitchgear.Theenclosureshallbefreefromdust
and
wellventilated.Careshallbetakentoensurethatdirectsunlightdoesnotfallonthebatteries.

199

NOTEProvisionshallbemadeforsufficientdiffusionandventilationofgasesfromthebatterytopreventtheaccumulationofan
explosivemixture.
12.1.3

Thebatteriesshallstanddirectlyondurable,nonignitable,nonabsorbentandnonconductingmaterial,suchasglass,porcelainorglazed
earthenware.Thesematerialsshallrestonabenchwhichshallbekeptdryandinsulatedfromearth.Ifconstructedofwooditshallbeslattedand
treatedwithantisulphuricenamel.
12.1.4

Thebatteriesshallbesoarrangedonthebenchthatapotentialdifferenceexceeding12Vshallnotexistbetweenadjoiningcells.Thebatteries
notexceeding20Vshallnotbebunchedorarrangedincircularformation.
12.1.5

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Allcombustiblematerialswithinadistanceof60cmmeasuredhorizontallyfrom,orwithin2.0mmeasuredverticallyabove,anybatteryshall
beprotectedwithhardasbestossheets.
12.2BatteryChargingEquipment

12.2.1

Thebatterychargingequipmentwithnecessaryswitchandcontrolgearshallbemountedseparatelyandawayfromthebatteries.
12.3FuelOilPump

12.3.1

Fueloilpumpshallbeinstalledclosetotheengineroomorinsidetheengineroom.
12.3.2

Theelectriccableprovidedtorunthepumpmotorshallbeprotectedwithoilresistantoutersheath.
12.4VentilatingEquipment

12.4.1

Theengineroomshallbefittedwithhotairextractors.
12.4.2

Thebatteryroomshallbefittedwithexhaustfans.Theexhaustgasesbeletofftoatmospherewherenootherequipmentisinstalled.
13WIRINGINSTATIONPREMISES
Allcablingandelectricalwiringinsidegenerationorsubstationpremisesshallbedoneinaccordancewiththepracticerecommendedin(Part
1/Section9)ofthisCode.
14EARTHING
Theprovisionof17ofIS3043shallapply(seealsoPart1/Section14).
15BUILDINGSERVICES
15.1Lighting

15.1.1

ThegeneralprincipalofgoodlightingforanyoccupancyshallbeasgiveninPart1/Section11ofthisCode.Forthepurposeofstation
installationsthevaluesoflumenlevelandlimitingvalueofglareindexshallbeasgiveninTable1.
Table1RecommendedValuesofIlluminationandGlareIndex
SlNo.

Location

Illumination,
lux

LaminatingGlareIndex

(2)

(3)

(4)

(1)

i) IndoorLocations

a)

Standbygeneratorhall

300

25

b)

Auxiliaryequipmentbatteryroom,blowers,switchgear

25

c)

Basements

100

25

d)

Controlrooms:

1)

Verticalcontrolpanels

300

19

2)

Controldesks

300

19

3)

Rearofcontrolpanel

150

19

ii) OutdoorLocations

a)

Fueloilstoragearea

50

19

b)

Transformers,outdoorswitchgear

50

19

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15.2

Theluminairesusedshallbeofdustproofconstructionandshallbeenergyefficientwithcompactfluorescentlamps(CFL)/fluorescentlamps
withelectronicballasts.
16FIRESAFETYREQUIREMENTS
16.1

TheprovisionsofIS3034andIS1646shallapplyforstationinstallations.
16.2

Allwiringforautomaticfirefightinginstallationshallbeoffireresistantoutersheath.
17LIGHTNINGPROTECTION
TheprovisionsofIS2309shallapply.
18TESTINGANDINSPECTION
TheguidelinesprovidedinPart1/Section13ofthisCodeshallapply.Inthecaseofdieselsetswhichcomeintooperationonlyinemergencyas
standbysets,itisnecessarythatsuchsetsareregularlycheckedrunupandmechanicalandelectricalsystemtestedtoensurethatthesetisin
operableconditionsallthetime.
NATIONALELECTRICALCODE

200

PART3
202
201

PART3ELECTRICALINSTALLATIONSINNONINDUSTRIALBUILDINGS
0FOREWORD
ForthepurposesofthisCode,electricalinstallationsinbuildingshavebeenbroadlyclassifiedasthoseinnonindustrialandindustrial.Whilea
majorityofinstallationscouldbecategoricallyclassifiedasnonindustrial,anindustrialcomplexwouldnecessarilyincorporatesubunitssuchas
offices,residentialquartersandsupportserviceswhichareeitherhousedorfallinthecategoryofnonindustrialbuildings.Therequirementstipulated
inPart3andPart4ofthisCodewouldthereforerequirejudiciousapplication.
Withthecurrenttrendinpowerutilization,itwouldalsobeextremelydifficulttoclassifyelectricalinstallationsbasedonpowerrequirementor
thevoltageofsupply,aslargebuildingsfornonindustrialpurposesconsumesufficientpowertoconsiderthematparwiththeconsumptionoflight
industrialestablishments.ItisthereforenecessarytoconsiderforinitialassessmentoftheinstallationtheguidelinesgiveninPart1/Sec8thisCode,
whicharebetterdefinedthantheearlierterminologyusedforclassifyinginstallations.
Part3ofthisCode,thereforecoversrequirementsformajortypesofnonindustrialoccupations.Itisfeltthatalargenumberofoccupancies
wouldfallinoneofthecategories,andfortypicalbuildingswhichdostrictlyfallintoanyofthese,recourseshallbemadetothegeneralguidelines
stipulatedinPart1.
ThisPartconsistsofthefollowingSections:
Section

DomesticDwellings

Section

OfficeBuilding,ShoppingandCommercialCentresandInstitutions

Section

Recreational,AssemblyBuilding

Section

MedicalEstablishments

Section

Hotels

Section

SportsBuildings

Section

SpecificRequirementsforElectricalInstallationsinMultistoriedBuildings

Sections16ofthisPartcoverrequirementsapplicabletobuildingswhichareofnominalheightslessthan15m.Itisrecognizedthatfromthe
pointofviewfiresafetyofbuildingsmorethan15mheightrequirespecificconsiderations.ThesearesummarizedinSection7ofthisPart.
203

SECTION1DOMESTICDWELLINGS
0FOREWORD
Electricalinstallationsindomesticdwellingsandinbuildingsprovidinglivingaccommodationforpeoplearebyfarthesimplestformof
installation.Useofelectricalappliances,bothportableandfixedhasnowbecomeverycommonandpopulareveninsinglefamilydwellings.The
optimumbenefitsfromtheuseofelectricitycanbeobtainedonlyiftheinstallationisofsufficientcapacityandaffordsenoughflexibility.
Theprimaryconsiderationsinplanningtheelectricallayoutindomesticdwellingsareeconomyandsafety.Besidesthese,otherconsiderations
suchasefficiencyandreliability,convenienceandprovisionsforfutureexpansionarealsovalid.
Domesticinstallationsarecharacterizedmainlybyacircuitvoltageof250Vtoearthexceptinthecaseoflargepowerconsumerswherethree

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phasesupplyisgiven,AbriefdescriptionofthetypeofinstallationscoveredinthisSectionisgivenin4.Itmay,however,benotedthatlodgingand
roominghouses,thoughutilizedaslivingaccommodationforshortperiodsoftime(bydifferentoccupants)arecoveredunderscopeofPart3/Section
5ofthisCode.
Specificrequirementsforinstallationsinroomscontainingabathtuborshowerbasin,namely,bathroomsareseparatelycoveredinAnnexA.
Theserequirementsalsoapplytosimilarlocationsinotheroccupancies,suchashotels.Forconvenience,theserequirementsarecoveredinthis
Section.
1SCOPE
ThisPart3/Section1oftheCodecoversrequirementsforelectricalinstallationsindomesticdwellings.
2REFERENCES
ThisPart3/Section1oftheCodeshouldbereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:
ISNo.

Title

3646(Part2):1966

Codeofpracticeforinteriorillumination:Part2Scheduleforvaluesofilluminationandglareindex

7689:1989

Guideforthecontrolofundesirablestaticelectricity

8061:1976

Codeofpracticefordesign,installationandmaintenanceofservicelinesuptoandincluding650V

13450(Part1):1994/IEC606011:1988

MedicalelectricalequipmentPart1:Generalrequirementsforsafety

14665(Part1):2000

ElectrictractionliftsPart1:Guidelinesforoutlinedimensionsofpassenger,goods,serviceandhospitallifts

15707:2006

Testing,evaluation,installationandmaintenanceofacelectricitymetersCodeofpractice

SP7:2005

NationalBuildingCodeofIndia

SP72:2010

NationalLightingCode

3TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposeofthisSection,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeshallapply.
4CLASSIFICATION
4.1

TheelectricalinstallationscoveredinthisSection,arethoseinbuildingsintendedforthefollowingpurposes:
4.1.1DomesticDwellings/ResidentialBuildings

Theseshallincludebuildingsinwhichsleepingaccommodationisprovidedfornormalresidential(domestic)purposeswithcookinganddining
facilities.
Suchbuildingsshallbefurtherclassifiedasfollows:
a.OneortwofamilydwellingsTheseshallincludeanyprivatedwellingwhichisoccupiedbymembersofasinglefamilyandhasatotalsleeping
accommodationfornotmorethan20persons.
b.Apartmenthouses(flats)Theseshallincludeanybuildingorstructureinwhichlivingquartersareprovidedforthreeormorefamilies,living
independentlyofeachotherandwithindependentcookingfacilities.Forexampleapartmenthouses,mansionsandchawls.
NOTEIfaccommodationisprovidedformorethan20persons,suchbuildingsareconsideredlodgingorroominghouses,(dormitories)
andtheprovisionsofPart3/Section5shallapply.
5GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFINSTALLATIONS
GeneralguidelinesontheassessmentofcharacteristicsofinstallationsinbuildingsaregiveninPart1/Sec8ofthisCode.Forthepurposesof
installationsfallingunderthescopeofthisSection,thecharacteristicsdefinedbelowspecificallyapply.
204

5.1Environment

Thefollowingenvironmentalfactorsshallapplytoelectricalinstallationsindomesticdwellings:
Environment

Characteristics

Remarks

(1)

(2)

(3)

Presenceofwater

Probabilityofpresenceofwaterisnegligible

Presenceofforeignsolid

Thequantityornatureofdustorforeignsolid

bodies

bodiesisnotsignificant

Presenceofcorrosiveor

Thequantityandnatureofcorrosiveor

Applicableformostofthelocationsexceptfordwellingssituatedbyseaorinindustrial

pollutingsubstances

pollutingsubstancesisnotsignificant

zoneinwhichcasecategorizationAF2applies(seePart1/Sec8)

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Mechanicalstresses

Impactandvibrationoflowseverity

Householdandsimilarconditions

Seismiceffectandlighting

Dependsonthelocationofthebuilding

5.2Utilization

Thefollowingaspectsutilizationshallapply:
Utilization

Characteristics

(1)

Remarks

(2)

(3)

Capabilityofpersons

Uninstructedpersons

Appliestoalldomesticinstallations

Contactofpersons

Personsinnormallyconductingsituations

Conditionsofevacuationduring

Lowdensityoccupation,easyconditionsofevacuation Buildingsofnormalorlowheightusedforoneortwofamily

emergency

dwellings

Lowdensityoccupation,difficultconditionsof

Apartmenthousesincludinghighriseflats

evacuation
Natureofprocessedofstoredmaterial

Nosignificantrisks

6SUPPLYCHARACTERISTICSANDPARAMETERS
6.0ExchangeofInformation

6.0.1

GeneralaspectstobetakennoteofbeforedesigningtheelectricalinstallationsareenumeratedinPart1/Section7ofthisCode.However,the
followingpointsshallbenotedparticularlyinrespectofdomesticdwellings.
6.0.2

Beforestartingwiringandinstallationoffittingsandaccessories,informationshouldbeexchangedbetweentheownerofthebuildingor
architectorelectricalcontractorandthelocalsupplyauthorityinrespectoftariffsapplicable,typesofapparatusthatmaybeconnectedundereach
tariff,requirementofspaceforinstallingmeters,switches,servicelines,etc,andfortotalloadrequirementoflights,fansandpower.
6.0.3

Whileplanninganinstallation,considerationshouldbegiventotheanticipatedincreaseintheuseofelectricityforlighting,generalpurpose
socketoutlet,kitchen,heating,etc.Itisessentialthatadequateprovisionshouldbemadeforalltheserviceswhichmayberequiredimmediatelyand
duringtheintendedusefullifeofthebuilding,forthehouseholdermayotherwisebetemptedtocarryoutextensionoftheinstallationhimselforto
relyuponuseofmultiplugadaptorsandlongflexiblecords,bothofwhicharenotrecommended.Afundamentallysafeinstallationmayberendered
dangerous,ifextendedinthisway.
6.0.4

Electricalinstallationinanewbuildingshouldnormallybeginimmediatelyonthecompletionofthemainstructuralbuildingwork.Forconduit
wiringsystem,theworkshouldstartbeforefinishingworklikeplasteringhasbegun.Forsurfacewiringsystem,however,workshouldbeginbefore
finalfinishingworklikewhitewashing,painting,etc.Usually,noinstallationworkshouldstartuntilthebuildingisreasonablyweatherproof,but
whereelectricwiringistobeconcealedwithinthestructures,thenecessaryconduitsandductsshouldbepositionedaftertheshutteringisinplaceand
beforetheconcreteispoured,provisionbeingmadetoprotectconduitsfromdamage.Forthispurpose,sufficientcoordinationshallbeensured
amongsttheconcernedparties.
6.1.1EstimationofLoadRequirements

Theextentandformofelectricalinstallationsindomesticdwellingsisbasicallydesignedtocatertolightandfanloadsandforelectrical
appliancesandgadgets.Inestimatingthecurrenttobecarriedbyanybranchcircuitunlesstheactualvaluesareknown,theseshallbecalculatedbased
onthefollowingrecommendedratings:
205

SlNo.

Item

(1)

(2)

RecommendedRating
(W)

i) Incandescentlamps
ii) Ceilingfans

(3)
60
60

iii) Tablefans

60

iv) 6A,socketoutletpointunlesstheactualvalueofloadsarespecified

100

v) Fluorescenttubes:

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Length

1200mm 50

600mm 25

1500mm 90

vi) Powersocketoutlet(16A)unlesstheactualvalueofloadsarespecified

1000

6.1.2NumberofPointsinBranchCircuits

TherecommendedyardstickfordwellingunitsfordeterminingthenumberofpointsisgiveninTable1.
Table1NumberofPointsforDwellingUnits
SlNo.

Description

(1)

(2)

AreafortheMainDwellingUnit(m2 )

i) Lightpoints
ii) Ceilingfans

35

45

55

85

(3)

(4)

(5)

(6)

140
(7)

10

12

17

22

32

43

54

75

iii) 6ASocketoutlets

iv) 16ASocketoutlets

v) Callbell(buzzer)

NOTEThefiguresintableagainstSINo.(ii)indicatetherecommendednumberofpointsandthenumberoffans.
ExampleFormaindwellingunitof55m2,4pointswith3fansarerecommended.

6.1.3NumberofSocketOutlets

TherecommendedscheduleofsocketoutletsforthevarioussubunitsofadomesticaregiveninTable2.
6.1.4SelectionofSizeofConductors

ProvisionsofPart1/Section9ofthisCodeshallapply.
6.1.5

Powersubcircuitsshallbekeptseparateanddistinctfromlightingandfansubcircuit.Allwiringshallbedoneonthedistributionsystemwith
mainandbranchdistributionboardslocatedatconvenientphysicalandelectricalloadcentres.Alltypesofwiring,whetherrecessedorsurfaceshould
becapableofeasyinspection.Thesurfacewiringwhenrunalongthewallsshouldbeasneartheceilingaspossible.Inalltypesofwiringsdue
considerationshallbegivenforneatnessandgoodappearanceandsafety.
Table2RecommendedScheduleofSocketOutlets(Clause6.1.3)
SlNo.

Description

NumberofSocketOutlets
6A

(1)

(2)

i) Bedroom
ii) Livingroom

16A

(3)

(4)

23

23

iii) Kitchen

iv) Diningroom

1(foreach)

1per10m2

v) Garage
vi) Forrefrigerator
vii) Forairconditioner
viii) Verandah
ix) Bathroom

6.1.6

Balancingofcircuitsinthreewireorpolyphaseinstallationshallbeplannedbeforehand.Ineachcase,itisrecommendedthatallsocketoutlets
inaroomareconnectedtoonephase.Theconductorsshallbesoenclosedinearthedmetalorincombustibleinsulatingmaterialthatitisnotpossible
tohavereadyaccesstothem.Ifthepointsbetweenwhichavoltageexceeding250Vispresentare2mormoreapart,thecoversoraccessdoorsshall
beclearlymarkedtoindicatethevoltagepresent.
6.1.7

Itisrecommendedtoprovideatleasttwolightingsubcircuitsineachhouse.Itisalsorecommendedthataseparatelightingcircuitbeutilized

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forallexternallightingofsteps,walkways,driveways,porch,carpark,terrace,etc.,withamasterdoublepoleswitchforthesubcircuitinadditionto
theindividualswitches.
6.1.8

Wherevertheloadtobefedismorethan1kW,itshallbecontrolledbyanisolatorswitchorminiaturecircuitbreaker.
6.2SelectionofWiring

Anyoneofthefollowingtypesofwiringmaybeusedinaresidentialbuilding(seePart1/Section9ofthisCode).
a.ToughrubbersheathedorPVCinsulatedPVCsheathedwiringonwoodbatten,
b.PVCinsulatedwiringinstee1/nonmetallicsurfaceconduits,and
c.PVCinsulatedwiringinstee1/nonmetallicrecessedconduits.
However,ifaestheticsisthemainconsideration,recessedconduitwiringsystemmaybeadopted.
Thewiringfor16Aplugoutlets(powercircuits)shallinvariablybecarriedouteitherinsurface/recessedconduitwiringsystemwheregeneral
wiringisonwoodbatten.
Wiringforstaircaselightsandgaragelightsmaybedoneinrecessedconduitwiringsystems.

206

7SWITCHGEARFORCONTROLANDPROTECTION
7.1Location

7.1.1

Allmainswitchesorminiaturecircuitbreakersshallbeeitherofmetalcladenclosedpatternorofanyinsulatedenclosedpatternwhichshallbe
fixedatcloseproximitytothepointofentryofsupply.
7.1.2

Opentypeswitchboardsshallbeplacedonlyindrysituationandinwellventilatedrooms.Theyshallnotbeplacedinthevicinityofstorage
batteriesandexposedtochemicalfumes.
7.1.3

Mainswitchboardsshallbeinstalledinroomsorcupboardshavingprovisionforlockingsoastosafeguardagainstoperationbyunauthorized
persons.
7.1.4

Inadampsituationorwhereinflammableorexplosivedust,vapourorgasislikelytobepresent,theswitchboardsshallbetotallyenclosedor
madeflameproofasmaybenecessitatedbytheparticularcircumstances.
7.1.5

Switchboardsshallnotbeerectedabovegasstovesorsinksorwithin2.5mofanywashingunitinthewashingroom.
7.1.6

Switchboards,ifunavoidablyfixedinplaceslikelytobeexposedtoweather,todrip,ortoabnormalmoistatmosphere,theiroutercasingshall
beweatherproofandshallbeprovidedwithglandsorbushingsoradoptedtoreceivescrewedconduitaccordingtothemannerinwhichcablesarerun.
PVCanddoubleflangedbushesshallbefittedintheholesoftheswitchesforentryandexitofwires.
7.1.7

Aswitchboardshallnotbeinstalledsothatitsbottomiswithin1.25mabovethefloor,unlessthefrontoftheswitchboardiscompletely
enclosedbyadoor,ortheswitchboardislocatedinapositiontowhichonlyauthorizedpersonshaveaccess.
7.1.8

Wheresorequired,theswitchboardsshallberecessedinthewall.Thedepthofrecessprovidedatthebackforconnectionandthespaceatthe
frontbetweentheswitchgearmountingsshallbeadequate.

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7.1.9

Equipmentswhichareonthefrontofaswitchboardshallbesoarrangedthatinadvertentpersonalcontactwithlivepartsisunlikelyduringthe
manipulationofswitchgears,changingoffusesorsimilaroperations.
7.1.10

Nomountingshallbemountedwithin2.5cmofanyedgeofthepanelandnoholeotherthantheholesbymeansofwhichthepanelisfixed
shallbedrilledcloserthan1.3cmfromanyedgeofthepanel.
7.2GeneralRequirementsofSwitchboards

7.2.1

Thevariousliveparts,unlesstheyareeffectivelyscreenedbyinsulatingmaterialshallbesospacedthatanarccannotbemaintainedbetween
suchpartsandearth.
Thearrangementofthegearshallbesuchthattheyshallhereadilyaccessibleandtheirconnectionstoallinstrumentsandapparatusshallalso
betraceable.
7.2.2

Ineverycaseinwhichswitchesandfusesarefittedonthesamepole,thesefusesshallbesoarrangedthatthefusesarenotalivewhentheir
respectiveswitchesareintheoffposition.
7.2.3

Nofuseotherthanfusesininstrumentcircuitshallbefixedonthebackoforbehindaswitchboardpanelorframe.
7.2.4

Allmetalswitchgearsandswitchboardsshallbepaintedandmaintainedduringservice.
7.2.5

AllswitchboardsconnectedtomediumvoltageandaboveshallbeinstalledinaccordancewithPart1/Section9ofthisCode.
7.2.6

Thewiringthroughouttheinstallationshallbesuchthatthereisnobreakintheneutralwireintheformofaswitchorfuseunit.
7.2.7

Theneutralshallalsobedistinctlymarked.
7.2.8

Themainswitchshallbeeasilyaccessible.
7.3TypesofSwitchboards

7.3.1

Indwellingunits,themetalcladswitchgearsshallpreferablybemountedonanyofthefollowingtypesofboards:
a.HingedtypemetalboardsSuchboardsshallbesuitableformountingofmetalcladswitchgearconsistingofnotmorethanoneswitchgearand
ICDB4wayor6way,15Aperway.
b.FixedtypemetalboardsSuchboardsshallbesuitableforlargeswitchboardsformountinglargenumberofswitchgearsandorhighercapacity
switchgear.
c.WoodenhoardsForsmallinstallationsconnectedtoasinglephase240Vsupply,theseboardsmaybeusedasmainboardorsubboards.These
shallbeofseasonedanddurablewoodwithsolidbackimpregnatedwithvarnishwithjointsdovetailed.
NOTESeealsoPart1/Section9ofthisCode.
Whereaboardhasmorethanoneswitchgear,eachsuchswitchgearshallbemarkedtoindicatethesectionoftheinstallationitcontrols.The

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mainswitchgearshallbemarkedassuch.Wherethereismorethanonemain
switchboardinthebuilding,eachswitchboardshallbemarkedtoindicatethesectionoftheinstallationandbuildingitcontrols.

207

7.4DistributionBoards

7.4.1

Distributionboardsshallpreferablybeofmetalcladtype.
7.4.2

Maindistributionboardsshallbecontrolledbyalinkedswitchfuseorcircuitbreaker.Eachoutgoingcircuitshallbeprovidedwithafuseonthe
phaseorliveconductor.
7.4.3

Branchdistributionboardsshallbecontrolledbyaswitchfuseorcircuitbreaker.EachoutgoingcircuitshallbeprovidedwithafuseMCBonthe
phaseorliveconductor.Theearthedneutralconductorshallbeconnectedtoacommonlinkandbecapableofbeingdisconnectedindividuallyfor
testingpurposes.Atleastonesparecircuitofthesamecapacityshallbeprovidedoneachbranchdistributionboard.
7.4.4

Triplepoledistributionboardsshallnotgenerallybeusedforfinalcircuitdistribution.Whereuseoftriplepoledistributionboardsisinevitable,
individualsinglephasecircuitshallbecontrolledbydoublepoleisolator.
7.4.5

AlldistributionboardsshallbemarkedLightingorPowerasthecasemaybeandalsowiththevoltageandnumberofphasesofthesupply.
7.4.6

Thedistributionboardsforlightandpowercircuitsshallbedifferent.
8SERVICELINES
TherelevantprovisionsofIS8061shallapply.
9METERING
9.1

Itisrecommendedtohavetwodistinctcircuits,oneforlightsandfansandtheotherforhighwattage(power)appliancesparticularlywhenthe
tariffisdifferentforlightandpower.
9.2

Energymetersshallbeinstalledatsuchaplacewhichisreadilyaccessibletoboththeownerofthebuildingandtheauthorizedrepresentativesof
thesupplyauthority.Theseshouldbeinstalledataheightwhereitisconvenienttonotethemeterreading,itshouldpreferablynotbeinstalledata
heightlessthan1mfromtheground.Theenergymetersshouldeitherbeprovidedwithaprotectivecovering,enclosingitcompletely,excepttheglass
windowthroughwhichthereadingsarenotedorshouldbemountedinsideacompletelyenclosedpanelprovidedwithahingedorslidingdoorswith
arrangementforlockingit.Theroom/spacewhereenergymetersareinstalledshallbekeptclearfromanyobstruction(seealsoIS15707).
9.3

Meansforisolatingthesupplytothebuildingshallbeprovidedimmediatelyaftertheenergymeter.
10EARTHINGINDOMESTICINSTALLATIONS
10.0

MeansshallbeprovidedforproperearthingofallapparatusandappliancesinaccordancewithPart1/Section14ofthisCode.
10.1PlugsandSockets

Allplugsandsocketsshallbeofthreepintype,oneofthepinsbeingconnectedtoearth.

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10.2LightingFittings

Ifthebrackettypelampholdersareofmetallicconstruction,itisrecommendedthattheyshouldbeearthed.Allpedestallampfittingsof
metallicconstructionshallbeearthed.
10.3FansandRegulators

Bodiesofalltablefans,pedestalfans,exhaustfans,etc.,shallbeearthedbytheuseofthreepinplugs.Thecoversoftheregulators,ifofmetallic
constructionshallbeearthedbymeansofaseparateearthwire.
10.4DomesticElectricAppliances

Bodiesofhotplates,kettles,toasters,heaters,ovensandwaterboilersshallallbeearthedbytheuseofthreepinplugs.However,iffixedwiring
hasbeenused,thenaseparateearthwireshallbeusedforearthingtheseappliances.
10.5BathRoom

Thebodyofautomaticelectricwaterheatersshallbeearthedbytheuseofathreepinplugorbyaseparateearthwire,iffixedwiringhasbeen
done.Allnonelectricalmetalworkincludingthebathtub,metalpipes,sinksandtanksshallbebondedtogetherandearthed.
10.6RadioSets

Fromthepointofviewofgoodreceptionitisrecommendedthatradiosetsshouldbeearthedthroughanelectrodedifferentfromthatofthe
mainearthsystemforotherelectricalappliances.However,ifitisnotpossibletohaveseparateearthelectrode,radiosetsmaybeearthedthroughthe
mainearthsystem.
10.7MiscellaneousApparatus

Whereappliancesutilizinggasandelectricityareinuse,forexample,gasheatedelectricitydrivenwashingmachines,theinletendofthegas
supplyshallbeeitherfittedwithastronginsulatingbush,substantialenoughtostandaflashtestof3500Vandsodesignedastobedifficultto
detach,or,whereitisdesirableornecessarythatmetalworkinproximitytoelectrical
208

apparatusbebondedtotheearthedmetalworkofthelatter,asforexample,inkitchens,thegassupplyshallbeintroducedthroughanon
conductingplasticpipefromapointnotinproximitytoearthedmetalwork.Whereseparationisnoteasilyachieved,forexample,asincasesofdirect
coupledmotordrivengasboostersandmotorizedgasvalves,themetalworkoftheelectricalequipment,shallbebondedtothemetalorpipeworkof
gasequipment.Insuchcasestheadditiontothemotorcontrolgearofadifferentialorcurrentbalancetypeofcircuitbreaker,designedtooperateat
lowvaluesoffaultcurrent,wouldaffordadesirablesafeguardagainstfaultcurrenttransferspeciallywheretheratingoftheplantisofasizeand
capacitywhichentailscorrespondinglyhighratingsforthenormaloverloadprotectivedevices.
Therefrigerators,airconditionersandcoolers,electricradiators,electricirons,etc,shallallbeearthedbytheuseofthreepinplugs.
11BUILDINGSERVICES
11.1Lighting

ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.Thechoiceoflamps,lightingfittingsshallbebasedonthe
recommendedvaluesofilluminationgiveninTable3.seeSP72fordetailedguidance.
Table3RecommendedLevelsofIlluminationforDifferentPartsofDomesticDwellings
(Clauses11.1and14.3)
SlNo.

Location

(1)

IlluminationLevel
lux

(2)

i) Entrances,hallways

(3)

100

ii) Livingroom

300

iii) Diningroom

150

iv) Bedroom:

a)

General

300

b)

Dressingtables,bedheads

200

v) Gamesorrecreationroom
vi) Tablegames
vii) Kitchen
viii) Kitchensink
ix) Laundry
x) Bathroom
xi) Bathroommirror

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100
300
200
300
200
100
300

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xii) Sewing

700

xiii) Workshop

200

xiv) Stairs

100

xv) Garage
xvi) Study

70
300

11.2Airconditioning

11.2.1

ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.Fordomesticdwellings,byandlarge,thefollowingtypesofaircooling
equipmentareused:
a.Evaporativecoolers,
b.Packagedairconditioners,and
c.Roomairconditioners.
11.2.2

Thepowerrequirements,layoutanddesignofelectricalinstallationshalltakeintoaccountthenumberandtypeofsuchequipment.
11.3Lifts

11.3.1

Wheneverliftsarerequiredtobeinstalledinresidentialbuildings,thegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.
However,thedesignofliftsshalltakeintoaccountthefollowingrecommendations.
11.3.1.1Occupantload
Forresidential(domestic)dwellings,theoccupantload(thenumberofpersonswithinanyfloorarea)expressedingrossareainm2/personshall
notbelessthan12.5.
11.3.1.2Passengerhandlingcapacity(H)
Expressedastheestimatedpopulationthathastobehandledinthebuildingsinthe5minutepeakperiod,thepassengerhandlingcapacityfor
residentialbuildingsshallbe5percent.
11.3.1.3Carspeed
Carspeedforpassengerliftsshallbeasfollows:
a.Inlowandmediumclassflats0.5m/s,and
b.Largeflats(No.offloorsserved612)0.751.5m/s.
11.3.2

Wherealiftisarrangedtoservetwo,threeorfourflatsperfloor,theliftmaybeplacedadjoiningthestaircase,withtheliftentrancesserving
directontothelandings.Wheretheliftistoserveaconsiderablenumberofflatshavingaccesstobalconiesorcorridors,itmaybeconvenientlyplaced
inawellventilatedtoweradjoiningthebuilding.
12FIREPROTECTION
Thefollowingprotectionsystemsarerecommended:
a.OneortwofamilyprivatedwellingsFiredetection/extinguishingsystemsnotrequired.
b.Apartmenthouses/flats
1.Upto2storeyNotrequired.
2.3storeyandabove
i.Floorarealessthan300m2Notrequired.
ii.Floorareamorethan300m2Manuallyoperatedelectricfirealarm.
209

SP7maybereferredfordetailedguidance.
13TESTINGOFTHEINSTALLATION
TheprovisionsofPart1/Section13ofthisCodeshallapply.

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14MISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONS
14.1TelephoneWiring

Facilitiesfortelephonewiringshallbeprovidedinallresidentialbuildingswheretelephonesarelikelytobeinstalled.Inhighriseresidential
buildings,ariserofadequatesizeshallbeprovidedfortelephonewiringcables.
14.2SafetyRequirements

Someoftheimportantsafetyrequirementsinelectricalinstallationsindomesticdwellingsaresummarizedbelow:
a.Alloutletsfordomesticelectricalappliancesshallbeofthreepinsockettype,thirdsocketbeingconnectedtotheearth.
b.Allthesinglepoleswitchesshallbeonphaseorliveconductoronly.
c.Theelectricaloutletsforappliancesinthebathroomsshallbeawayfromtheshowerorsink(seeAnnexA).
d.Wiringforpoweroutletsinthekitchenshallbepreferablydoneinmetallicconduitwiring.
e.Theelectricaloutletsshallnotbelocatedabovethegasstove.
f.Theclearancebetweenthebottommostpointoftheceilingfanandthefloorshallbenotlessthan2.4m.
g.Themetallicbodyofthefanregulatorifany,shallbeearthedeffectively.
h.Earthleakagecircuitbreakerattheintakeofpowersupplyattheconsumerspremises(seePart1/Section14ofthisCode)shallbeprovided.
14.3GuidelinesonPowerFactorImprovementinDomesticDwellings

GeneralguidelinesonprincipalcausesoflowpowerfactorandmethodsofcompensationaregiveninPart1/Section17ofthisCode.For
guidanceonnaturalpowerfactoravailableforsinglephaseappliancesandequipmentindomesticuse,seeTable3.

ANNEXA
PARTICULARREQUIREMENTSFORLOCATIONSCONTAININGABATHTUBORSHOWERBASIN
[Clause14.2(c)]
A1SCOPE
TheparticularrequirementsofthisAnnexapplytobathtubs,showerbasinsandthesurroundingzoneswheresusceptibilityofpersonsto
electricshockislikelytobeincreasedbyareductioninbodyresistanceandcontactwithearthpotential.
A2CLASSIFICATIONOFZONES
A2.1

TherequirementsgiveninthisAnnexarebasedonthedimensionsoffourzonesasdescribedinFig.1andFig.2.
a.Zone0istheinteriorofthebathtuborshowerbasin.
b.Zone1islimited:
1.bytheverticalplanecircumscribingthebathtuborshowerbasin,orforashowerwithoutbasin,bytheverticalplane0.6mfromthe
showerheadand
2.bythefloorandthehorizontalplane2.25mabovethefloor.
c.Zone2islimited:
1.byZone1andtheverticalparallelplane0.60mexternaltoZone1,and
2.bythefloorandhorizontalplane2.25mabovethefloor.
d.Zone3islimited:
1.byZone2andtheparallelverticalplane2.40mexternaltoZone2,and
2.bythefloorandthehorizontalplane2.25mabovethefloor.

210

NOTEThedimensionsaremeasuredtakingaccountofwallsandfixedpartition.
A3PROTECTIONFORSAFETY
A3.1

Wheresafetyextralowvoltageisused,whateverthenominalvoltage,protectionagainstdirectcontactshallbeprovidedby:
a.barriersorenclosuresaffordingatleastthedegreeofprotectionIP2X,or
b.insulationcapableofwithstandingatestvoltageof500Vfor1min.

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A3.2

AlocalsupplementaryequipotentialboundingshallconnectallextraneousconductivepartsinZones1,2and3withprotectiveconductorsofall
exposedconductivepartssituatedinthesezones.
A4SELECTIONOFEQUIPMENT
A4.1

Electricalequipmentshallhaveatleastthefollowingdegreesofprotection:
a.Zone0:IPX7
b.Zone1:IPX5
c.Zone2:IPX4IPX5inpublicbaths
d.Zone3:IPX1
A4.2

InZones0,1and2,wiringsystemsshallbelimitedtothosenecessarytothesupplyofappliancessituatedinthosezones.Junctionboxesarenot
permittedinZones0,1and2.InZone3,theyarepermittedifthenecessarydegreeofprotectionisavailable.
A4.3

InZones0,1and2noswitchgearandaccessoriesshallbeinstalled.
A4.4

InZone3,socketoutletsarepermitted,onlyiftheyareeither:
a.suppliedindividuallybyanisolatingtransformer,or
b.suppliedbysafetyextralowvoltage,or
c.protectedbyaresidualcurrentprotectivedevice.
A4.5

Anyswitchesandsocketoutletsshallbeatadistanceofatleast0.60mfromdooroftheshowercabinet.
A4.6

InZone0,onlyelectricalappliancesspeciallyintendedforuseinthebathtubarepermitted.InZone1onlywaterheatersmaybeinstalled.In
Zone2onlywaterheatersandClassIIluminariesmaybeinstalled.
211

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Fig.1ZoneDimensions(Elevation)
212

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Fig.2ZoneDimensions(Plan)
213

SECTION2OFFICEBUILDINGS,SHOPPINGANDCOMMERCIALCENTRESANDINSTITUTIONS
0FOREWORD
Officebuildings,shoppingandcommercialcentrescanbeofvarioustypesdependingonthesizeofthecivilstructureortheextentofactivity
involvedinthebuilding.Highrisebuildingshousingofficecomplexesarecommon,callingforacoordinatedplanningwhiledesigningtheelectrical
servicestherein.
Insmallbuildingswithcomparativelymoderateloads,supplyisnormallyatmediumvoltageandthedistributionofpowerislesscomplex.
However,inthecaseofmultistoriedofficecumcommercialcomplex,wherethelargenumberofamenitiesistobeprovidedcallsforamorecomplex
distributionsystem.Someofsuchbuildingshastoincorporateastandby/emergencypowerplantforessentialserviceneeds.
Foreditorialconvenience,andkeepinginviewthesimilarlywiththetypeofbuildingscoveredinthissection,educationalandotherinstitutional
buildingsarealsocoveredhere.Shouldanyspecialprovisionsapplytothem,theyareidentifiedattherelevantclauses.
ItisnotpossibletodefinestrictlythetypeofbuildingscoveredinthisSectionexceptinbroadterms,anattempthasbeenmadetoidentifythe
natureoftheoccupancy.Referencemay,however,bemadeto3whereinadescriptionisprovidedforthevarioustypesofinstallationscoveredinthis
Section.
1SCOPE
ThisPart3/Section2ofthisCodecoversrequirementsforelectricalinstallationsinofficebuildings,shoppingandcommercialcentresand
educationalandsimilarinstitutionalbuildings.
2REFERENCES

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ThisPart3/Section2oftheCodeshouldbereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:
ISNo.

Title

3646(Part2):1966

Codeofpracticeforinteriorillumination:Part2Scheduleforvaluesofilluminationandglareindex

8061:1976

Codeofpracticefordesign,installationandmaintenanceofservicelinesuptoandincluding650V

15707:2006

Testing,evaluation,installationandmaintenanceofacelectricitymetersCodeofpractice

3TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposeofthisSection,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeshallapply.
4CLASSIFICATION
TheelectricalinstallationscoveredinthisSection,arethoseinbuildingsintendedforthefollowingpurposes:
a.OfficeBuildings/BusinessBuildingsTheseincludebuildingsforthetransactionofbusiness,forthekeepingofaccountsandrecordsandsimilar
purposes,professionalestablishments,offices,banks,researchestablishments,dataprocessinginstallations,etc.
b.Shopping/CommercialCentres/MercantileBuildingsTheseincludebuildingsusedasshops,stores,market,fordisplayandsaleof
merchandise,wholesaleorretail,departmentalstores,etc.
c.EducationalBuildingsTheseincludebuildingsusedforschools,collegesanddaycarepurposesformorethan8hoursperweekinvolving
assemblyofpeopleforinstructionandeducation(includingincidentalrecreation),etc.
NOTELargerassemblybuildingsrecreationaloccupanciesarecoveredinPart3/Section3ofthisCode.
5GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFINSTALLATIONS
5.0

GeneralguidelinesontheassessmentofcharacteristicsofinstallationsinbuildingsaregiveninPartl/Section8ofthisCode.Forthepurposeof
installationsfallingunderthescopeofthisSectionthecharacteristicsdefinedbelowgenerallyapply.
5.1Environment

Thefollowingenvironmentalfactorsshallapplytoofficebuildings,shoppingandcommercialcentresandeducational/institutionalbuildings.

214

Environment

Characteristics

(1)

(2)

Remarks
(3)

Presenceof

Probabilityofpresenceof

water

waterisnegligible

Presenceof

Thequantityornatureof

foreignsolid

dustorforiegnsolidbodies

bodies

isnotsignificant

Presenceof

Thequantityandnatureof Locationswheresomechemicalproductsarehandledinsmallquantities,(forexample,laboratoriesinschoolsand

corrosiveor

corrosiveorpolluting

colleges)willbecategorizedasAF3.ForofficeandotherbuildingscoveredbythisSectionsituatedbytheseaorin

polluting

substancesisnot

industrialzones,producingseriouspollution,thecategorizationAF2applies(seePart3/Section8)

substances

significant

Mechanical

Impactandvibrationoflow

stresses

severity

Seismiceffect

Dependsonthelocationofthebuilding

andlighting
5.2Utilization

Thefollowingaspectsofutilizationshallapply:
Utilization

Characteristics

(1)

(2)

Capabilityofpersons
Contactofpersons

Remarks
(3)

UninstructedpersonsChildrenPersonsadequately

AmajorpercentageofoccupantsAppliestoschoolsAppliestoareassuchas

advisedorsupervisedbyskilledpersons

buildingsubstationsandforoperatingandmaintenancestaff

Personsinnonconductingsituations

Conditionsofevacuation Lowdensityoccupation,easyconditionsof
duringemergency

evacuation.

Highdensityoccupation,difficultconditionsof

Smallofficesandshops
Departmentalstores

evacuation

Highdensityoccupation,difficultconditionsof

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evacuation
Natureofprocessedof

Nosignificant

Smallshops

Existenceoffirerisk

Inviewoflargevolumeofpaperandfurniture,forexample,officebuildings,

storedmaterial

furnitureshops,etc.

6SUPPLYCHARACTERISTICSANDPARAMETERS
6.0ExchangeofInformation

6.0.1

Propercoordinationshallbeensuredbetweenthearchitect,buildingcontractorandtheelectricalengineeronthevariousaspectsof
installationsdesign.Fromthepointofviewofthedesignofthevariousinstallations,thefollowingshallbeconsidered.
a.Maximumdemandanddiversity
b.Typeofdistributionsystem,mainsandsubmains
c.Natureofsupply(current,frequency,nominalvoltages)
d.Prospectiveshortcircuitcurrentatthesupplyintakepoint
e.Divisionoftheinstallation
f.Natureoftheexternalinfluences(see4)
g.Maintainabilityoftheinstallations
h.Natureanddetailsofbuildingservices
1.Lighting,
2.Airconditioning,and
3.Lifts.
i.Otherdetailsasrelevantsuchas,pumpsforfirefighting,lighting,firealarmsystems,telephones,callbells,clocksystems,etc
j.Telephonecircuitsincludingextensionsandintercomfacilities
k.CCTVforinformationdisplayandsecurity
l.Computerinstallationfacilitywhereapplicableand
m.Meteringsystemfordifferentloads.
NOTEFireprotectionsystemshallincludesuchdetailssuchaslocationsofdetectors,zonalindicators,centralcontrolconsole,public
addresssystemforfirefighting,cablerunsandtheirsegregationfromtheothercablesystem.
215

Acompletedrawingoflayoutoftheelectricalinstallationshallbepreparedtogetherwithassociatedfloorplansindicatingthedetailsmentioned
in(a)to(p).Thiswiringdiagramshallincludeoutletsforlights,sockets,bells,ceilingfans,exhaustfans,locationofsectionalizedcontrolswitches,
distributionboards,etc.Inspecialoccupanciessuchasschoolorcollegelaboratories,thedccircuitsbeidentifiableinthelayoutdiagram.
6.1BranchCircuits

6.1.1

ThegeneraldesignofwiringofbranchcircuitsshallconformtothoselaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCode.However,forspecialcases
suchasforcommunicationnetworks,firealarmsystemandwiringfordataprocessingequipment,therecommendationsofthemanufacturershall
apply.
6.1.2

ThebranchcircuitcalculationsshallbedoneaccordingtothegeneralprovisionslaiddowninPart3/Section1ofthisCode.However,the
specificdemandsofthelighting,applianceandmotorloadsaswellasspecialloadsencounteredinthetypesofbuildingscoveredinthisSectionshall
betakenintoaccount.
6.1.3

Inofficesandshowrooms,theinteriordecorationnormallyincludefalseceiling,carpetsandcurtails.Anywiringlaidabovethefalseceiling
shouldbeadequatelyprotectedsuchasbydrawingthewiresinmetallicconduitsandnorruninopen.Wiresshallnotbecoveredbycarpets.Theyshall
berunatskirtinglevelandencasedformechanicalprotection.
6.1.4

Adequatenumberofsocketoutletsshallbeprovidedforelectricallyoperatedofficemachinessuchaselectricaltypewriter,calculators,etc,to
avoidtrainingofwiresanduseofmultipleoutletsfromonesocket.

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6.1.5

Areaswherecorrosiveorpollutingsubstancearepresentintermittentlyorcontinuously,suchasschoollaboratoriesandotherbuildingslocated
inhighindustrialpollutionzones,socketoutletsshallpreferablybeofmetalcladweatherprooftypewithcovers.
6.1.6

Lightingcircuitsshallpreferablybecombinedinswitchedgroupssothatlightingcanbelimitedtodeskswhichareoccupied.
6.2ServiceLines

ThegeneralprovisionslaiddowninIS8061shallapply.
6.3BuildingSubstations

6.3.0General

Thedesignerofpowersupplyforofficebuildingsandcommercialcentresshalltakeintoaccountthegreatconcentrationofpowerdemandof
theelectricalloads.Airconditioninginofficebuildingsabsorbsanespeciallyhighproportionofthetotalpowerused.Consequently,suchoccupancies
havetobeprovidedwiththeirownsubstationwithverticalandhorizontalformsofpowerdistribution.
6.3.1

Iftheloaddemandishigh,requiringsupplyathighvoltage,accommodationforsubstationequipmentwillberequired.Mainswitchroomwill
servefeederstovariousloadcentressuchasairconditioningplant,elevators,waterpumps,etc.Otherloadsaretakentolocaldistributionboards.
6.3.2

Thetransformerpowerratingforthesupplyofthebuildingshallbesufficienttocatertothehighestsimultaneouspowerrequirementsofthe
building.Typicalproportionsofpowerusagearegivenasfollows:
PartofElectricalInstallation

PartoftheTotalPowerRequirementPercent

DiversityFactor

(1)

(2)

(3)

Ventilation,heating(airconditioning)

45

1.0

Powerplant(drives)

0.65

Lighting

30

0.95

Lifts

20

1.0

6.3.3

ThelocationandlayoutofbuildingsubstationshallconformtothegeneralruleslaiddowninPart2ofthisCode.Thesubstationroomshallbe
wellventilatedandinaccessibletobirdsandreasonablyreptile,rodentandinsectproof.Onlyauthorizedpersonsbeallowedtoenterthesubstation
foroperations/maintenanceofanykind.Cablesleadingfromthesubstationtothemainbuildingshallpreferablybecarriedundergroundthrough
ductsorpipesofadequatedimensions.Suchpipesshallbeproperlysealedatbothendstoreducethepossibilityofrainwaterflowingthroughthepipes
andfloodingthetrenches.
6.3.4EmergencySupply

Whereveremergencysupplyisconsiderednecessary,itcanbeintheformofseparateandindependentfeederfromtheundertakingterminated
inequipmentisolatedfromtheregularsupplyline.Incaseofstandbysupplyfromdieselgeneratorset,itwillbeinstalledasperthegeneralruleslaid
downinPart2ofthisCode.
6.3.4.1Inofficebuildings,certainsafetyandessentialservicesshallbesuppliedeveninthecaseofmainsfailure.Thesearegovernedbythe
rulesandregulationsoftherespectiveauthorities.Essentialservicesincludeamongstothers,waterpressurepumps,ventilation
216

installations,essentiallightingandlifts.Thepowerrequirementoftheseessentialloadsisgenerallyabout25percentofthetotalpower
requirementofthebuilding.
6.3.5SwitchboardsandPanelBoards

Allcurrentcarryingequipmentshallbetotallyenclosed,dustandverminproofandifmountedoutdoor,shallbeofweatherproofconstruction
orhousedinweatherproofkioskorcabin.Switchboardsshallbeofopentypeorcubicletype.Cubicletypeboardsshallbewithhingeddoors
interlockedwithswitchoperatingmechanisms.Allswitchesshallbearlabelsindicatingtheirfunctions.Switchboardsshallbelocatedawayfromareas
likelytobecrowdedbythepublic.

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6.3.6

SelectionofequipmentshallbemadeaccordingtotheguidelineslaiddowninPartl/Section9ofthisCode.Forthepurposesofofficebuildings,
shoppingandcommercialcentres,miniaturecircuitbreakersofadequatecapacityshallbepreferredtoswitchfuseunits.Theycanalsobeeffectively
usedinplaceoffusesinadistributionboard.
6.4Metering

Inmultistoriedbuildings,anumberofoffices,andcommercialcentresoccupyvariousareas.Electricalloadforeachofthemwouldhavetobe
meteredseparatelythemeterroomnormallyissituatedinthegroundfloor(seeIS15707forfurtherguidance).
6.5SystemProtection

6.5.0General

ThegeneralrulesforprotectionforsafetylaiddowninPart1/Section7ofthisCodeshallapply.ReferenceisalsodrawntoSP7onguidelines
forfireprotectionofbuildings.Thegeneralrulesgivenbelowshallapply.
6.5.1

ThetypeofbuildingscoveredinthisSectionfellunderGroupB(educationalbuildings).GroupE(businessbuildings)andGroupF(mercantile
buildings)fromthepointofviewoffiresafetyclassification(seeSP7).Typicalfirefightinginstallationrequirementsarealsocoveredtherein.The
electricalneedsfortheappropriatetypeofinstallationshall,therefore,bedecidedaccordingly.
6.5.1.1Educationalbuildings(GroupB)
Educationalbuildingsabove2storeyshavinganareaofmorethan500m2perfloorshallhavebesidesfirefightingequipment,manually
operatedelectricalfirealarmandautomaticfirealarmsystems.
6.5.1.2Businessbuildings(GroupE)
Besidesfirefightingequipment,automaticfirealarmsystemsarerecommendedforoffices,banks,professionalestablishments,etc,wherethe
buildingsaremorethan2storeywithfloorareaabove500m2perfloor,andforlaboratorieswithdelicateinstrumentsaswellascomputer
installations.
6.5.1.3Mercantilebuildings(GroupF)
Besidesfirefightingequipment,automaticsprinklesandautomaticfirealarmsystemsarerecommendedforwholesaleestablishments,
warehouses,transportbookingagencies,etc,aswellasforshoppingareasinsidebuildingswithareamorethan500m2oneachfloor.Forother
premisesandshoppinglineswithcentralcorridorsopentosky,automaticfirealarmsystemsshallbeinstalled.Undergroundshoppingcentresshallbe
providedwithautomaticsprinkles.
6.6BuildingServices

6.6.1Lighting

6.6.1.1ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.Thechoiceoflamps,lightingfittingsandgenerallightingdesign
togetherwithpowerrequirementshallbeplannedbasedontherecommendedvaluesofilluminationandlimitingvaluesofglareindexgiveninTable1.
6.6.1.2Incommercialpremises,afairlyhighlevelofglarefreelightingonworkingplanesandsubduedlightingincirculationareasare
necessary.Aestheticsandinteriordecorationalsoplayapart.Lightingdesigninshowroomsincludeshighleveloflightingintheverticaland
horizontalplanes,dependingonthemerchandiseexhibitedandtheirlayout.Colourtemperaturecharacteristicsofthelightsourceshallalsobetaken
intoaccountinthecaseofshowroomlighting.
6.6.2Airconditioning

6.6.2.1ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section14ofthisCodeshallapply.Thedesignoftheairconditioningsystem,shalltakeinto
accounttherequirementsstipulatedinthefollowingclauses.
6.6.2.2Incaseoflargeairconditioninginstallations(500tonneandabove)itisadvisabletohaveaseparateisolatedequipmentroomtogether
withelectricalcontrols.Allequipmentroomsshallhaveprovisionformechanicalventilation.
6.6.3LiftsandEscalators

6.6.3.1ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section14,ofthisCodeshallapply.However,thedesignofliftsshalltakeintoaccountthe
followingrecommendations:
217

Table1RecommendedValuesofIlluminationandGlareIndex
(Clause6.6.1)
SINo.

Building

(1)
(2)
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Illumination
lux

LimitingGlareIndex

(3)

(4)

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(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

i) Banks:

a)

Counters,typingaccountingbookareas

300

19

b)

Publicareas

150

19

ii) Libraries:

a)

Shelves

70150

b)

Readingrooms(newspaper,magazines)

150300

19

c)

Readingtables

300700

22

d)

Bookrepairandbinding

300700

22

e)

Cataloging,sorting,stockrooms

150300

19

iii) Offices:

a)

Entrancehallsandreceptionarea

150

b)

Conferencerooms,executiveoffices

300

19

c)

Generaloffices

300

19

d)

Businessmachineoperation

450

19

e)

Drawingoffices

450

16

f)

Corridorsandliftcars

70

g)

Stairs

100

h)

Liftlandings

100

j)

Telephoneexchanges

1)

Manualexchangerooms(ondesk)

200

16

2)

Maindistributionframeroom

150

25

iv) Schoolsandcolleges:

a)

Assemblyhalls:

1)

General

150

16

2)

Whenusedforexams

300

16

3)

Platforms

300

16

b)

Classandlecturerooms:

1)

Desks

300

16

2)

Blackboard

200300

c)

Embroideryandsewingrooms

700

10

d)

Artrooms

450

16

e)

Libraries

(seeSINo.iiabove.)

f)

Manualtraining

[seeappropriatetradesinIS3646(Part2)]

g)

Offices

300

19

h)

Staffrooms,commonrooms

150

19

j)

Corridors

70

k)

Stairs

100

v) Shopsandstores1):

a)

Generalareas

150300

22

b)

Stockrooms

200

25

1)Doesnotcoverdisplay(showroomlighting).

6.6.3.2Occupantload
Theseshallbeasfollows:
SINo.
(1)

Occupancy

OccupationLoadGrossAreainm2/Person

(2)

(3)

i) Educational
ii) Business

4
10

iii) Mercantile:

1)

Groundfloorandsales

2)

Uppersalefloor

6.6.3.3Passengerhandlingcapacity(H)
Theseareexpressedintermsofpercentoftheestimatedpopulationthathastobehandledinthebuildinginthe5minpeakperiodasfollows:

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SINo.

Occupancy

H
(Percent)

(1)

(2)

(3)

i) Diversified(mixed)officeoccupancy

1015

ii) Singlepurposeofficeoccupancy

1525

6.6.3.4CarspeedTheseshallbeasfollows:

218

SINo.

Occupancy

No.ofFloors

CarSpeed20m/s

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

45

0.50.75

612

0.751.5

1320

Above1.5

22.5

i) Officebuilding

ii) Shopsanddepartmentalstores

6.6.3.5Forofficebuildings,itisdesirabletohaveatleastabatteryof2liftsattwoormoreconvenientpoints.Ifthisisnotpossible,itis
advisabletohaveatleasttwoliftssidebysideatthemainentranceandonelifteachatdifferentsectionsofthebuildingforintercommunication.
Whentwoliftsareinstalledsidebyside,themachineroomshallbesuitablyplanned.Allmachinesandswitchgearmaybehousedinonemachine
room.
7TESTINGOFINSTALLATION
ThevarioustestsontheinstallationshallbecarriedoutaslaiddowninPart1/Section13ofthisCode.
8MISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONS
8.1GroupControl

8.1.1

Thelightingcircuitsshallpreferablybecombinedinswitchedgroupsaswellascoordinatedtofunctionalgroupsofdesksinanopenplanoffice.
Theswitchingpointsmaybecombinedcentrallyattheentrancepassageways.Inordertoensurepropercoordinationwithdesignofthebuildingfor
daylightuseofdevicessuchasphotoelectricswitchesshallbeencouragedforcontrollinglightinggroupsnearwindows.
8.2Telephones/Intercoms

8.2.1

Adequatecoordinationshallbeensuredrightfromtheplanningstageswiththetelephoneauthoritiestodeterminetheneedsforthetelephone
systemcateringtothevariousunitsinofficebuildings.Forprivateintercomsystems,entirelyunderthecontroloftheuser,itisnecessarytopreplan
thecoordinationofexternalandintercomsystems.
8.3ElectricCallBellSystem

8.3.1

ThegeneralguidelineslaiddowninPart1/Section11,regardinginstallationofelectricbellsandcallsystemshallbereferredto.Dependingon
thefinalrequirementsofthetypeofoccupancy,thetypeofequipmenttobeused,wiringandotherdetailsshallbeagreedto.
8.3.2

Asimplecallbellsystemissuitableforsmallofficeswherebyservicestaffmaybecalledtoaparticularpositionbythecaller.Avisiblecum
audibleindicator/bellpanelshallbeused.Whencallpointsaretoonumerousonasingleindicatorpanel,suchasinlargeoffices,multiplecallsystem
shallbepreferred.Thelayoutinsuchacasewouldbedeterminedbythesizeofbuildingandstaff.Timebellsystemsshallbeinstalledinschoolstogive
StartworkandStopworksignals.
8.4ClockSystems

8.4.1

ThegeneralguidelinescontainedinPart1/Section14shallapplyregardinginstallationandmaintenanceofmasterandslaveclocksystems.
8.4.2

Insimpleinstallations,impulseclocksdesignedtooperateatthesamecurrentmaybeconnectedinoneseriescircuit,withabatteryhaving

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sufficientvoltagetoensuresatisfactoryoperation.Inamorecomplexinstallationlikemultistoreyedofficebuildingswithlargenumberofslaveclocks,
theimpulseclocksmaybearrangedinnumberofseriescircuits.Eachofwhichisconnectedtoapairofcontactonarelaywhichisoperatedfromthe
contactsofmasterclock.
8.4.3

Masterclockshallbeplacedinadustfreelocation,readilyaccessibleformaintenanceatalltimes.
8.5ClosedCircuitTV

8.5.1

CommercialbuildingsmayrequiretheinstallationsofCCTVsforoneofmoreofthefollowingpurposes:
a.Security,and
b.Informationdisplay.
Educational/institutionalbuildingsmayuseCCTVasateachingaidforprerecordededucationalprogrammes.Referenceshallbemadetogood
practiceforinstallationsofsuchfacilities.
8.6EmergencyLightsforCriticalAreas

Batterypowered(atleast2hrating)emergencylightsshouldbeinstalledatcriticalandstrategiclocationsincludingemergencyexitpoints.
Thesewillprovideilluminationbyselfcontainedbatterysourceevenonfailureofa.c.mains.Onresumptionofa.c.powersupply,theywillswitchback
tomainsautomaticallyandsimultaneousrechargethebatterytotherequiredlevel.
8.7EmergencyExitSignage

Photoluminescentsafetysignageshouldbeprovidedatdifferentstrategiclocations.
219

SECTION3RECREATIONAL,ASSEMBLYBUILDING
0FOREWORD
Avarietyofbuildingsarebeingusedforpublicassemblyforpurposesthatarerecreational,amusement,socialorreligious.Theseincludecinema
halls,theatres,auditoriaandthelike,theprimaryfeaturebeingacongregationofpeopleofallagegroupsforashortperiodoftimeduringadayora
groupofdays.Buildingssuchasthosecateringtodisplayofregularprogrammesdemandsacontinuouspowersupply.Inviewofthenatureofuseof
suchoccupancies,certainspecificsafetyandreliabilityconsiderationsbecomenecessaryfortheelectricalinstallations.
Thelightingdesignofsuchbuildingsaregenerallysophisticated,requiredtobeproperlycoordinatedwiththeelectroacousticdemands.Onthe
physicalaspectsoflightingandsoundsystemsinrecreationalbuildings,itisrecommendedthatassistanceshouldbederivedfromspecialistsassuch
detailsarebeyondthescopeofthisCode.
Sportsbuildings,whicharealsobasicallyassemblybuildings,arecoveredseparatelyunderPart3/Sec6ofthisCode,inviewoftheirunique
nature.ThetypeofbuildingscoveredinthisSectionareenumeratedin4.Itshallalsobenotedthatassemblybuildingsformingpartofotherbuilding
complex,say,educationalorofficecommerciaicumcinemacomplexshallalsocomplywiththisSection.
1SCOPE
1.1

ThisPart3/Section3oftheCodecoversrequirementsforelectricalinstallationinbuildings,suchasthosemeantforrecreationalandassembly
purposes.
1.2

ThisPart3/Section3doesnotcoversportsbuildings.
2REFERENCES
ThisPart3/Section1oftheCodeshouldbereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:
ISNo.

Title

8061:1976

Codeofpracticefordesign,installationandmaintenanceofservicelinesuptoandincluding650V

SP72:2010

NationalLightingCode

3TERMINOLOGY

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ForthepurposeofthisSection,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeshallapply.
4CLASSIFICATION
4.1

TheelectricalinstallationscoveredinthisSection,arethoseinbuildingsintendedforthefollowingpurposes:
Assembly/RecreationalBuildingsTheseshallincludeanybuildingwheregroupsofpeoplecongregateorgatherforamusement,recreation,
social,religious,patriotic,civilandsimilarpurposes,forexample,theatres,motionpicture(cinema)houses,assemblyhalls,auditoria,exhibitionhalls,
museums,restaurants,placesofworship,dancehalls,clubs,etc.
NOTETheatresarealsoclassifiedfurtheraspermanent(airconditionedandnonairconditioned),temporaryortraveling
dependingonthenatureorconstructionofthepremises.Temporaryinstallationsshallalsoconformtotheadditionalprovisionslaid
downinPart5/Section2ofthisCode.
5GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFINSTALLATIONS
5.0

GeneralguidelinesontheassessmentofcharacteristicsofinstallationsinbuildingsaregiveninPart1/Section8ofthisCode.Forthepurposeof
installationsfallingunderthescopeofthissection,thecharacteristicsdefinedbelowgenerallyapply.
5.1Environment

Thefollowingenvironmentalfactorsshallapplytorecreationalandassemblybuildings:
Environment

Characteristics

Remarks

(1)

(2)

(3)

Presenceofwater

Probabilityofpresenceofwaterisnegligible

Presenceofforeignsolidbodies

Thequantityornatureofdustorforeignsolidbodiesisnotsignificant

Presenceofcorrosiveorpollutingsubstances Thequantityandnatureofcorrosiveorpollutingsubstancesisnotsignificant

220

Mechanicalstresses

Impactandvibrationoflowseverity

Seismiceffectandlighting

Dependsonthelocationofthebuilding

5.2Utilization

Thefollowingaspectsofutilizationshallapply:
Utilization

Characteristics

Remarks

(1)

(2)

(3)

Capabilityofpersons

Uninstructedpersons

Personsadequatelyadvisedorsupervisedbyskilledpersons Electricaloperatingareas

Majorityoftheoccupants

Conditionsofevacuationduringemergency Highdensityoccupation,easyconditionsofevacuation

Smalltheatresandcinemas

Highdensityoccupationdifficultconditionsofevacuation

Multiplecinemahalls,culturalandtheatricalbuildings

Natureofprocessedofstoredmaterial

Existenceoffirerisk

Inviewoflargequantumoffurnitureanddrapings

6SUPPLYCHARACTERISTICSANDPARAMETERS
6.0ExchangeofInformation

6.0.1

Propercoordinationshallbeensuredbetweenthearchitect,buildingcontractorandtheelectricalengineeronthevariousaspectsofthe
installationdesigninabuildingintendedforrecreationalorassemblypurposes.Forlargeprojects,theadviceoftheappropriatespecialistsshallbe
obtained,inparticularonthefollowingaspects:
a.Audiovisualsystems,
b.Stagelightingandcontrol,and
c.Generalauditoriumlightingandotherspecialserviceneeds.
6.0.2

TheinstallationworkshallconformtotheprovisionsofIndianElectricityRulesaswellasotherRulesapplicableforassemblybuildings
formulatedbytheStateAuthorities.

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6.1BranchCircuits

6.1.0

Thebranchcircuitsshallingeneralcatertothefollowingindividualloadgroups:
a.Powerinstallation:
1.Stagemachinery,
2.Ventilationandairconditioninginstallation,
3.Lifts,and
4.Additionalpowerconnections.
b.Lighting:
1.Infrontofthetheatre,suchasgenerallightingofoutdoor,foyer,corridorsandstairs,andauditoriumand
2.Intherearofthetheatreforstage,workplacedressingrooms,workshopsandstorehouses.
c.Emergencysupply.
6.1.1

Theelectricallightingofthemainbuildingshallhaveatleastthreeseparateanddistinctmaincircuitsasfollows:
a.Fortheenclosures(cabin)andhencethroughadimmerregulatortothecentrallightingoftheauditorium
b.Foronehalfoftheauditorium,passageways,stairways,exitandpartsofthebuildingopentothepublicand
c.Fortheremaininghalfoftheauditorium,passageways,stairways,exitandpartsofthebuildingopentothepublic.
6.1.2

Thecontrolofthecircuitsinrespectofthetwohalvesoftheauditoriumreferredtoin6.1.1shallberemotefromeachother.
6.1.3

Thecabinshallbeprovidedwithtwoseparatecircuits,onefeedingthecabinequipmentsandtheotherlightsandfans.
6.1.4

Wiringshallbeoftheconduittype.Endsofconduitsshallenterandbemechanicallysecuredtotheswitch,controlgears,equipmentterminal
boxes,etc.Endsofconduitsshallbeprovidedwithscrewedbushes.Withintheenclosure,allcablesshallbeenclosedinscrewedmetalconduits
adequatelyearthed.PVCconduitsmaybeusedintheauditoriumandotherplaces.
6.1.5

Temporarywiringshallnotbeallowedincabin,rewindingroom,queueshedsandsimilarplaces.
6.1.6

Thecabinequipmentshallbeaccessibleatalltimes.Nothingshallimpedeaccesstoanypartoftheequipmentoritscontrols.
6.1.7

Linkedtumblerswitchesshallnotbeusedforthecontrolofcircuits.
6.1.8

Branchandmaindistributionboardsshallbemountedatsuitableheightnothigherthan2mfromthefloorlevel.Afrontclearanceof1m
shouldalsobeprovided.
6.1.9

Woodworkshallnotbeusedforthemountingoforconstructionoftheframeworkforironcladswitchanddistributionboardsand
controlgear.
221

6.1.10

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Allthelightingfittingsshallbeataheightofnotlessthan2.25m.
6.1.11

Thesinglepoleswitchesfortheindividuallightsandfansshallbemountedonsheetsteelboardssuitablyearthed.
6.1.12

Suitablesocketoutletswithcontrolsshallbeprovidedonthesidewallsnearthestagefortappingsupplytoscreenmotorstagefocusinglights,
audiosystemsandportablelights.
6.1.13

Inthequeuesheds,bulkheadfittingsshallbeused.
6.1.14

Foroutdoorlighting,watertightfittingsshallbeusedandfittingsmaybesomountedwithoutspoilingtheaestheticviewoftherecreation
buildings.
6.1.15

Theinstallationinatravelingcinemashouldgenerallyconformtotheaboverequirementsandthebuildingshouldbesufficientlyawayfromthe
nearestconductorofpowerlines(see3.2ofPart1/Section7ofthisCode).
6.1.16

Theplugpointsshallbeprovidedataheightofabout1.5mfromthefloor,inassemblybuildings.
6.1.17

Incaseoftravellingcinemas,thewiringfortheopenyardlightingshallbedonewithweatherproofcablesthreadedthroughporcelainreel
insulatorssuspendedbyearthedbearerwireataheightofnotlessthan5mfromgroundlevel.Thereelinsulatorsshallbespaced0.5mfromeach
other.
6.1.18

Whenatappingistakenfromtheopenyardwiring,itshouldbetakenonlyatapointofsupportthroughporcelainconnectorshousedina
junctionbox,fixedtothesupportingpole.
6.2Feeders

6.2.1

FeedercircuitsshallgenerallyconformtotherequirementslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCode.
6.2.2

Separatefeedersshallbetakentoairconditioningunits,liftsandthelightingandfancircuits.
6.3ServiceLines

ServicelinesshallconformtoIS8061.
6.4BuildingSubstation

6.4.0

Theelectricalpowerdemandofanassemblybuildingcanvaryfrom30kVAtomorethan1000kVAaccordingtothesizeofthebuilding.
Usually,supplyatvoltagesabove1kVisgivenforlargetheatresandauditoria.Buildingsubstationsshallconformtothegeneralrequirementsspecified
inPart2ofthisCode.
6.4.1

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Thefollowingaspectsshallbetakennoteofwhiledecidingthelocationofsubstation:
a.Astherewillbeconcentrationandmovementofpeople,thesubstationshouldbelocatedawayfromtheareawherepeopleandvehiclesmove
about,preferablyattherearofthebuilding.
b.Thesubstationshouldnotbeinthewayofpeopleandfirefightingvehiclesandpersonnelwheretheyarelikelytoattendtoanemergency.
6.5SystemProtection

6.5.0

TherulesforprotectionforsafetylaiddowninPart1/Section7ofthisCodeshallapply.ReferencemayalsobemadetoSP7onguidelinesfor
fireprotectionofbuildings.Thegeneralrulesgivenbelowshallapply.
6.5.1

ThetypeofoccupanciescoveredinthisSectionfallunderGroupD(assemblybuildings)fromthepointofviewoffiresafetyclassification.Such
occupanciescanbefurtherclassifiedintogroupsdependingonthecapacityofthetheatre[auditoriumtoholdthecongregation(seeSP7)].Typical
firefightinginstallationrequirementsarealsocoveredtherein.Thefollowingshallbeprovidedbesidesfirefightingequipment:
a.Buildinghavingatheatricalstageandfixedseats:
1.StageAutomaticsprinklerand
2.Auditoria,corridor,greenrooms,canteenandstorageAutomaticfirealarmsystem.
b.BuildingswithoutastagebutnopermanentseatingarrangementAutomaticfirealarmsystem.
c.AllotherstructuresdesignedforassemblyManuallyoperatedelectricalfirealarmsystem.
6.6BuildingServices

6.6.1Lighting

ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.Thechoiceoflamps,lightingfittingandgenerallightingdesigntogether
withpowerrequirementshallbeplannedbasedontherecommendedvaluesofilluminationandglareindexgiveninTable1(seeSP72).
6.6.2Airconditioning

6.6.2.1ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.
6.6.2.2Inairconditionedassemblybuildings,insidetemperatureshallbe222C.
6.6.2.3Provisionsshallbemadetorecordthetemperatureinsidetheauditorium.
222

Table1RecommendedValuesofIlluminationandGlareIndex
(Clause6.6.1)
SINo.

PartofBuilding

Illumination
lux

LimitingValueofGlareIndex

(2)

(3)

(4)

(1)

1.

Assemblyandconcert:

a)

Foyers,auditoria

100150

b)

Platforms

450

c)

Corridors

70

d)

Stairs

100

2.

Cinemas:

a)

Foyers

150

b)

Auditoria

50

c)

Corridors

70

d)

Stairs

100

3.

Museums:

a)

General

150

16

b)

Display

Speciallighting

16

4.

ArtGalleries:

a)

General

100

10

b)

Paintings

200

10

5.

Theatres:

a)

150

Foyers

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b)

Auditoria

70

c)

Corridors

70

d)

Stairs

100

NOTETheaboveismeantforgeneralguidelinesanddoesnotincludespeciallightingeffects.

6.6.2.4Intheeventofabreakdownoftheairconditioningplant,alternatearrangementsshouldbeavailableforventilationandaircirculation.
6.6.3LiftsandEscalators

ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.However,thedesignoftheliftsshalltakeintoaccountthefollowing
recommendations:
a.Occupantload
Thisshallbeasfollows:
Occupancy

OccupantLoad,GrossArea(m2/Person)

Assemblyhallswithfixedorlooseseatsanddancefloors

0.6

Withoutseatingfacilitiesincludingdiningrooms

1.5

b.PassengerhandlingcapacityandcarspeedAsgiveninPart3/Section2ofthisCode.
7TESTINGOFINSTALLATIONS
ThevarioustestsontheinstallationsshallbecarriedoutaslaiddowninPart1/Section13ofthisCode.
8MISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONS
8.1EmergencySupply

SeealsoPart2ofthisCode.
8.1.1

Inallrecreationalandassemblybuildings,sufficientnumberofemergencylightsinallthelocationswhichincludesalltheemergencyexit.
8.1.2

Batterypowered(atleast2hrating)emergencylightsshouldbeinstalledatcriticalandstrategiclocationstoavoidcatastrophicincaseoftotal
powerfailure.Thesewillprovideilluminationbyselfcontainedbatterysourceevenonfailureofa.c.mains.Onresumptionofa.c.powersupply,they
willswitchbacktomainsautomaticallyandsimultaneousrechargethebatterytotherequiredlevel.
8.1.3

Dependingonthetotalcapacityrequiredforstandbysupplyfortheoccupancy,suitablestandbygeneratorsetshallbeinstalled.Thelocationand
installationofthestandbyDGsetshouldbeinaccordancewiththenormsspecifiedinPart2ofthisCode.
8.2StageLighting

Onthestageofatheatre,agreatnumberofspotlights,borderlights,projectors,etc,arerequiredforillumination,includingportablelight
sources.Thevariouspossibilitiesofswitchingeachfittingsshallbekeptinviewwhiledesigningthelightingcircuits.Forsamelightingschemes,
dimmercontrolequipmentmayberequired.
8.3GroupControl

Thelightingintheauditoriumshallbesuitablycombinedintocontrolgroupstofacilitategroupswitching.Inthespecialcaseofstagelighting
control,thelightingoperatorshallhaveagoodviewofthestageinordertobeabletofollowtheperformance.Therefore,thecontrolroomshallbe
situatedinaconvenientposition.
8.4AudioVisualSystem

InstallationofamplifyingandsounddistributionsystemsshallconformtotheguidelinescontainedinPart1/Section11ofthisCode.
8.5LuminousSign

Photoluminescentsafetysignageshouldbeprovidedatdifferentstrategiclocations.

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SECTION4MEDICALESTABLISHMENTS
0FOREWORD
Hospitalsinthecountryvaryinsizefromsimplepremisesusedformedicalpurposesinvillagestoawellequipped,multidisciplinaryhospitalin
bigcities.Thelattsertypewillhaveseveralunitsfunctioningsimultaneouslywithavarietyofsupportservicestocatertotheneedsofdoctorsand
patients.
SafetyrequirementsforelectricalequipmentusedinmedicalpracticearecoveredIS13450series.Additionalsafetyprovisionsintheelectrical
installationsofmedicallyusedroomsandmedicalestablishmentsarecoveredinthisSectionoftheCode.ThisSection4isbasedonthefollowing
considerations:
a.Thepatientmaynotbeinaconditiontoreactnormallytotheeffectsofhazardousevents
b.Theelectricalresistanceoftheskin,whichisnormallyanimportantprotectionagainstharmfulelectriccurrentsisbypassedincertain
examinationsortreatments
c.Medicalelectricalequipmentmayoftenbeusedtosupportorsubstitutevitalbodyfunctions,thebreakdownofwhichmaycauseadangerous
situation
d.Specificlocationsinmedicalestablishmentswhereflammableatmosphereexists,callforspecialtreatmentand
e.Electricandmagneticinterferencemaydisturbcertainmedicalexaminationsortreatments.
1SCOPE
ThisPart3/Section4ofthisCodeappliestotheelectricalinstallationsinmedicalestablishments.ThisSectionisalsoapplicabletoroomsfor
veterinarymedicineanddentalpractice.
2REFERENCES
ThisPart3/Section4ofthecodeshouldbereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:
ISNo.

Title

3646(Part2):1966

Codeofpracticeforinteriorillumination:Part2Scheduleforvaluesofilluminationandglareindex

7689:1989

Guideforthecontrolofundesirablestaticelectricity

8061:1976

Codeofpracticefordesign,installationandmaintenanceofservicelinesuptoandincluding650V

13450(Part1):1994/IEC606011:1988

Medicalelectricalequipment:Part1Generalrequirementsforsafety

14665(Part1):2000

Electrictractionlifts:Part1Guidelinesforoutlinedimensionsofpassenger,goods,serviceandhospitallifts

SP7:2005

NationalBuildingCodeofIndia

SP72:2010

NationalLightingCode

3TERMINOLOGY
InadditiontothedefinitionscontainedinPart1/Section2ofthisCodethefollowingshallapply.
3.1Rooms

3.1.1

AnaestheticRoomMedicallyusedroominwhichgeneralinhalationanestheticsareintendedtobeadministered.
NOTEAnaestheticroomcomprisesforinstancetheactualoperatingtheatre,operatingpreparationroom,operatingplasterroom
andsurgeries.
3.1.2

AngiographicExaminationRoomRoomintendedfordisplayingarteriesorveins,etc,withcontrastmedia.
3.1.3

CentralMonitoringRoomRoominwhichtheoutputsignalsofseveralpatientmonitorsaredisplayed,storedorcomputed.
NOTEAcentralmonitoringroomisconsideredtobepartofaRoomGroup,ifaconductiveconnection(forexample,bysignal
transmissionlines)betweentheroomsofsuchagroupexists.
3.1.4

CentralSterilizationRoomRoom,notspatiallyconnectedtoamedicallyusedroom,inwhichmedicalequipmentandutensilsaresterilized.

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3.1.5

DeliveryRoomRoominwhichtheactualbirthtakesplace.
3.1.6

EndoscopicRoomRoomintendedforapplicationofendoscopicmethodsfortheexaminationoforgansthroughnaturalorartificialorifices.
Examplesofendoscopicmethodsarebronchoscopic,laryngoscopic,cystoscopic,gastroscopicandsimilarmethods,ifnecessary,performed
underanaesthesia.
3.1.7

HeartCatheterizationRoomRoomintendedfortheexaminationortreatmentoftheheartusingcatheters.
224

Examplesofappliedproceduresaremeasurementofactionpotentialsofthehaemodynamicsoftheheart,drawingofbloodsamples,injectionof
contrastagentsorapplicationofpacemakers.
3.1.8

HemodialysisRoomRoominamedicalestablishmentintendedtoconnectpatientstomedicalelectricalequipmentinordertodetoxicatetheir
blood.
3.1.9

HydrotherapyRoomRoominwhichpatientsaretreatedbyhydrotherapeuticmethods.
Examplesofsuchmethodsaretherapeutictreatmentswithwater,brine,mud,slime,clay,steam,sand,waterwithgases,brinewithgases,
inhalationtherapy,electrotherapyinwater1),massagethermotherapyandthermotherapyinwater1).
Swimmingpoolsforgeneraluseandnormalbathroomsarenotconsideredashydrotherapyrooms.
3.1.10

IntensiveCareRoomRoominwhichbedpatientsaremonitoredindependentlyofanoperationbymeansofelectromedicalequipment.Body
actionsmaybestimulated,ifrequired.
3.1.11

IntensiveExaminationRoomRoominwhichpatientsareconnectedforthepurposeofintensiveexamination,butnotforthepurposeof
treatment,simultaneouslytoseveralelectromedicalmeasuringormonitoringdevices.
3.1.12

IntensiveMonitoringRoomRoominwhichoperatedpatientsaremonitored,usingelectromedicalequipment.Bodyactions(forexample,
heartcirculation,respiration)maybestimulated,ifrequired.
3.1.13

LabourRoomRoominwhichpatientsareprepared(waiting)fordelivery.
3.1.14

MedicalEstablishmentEstablishmentformedicalcare(examination,treatment,monitoring,transport,nursing,etc)ofhumanbeingsor
animals.
3.1.15

MedicallyUsedRoomRoomintendedtobeusedformedical,dentalorveterinaryexamination,treatmentormonitoringofpersonsor
animals.
3.1.16

MinorSurgicalTheatreRoominwhichminoroperationsareperformedonambulantornonambulantpatients,ifnecessaryusinganesthetics
oranalgesics.

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3.1.17

OperatingPlasterRoomRoominwhichplasterofParisorsimilardressingsareappliedwhileanaesthesiaismaintained.
NOTESucharoombelongstotheoperatingroomgroupandisusuallyspatiallyconnectedtoit.
1) Withorwithoutadditives.

3.1.18

OperatingPreparationRoomRoominwhichpatientsarepreparedforanoperation,forexample,byadministeringanaesthetics.
NOTESucharoombelongstotheoperatingroomgroupandisspatiallyconnectedtoit.
3.1.19

OperatingRecoveryRoomRoominwhichthepatientunderobservationrecoversfromtheinfluenceofanesthesia.
NOTESucharoomisusuallyveryclosetotheoperatingroomgroupbutnotnecessarilypartofit.
3.1.20

OperatingSterilizationRoomRoominwhichutensilsrequiredforanoperationaresterilized.
NOTESucharoombelongstotheoperatingroomgroupandisspatiallyconnectedtoit.
3.1.21

OperatingTheatreRoominwhichsurgicaloperationsareperformed.
3.1.22

OperatingWashRoomRoominwhichmedicalstaffatanoperationcanwashfordisinfectionpurposes.
NOTESucharoombelongstotheoperatingroomgroupandisspatiallyconnectedtoit.
3.1.23

PhysiotherapyRoomRoominwhichpatientsaretreatedbyphysiotherapeuticmethods.
3.1.24

RadiologicalDiagnosticRoomRoomintendedfortheuseofionizingradiationfordisplayofinternalstructuresofthebodybymeansof
radiographyorfluoroscopyorbytheuseofradioactiveisotopesorforotherdiagnosticpurposes.
3.1.25

RadiologicalTherapyRoomRoomintendedfortheuseofionizingradiationtoobtaintherapeuticeffectsonthesurfaceofthebodyorin
internalorgansbymeansofXradiation,gammaradiationorcorpuscularradiationorbytheuseofradioactiveisotopes.
3.1.26

RoomGroupGroupofmedicallyusedroomslinkedwitheachotherintheirfunction,bytheirdesignatedmedicalpurposeorby
interconnectedmedicalelectricalequipment.
3.1.27

UrologyRoomRoominwhichdiagnosticortherapeuticproceduresareperformedontheurogenitaltractusingelectromedicalequipment,
suchasXrayequipment,endoscopicequipmentandhighfrequencysurgeryequipment.
3.1.28

WardMedicallyusedroomorroomgroupinwhichpatientsareaccommodatedforthedurationoftheirstayinahospital,orinanyother
medicalestablishment.

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3.2

ZonesofRisk(seealsoAnnexA).
3.2.1

FlammableAnaestheticAtmosphereMixtureofaflammableanaestheticvapourand/oravapourofaflammabledisinfectionorcleaningagent
withairin
suchaconcentrationthatignitionmayoccurunderspecifiedconditions.

225
3.2.2

FlammableAnaestheticMixtureMixtureofaflammableanaestheticvapourwithoxygenorwithnitrousoxideinsuchaconcentrationthat
ignitionmayoccurunderspecifiedconditions.
3.2.3

ZoneGVolumeinamedicallyusedroominwhichcontinuouslyortemporarilysmallquantitiesofflammableanaestheticmixturesmaybe
produced,guidedorusedincludingthesurroundingsofacompletelyorpartlyenclosedequipmentorequipmentpartuptoadistanceof5cmfrom
partsoftheequipmentenclosurewhereleakagemayoccurbecausesuchpartsare:
a.unprotectedandliabletobebroken,
b.subjecttoahighrateofdeterioration,or
c.liabletoinadvertentdisconnection.
Wheretheleakageoccursintoanotherenclosurewhichisnotsufficiently(naturallyorforcedly)ventilatedandenrichmentoftheleaking
mixturemayoccur,suchanenclosureandpossiblythesurroundingsofit(subjecttopossibleleakage)uptoadistanceof5cmfromsaidenclosureor
partofitisregardedasaZoneG.
3.2.4

ZoneMVolumeinamedicallyusedroominwhichsmallquantitiesofflammableanaestheticatmospheresofflammableanaestheticswithair
mayoccur.AZoneMmaybecausedbyleakageofaflammableanaestheticmixturefromaZoneGorbytheapplicationofflammabledisinfectionor
cleaningagents.WhereaZoneMiscausedbyleakage,itcomprisesthespacesurroundingtheleakageareaofaZoneGuptoadistanceof25cmfrom
theleakagepoint.
3.3SpecialTerms

3.3.1

EquipotentialBondingElectricalconnectionintendedtobringexposedconductivepartsorextraneousconductivepartstothesameor
approximatelythesamepotential.
3.3.2

EssentialCircuitCircuitforsupplyofequipmentwhichiskeptinoperationduringpowerfailure.
NOTEProvisionsforsupplyofsuchcircuitseparatelyfromtheremainderoftheelectricalinstallationarepresent.
3.3.3

GeneratorSetSelfcontainedenergyconvertorincludingallessentialcomponentstosupplyelectricalpower(forexample,enginedriven
generator).
3.3.4

HazardCurrentTotalcurrentforagivensetofconnectionsinanisolatedpowersystemthatwouldflowthroughalowimpedanceifitwere
connectedbetweeneitherisolatedconductorandearth.
Thefollowinghazardcurrentsarerecognized:
a.TotalhazardcurrentHazardcurrentofanisolatedsystemwithallsuppliedequipment,includingthelineisolationmonitor,connected.
b.FaulthazardcurrentHazardcurrentofanisolatedsystemwithallsuppliedequipment,exceptthelineisolationmonitor,connected.
c.MonitorhazardcurrentHazardcurrentofthelineisolationmonitor.
NOTEThiscurrentisexpressedinmilliamperes(mA).

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3.3.5

InsulationImpedanceMonitoringDeviceAdevicemeasuringtheacimpedanceatmainsfrequencyfromeitheroftheconductorsofan
isolatedcircuittoearthandpredictingthehazardcurrentthatwillflowwhenanearthfaultoccursandprovidinganalarmwhenapresetvalueofthat
currentisexceeded.
3.3.6

InsulationMonitoringDeviceInstrumentindicatingtheoccurrenceofaninsulationfaultfromalivepartofanisolatedelectricalsupply
systemtotheprotectiveconductoroftheinstallationconcerned.
3.3.7

Insulation,ResistanceMonitoringDeviceInstrumentmeasuringtheohmicresistancebetweenthemonitoredisolatedcircuitandearth
providinganalarmwhenthevalueofthisresistancebecomeslessthanagivenlimit.
3.3.8

MedicalIsolatingTransformerElectricalequipmentusedinmedicalpracticeintendedtosupplyisolatedpowertomedicalelectrical
equipmentinordertominimizethelikelihoodofdiscontinuityofsupplyincaseofafailuretoearthintheisolatedpowersourceorinequipment
connectedtoit.
3.3.9

MedicalSafetyExtraLowVoltage(MSELV)Voltagenotexceedinganominalvalueof25Vacoruptoandincluding60Vdcorpeakvalueat
ratedsupplyvoltageonthetransformerorconverterbetweenconductorsisanearthfreecircuitisolatedfromthesupplymainsbyamedicalsafety
extralowvoltagetransformerorbyaconverterwithseparatewindings.
3.3.10

OperatingResidualCurrentValueofaresidualcurrentcausingaprotectivedevicetooperateunderspecifiedconditions.
3.3.11

PatientEnvironmentAnyareaupto1.5mdistancefromtheintendedlocationofthepatientinwhichintentionalorunintentionalcontact
betweenpatientandequipmentorsomeotherpersontouchingtheequipmentcanoccur(seeAnnexB).
3.3.12

TouchVoltageVoltageappearing,duringaninsulationfault,betweensimultaneouslyaccessibleparts.
226

4CLASSIFICATION
4.1

TheelectricalinstallationscoveredinthisSectionarethoseinbuildingsintendedforthefollowingpurposes:
a.HospitalsandsanatoriaThisincludesanybuildingorgroupofbuildings,whichisusedforhousingtreatingpersonssufferingfromphysical
limitationsbecauseofhealth,age,injuryordisease.Thisalsoincludesinfirmaries,sanatoriaandnursinghomes.
b.CustodialinstitutionsThisincludesanybuildingorgroupofbuildingswhichisusedforthecustodyandcareofpersons,suchaschildren
(excludingschools),convalescentsandtheaged,forexample,homefortheagedandinfirm,convalescenthomes,orphanages,mentalhospitals,
etc.
5GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFMEDICALESTABLISHMENTS
5.0

GeneralguidelinesontheassessmentofcharacteristicsofinstallationsinbuildingsaregiveninPart1/Section8,ofthisCode.Forthepurposeof
installationsfallingunderthescopeofthisSection,thecharacteristicsgivenbelowapply.
5.1Environment

Thefollowingenvironmentalfactorsshallapplytohospitals:
Environment

Characteristics

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(1)

(2)

(3)

Presenceofwater

Probabilityofpresenceofwaterisnegligible

Presenceofforeignsolid

Thequantityornatureofdustorforeignsolid

bodies

bodiesisnotsignificant

Presenceofcorrosiveor

Thequantityandnatureofcorrosiveorpolluting Locationswheresomechemicalproductsarehandled(forexample,laboratoriesin

pollutingsubstances

substancesisnotsignificant

Mechanicalstresses

Impactandvibrationoflowseverity

Seismiceffectandlighting

hospitals)willbecategorizedasinPart1/Section8

Dependsonthelocationofthebuilding

5.2Utilization

Thefollowingaspectsofutilizationshallapply:
Utilization

Characteristics

(1)

(2)

Remarks
(3)

Capabilityof

Childreninlocationsintendedfortheir

Appliestochildcarehomes,orphanages,etc.

persons

occupation

Handicapped

Personsadequatelyadvisedorsupervisedby Appliestoareassuchasbuildingsubstations,operationsandmaintenancestaff

Appliestohospitalsingeneral,sanatoria,nursinghomes,etc,wheretheoccupantsarenotin
commandofalltheirphysicalandintellectualabilities

skilledpersons
Contactof

Personsdonotinusualconditionsmake

personswith

contactwithextraneousconductivepartsor

earthpotential

standonconductingsurfaces

Conditionsof

Difficultconditionsofevacuation

Appliesingeneraltohospitalsandsimilarbuildings,irrespectiveofdensityofoccupation

evacuation
duringemergency

227

Natureofprocess Fireorrisk

ManylocationsinhospitalbuildingsingeneralwouldfallundercategoryBE1ofnosignificantfire

fireorriskor

orexplosionrisk,specificlocationslike,operationtheatre,casualtymedicinestore,XRayblockfall

storedmaterials

underBE2andBE3(seePart1/Section8ofthisCode)

6SAFETYCONSIDERATIONS
6.0General

6.0.1

InthecontextofthisSectioninstallationmeansanycombinationofinterconnectedelectricalequipmentwithinagivenspaceorlocation
intendedtosupplypowertoelectricalequipmentusedinmedicalpractice.
6.0.2

Assuch,somepartsoftheinstallationmaybepresentinthepatientsenvironment,wherepotentialdifferences,thatcouldleadtoexcessive
currentsthroughthepatient,mustbeavoided.Forthispurposeacombinationofearthingofequipmentandpotentialequalizationintheinstallation
seemstoprovidethebestsolution.Adisadvantageofsuchasystemisthatinthecaseofaninsulationfaultincircuitsdirectlyconnectedtosupply
mains,thefaultcurrentmaycauseaconsiderablevoltagedropovertheprotectiveearthconductoroftherelevantcircuit.Sinceareductionofsucha
voltagedropbytheapplicationofincreasedcrosssectionalareasofprotectiveconductorsisusuallyimpractical,availablesolutionsarethereductionof
thedurationoffaultcurrentstoearthbyspecialdevicesortheapplicationofapowersupplywhichisisolatedfromearth.
6.0.3

Generallyapowersupplysystemincludingaseparatedprotectiveconductorisrequired(TNSsystem).
Inadditionthefollowingprovisionsmayberequired,dependinguponthenatureoftheexaminationsortreatmentsperformed:
a.Additionalrequirementsconcerningprotectiveconductorsandprotectivedevicestorestrictcontinuousvoltagedifferences.
b.Restrictionofvoltagedifferencesbysupplementaryequipotentialbonding.Duringtheapplicationofequipmentwithdirectcontacttothe
patient,asleastapotentialequalizedzonearoundthepatientshallbeprovidedwithapatientcentrebondingbartowhichtheprotectiveand
functionalearthconductorsoftheequipmentareconnected.Allaccessibleextraneousconductivepartsinthezoneshallbeconnectedtothis
potentialequalizationbar.
c.Restrictionofthepotentialequalizationzonetothezonearoundonepatient,meaningpracticallyaroundoneoperationtableoraroundonebed
inanintensivecareroom.
d.Ifmorethanonepatientispresentinanarea,connectionofthevariouspotentialequalizationcentrestoacentralpotentialequalizationbusbar,
whichshouldpreferablybeconnectedtotheprotectiveearthsystemofthepowersupplyforthegivenarea.

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Initscompletedformtheequipotentialbondingnetworkmayconsistpartlyoffixedandpermanentlyinstalledbondingandpartlyofa
numberofseparatebondingswhicharemadewhentheequipmentissetupnearthepatient.Thenecessaryterminalsforthesebonding
connectionsshouldbepresentonequipmentandintheinstallation.
e.Restrictionofthedurationoftransientvoltagedifferencebytheapplicationofresidualcurrentoperatedprotectivedevices(earthleakagecircuit
breakers).
f.Continuityofpowersupplytocertainequipmentinthecaseofafirstinsulationfaulttoearthandrestrictionoftransientvoltagedifferencesby
applicationofisolatingtransformers.
g.MonitoringofafirstinsulationfaulttoearthinanITsystem(thesecondarysideofanisolatingtransformer)withsufficientlyhighimpedanceto
earth.
h.Preventionofignitionsandfireinroomswhereflammableanestheticsorflammablecleaningordisinfectionagentsareusedbyventilation,anti
staticprecautionsandcarefullayoutoftheinstallation.
i.Safetysupplysystemformajorpartsofthehospital,usuallyadieselpoweredgenerator.Recommendationsforessentialcircuitstobeconnected
toit.
j.Specialsafetysupplysystemforcriticalequipmentaslifesupportingequipmentandoperatingroomlamps.
Thepowersupplyistakenoverbythesedevicesinashorttime.Thedevicemayconsistofrechargeablebatteriespossiblycombinedwith
convertersorspecialgeneratingsets.
k.Suppressionofelectromagneticinterferenceachievedbythelayoutofthebuildingandwiringandprovisionofscreeningarrangements.
Limitsformagneticfieldsofmainsfrequencyarenecessaryforanumberofsensitivemeasurements.
6.1SafetyProvisions

6.1.1

SafetymeasuresaredividedintoanumberofprovisionsasgiveninTable1.
6.1.2

ProvisionP0 shallbeapplicabletoallbuildingscontainingmedicallyusedrooms.ProvisionP1shallbeapplicableforallmedicallyusedrooms.
OtherrequirementsofthisSection,neednotbecompliedwithif:
228

Table1SafetyProvisions
(Clause6.1.1)
SI Provisions
No.
(1)

PrincipalRequirements

InstallationMeasures

(2)

(3)

i)

P0

Durationoftouchvoltagesrestrictedtoasafelimit

TNS,TTorITsystem

(4)

ii)

P1

AsP0butadditionally:Touchvoltagesinpatientenvironmentrestrictedtoasafelimit

AdditionaltoP0:Supplysystemwith
additionalrequirementsforprotectiveearthing,
etc.

iii)

iv)

P2

P3

AsP1butadditionally:Resistancebetweenextraneousconductivepartsandtheprotective

AdditionaltoP1:Supplementaryequipotential

conductorbutbaroftheroomnotexceeding0.1.

bonding

AsP1orP2butadditionally:Potentialdifferencebetweenexposedconductiveparts,extraneous

AsP1orP2:Measurementnecessary,corrective

conductivepartsandtheprotectiveconductorbusbarnotexceeding10mVinnormalcondition

actionpossiblynecessary

(seeNote)
v)

P4

AsP1orP2.Additionalprotectionagainstelectricshockbylimitationofdisconnectingtime

AdditionaltoP1orP2:Residualcurrent

vi)

P5

Continuityofthemainssupplymaintainedincaseofafirstinsulationfaulttoearthandcurrents

AdditionaltoP1,P2orP3:Isolatedsupply

toearthrestricted

systemwithisolationmonitoring

Reductionoffaultcurrentsandtouchvoltagesincaseofafaultinthebasicinsulation

AdditionalP1orP2:Medicalisolating

operatedprotectivedevice

vii)

P6

transformersupplyingoneindividuallypieceof
equipment
viii)

P7

Preventionofdangeroustouchvoltagesinnormalconditionandinsinglefaultcondition(see

AdditionaltoP1orP2:Supplywithmedical

Note)

safety,extralowvoltage

ix)

GE

Nointerruptionofthepowersupplyoftheessentialcircuitsofthehospitalformorethan15s

Safetysupplysystem

x)

E1

Nointerruptionofthepowersupplyoflifesupportingequipmentformorethan15s

Specialsafetysupplysystem

xi)

E2

Nointerruptionofthepowersupplyoftheoperatinglampformorethan0.5s

Specialsafetysupplysystemforoperating

xii)

Preventionofexplosions,fireandelectrostaticcharges

lamp
Measuresconcerningexplosionandfire
hazards
xiii)

Noexerciseinterferencefromelectricandmagneticfields

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NOTENormalconditionmeanswithoutanyfaultintheinstallation.

a.aroomisnotintendedfortheuseofmedicalelectricalequipment,or
b.patientsdonotcomeintentionallyincontactwithmedicalelectricalequipmentduringdiagnosisortreatment,or
c.onlymedicalelectricalequipmentisusedwhichisinternallypoweredorofprotectionClassII.
Theroomsmentionedunder(a),(b)and(c)maybemassagerooms,generalwards,doctorsexaminingroom(office,consultingroom),where
medicalelectricalequipmentisnotused.
6.1.3

GuidanceontheapplicationoftheprovisionsaregiveninTable2.
6.1.4

AtypicalexampleofaninstallationinahospitalisgiveninAnnexC.
7SUPPLYCHARACTERISTICSANDPARAMETERS
7.0ExchangeofInformation

7.0.1

Propercoordinationshallbeensuredbetweenthearchitect,buildingcontractorandtheelectricalengineerorthevariousaspectsofinstallation
design.ThenecessaryspecialfeaturesofinstallationsshallbeascertainedbeforehandwithreferencetoTable2.
7.1

CircuitInstallationMeasuresforSafetyProvisionsSeeTable1,col3.
7.1.1ProvisionP0:General

7.1.1.1AllbuildingsinthehospitalareawhichcontainmedicallyusedroomsshallhaveaTNS,TTorITpowersystem.Theconventionaltouch
voltagelimit(UL)isfixedat50Vac.
NOTETheuseofTNCSsystem(inwhichthePENconductormaycarrycurrentinnormalcondition)cancausesafetyhazards
forthepatientsandinterferewiththefunctionofmedicalelectricalequipment,dataprocessingequipment,signaltransmissionlines,etc.
7.1.2ProvisionP1:MedicalTNSSystem

7.1.2.1Theconventionaltouchvoltagelimit(UL)isfixedat25Vac.
7.1.2.2Protectiveconductorsinsideamedicallyused
229

Table2ExamplesofApplicationofSafetyProvisions
(Clause6.1.3)
SI
No.

MedicallyUsedRoom

(1)

(2)

ProtectiveMeasures

SafetySupply
System

P0 /P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7

i) Messageroom
ii) Operatingwashroom

(3)

GE

E1

Explosions
andFire

E2

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) (12)

MeasuresAgainst
EMFields

(13)

(14)

iii) Wardgeneral

iv) Deliveryroom

xi) Radiologicaldiagnosticandtherapyroom,otherthanmentionedunderSI M

v) ECG,EEG,EMGroom
vi) Endoscopicroom
vii) Examinationortreatmentroom
viii) Labourroom
ix) Operatingsterilizationroom
x) Urologyroom(notbeinganoperatingtheatre)

No.(xx)and(xxiv)
xii) Hydrotherapyroom

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xii) Hydrotherapyroom

xiii) Physiotherapyroom

xiv) Anaestheticroom

X1 X

xv) Operatingtheatre

X1 X

X1 X

xvii) Operatingplasterroom

X1 X

xviii) Operatingrecoveryroom

X1 X

xix) Outpatientoperatingtheatre

X1 X

xx) Heartcatheterizationroom

X1 X

X1 X

X1 X

X1 X

xiv) Angiographicexaminationroom

X1 X

xxv) Hemodialysisroom

X1 X

X1 X

xvi) Operatingpreparationroom

xxi) Intensivecareroom
xxii) Intensiveexaminationroom
xxiii) Intensivemonitoringroom

xxvi) Centralmonitoringroom(seeNote)

NOTEOnlyifsucharoomispartofamedicalroomgroupandthereforeinstalledinthesamewayasanintensivemonitoringroom.Centralmonitoring
roomhavingnoconductiveconnectiontothemedicallyusedroom(forexample,byuseofisolatingcouplingdevicesforsignaltransmission)maybeinstalledas
nonmedicallyusedroom(provisionP0only).
Explanation:

Mandatorymeasure.

Recommendedmeasure.

X1

AsX,butonlyforequipmentdescribedin7.1.6.7.

Additionalmeasure,maybeconsidereddesirable.

roomshallbeinsulated:theirinsulationshallbecolouredgreenyellow(seePart1/Section4ofthisCode).
7.1.2.3Exposedconductivepartsofequipmentbeingpartoftheelectricalinstallationusedinthesameroomshallbeconnectedtoacommon
protectiveconductor.
7.1.2.4Amainequipotentialbondingwithamainearthingbarshallbeprovidednearthemainserviceentrance.Connectionsshallbemadeto
thefollowingpartsbybondingconductors:
a.lightningconductor
b.earthingsystemsoftheelectricpowerdistributionsystem
c.thecentralheatingsystem
d.theconductivewatersupplyline
e.theconductivepartsofthewastewaterline
230

f.theconductivepartsofthegassupplyand
g.thestructuralmetalframeworkofthebuilding,ifapplicable.
Mainequipotentialbondingconductorsshallhavecrosssectionalareasnotlessthanhalfthecrosssectionalareaofthelargestprotective
conductoroftheinstallation,subjecttoaminimumof6mm2.Thecrosssectionalareaneednot,however,exceed25mm2,ifthebondingconductor
isofcopperoracrosssectionalareaaffordingequivalentcurrentcarryingcapacityinothermetals.
7.1.2.5Eachmedicallyusedroomorroomgroupshallhaveitsownprotectiveconductorbusbar,whichshouldhaveadequatemechanicaland
electricalpropertiesandresistanceagainstcorrosion.
Thisbusbarmaybelocatedintherelevantpowerdistributionbox.Theleadsconnectedtoterminalsofsuchaprotectiveconductorbarshallbe
identifiedandshallbesimilarlydesignatedondrawingsoftheinstallationsystem.
7.1.2.6Theimpedance(Z)betweentheprotectiveconductorbarandeachconnectedprotectiveconductorcontactinwallsocketsorterminals
shouldnotexceed0.2,iftheratedcurrentoftheovercurrentprotectivedeviceis16Aorless.Incaseofaratedcurrentexceeding16Athe
impedanceshouldbecalculatedusingtheformula:
inallcasesZshallnotexceed0.2.
where
Ir

ratedcurrentofovercurrentprotectivedeviceinamperes(A).

NOTEThemeasurementoftheprotectiveconductorimpedanceshouldbeperformedwithanaccurrentnotlessthan10Aand
notexceeding25Afromasourceofcurrentwithanoloadvoltagenotexceeding6V,foraperiodofatleast5s.
7.1.2.7ThecrosssectionalareaoftheprotectiveconductorshallbenotlessthantheappropriatevalueshowninTable3.

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Table3CrosssectionalAreaofConductors
SINo.

CrosssectionalAreaofPhaseConductor,S,mm2

(1)

(2)

i) S16
ii) 16<S35
iii) S>35

MinimumCrosssectionalAreaoftheCorrespondingProtectiveConductor,PE,mm2
(3)

S
16
S/2

NOTEIftheapplicationofthistableproducesnonstandardsizes,conductorshavingtheneareststandardcrosssectionalareaaretobeused

ThevaluesgiveninTable3arevalidonlyiftheprotectiveconductorismadeofthesamemetalasthephaseconductors.Ifthisisnotso,the
crosssectionalareaoftheprotectiveconductoristobedeterminedinamannerwhichproducesaconductanceequivalenttothatwhichresultsfrom
theapplicationofTable3.
Thecrosssectionalareaofeveryprotectiveconductorwhichdoesnotformpartofthesupplycableorcableenclosureshallbe,inanycase,not
lessthan:
a.2.5mm2,ifmechanicalprotectionisprovided,and
b.4mm2,ifmechanicalprotectionisnotprovided.
7.1.2.8Itmaybenecessarytoruntheprotectiveconductorseparatefromthephaseconductors,inordertoavoidmeasuringproblemswhen
recordingbioelectricpotentials.
7.1.3ProvisionP2:SupplementaryEquipotentialBonding

7.1.3.1Inordertominimizethetouchvoltage,allextraneousconductivepartsshallbeconnectedtothesystemofprotectiveconductors.
Anequipotentialconductorbarshallbeprovided.Itshouldbelocatedneartheprotectiveconductorbar(seealso7.1.2.5).Acombined
protectiveconductorandequipotentialbondingbarmaybeused,ifallconductorsareclearlymarkedaccordingto7.1.2.5and7.1.3.3(e).
7.1.3.2Connectionsshallbeprovidedfromtheequipotentialbondingbartoextraneousconductiveparts,suchaspipesforfreshwater,heating,
gases,vacuumandotherpartswithaconductivesurfacearealargerthan0.02m2oralineardimensionexceeding20cm,orsmallerpartsthatmaybe
graspedbyhand.
Additionallythefollowingrequirementssupply:
a.Suchconnectionsneednotbemadeto:
1.Extraneousconductivepartsinsideofwalls(forexamplestructuralmetalframeworkofbuildings)havingnodirectconnectiontoany
accessibleconductivepartinsidetheroom,and
2.conductivepartsinanonconductiveenclosure.
b.Inlocationswherethepositionofthepatientcanbepredeterminedthisprovisionmayberestrictedtoextraneousconductivepartswithinthe
patientenvironment(seeAnnexB)

231

c.Inoperatingtheatres,intensivecarerooms,heartcatheterizationroomsandroomsintendedfortherecordingofbioelectricalactionpotentials
allpartsshouldbeconnectedtotheequipotentialbondingbarviadirectandseparateconductors.
7.1.3.3Thefollowingrequirementsshallbefulfilled:
a.Theimpedancebetweenextraneousconductivepartsandtheequipotentialbondingbarshallnotexceed0.1.
NOTEThemeasurementofthisimpedanceshouldbeperformedwithacurrentnotlessthan10Aandnotexceeding25Aduringnot
lessthan5sfromacurrentsourcewithanoloadpotentialnotexceeding6Vac.
b.Allequipotentialbondingconductorsshallbeinsulated,theinsulationbeingcolouredgreen/yellow.
NOTEInsulationoftheequipotentialbondingconductorsisnecessary,toavoidloopsbycontactandtoavoidpickingupofstray
currents.
c.Equipotentialconductorsbetweenpermanentlyinstalledextraneousconductivepartsandtheequipotentialbondingbarshallhaveacross
sectionalareaofnotlessthan4mm2copperorcopperequivalent.
d.Theequipotentialbondingbar,ifany,shouldhaveadequatemechanicalandelectricalproperties,andresistanceagainstcorrosion.
e.Theconductorsconnectedtotheequipotentialbondingbarshallbemarkedandshallbesimilarlydesignatedondrawingsoftheinstallation
system.
f.Aseparateprotectiveconductorbarandanequipotentialbondingbarinamedicallyusedroomorinaroomgroupshallbeinterconnectedwith
aconductorhavingacrosssectionalareaofnotlessthan16mm2copperoritsequivalent(seealso7.1.3.1).
g.Anadequatenumberofequipotentialbondingterminalsotherthanthoseforprotectiveconductorcontactsorpinsofsocketoutletsshouldbe
providedineachroomfortheconnectionofanadditionalprotectiveconductorofequipmentorforreasonsoffunctionalearthingof
equipment.
7.1.4ProvisionP3:RestrictionofTouchVoltageinRoomsEquippedforDirectCardiacApplication

7.1.4.1Thecontinuouscurrentthrougharesistanceof1000connectedbetweentheequipotentialbondingbarandanyexposedconductive

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partaswellasanyextraneousconductivepartinthepatientenvironmentshallnotexceed10Ainnormalconditionforfrequenciesfromdcto1kHz.
Foradescriptionofpatientenvironment,seeAnnexB.
WherethemeasuringdevicehasanimpedanceandafrequencycharacteristicsasgiveninAnnexD,thecurrentmayalsobeindicatedasa
continuousvoltagewithalimitof10mVbetweenthepartsmentionedabove.
a.Duringthetestitisassumedthatfixedandpermanentlyinstalledmedicalelectricalequipmentisoperating.
b.Normalconditionsmeanswithoutanyfaultintheinstallationandinthemedicalelectricalequipment.
Compliancewiththisrequirementmaybeachievedthroughoneormoreofthefollowingmethods:
a.Extraneousconductivepartsmaybe:
1.connectedtotheequipotentialbondingbarbyaconductorofalargecrosssectionalareainordertoreducethevoltagedropacrosssucha
conductor,
2.insulatedsothatitisnotpossibletotouchthemunintentionally,and
3.providedwithisolatingjointsatthoseplaceswheretheyenterandleavetheroom.
b.Exposedconductivepartsofpermanentlyinstalledequipmentmaybeisolatedfromtheconductivebuildingconstruction.
7.1.5ProvisionP4:ApplicationofResidualCurrentProtectiveDevices

7.1.5.1Theuseofaresidualcurrentprotectivedeviceisnotrecognizedasasolemeansofprotectionanddoesnotobviatetheneedtoapplythe
provisionsP1andP2.
7.1.5.2Eachroomoreachroomgroupshallbeprovidedwithatleastoneresidualcurrentprotectivedevice.
7.1.5.3AresidualcurrentprotectivedeviceshallhaveastandardratedoperatingresidualcurrentI30mA.
7.1.5.4Amedicalisolatingtransformerandthecircuitssuppliedfromitshallnotbeprotectedbyaresidualcurrentprotectivedevice.
7.1.5.5Electricalequipmentsuchasgenerallightingluminaries,installedmorethan2.5mabovefloorlevelneednotbeprotectedbyaresidual
currentprotectivedevice.
7.1.5.6Fixedandpermanentlyinstalledelectromedicalequipmentwithapowerconsumptionrequiringanovercurrentprotectivedeviceof
morethan63AratedvaluemaybeconnectedtothesupplymainsbyuseofaresidualcurrentprotectivedevicewithI300mA.
232

7.1.6ProvisionP5:MedicalITSystem

7.1.6.0TheuseofamedicalITsystemforthesupplyofmedicallyusedroomsforexampleoperatingtheatres,maybedesirablefordifferent
reasons:
a.AmedicalITsystemincreasesthereliabilityofpowersupplyinareaswhereaninterruptionofpowersupplymaycauseahazardtopatientor
user
b.AmedicalITsystemreducesanearthfaultcurrenttoalowvalueandthusalsoreducesthetouchvoltageacrossaprotectiveconductorthrough
whichthisearthfaultcurrentmayflow
c.AmedicalITsystemreducesleakagecurrentsofequipmenttoalowvalue,wherethemedicalITsystemisapproximatelysymmetricaltoearth
ItisnecessarytokeeptheimpedancetoearthofthemedicalITsystemashighaspossible.Thismaybeachievedby:
1.restrictionofthephysicaldimensionsofthemedicalisolatingtransformer,
2.restrictionofthesystemsuppliedbythistransformer.
3.restrictionofthenumberofmedicalelectricalequipmentconnectedtosuchasystem,and
4.highinternalimpedancetoearthoftheinsulationmonitoringdeviceconnectedtosuchacircuit.
IftheprimaryreasonfortheuseofmedicalITsystemisthereliabilityofthepowersupply,itisnotpossibletodefineforsuchasystemahazard
currentandaninsulationresistancemonitoringdeviceshouldbeused.
IfontheotherhandtherestrictionofleakagecurrentofequipmentisthemainreasonfortheuseofthemedicalITsystem,aninsulation
impedancemonitoringdeviceshouldbeused.
7.1.6.1Foreachroomoreachroomgroupatleastonefixedandpermanentlyinstalledmedicalisolatingtransformershallbeprovided.
7.1.6.2Amedicalisolatingtransformershallbeprotectedagainstshortcircuitandoverload.
IncaseofashortcircuitoradoubleearthfaultinpartsofoppositepolarityofthemedicalITsystemthedefectivesystemshallbedisconnected
bytherelevantovercurrentprotectivedevice.
Ifmorethanoneitemofequipmentcanbeconnectedtothesamesecondarywindingofthetransformer,atleasttwoseparatelyprotected
circuitsshouldbeprovidedforreasonsofcontinuityofsupply.
7.1.6.3Overcurrentprotectivedevicesshallbeeasilyaccessibleandshallbemarkedtoindicatetheprotectedcircuit.
7.1.6.4AninsulationmonitoringdeviceshallbeprovidedtoindicateafaultoftheinsulationtoearthofalivepartofthemedicalITsystem.
7.1.6.5Fixedandpermanentlyinstalledequipmentwitharatedpowerinputofmorethan5kVAandallXrayequipment(evenwitharated
powerinputoflessthan5kVA)shallbeprotectedbyprovisionP4.Electricalequipmentsuchasgenerallighting,morethan2.5mabovefloorlevel,
maybeconnecteddirectlytothesupplymains.

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7.1.6.6Generalrequirementsforinsulationmonitoringdevices
Aseparateinsulationresistanceorimpedancemonitoringdeviceshallbeprovidedforeachsecondarysystem.Itshallcomplywiththe
requirementsgivenbelow:
a.Itshallnotbepossibletorendersuchadeviceinoperativebyaswitch.Itshallindicatevisiblyandaudiblyiftheresistanceorimpedanceofthe
insulationfallsbelowthevaluegivenin7.1.6.7and7.1.6.8.
Thearrangementmaybeprovidedwithastopbuttonfortheaudibleindicationonly.
b.Atestbuttonshallbeprovidedtoenablecheckingtheresponseofthemonitortoafaultconditionasdescribedin7.1.6.4.
c.Thevisibleindicationmentionedin(a)oftheinsulationmonitoringdeviceshallbevisibleinthemonitoredroomorroomgroup.
d.Theinsulationmonitoringdeviceshouldbeconnectedsymmetricallytothesecondarycircuitofthetransformer.
7.1.6.7Insulationresistancemonitoringdevice
Theacresistanceofaninsulationresistancemonitoringdeviceshallbeatleast100k.Themeasuringvoltageofthemonitoringdeviceshall
exceed25Vdc,andthemeasuringcurrent(incaseofashortcircuitofanexternalconductortoearth)shallnotexceed1mA.Thealarmshalloperate
iftheresistancebetweenthemonitoredisolatedcircuitandearthis50korless,settingtoahighervalueisrecommended.
7.1.6.8Insulationimpedancemonitoringdevice
Aninsulationimpedancemonitoringdeviceshallgivereadingscalibratedintotalhazardcurrentwiththevalueof2mAnearthecentreofthe
meterscale.
Thedeviceshallnotfailtoalarmfortotalhazardcurrentsinexcessof2mA.Innocase,however,shall

233

thealarmbeactivateduntilthefaulthazardcurrentexceeds0.7mA.
DuringthecheckingoftheresponseofthemonitortoafaultconditiontheimpedancebetweenthemedicalITsystemandearthshallnot
decrease.
NOTEThevaluesof2mAor0.7mAarebasedonpracticalexperiencewith110to120Vpowersupplies.Fora220240Vpower
supplyitmaybenecessarytoincreasethesevaluesto4mAand1.4mAbecauseofthehigherleakagecurrentofequipment.
7.1.7ProvisionP6:MedicalIndividualElectricalSeparation

7.1.7.0Individualelectricalseparationofacircuitisintendedtopreventshockcurrentsthroughcontactwithexposedconductivepartswhich
maybeenergizedbyafaultinthebasicinsulation.
7.1.7.1Thesourceofsupplyshallbeamedicalisolatingtransformer.
7.1.7.2Onlyoneitemofequipmentshallbeconnectedtoonesourceofsupply.
7.1.7.3Thevoltageofthesecondarycircuitshallnotexceed250V.
7.1.7.4Livepartsoftheseparatedcircuitshallnotbeconnectedatanypointtoanyothercircuitortoearth.
7.1.7.5Toavoidtheriskofafaulttoearth,particularattentionshallbepaidtotheinsulationofsuchcircuitsfromearth,especiallyforflexible
cablesandcords.
7.1.7.6Flexiblecablesandcordsshallbevisiblethroughoutanypartoftheirlengthwheretheyareliabletomechanicaldamage.
7.1.7.7Allconductorsshallbephysicallyseparatedfromthoseofothercircuits.
7.1.8ProvisionP7 :MedicalSafelyExtraLowVoltage(MSELV)

7.1.8.1Medicalsafetyextralowvoltageshallnotexceed25Vacor60Vdcpeakvalue.
7.1.8.2AsupplytransformerformedicalsafetyextralowvoltageshallcomplywithrelevantIndianStandards.
7.1.8.3Asourceofmedicalsafetyextralowvoltageotherthanatransformershallhaveatleastthesameseparationandinsulationtoother
circuitsandearthasrequiredforthetransformerunder7.1.8.2.
7.1.8.4Livepansatmedicalsafetyextralowvoltageshallnotbeconnectedtolivepartsorprotectiveconductorsformingpartofothercircuits
ortoearth.
7.1.8.5Exposedconductivepartsshallnotintentionallybeconnectedto:
a.earth,or
b.protectiveconductorsorexposedconductivepartsofanothersystem,or
c.extraneousconductivepartsexceptthat,whereelectricalequipmentisinherentlyrequiredtobeconnectedtoextraneousconductiveparts,itis
ensuredthatthosepartscannotattainavoltageexceedingmedicalsafetyextralowvoltage.
7.1.8.6Livepartsofcircuitsatmedicalsafetyextralowvoltageshallbeelectricallyseparatedfromothercircuits.Arrangementsshallensure
electricalseparationnotlessthanrequiredbetweentheinputandoutputofamedicalsafetyextralowvoltagetransformer.
Inparticular,electricalseparationnotlessthanthatprovidedbetweentheinputandoutputwindingsofamedicalsafetyextralowvoltage
transformershallbeprovidedbetweenthelivepartsofelectricalequipmentsuchasrelays,conductors,auxiliaryswitchesandanypartofacircuitwith
ahighervoltage.
7.1.8.7Medicalsafetyextralowvoltagecircuitconductorsshalleitherbephysicallyseparatedfromthoseofanyothercircuitorwherethisis
impracticable,oneofthefollowingarrangementsisrequired:

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a.Medicalsafetyextralowvoltagecircuitconductorsshallbeenclosedinanonmetallicsheathadditionaltotheirbasicinsulation.
b.Conductorsofcircuitsatdifferentvoltagesshallbeseparatedbyanearthedmetallicscreenoranearthedmetallicsheath.
c.Wherecircuitsatdifferentvoltagesarecontainedinamulticonductorcableorothergroupingofconductors,medicalsafetyextralowvoltage
circuitsshallbeinsulated,individuallyorcollectively,forthehighestvoltagepresent.
NOTEIntheabovearrangements,basicinsulationofanyconductorshouldcomplyonlywiththerequirementsforthevoltageofthe
circuitofwhichitisapart.
7.1.8.8Plugsandsocketoutletsshallcomplywiththefollowingrequirements:
a.Supplysystemsofdifferentvoltagesordifferentkindsornatureshallnothaveinterchangeableplugsandsockets,and
b.Socketoutletsshallnothaveaprotectiveconductorcontact.
7.2Wiring

7.2.1

ThegeneraldesignofwiringshallconformtoPart1/Section9ofthisCode.
234

7.2.2

Allpanelboardsandswitchboardsshallpreferablybeofdeadfronttype,enclosedinmetalcabinet.Wherelockedcabinetsareprovided,alllocks
shouldbekeyedalike.Switchboardandpanelboardsshallbeinstalledinnonhazardouslocations.
7.2.3

Circuitbreakersarepreferredtoswitchfuseunitsinpowerandlightingfeeders.
7.2.4

Insidethewardsonlysilenttypewallmountedswitchesshouldbeusedtoreducenoise.Thelightingpointsshallbesogroupedsothatminimum
lightingmaybeswitchedonduringnighttime.
7.2.5

SeparatecircuitsshallbeprovidedforXray,electrotherapy,diathermy,electrocardiograph,etc.Adviceofequipmentmanufacturersshallalsobe
soughtintheirinstallation.
7.2.6

Incorridorsandspacesaccessibletopublicprovisionsshallbemadeforlightedsigns.
7.2.7

Specialconvenienceoutletsincorridorsspacedabout12mapartaredesirableforportabletreatmentequipmentandcleaningmachines.
7.3Feeders

ThegeneralprovisionslaiddowninPart1/Section9ofthisCodeshallapply.
7.4ServiceLines

7.4.1

ThegeneralprovisionslaiddowninIS8061shallapply.
7.4.2

Themainsupplyconductorsshallpreferablybebroughtintothebuildingundergroundtoreducethepossibilityofinterruptionofpowersupply.
7.5BuildingSubstation

7.5.0General

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Thedesignofpowersupplyforhospitalandsimilarbuildingsshalltakeintoaccounttheconcentrationofpowerdemandforthevarious
electricalloads.Iftheloaddemandishighrequiringsupplyathighvoltage,accommodationofsubstationequipmentwillberequired.Emergencyand
standbypowersupplyneedsofhospitalbuildingsshallalsobetakenintoaccountindesigningthebuildingsubstation.
7.5.1

Whilecalculatingthepowerrequirement,thediversityfactorfordifferentelectricalappliancesandinstallationsshallbeconsidered.For
guidance,Table4givesreferencevaluesofpowerrequirementanddiversityfactorforthedifferentpartsinahospitalinstallation.
7.5.2

Thelocationandlayoutofbuildingsubstationandemergencydieselgeneratingset/sshallconformtothegeneralruleslaiddowninPart2of
thisCode.
Table4PowerRequirement
(Clause7.5.1)
SINo.

PartofElectricalInstallation

ProportionofTotalPowerRequirement
Percent

DiversityFactor

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

i) Lighting

25

0.9

15

1.0

iii) Kitchen

10

0.6

iv) Sterilizer

10

0.6

v) Laundry

0.6

15

1.0

20

0.6

ii) Airconditioning

vi) Lifts
vii) Electromedicalinstallationsandotherloads
7.6SystemProtection

7.6.0General

ThegeneralrulesforprotectionforsafetylaiddowninPart1ofthisCodeshallapply.ReferenceshouldbemadetoSP7forguidelinesforfire
protectionofbuildings.Theadditionalrulesgivenbelowshallapply.
7.6.1

ThetypeofbuildingscoveredinthisSectionfallunderGroupC1(hospitalsandsanatoria),C2(custodialinstitution),andC3(panelinstitutions
formentalhospitals,andsimilarbuildings)fromthefiresafetyclassificationpointofview.
7.6.2

Inhospitalsandsimilarbuildings,besidesfirefightingequipmentmanuallyoperatedelectricalfirealarmsystemandautomaticfirealarmsystem
shallbeprovided.Restrictedpagingsystemarrangementwithsoundalarm/indicatorsinthedutyrooms/nursesroomsshallbemade.
7.6.3

Forguidelinesonselectionoffiredetectors,seeSP7.Thewiringforfirefightingsystemsshallbesegregatedfromotherwiringtoreduceriskof
damagetotheminthecaseoffire.Forhighrisebuildings,thefirefightingpumpmotorsaregenerallylargeandtheydrawheavycurrent.Sufficient
careshallbetakentoensurethatthesupplytosuchmotorsismaintainedproperly.
7.7Fireprotection

Whereelectricalequipmentcontainspipesortubesofcombustionsupportinggases,suchasoxygenornitrousoxide,thefollowingadditional
requirementsapply:
a.Gasoutletsshallbelocatedatleast20cmawayfromelectricalcomponentswhich,innormaluseorincaseofafault,couldgeneratesparks.
b.Thegasflowshallnotbedirectedtowardssuchelectricalcomponents.
235

c.Electricalwiringshallonlybeallowedtoberuninacommonenclosure,forexampleinacommonconduitforchannel,withtubesfor
combustionsupportinggases,suchasoxygenornitrousoxide,ifintherelevantcircuittheproductofthenoloadvoltageinvolts(V)andthe
shortcircuitcurrentinamperes(A)doesnotexceed10.
d.Iftherequirementsin(c)cannotbefulfilledgastightseparationshallbeprovidedbetweentheelectricalwiringandthetubesforgases.
Thegastightseparationshallbeelectricallyconductingandshallbeconnectedtotheprotectiveearthbusbar.
e.Whereelectricalleadsareclosetoapipelineguidingignitablegasesoroxygen,ashortcircuitoftheseleadsorashortcircuitofoneleadwitha

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metalductorpipelineshallnotresultinatemperaturewhichmaycauseignition.
8ADDITIONALREQUIREMENTSFORHAZARDOUSLOCATIONSINHOSPITALS
8.1ProvisionA:ExplosionandFireProtection

8.1.1ExplosionProtection:General

a.Whentheadministrationofflammableanaestheticatmospheresorflammableanestheticsorflammablecleaningand/ordisinfectionagentswith
airoroxygenandnitrousoxideisintended,specialmeasurestoavoidignitionsandfirearenecessary.Thesemeasuresincludemainlytheuseof
antistaticflooring.
b.Effectiveventilationandtheapplicationofasuctionsystemonanaesthesiaequipmentassistsinreducingflammableconcentrationsof
flammableanaestheticmixturesinthepatientenvironment,theanaesthetistsworkingplaceandtheoperatingtable.Theeffectivenessofa
ventilation,systemmaybesubjectedtoNationalRegulations.
c.LimitsofzonesofriskaregiveninAnnexA.Zonesofriskexistonlywhenflammableanestheticsorflammablecleaningand/ordisinfection
agentsareused.
d.Requirementsonconstruction,markinganddocumentationofmedicalelectricalequipmentofcategoryAPorAPGaregiveninIS13450(Part
1).
AllocationofequipmentofthecategoriesAPorAGtozonesofriskinoperatingtheatresorotheranaestheticroomsareunder
consideration.
e.Mainsplugconnections,switches,powerdistributionboxesandsimilardevices,whichmaycauseignitionshallbekeptoutsidezonesofrisk.
8.2AntistaticFloor

8.2.1

Antistaticfloorsshallbeusedinroomswherezonesofriskoccur.
Whereantistaticfloorsareusedinconjunctionwithnonantistaticfloorsmarkingshouldbeprovided,whichshouldbedescribedinthe
applicationcode.
8.2.2

Theresistanceofanantistaticfloorshallnotexceed25MatanytimeduringthelifetimeofthefloorwhenmeasuredaccordingtoIS7689.
NOTEThefactthatduringthelifetimeofthefloortheresistancemaychangesshouldbetakenintoconsideration.Theresistance
ofterrazzofloorsincreases,whilethatofPVCfloorsdecreaseswithtime.
8.2.3

Iffloorsoflowresistance(<50k)areused.ProvisionP4and/orP5shallbeusedtoeffectivelylimittheeffectsoffaultcurrents.
9BUILDINGSERVICES
9.1Lighting

9.1.1

ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPartl/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.Thechoiceoflamps,lightingfittingsandthegenerallightingdesign
togetherwiththepowerrequirementshallbeplanebasedontherecommendedvaluesofilluminationandglareindexgiveninTable5(seealsoSP72).
9.2Heating,VentilationandAirConditioning

TheprovisionsofPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.Provisionshallbemadetomaintainpositiveairpressureandinductincreased
quantityoffreshairtoavoidentryofgasesfromoneroomtoanother.
9.3Lifts

9.3.1

ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.However,thedesignofliftsinhospitalsandsimilarbuildingsshallbe
madetakingintoaccountthecriteriagivenTable5.
9.3.2Dimensions

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TheoutlinedimensionsofhospitalsliftsshallconformtothoselaiddowninTable3ofIS14665(Part1).
9.3.3OccupantLoad

ForthetypesofbuildingscoveredinthisSection,theoccupantloadexpressedasgrossareainm2perperson,shallbe15.
236

Table5RecommendedValuesofIlluminationandLimitingGlareIndex
(Clauses9.1.1and9.3.1)
SINo.

Buildings

Illumination

(1)

(2)

(3)

i) Hospitals

LimitingGlareIndex
(4)

a)Receptionandwaitingrooms

150

16

b)Wards

1)General

100

131)

2)Beds

150

c)Operatingtheatres/Dentalsurgeries

1)General

300

10

2)Tables/chairs

(Speciallighting)

d)Laboratories

300

19

e)Radiologydepartment

100

f)Casualtyandoutpatientdepartment

150

16

g)Stairs,corridors

100

h)Dispensaries

300

19

ii) DoctorsSurgeries

a)Consultingrooms

150

b)Corridors

70

c)Sighttesting(acuity)wallchartsandnearvisiontypes

450

iii) Laundries/DrycleaningWorks

a)Receiving,sorting,washing,drying

200

25

b)Drycleaning,bulkmachinework

200

25

c)Ironing,pressing,mending,spotting,dispatch

300

25

iv) Offices

(seePart3/Section2ofthisCode)

v) Kitchens

25

2002)

1)Careshallbetakentoscreenallbrightlightandareasfromviewofpatientsinbed.
2)Speciallocallightingrequiredoverkitchenequipment.

9.3.4CarSpeed

Theseshallbeasfollows:
SlNo.

TypeofLift

No.ofFloorsServed

(1)

(2)

(3)

i) Hospitalpassengerlift
ii) Hospitalbedlifts

CarSpeed(m/sec)
(4)

1320

Above1.5

45

0.5to0.75

a)Shorttravelliftsinsmallhospitals

0.25

b)Normal

0.5

c)Longtravelliftsingeneralhospitals

0.61.5

9.3.5Position

Itisconvenienttopositionthehospitalpassengerliftsnearthestaircases.Hospitalbedliftsshallbesituatedconvenientlynearthewardand
operatingtheatreentrances.Thereshallbesufficientspacenearthelandingdoorforeasymovementofstretcher/trolley.
10TESTINGOFINSTALLATION
10.1

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ThevarioustestsontheinstallationshallbecarriedoutaslaiddowninPart1/Section13ofthisCode.
10.2

Theinitialtestingoftheinstallationshallalsoinclude:
a.Testingoftheeffectivenessofprotectivemeasures(provisionsP0 toP1)
b.Testingoftheresistanceofprotectiveconductorsandoftheequipotentialbonding
c.Testingoftheinsulationresistancebetweenliveconductorsandearthineachseparatelyfusedcircuit
d.Testingoftheresistanceofantistaticfloors
e.Testingofthegeneralsafetysupplysystemand
f.Testingofthespecialsafetysupplysystem.
11STANDBY,SAFETYANDSPECIALSAFETYSUPPLYSYSTEM
11.1ProvisionGE:StandbyandSafetySupplySystem

11.1.1

Electricalsystemsformedicalestablishmentsshallcompriseessentialcircuitscapableofsupplyingalimitedamountoflightingandpower
servicewhichisconsideredessentialforsafety,lifesupportandbasichospitaloperationduringthetimethenormalelectricalserviceisinterrupted(see
alsoAnnexE).
11.1.2

Allmedicalestablishmentscontaininglifesupportingequipmentshallbeprovidedwithasafetysupplysystem.
11.1.3

Essentialcircuitsshallprovidefacilitiesforchargingbatteriesofaspecialsafetysupplysystem.
11.1.4

Operationofasafetysupplysystemshallnotimpairthefunctionofprotectivemeasures.
11.1.5

Allpartsofessentialcircuitsshallbemarked.
11.1.6

AnexampleofsafetysupplysystemsofahospitalisgiveninAnnexF.
11.1.7

Asafetysupplysystemshallbecapableofautomaticallytakingovertheloadofessentialcircuitsintheeventofafailureofthenormalpower
supply.
11.1.8

Thetakingoverprocedureshallnotstartearlierthanafteraperiodof2shaselapsedduringwhichthe
systemvoltagehasdroppedbelow90Vofthenominalvalueandshallbecompletedwithin15safterthestartingofthetakingoverprocedure.

237

Returntonormalpowersupplyshouldbedelayed.Fordieselgeneratorsthedelayshouldbeatleast30min.
11.1.9

Topreventsimultaneousdamage,themainfeedersforthesafetysupplysystemshallbesegregatedfromthenormalsystemwhereverpossible.
11.2ProvisionsE1andE2:SpecialSafetySupplySystem

11.2.1ProvisionE1:SpecialSafetySupplySystem,MediumBreak

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11.2.1.1Aspecialsafetysupplysystemshallautomaticallytakeovertheloadwithin15safterafailureofthepowersupplyatthemedical
establishmentcontaininglifesupportingequipment.
11.2.1.2Itshallbepossibletoresumeoperationofequipmentformaintainingimportantbodyfunctions,inparticularbreathingequipment,or
equipmentforresuscitation,within15sandtomaintainoperationforaperiodof3hsubsequently,forexample,viaabatterywithinverterorviaa
motordrivengenerator.
11.2.1.3WheretheratingofthespecialsafetysupplysystemissufficientthecircuitsofamedicalITsystemaccordingto7.1.6maybe
connectedtoit.
11.2.1.4Wherenotallsocketoutletsinamedicallyusedroomareconnectedtothespecialsafetysupplysystemtheconnectedsocketoutlets
shallbemarkedclearlyassuch.
11.2.2ProvisionE2:SpecialSafelySupplySystem,ShortBreak

11.2.2.1Aspecialsafetysupplysystemshallautomaticallytakeovertheloadwithin0.5safterafailureofthepowersupplyattheoperating
lamp.
11.2.2.2Operationofatleastoneoperatinglampshallberesumedafteraswitchovertimenotexceeding0.5sandoperationshallbe
maintainedforatleast3h.
11.2.3CommonRecommendationsfortheProvisionsE1andE2

11.2.3.1Theratedpowerofthesourceofaspecialsafetysupplysystemshallnotbelessthanrequiredbytheconnectedfunctions.Atleastthe
loadswhichrequirecontinuityofsupplyshallbeconnectedtothespecialsupplysystem.
11.2.3.2Operationofaspecialsafetysupplysystemshallnotimpairthefunctionofprotectivemeasures.
Fordieselgeneratorstherequirementsof11.1.8shallapply.
11.2.3.3Voltagedeviationsundernormalconditionsshallbelessthan10percentforperiodsoftimeexceeding5s.
11.2.3.4Frequencydeviationsshallbelessthan1percentforperiodsoftimeexceeding5s.
11.2.3.5Thespecialsafetysupplysystemsourceshallbelocatedoutsidethemedicallyusedrooms,ifpossibleclosetotherelevantdistribution
point,sothatphysicaldamagetothecablesconnectingthesourcetothedistributionpointisunlikely.
11.2.3.6Operationofthespecialsafetysupplysystemshallbeindicatedbyvisualmeansinallroomsconcerned.
NOTEItisrecommendedtoprovideadditionallyatotalloadindicatorineachroomconnectedtothesamespecialsafetysupply
system.
11.2.3.7Automaticmeansshallbeprovidedtokeepbatteriesoptimallycharged.
11.2.3.8Thechargingdeviceshallbedesignedsothat,startingfromthefullychargedconditions,itispossibletodischargecontinuouslyduring
3hatnominaloutput,andsubsequentlytorechangeduring6hafterwhichitshallbepossibletodischargeoncemorefor3hundertheconditions
mentionedabove.
11.2.3.9Itshallbepossibletosupplythechargingcircuitofaspecialsafetysupplysystemfromthesafetysupplysystem,sothatthespecial
safetysupplysystembatteriescanbechargedevenduringafailureofthenormalpowersupply.
12MEASURESAGAINSTINTERFERENCEPROVISIONI
12.1MeasuresAgainstacInterference

12.1.1

Inroomswheremeasurementsofbioelectricpotentialsareperformedmeasuresagainstinterferenceintheroomandinthesurroundingarea
shouldbeaffected,ifsuchinterferencemaycauseincorrectmeasurements.Suchroomsare:
a.roomsintendedformeasurementofbioelectricpotentials(EEG,ECG,etc)
b.intensiveexaminationrooms
c.intensivecareandmonitoringrooms
d.catheterizationrooms
e.angiographicexaminationroomsand
f.operatingtheatres.
12.2MeasuresAgainstInterferenceCausedbyMainsInducedElectricFields

12.2.1

Theelectricalwiringonbothsidesoforinsidewalls,floorandceilingoftheroomsconcernedshould
238

bescreenedbymeansofmetalshieldingofcablesorbymetalconduitsforcablesandwiring.
Ifsuchmetalshieldingisapplieditshouldbeconnectedtoprotectiveearthatonepointonly.

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12.2.2

MetalenclosuresorpansofenclosuresoffixedandpermanentlyinstalledelectricalequipmentofClassIIandIII(suchasoflightingfittings)
shouldbeconnectedtotheequipotentialbondingsystem.
12.2.3

Whereadequatemeasuresaccordingto11.1cannotbeappliedandECGandEEGmonitoringistobeundertaken,itisrecommendedtoshield
theroomorapartoftheroomagainstelectricfieldsbyinstallingaroomscreeningwithinthewallstructure.
12.3MeasuresAgainstInterferenceCausedbyMainsInducedMagneticFields

12.3.1

Itisrecommendedtoprovidesufficientdistancebetweenelectricalcomponentsandequipmentwhichmay,causemagneticinterferenceandthe
placefortheexaminationofpatients.Inpracticethefollowingvaluesofmagneticfieldstrengthhavebeenfoundtobesufficientlylowtoavoid
magneticinterference:
a.4107TppforECGrecording,and
b.2107TppforEEGrecording.
NOTEBallastsincorporatedinfluorescentlampfittingsgenerateanalternatingmagneticfieldthoseontheceilingoftheroom
immediatelybelowtheexaminationroomaretheonesmostlikelytocauseinterference.Insomecasesitmaybenecessarytoremoveballastsof
acertaintypefromthelightingfittingandtomountthematsufficientdistance.
12.3.2

Sufficientdistanceshouldbeprovidedwheninstallingunitswithstrongstraymagneticfieldssuchastransformersandmotors.Thisappliesalso
totheisolatingtransformerofprovisionP5.Thedistanceshouldbe3mormore.
12.3.3

Theroomslistedin12.1shouldnothavelargepowercablespassingthroughoradjacenttothem.Suggestedminimumdistancesare:
ConductorCrossSectionalArea

Distance,Min
m

10to70

95to185

240

NOTES
1.Cables,eithersinglephaseorthreephase,willhaveanegligibleexternalfieldiftheloadiscorrectlydistributedbetweenphaseor
betweenphaseandneutralbutinpracticefaultsbetweenneutralandearthorincorrectlydistributedloadsbetweenlinesand
neutral,andleakagecurrentswillcausealternatingmagneticfieldsinthevicinityofpowercables.
2.Thevaluesapplyonlytotwistedcables.Whenbarsystemsorseparatedsinglecablesareused,thedistancesmayhavetobe
substantiallylarger.
12.4MeasuresAgainstInterferencefromRadioFrequencyElectromagneticFields

12.4.0

Powerfulradiofrequencyfieldsmaycauseinterferenceinsensitiveelectromedicalequipment.
12.4.1

Normallysuchfieldsexistonlywhereshortwavediathermyorsurgicaldiathermyequipmentisusedandclosetotransmittingaerialsusedfor
suchpurposesasstafflocationandambulancecommunications.Thesimplestmeasureagainstsuchinterferenceistolocateequipmentwhichcausesit
wellawayfromareaswheresensitiveequipmentisused.Additionalmeasuresaretheinclusionofradiofrequencyrejectioncircuitsinsensitive
equipmentandtheuseofshortwavediathermyequipmentwithalowmodulationfactor.
Ifthemeasuresdescribedherearenotsufficientlyeffectiveitmaybenecessarytousesensitiveequipmentwithascreenedroom.
NOTETheconstructionofsuchascreenedroomshouldbeentrustedtoaspecialist.Anattenuationof40dBoverthefrequency
range150kHzto30MHzisconsideredtobeadequate.

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12.5ElectricHeatingCables

12.5.0

Thefollowingrequirementappliestoelectricheatingcablesembeddedinorattachedtosurfacesinbuildings.Itdoesnotapplytoremovable
applianceswhichmaybemountedonthesurfaceofwalls.
12.5.1

Electricheatingcablesofanytypeshouldnotbeusedinroomswherebioelectricpotentialsarerecorded.
NOTEDuetotheconstructionofsuchheatingcablesitisverylikely,thattheelectricandmagneticfieldswillinterferewiththe
recordingofbioelectricpotentials.Appropriatemeasuresaccordingto12.2and12.3shouldbetaken.
13MISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONS
13.1CallSystems

13.1.0

Electricalcallandsignalsystemwhenprovidedinhospitalsshouldcomplywiththerequirementsgivenin13.1.1to13.1.4.1Thefollowingare
theimportantcallandsignalsystem:
a.Nursescall,
b.Doctorspaging,and
c.Inandoutregister.
NOTEItisrecommendedthatelectricalcallandsignalsystemshouldbeprovidedinallhospitalssothatpatientsmayreceiveprompt
serviceandthedoctors,nursesandattendantsmayworkmoreefficiently.
13.1.1NursesCallSystem

Thenursescallsystemshouldbeawiredelectricalsystemwherebypatientsmaysignalforanursefromthebedsite.Twotypesofsystemsare
recommended:
239

a.Asimpleonewaysignalsystemwhichconnectsthebedsidecallstationswithasignalatthenursesstation,utilityroomandfloorpantryofthe
nursingunit.Itsimultaneouslylightsadomelightoverthedooroftheroomfromwhichthecalloriginated.Thesignalatthenursesstationmay
beintheformofanannunciatorwithabuzzerorasinglelightwithabuzzer.Twoormorelightsintheceilingofthecorridoratthenurses
stationtoindicatethedirectionfromwhichthecallcamearedesirableforthelatterarrangement.
b.Acentralcontrolpanelshouldbesetuppreferablyonthegroundfloorincorporatingasetofindicatingpanelsaccordingtothenumberof
wards.Eachindicatingpanelshouldhaveanumberofsmalllampsaccordingtothenumberofbeds.Ateachbedtherecouldbe4pushbuttons.
FirstforCallingNurses,secondforNursePresent,thirdforSettingCombinationandfourthforCallforDoctor.Whenanypatientpresses
thepushbuttontheindicationisatthecentralcontrolroomfromwhereintimationtonursescanbesent.Afterreachingthebedsitethenurse
pressestheNursePresentbuttonwhichgivesanindicationtooperatoratthecentralcontrolpanelthatthenurseisavailableneartheparticular
bed.Afterattendingthepatient,thenursepressestheresettingbuttonwhichputsthewholeequipmenttotheoriginalcondition.Ifthepatient
needsfurtherhelpofadoctorthenthenurseagainpressesthefourthpushbuttonandthecentralcontrolpaneloperatorsendsmessagetothe
doctorforthatparticularbed.
13.1.1.1Foremergencycallofnursebythepatientwhenhe/sheisinsideabathorwatercloset,suitablepullcordswitchesshallbeprovided
insidebathandwatercloset.Theseswitcheswhenoperatingwillgiveanindicationatthecentralcontrolpanelfromwhereintimationtonursecanbe
sent.
13.1.1.2Nursescallsystemmayalsobeoftheintercommunicatingtypewithamicrophoneandloudspeakeratthebedconnectedtothenurses
station.Thepatientcansignalforanurseorspeaktoherandreceiveananswer.Formaximumbenefitandservice,thissystemshouldincludeallthe
featuresdescribedin13.1.1fortheonewaysignalsysteminadditiontotheintercommunicatingfeatures.
13.1.2DoctorsPagingSystem

Thismayconsistofloudspeakerslocatedthroughoutthehospital,clinicsonwhichdoctorsnumberscanbesoundedortheflashertypewhich
indicatesthedoctorsnumbers.Theloudspeakerandotheraudiblecallsshouldnotbeusedastheymaydisturbthepatientsandattendants.Theflasher
systemconsistsofakeyboardandflasheratthetelephoneswitchboard.Thetelephoneoperatormaysettheboardtoflashasmanyasthreedoctors
numbersautomaticallyinrotation.Thenumbersappearonannunciatorslocatedinallsectionsofthecorridors.Thesamenumberofnumerals,at
leastthree,shouldbeusedforeachdoctorsothataburntoutlampmaybelocated.
13.1.2.1Thesepagingsystemscouldbeusedforcallinginterns,administrators,headsofdepartmentsandtheirassistantsandengineers.These
flashersmayalsobeusedforothergeneralcallssuchasfirewitharedFandbuzzer.Theflashercallsystemhasitsshortcomingsastheindividual
mayfailtoseethenumberswhenflashed.Forthisreasontheflashersystemshouldbesupplementedwithloudspeakersatpointswhereinterns,heads
ofdepartmentsanddoctorsmaycongregate,thatis,indoctorslounge,staffdiningroom,laboratoryandengineersofficeandsuchotherareaswhere
thecallsmaynotdisturbthepatients.

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13.1.3VHFPagingSystem

Thissystemconsistsofalowpoweredtransmittingstationfromwhichcallsarebroadcastthroughoutthehospitaltominiaturereceivingsets
whichthedoctorsandothersmaycarryintheirpockets.
13.1.4InandOutRegister

ThedoctorsinandoutregisterpermitsthedoctortoregisterINandOUTwiththeminimumofeffortanddelay.Theregisterconsistsofa
board,atoneormoreentrances,onwhichallstaffdoctor,uponenteringorleaving,operatesaswitchoppositehisnamewhichindicateswhetheror
notheisinthebuilding.Theswitchcontrolsalightatorbackofthenameonallboardsconnectedinthesystem.
13.1.4.1Exceptinverysmallhospitals,itisrecommendedtoinstallregistersystemwithaboardattwoormoreentrancesandatthetelephone
switchboard.Suchasystemshouldincludearecallfeaturewhichconsistsofaflasherunit,havingamotordriveninterrupter.Thisflasherunit,
controlledatthetelephoneswitchboard,willactuateaflashinglightatthedoctorsnameonallregisterboardswhichindicatesthereisamassagefor
thedoctors,andattractstheattentionofdoctoruponenteringorleavingthebuilding.Callbacksystemsareusedfornursesandinternsbedrooms.
Withsuchsystemthenursesandinternscanbeawakened,calledforduty,orcalledtothetelephonebypushbuttonsintheofficewhichoperate
buzzersintherooms.Theroomcalledcan
240

answerbypushingabuttonwhichregistersonanannunciatorintheoffice.Themainofficebuzzersmaybeconnectedthroughaselector
switchsothatserialroomsorsectionsmaybecalledbyonebutton.
13.2Telephones

13.2.0

AcentralizedEPABXSystemwithadequatenumberofP&Tlinesshallbeinstalledforinternalandexternalcommunication.Interconnecting
telephonesshouldbeprovidedforeachimportantdepartmentandatpatientsbed.Theseshallbeinterconnectedtopermitinternalcommunication
withoutoperatorsassistance.Facilityshallbeprovidedforexternalcommunicationwiththesedepartmentsthroughoperatorsassistance.Someofthe
mostimportantdepartmentsshallhavedirectaccessfacilityforexternalcommunication.Atallspecialandimportantbeds,telephonejacksshouldbe
installedsothatatelephonemaybepluggedinanytime.
13.2.1

Incaseofoperationtheatreandroomswheresurgicaloperationsanddressingisdone,concealedwiringshouldbeprovidedtoavoidriskof
contamination.Inotherplaces,anytypeofgeneralwiringmaybeacceptable.
13.2.2

Theconcealedwiringandswitchsocketoutletsintheoperationtheatresshallbekeptataminimumheightof1.5mfromtheflooras
anaestheticgasesareheavierthanairandgravitatetothefloor.
13.3Clocks

Electricclocksystemwhenprovided,shouldhaveclocksatnursesstations,mainlobby,telephoneswitchboard,kitchen,laundry,diningroom
andboilerroom,aswellasintheoperatinganddeliveryrooms.Theclocksshouldbeoftherecessedtype,preferablywithanarrowframe.Clocksin
operatinganddeliveryroomsshouldhavesweepsecondhands.ThegeneralguidanceprovidedinPart1/Section11ofthisCodeshallapply.
13.4OtherSpecialInstallations

Thelistofotherspecialcircuitsininstallationsinhospitalsaregivenbelow:
a.Closedcircuittelevisioninsurgerydepartment(forteachingpurposes)
b.Televisionsetsinwards
c.Shortwave,ultravioletraysorsterileraylampsinceilingsofoperatinganddeliveryroomsaroundtheoperatinglight,toreducethebacteria
countand
d.Luminoussigns.
241

ANNEXA
ZONESOFRISKINTHEOPERATINGTHEATREWHENUSINGFLAMMABLEANAESTHETICMIXTURESOF
ANAESTHETICGASESANDCLEANINGAGENTS
(Clauses3.2and8.1.1)

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ANNEXB
PATIENTENVIRONMENT
[Clauses3.3.11,7.1.3.2(b)and7.1.4]

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ANNEXC
EXAMPLEOFANELECTRICALINSTALLATIONINAMEDICALESTABLISHMENT
(Clause6.1.4)

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ANNEXD
SCHEMATICPRESENTATIONOFPROTECTIVECONDUCTORSANDEQUIPOTENTIALBONDINGIN
OPERATINGTHEATRES
(Clause7.1.4.1)

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ANNEXE
SAFETYSUPPLYSYSTEM
(Clause11.1.1)
E0GENERAL
E0.1

ThisAnnexcontainsrecommendationsforthedesignofthesafetysupplysysteminmedicalestablishments.
Priorityisgiventoallaspectsensuringsafeworkingconditionsinmedicallyusedrooms.
Interruptionofnormalelectricalserviceinmedicalestablishmentsmaycausehazardoussituations.Therefore,itisnecessarytoprovidefor
continuityofpowersupplyforvitalservicesatalltimes.
Insomemedicallyusedroomsaspecialsafetysupplysystemshouldbeprovidedadditionally.Itsupplieslifesupportingequipmentandthe
operatingtablelightingfor3honly,thatis,forarelativelyshorttimeifthemainssupplyorthesafetysupplysystemfailsortheswitchovertime
cannotbetolerated.
Thesafetysupplysystemisintendedtosupplyelectricalenergyforalongerperiodoftimetoessentialcircuitsofthemedicalestablishmentifthe
mainssupplyfailsbyexternalcauses.
E1ESSENTIALSERVICESLIGHTING
E1.1

Essentiallightingrequirementswillvaryconsiderablyindifferentlocations,dependingontheimportanceandnatureofthework.Insome

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instances,forexample,operatingtablelightinginoperatingsuites,andthecriticalworkingareasinthedeliveryroomandrecoveryrooms,thedegree
andqualityofemergencylightingshouldbeapproximatelyequaltothatofthenormallighting.Evenintheseareas,however,considerablereductionin
thegenerallightingmaybeacceptable.Amplesocketoutletsconnectedtoessentialcircuitsshouldbeavailabletoenableportablelightingfittingstobe
usedforanytasksoutsidethecriticalworkingareawhichrequireahigherstandardoflighting.
E1.2

Nogeneralrecommendationscanbemadefortheemergencylightingarrangementsforstairsandcorridorsasneedswilldifferconsiderably
accordingtothedesignandsizeofthehospital.Asageneralguide,safetylightingshouldbeprovidedtoenableessentialmovementofstaffand
patientstobecarriedoutinreasonablesafety.Safetylightingshouldalsobeprovidedinpublicwaitingspaces,atentrancesandexits,andincorridors
usedbymembersofthepublic,ambulancestaff,etc.Externalemergencylightingwillnormallyberestrictedtotheaccidentandemergencyentrance
areas.
E1.3

Threegradesofemergencylightingaresuggested,namely:
a.GradeAlightingofintensityandqualityequalornearlyequaltothatprovidedundernormalsupplyconditions
b.GradeBreducedstandardoflighting,forexample,abouthalfthenormalstandard,sufficienttoenableessentialactivitiestobeproperlycarried
outand
c.GradeCsafetylightingofamuchreducedstandardbutsufficienttoallowthefreemovementofpersons,trolleys,etc.
LevelsforGradesA,BandCareunderconsideration.
E1.4

Table6isintendedasageneralguide.Emergencylightingmaybeneededinareasnotmentionedinthetable.
E2ESSENTIALCIRCUITSSOCKETOUTLETS
E2.1

Socketoutletsshouldbesodistributedthatineachareawhereessentialequipmentwillbeused,socketoutletsconnectedtoatleasttwoseparate
subcircuitsareavailable.
Table7isintendedasageneralguide.
E2.2

SocketoutletsinoperatingroomsfortheconnectionofXrayequipmentforfluoroscopyshouldbesuppliedfromanessentialcircuit.
E2.3

Electricalservices,includingautomaticcontrols,whichareessentialforthesafeoperationofsterilizingequipmentinoperatingtheatreandthe
centralsterilesupplydepartmentshouldbesuppliedfromanessentialcircuit.
E2.4

Bloodbanksandotherclinicalrefrigeratorsareusuallyequippedwithtemperatureretainingfacilitieswhichwillsatisfactorilysafeguardagainst
powerfailuresofseveralhoursduration.Nevertheless,theyshallbesuppliedfromanessentialcircuit.
E2.5

Motorsofsurgicalsuctionplantshouldbeconnectedtoanessentialcircuit.Itisdesirablethatthemotorsshouldbesoarrangedthatoncethey
areswitchedontheywillrestartautomatically,followinganinterruptionofsupply.
246

Table6EmergencyLighting
(ClauseE1.4)
SlNo.

DepartmentorLocation

Area

(1)

(2)

(3)

GradeofLighting
(4)

i)

MajorOperatingSuites

Operatingtheatre

Criticalworkingarea

GradeA

Operatingtheatre

Generalworkingarea

GradeB

Anaestheticrooms

Generalworkingarea

GradeA

Postoperative

Generalworkingarea

GradeA

Intensivecareroom

Circulatingareas

GradeC

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Intensivecareroom

Circulatingareas

GradeC

ii)

DeliverySuites

Deliveryrooms

Criticalworkingarea

GradeA

Othernursingareas

GradeB

Circulatingareas

GradeC

iii)

AccidentandEmergencyDepartments

Operatingtheatres

Criticalworkingarea

GradeA

Intensivecarerooms

Criticalworkingarea

GradeA

Generalworkingarea

GradeB

Circulatingareas

GradeC

iv)

OutPatientDepartment

Operatingtheatres

Criticalworkingarea

GradeA

Treatmentrooms

Generalworkingareas

GradeB

Consultingrooms

Generalworkingareas

GradeB

Circulatingareas

GradeC

Pathologicaldepartment

Essentialworkingareas

GradeB

Bloodbank

GradeA

Transfusionlaboratory

GradeA

DiagnosticXraydepartment

Generalworkingarea(whereportableXraymachinesmaybeused) GradeB

Circulationareas

GradeC

Radiotherapydepartment

Treatmentareas

GradeA

Publiccirculatingareas

GradeC

Pharmacy

Dispensingareas

GradeB

Laboratory

GradeB

v)

WardAreas

Intensivetherapyunits

Intensivenursingarea

GradeA

Othernursingareas

GradeB

Nursesstationordutyroom

GradeB

vi)

SpecialBabyCareUnits

Nurseries

Generalworkingarea

GradeB

Psychiatricwards

Generalworkingarea

GradeB

Treatmentrooms

Generalworkingarea

GradeA

Othernursingareas

Generalworkingarea

GradeC(nightlighting)

vii)

CentralSterileSupplyGeneralworkingareaDepartment

GradeB

iii)

TelephoneExchangesEssentialworkingarea

GradeB

ix)

OperatorsRoom

GradeB

x)

Lifts

Liftscars

GradeA

Entranceandexitofelevators

GradeA

xi)

GeneralcirculatingAreas

Publicentrancesandexits

GradeC

Corridorsandstaircasesformingrecognizedmeansofescape

GradeC

Corridorsandcirculatingspacesofdeepplanneddesigns

GradeC

ii)

AssemblyAreas

Assemblyroomsandassociatedexists

Publicwaitingspace

Plantroomshousingessentialplant

Workingarea

GradeB

Kitchens

Essentialworkingareas

GradeB

GradeC

GradeC

Table7SocketOutletsinEssentialCircuits
(ClauseE2.1)
Sl
No.

Department

(1)

(2)

i) Operatingsuits
ii) Intensivecareroomandoperatingroomsinaccidentandemergencydepartment

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NumberofSocketOutletsConnectedtoEssentialCircuits(see
Note)
(3)

All
All

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ii) Intensivecareroomandoperatingroomsinaccidentandemergencydepartment

All

iii) Deliveryrooms

All

iv) Postanaestheticrecoveryrooms

All

v) Intensivetherapyunits

All

vi) Radiologicaldiagnosticroom

All

vii) Wardaccommodationsetasideforpatentsdependentonelectricallydrivenequipment,for

All

example,respirators,rockingbeds,artificialkidneymachines,etc.
viii) Specialbabycareunits

All

ix) Pathologylaboratories
x) Wardswhereessentialequipmentsuchassuctionapparatuswillbeused

2
2socketsoutletsforwardscontaining1to4bedsand,pro
rata,wherethenumberofbedsexceeds4.

NOTEItisreasonabletoassumethatonlyessentialequipmentwillbeusedintheseareasduringperiodsofpowerfailure.Therecommendationthatallsocketare
connectedtotheEssentialCircuitsprovidethemostconvenientchoiceofsocketsoutletsatanytime,andtosimplifyinstallation.
E2.6

Safetysupplysystemsforfacilitiesforventilationandairconditioningpurposeswillusuallyapplyonlytoplantswhichserveareaswhichare
entirelydependentonmechanicalventilationandhavenofacilitiesfornaturalventilationorwheremechanicalventilationservicesareessentialfor
clinicalreasons.Whereventilationrequirementsaremetbyduplicateplantsitwillusuallyonlybenecessaryforoneoftheplantstobesuppliedfrom
theemergencysource,thusensuringairsuppliesofapproximately50percentofthenormalrate.Changeoverswitches,however,shouldbeprovided,
toenableeitheroftheplantstobeconnectedtotheemergencyservice.
247

E2.7

Anymainsenergizedalarmandcontrolcircuitsshouldbesoarrangedthattheyareautomaticallyconnectedtothesafetysupplysysteminthe
eventofapowerfailure.
E2.8

Inbiochemicallaboratoriesandinthepharmacyabout50percentofthenormalloadshouldbesuppliedfromessentialcircuits.
E3PARTSOFESSENTIALCIRCUITS
E3.1

Deepfreezerefrigeratorsandfoodstoragerefrigeratorswillnormallyoperatewithinatemperaturerangeof10to23Candbefittedwitha
temperaturealarmdevicetogiveawarningwhentherefrigeratortemperatureapproachestheuppersafetylimit.Itmaybedesirableforonedeep
freezerefrigeratorateachhospitaltobesuppliedfromtheessentialcircuitswherethiscanbeconvenientlyarranged.
E3.2

Inmilkkitchen,allrefrigeratorsshouldbesuppliedfromanessentialcircuit.
E3.3

Whereelectricallyoperatedpumpsareusedtomaintainessentialwatersupplies(includingthatforfirefightingpurposes)itwillbenecessaryto
makesuitablearrangementsforthepumpstobeconnectedtothesafetysupplysystem.
E3.4

Telephoneexchangeequipmentisusuallyenergizedfromfloatchargedbatterieshavingsufficientcapacityforatleast24hnormalworking.
E3.5

Whereliftsareprovidedforthemovementofpatientsitisdesirablethatoneliftineachseparatesectionofthehospitalshouldbesoarranged
thatitisnormallyconnectedtotheessentialcircuitsoftheinstallationhavingautomaticchangeoverfacilities.Theseliftswillberegardedas
emergencyorfirelifts,andshouldbesuitablyindicatedbymarkingsateachlanding.
Suitablemanuallyoperatedswitchingarrangementsshouldbeprovidedtoenablethegeneralsafetysupplysystemtobeswitchedfromthe
emergencylifttoeachoftheotherliftsinturntoeliminatethepossibilityofoccupantsbeingtrappedintheliftsduringpowerfailures.Undernormal
supplyconditionstheemergencyliftsonlywillbeconnectedtotheessentialcircuitoftheinstallation.
E3.6

Communicationequipmentshouldbeconnectedtoessentialcircuits.

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E3.7

Allboilerhousesuppliesshouldbefedfromessentialcircuits.
E3.8

Emergencysuppliesforcomputersshouldbeexaminedineachcase.
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ANNEXF
SAFETYSUPPLYSYSTEMOFAHOSPITAL(EXAMPLE)
(Clause10.1.6)

249

SECTION5HOTELS
0FOREWORD
Hotelslodgingorroominghousesareofawidevariety,rangingfromsimpledormitorytypeaccommodationforguests,whereonlyacommon
bathisprovidedwithnofacilityfordining/kitchentothesophisticatedstarhotels.Increasingcompetitioninthehotelindustryassuch,coupledwith
thedemandbyguestsforavarietyofcomforts,callsforanelectricalinstallationinahotelwithincreasedsophistication.
Theelectricalneedsofahoteldependonthetypeandextentoffacilitiesbeingprovidedandtheratingofthehotel.Thesystemdesignwouldin
generalbeidenticalwiththatofanyotherlargebuilding,theactualpowerrequirementexpressedintermsofperunitareaorperguestroom.
SpecificrequirementsforinstallationsinswimmingpoolarecoveredinAnnexAtothisSection.Theserequirementsalsoapplytoswimming
poolsinotheroccupancies,saysportsbuildings.Foreditorialconvenience,thesespecificrequirementsformpartofthissectionoftheCode.
1SCOPE
ThisSection5oftheCodecoversrequirementsforelectricalinstallationsinbuildingssuchashotelsandlodginghouses.
2REFERENCES
ThisPart3/Section5oftheCodeshouldbereadinconjunctionwiththefollowingIndianStandards:

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ISNo.

Title

3646(Part2):1966 Codeofpracticeforinteriorillumination:Part2Scheduleforvaluesofilluminationandglareindex
8061:1976

Codeofpracticefordesign,installationandmaintenanceofservicelinesuptoandincluding650V

IS/IEC603091:

Plugs,socketoutletsandcouplersforindustrialpurposes:Part1Generalrequirements(firstrevision)

2002
IS/IEC603092:

Plugs,socketoutletsandcouplersforindustrialpurposes:Part2Dimensionalinterchangeabilityrequirementsforpinandcontacttube

2002

accessories(firstrevision)

SP7:2005

NationalBuildingCodeofIndia

SP72:2010

NationalLightingCode

3TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposeofthisSection,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2oftheCodeshallapply.
4CLASSIFICATION
4.1

TheelectricalinstallationscoveredinthisSectionarethoseinbuildingsintendedforthefollowingpurposes:
a.LodgingorroominghousesTheseincludeanybuildingorgroupofbuildingsinwhichseparatesleepingaccommodationforatotalofnotmore
than15personsoneithertransientorpermanentbasiswithorwithoutdiningfacilities,butwithoutcookingfacilitiesforindividuals,isprovided.
NOTETheaboveisdistinctfromsingleortwofamilyprivatedwellingswhicharecoveredinPart3/Sec1ofthisCode.
b.HotelsTheseincludeanybuildingorgroupofbuildingsinwhichsleepingaccommodationisprovidedwithorwithoutdiningfacilitiesforhire
tomorethan15persons,whoareprimarilytransientsuchashotels,inns,clubsandmotels.
NOTEForthepurposeofthisCode,restaurantsotherthanthoseformingpartofalargehotelaretreatedasassemblybuildingsandare
coveredinPart3/Sec3ofthisCode.
4.2

TheelectricalinstallationsinhotelscoveredinthisSectionincludethefollowingservices:
a.Supplyintake,
b.Maindistributioncentre,
c.Ventilationandexhaustsystems,
d.Kitchen,
e.Laundry,
f.Coldstorage,
g.Healthclub,
h.Swimmingpoolandfiltrationplants,
i.Restaurantsandbars,
j.Interiorlighting,
k.Telephones,
l.Channelizedmusic,
m.Serviceliftsandpassengerlifts,
n.Offices,
o.Fireprotectionandalarmsystems,
p.Banquethallsandconferencefacilities,
q.Gardensandparkinglotsandilluminationsystemstherein,
r.Illuminatedsigns,displaylightsanddecorativeilluminations,and

250

s.Emergencysystem.
5GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFINSTALLATIONS
GeneralguidelinesontheassessmentofcharacteristicsofinstallationsinbuildingsaregiveninPart1/Sec8ofthisCode.Forthepurposesof
installationsfallingunderthescopeofthisSection,thecharacteristicsdefinedbelowgenerallyapply(seealsoSP7).
5.1Environment

5.1.1

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Thefollowingenvironmentalfactorsapplytohotels:
Environment

Characteristics

(1)

(2)

Remarks
(3)

Presenceofwater

Probabilityofpresenceofwaterisnegligible

Majorityoflocationsinhotels.Tracesofwaterappearingforshortperiodsare

Possibilityofjetsofwaterfromanydirection

Appliestogardens

Possibilityofpermanentandtotalcoveringbywater

Locationssuchasswimmingpools

driedrapidlybygoodventilation.

Presenceofforeignsolidbodies Thequantityornatureofdustorforeignsolidbodies

isnotsignificant
Presenceofcorrosiveor

Thequantityandnatureofcorrosiveorpolluting

Forhotelssituatedbytheseaorindustrialzones,othercategorizationapplies

pollutingsubstances

substancesisnotsignificant

(seePart1/Section8ofthisCode)

Mechanicalstresses

Impactandvibrationoflowseverity

Seismiceffectandlighting

Dependsonthelocationofthebuilding

5.2Utilization

5.2.1

Thefollowingaspectsofutilizationshallapply:
Utilization

Characteristics

(1)

(2)

Remarks
(3)

Capabilityofpersons

Ordinary,uninstructedpersons

AmajorproportionofoccupantsinHotels

Personsadequatelyadvisedorsupervisedbyskilled

Appliestoareas,suchasbuildingsubstationandforoperatingand

persons

maintenancestaff

Personsinnonconductingsituations

Conditionofevacuationduring

Lowdensityoccupation,easyconditionsof

Appliestolodginghouses

emergency

evacuation

Highdensityoccupation,difficultconditionsof

Contactofpersonswithearth
potential

Largehotels,highrisebuildings.

evacuation
Natureofprocessedofstored

Nosignificantrisks

Contaminationrisksduetopresenceofunprotected

Appliestokitchens

material

foodstuffs

6SUPPLYCHARACTERISTICSANDPARAMETERS
6.0ExchangeofInformation

6.0.1

Propercoordinationshallbeensuredbetweenthearchitect,buildingcontractorandtheelectricalengineeronthevariousaspectsofinstallation
design.Inadditiontothegeneralaspectswhichrequirecoordinationandidentifiedinothersections,informationshallbeobtainedonthefollowing
services:
a.Whethercentralairconditioningsystemisintended.Ifso,layoutofairhandlingunits,fancoilunits,ducting,falseceilingandchilledwaterlines
shouldbeobtained.
b.Whethercentrallycontrolledfirefightingisintended.Ifso,layoutoffirefightinginstallationshouldbeobtained.
c.WhethertelephoneandTVfacilitiesareintendedineachroom.Ifso,layoutofthetelephoneinstallationandTVcircuitsshouldbeobtained.
d.Whethercentrallyheatedoutwatersystemisintended.Ifso,layoutofhotwaterpipelinebeobtained.

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6.1BranchCircuits

6.1.1

ThegeneralprovisionsforthedesignofwiringofbranchcircuitsshallconformtothoselaiddowninPart1/Section9ofthisCode.However,
forspecialcasessuchasforcommunicationnetworks,firealarmsystem,etc,aswellasinareassuchaskitchen,laundry,etc,therecommendationof
themanufacturershallapply.
6.1.2

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ThebranchcircuitcalculationsshallbedoneaslaiddowninPart1/Section1ofthisCode.Thespecificdemandsofthelighting,applianceand
motorloads,aswellasspecialloadsencounteredinhotelbuildingshallbetakenintoaccount.
6.1.3

Inhotelbuildings,theinteriordcornormallyincludesfalseceiling,carpetsandcurtains.Anywiringlaidabovethefalseceilingshouldbe
adequatelyprotected,suchasbydrawingthewiresinmetallicconduitsandnotruninopen.Wiresshallnotbelaidundercarpets.Theyshallberunat
skirtinglevelandencasedformechanicalprotection.
6.1.4PanelBoardsandSwitchboards

TheprovisionsofPart1/Section9ofthisCodeshallapply.
6.1.5SocketoutletsandPlugs

6.1.5.0Theseshouldbeprovidedinallplaceswherepluginserviceislikelytoberequired,toreducetheneedforalterationsandextensionsof
wiringafterthehotelbuildingiscompleted.Duplexorothersuitableoutletsshouldbeprovidedasrequiredintheofficesandworkplacesforfans,
lampsandappliances.Thesocketoutletsshallpreferablyhavecovers.Corridorsandstaircasesshallbeprovidedwithsufficientsocketoutletsforfloor
cleaningappliances.Theseshallbeconnectedinacircuitseparatefromthecircuitsfortheguestrooms.
6.1.5.1Ifprovided,useofacentralradioreceivingsystemwiredwithmultichannelspipedmusicsystemtoeachroomisrecommendedsothat
theoccupantmaychooseoneofthebroadcasts.Forsuchreception,specialaerialsandrelatedwiringarerequired.Aerialoutletsatroomsarerequired
forportableradiosinareasandbuildingswherereceptionispoorbutingeneraltheaerialbuiltinthesetmaybeadequate.
6.1.5.2Specialconvenienceoutletsincorridorsatsuitablelocationsaredesirableforuseofportableequipmentsuchasfloorcleaning
appliances.Theyshouldbeofthe3pintype,suitablyratedwithonepinearthed.
Heavydutysocketsshouldalsobeprovidedinpantries,kitchens,toiletsandutilityroomsforuseofappliances.
Adequatepluginsocketsatproperlocationsshouldbeprovidedinbanquethallsandothermeetingplacesforfloodlightsandotherappliances.
6.2Feeders

ThegeneralprovisionslaiddowninPart3/Section9ofthisCodeshallapply.
6.3ServiceLines

ThegeneralprovisionslaiddowninIS8061shallapply.
6.4BuildingSubstation

6.4.1

Iftheloaddemandishighwhichrequiressupplyatvoltageabove650Vaseparateindooraccommodation,asnearthemainloadcentreofthe
hotelaspossibleshallbeprovidedtoaccommodateswitchgearequipmentofsupplyundertakingandindoor/outdooraccommodationforthe
transformers.Themaindistributionequipmentofthehotelshallpreferablybelocatednexttothesubstation.Separatefeedersshallbeprovidedfor
majorloadslikecentralairconditioning,kitchen,laundry,swimmingpool,lightingofmainbuildingandotheressentialloads.
6.4.2

Thesupplylineshouldpreferablybebroughtintothebuildingundergroundtoreducethepossibilityofinterruptionofpowersupply.The
accommodationforsubstationequipmentaswellasformaindistributionpanelshallbeproperlyenclosedsoastopreventaccesstoanyunauthorized
person.Itshallbeprovidedwithproperventilationandlightingarrangement.
6.4.3

Thelocationandlayoutofbuildingsubstationandemergencydieselgeneratingset(s)shallbeinconformancewithPart2ofthisCode.
6.5SystemProtection

6.5.1General

ThegeneralrulesforprotectionforsafetylaiddowninPart1/Section7ofthisCodeshallapply.ReferenceshouldbemadetoSP7forguidelines
forfireprotectionofbuildings.
6.5.2

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Forlodgingandroominghousesof3storeyandabove,withafloorareamorethan200m2withcentralcorridorandroomsoneitherside,
besidesfirefightingequipment,manuallyoperatedelectricfirealarmsystemshallbeprovided.Bothmanuallyoperatedandautomaticfirealarm
systemsshallbeprovidedinlargehotels.

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6.6BuildingServices

6.6.1Lighting

6.6.1.1ThegeneralrulelaiddowninPart1/Section14ofthisCodeshallapply.Thechoiceoflightingfittingsandgenerallightingdesign
togetherwithpowerrequirementsshallbeplannedbasedontherecommendedvaluesofilluminationandlimitingvaluesofglareindexgiveninTable1
[seealsoIS3646(Part2)andSP72].
Table1RecommendedValuesofIlluminationandGlareIndexforHotels
SINo.

Building

llumination,lux

LimitingGlareIndex

(1)

(2)

(3)

(4)

i) Entrancehalls,lobby

150

300

iii) Diningrooms(tables)

100

iv) Lounges

150

ii) Receptionandaccounts

v) Bedrooms:
a)General

100

b)Dressingtables,bedheads,etc.

200

300

70

100

ix) Laundries

200

25

x) Kitchens

200

25

70

100

xiii) Bathrooms

100

xiv) Shops/stores

150300

22

vi) Writingtables
vii) Corridors
viii) Stairs

xi) Goods/passengerlifts
xii) Cloakrooms/toilets

NOTEThelightingofsomeoftheselocationsisdeterminedprimarilybyaestheticconsiderationsandtheabovevaluesshouldbetakenasaguideonly.

6.6.1.2Inguestbedrooms,itshallbepossibletoswitchthegenerallightingnotonlyfromtheentrancebutalsofromthebedside(seealso
8.4.2)
6.6.1.3Inbathrooms,thelightsshouldbemountedatheadlevelonbothsidesofthemirror.Careshallbetakentoensurethatthereisno
glare.
6.6.1.4Lightinginbanquethallsshallbegivenspecialconsiderationinviewofitsmultipurposeutilitysuchasfairs,dances,fashionshows,
conferences,exhibitionorconcerts.Sufficientnumberofcontrolledsocketoutletcircuitsshallbecombinedinaswitchingstationfromwhichthe
entirehallshallbevisible.
6.6.1.5Indesigningoutdoorlightinginstallations,careshallbetakentoensurethatdisturbingglaredoesnotreachtheroomsoftheguests.
6.6.2Airconditioning

TheprovisionsofPart1/Section14ofthisCodeshallapply.
6.6.3LiftsandEscalators

6.6.3.0ThegeneralruleslaiddowninPartl/Section14ofthisCodeshallapply.However,thedesignofliftsshalltakeintoaccountthe
followingrecommendations.
6.6.3.1Occupantload
Forhotelbuildings,anoccupantloadof12.5grossarea,inm2perpersonisrecommended.
6.6.3.2Passengerhandlingcapacity
Thepassengerhandlingcapacityexpressedinpercentoftheestimatedpopulationthathastobehandledinthe5minpeakperiodshallbe5
percentforhotelbuildings.
6.6.3.3CarspeedThisshallbeasfollows:
Occupancy

FloorsServed

CarSpeed
m/s

(1)

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(2)

(3)

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Passengerliftsforlowandmediumclasslodginghouses

0.5

Hotels

45

0.50.75

6.6.3.4Forhotelbuildings,itisdesirabletohaveatleastabatteryoftwoliftsatconvenientpointsofabuilding.Ifthisisnotpossible,itis
advisabletohaveatleasttwoliftssidebysideatthemainentrance,andoneliftatdifferentsectionsofthebuildingforintercommunication.
7TESTINGOFINSTALLATION
ThevarioustestsontheinstallationshallbecarriedoutaslaiddowninPart1/Section10ofthisCode.
8MISCELLANEOUSPROVISIONS
8.1CallSystem

ThegeneralprovisionsforelectricalbellsandcallsystemshallconformtothoselaiddowninPartI/Section14ofthisCode.Thecallsystem
shouldbeawiredelectricalsystemwherebycustomermaysignalforattendancefromhisroom.Twotypesofsystemsarerecommended:
a.Asimpleonewattsignalsystemwhichconnectstheroomsidecallstationswithasignalattheattendantstation.Itsimultaneouslylightsadome
lightoverthedooroftheroomfromwhichthecallisoriginated.Thesignalattheattendantstationmaybeintheformofanannunciatorwitha
buzzeroralightwithabuzzer.
b.Acentralcontrolpanelshall,besetuppreferablyonthegroundfloorincorporatingasetofindicatingpanelsaccordingtothenumberofwings.
Eachindicatingpanelshouldhaveasetofsmalllampsaccordingtothenumberofrooms.Afterattendingthecustomer,theattendantpresses
theresettingbuttonwhichputsthewholeequipmenttotheoriginalcondition.

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8.2Telephones

AcentralizedEPABXSystemwithsufficientP&Tlinesshallbeinstalledforinternalandexternalcommunicationswiththehelpofoperators
assistanceaswellasdirectlythroughthissystem.Thesemaybeconnectedonadialsystemwhichpermitsinternalcommunicationthroughthehotel
switchboardwithouttheassistanceoftheoperator.Atalltherooms,telephonejacksshallbeinstalledsothatatelephonemaybepluggedinanytime
atanyconvenientlocation.Paralleltelephonesmaybeprovidedinthebedrooms.EachroomshallalsobeprovidedwithjacksforBroadBandMulti
Servicefacility/internetfacility.
8.3ClockSystems

ThegeneralprovisionsforclocksystemsshallconformtothoselaiddowninPart1/Sec14.Thefollowinglocationsmaybeprovidedwithclocks:
a.Guestrooms,
b.Mainlobby,
c.Telephoneswitchboard,
d.Diningroom,
e.Banquethalls,
f.Kitchen,and
g.Restaurantandbarrooms.
8.4EmergencySupply

SeealsoPart2ofthisCode.
8.4.1

Intheeventofafailureofsupply,alargestandbypowersupplyusuallyadieseldrivengeneratingsetcouldbeusedtopartlyorentirelysupply
theloadsinthehotel.Emergencylightingshallbeconfinedtoessentialareas,andthestandbypowersupplyshallfeedessentialandsafetyinstallations
inthehotel.
8.4.2

Partofthekitchen,storageandrefrigerationroomsinthehotelshallalsobesuppliedbytheemergencysupply.Apartofthelightingineach
room,corridor,staircasesandothercirculationareasshallbeconnectedtoemergencysupply.
8.5OtherSpecialInstallations

Thelistofsuchinstallationsisgivenbelow:
a.TVsetsatmainassemblyareasandinguestrooms,
b.Lightinginbanquethalls,

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c.Firefightingsystem,
d.Swimmingpool(seeAnnexA),
e.Coldstorage,
f.SaunaHeaters(seeAnnexB),and
g.BroadBandMultiServicefacility/internetfacility.
8.6

Forparticularrequirementsforlocationscontainingabathtuborshowerbasin,seeAnnexAofPart3/Section1ofthisCode.
8.7LuminousSign

Photoluminescentsafetysignageshouldbeprovidedatdifferentstrategiclocations.
254

ANNEXA
PARTICULARREQUIREMENTSFORSWIMMINGPOOL
(Clause8.5)
A1SCOPE
ThisAnnexappliestothebasinsofswimmingpoolsandpaddlingpoolsandtheirsurroundingzoneswheresusceptibilitytoelectricshockis
likelytobeincreasedbythereductionofbodyresistanceandcontactwithearthpotential.
A2CLASSIFICATIONOFZONES
A2.1

ReferenceisdrawntoFig.1andFig.2.
Zone0istheinteriorofthebasin.
Zone1islimitedbyaverticalplane2mfromtherimofthebasinbythefloororthesurfaceexpectedtobeoccupiedbypersonsandthe
horizontalplane2.50mabovethefloorofthesurface.
Zone2islimitedbytheverticalplaneexternaltoZone1andaparallelplane1.50mfromtheformer,bythefloororsurfaceexpectedtobe
occupiedbypersonsandthehorizontalplane2.50mabovethefloororsurface.
NOTEWherethepoolcontainsdivingboards,springboards,startingblocksorachute,Zone1comprisesthezonelimitedbya
verticalplanesituated1.50maroundthedivingboards,springboardsandstartingblocks,andbythehorizontalplane2.50mabovethe
highestsurfaceexpectedtobeoccupiedbythepersons.
A3PROTECTIONFORSAFETY
A3.1

Wheresafetyextralowvoltageisused,whateverthenominalvoltage,protectionagainstdirectcontactshallbeprovidedbybarriersor
enclosuresaffordingatleastaprotectionofIP2X,orinsulationcapableorwithstandingatestvoltageof500Vfor1min.
A3.2

AllextraneousconductivepartsinZones0,1and2shallbebondedwithprotectiveconductorsofallexposedconductivepartssituatedinthese
Zones.
A4SELECTIONOFEQUIPMENT
A4.1

Electricalequipmentshallhaveatleastthefollowingdegreesofprotection:
a.Zone0:IPX8
b.Zone1:IPX4
c.Zone2:IPX2forinsideswimmingpools.
IPX4foroutsideswimmingpools.
A4.2

ForZone1andZone2,waterjetislikelytobeusedforclearingpurpose:IPX5

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ThisrequirementdoesnotapplytoinstantaneouswaterheaterscomplyingwithIS302(Part2/Sec35).
A5WIRINGSYSTEMS
A5.1

InZone0andZone1,wiringsystemsshallbelimitedtothosenecessarytothesupplyofappliancessituatedinthosezones.
A5.2

JunctionboxesarenotpermittedinZone0andZone1.InZone2,theyarepermittedprovidedtheyhavethenecessarydegreeofprotectionas
giveninA4.1.
A5.3

InZone0andZone1noswitchgearandaccessoryshallbeinstalled.InZone2socketoutletsarepermittedonlyiftheyareeither:
a.suppliedindividuallybyanisolatingtransformer,or
b.suppliedbysafetyextralowvoltage,or
c.protectedbyaresidualcurrentprotectivedevice.
A5.4

Ifitisnotpossibletolocatesocketoutletsmaybeinstalledonlyiftheyarecomplying
a.Outside1.25mfromtheZone0border,and
b.protectedbyresidualcurrentprotectiondevice.
A5.5

ThesocketoutletsshallcomplyIS/IEC60309(Part1)andIS/IEC60309(Part2).
A5.6

AnelectricheatingunitembeddedinthefloorinZones1and2shallincorporateametallicsheathconnectedtothelocalsupplementary
equipotentialbondingandshallbecoveredbythemetallicgridrequiredbyA3.2.
A5.7

InZone2,onlywaterheatersarepermittedexceptingthatotherequipmentsuppliedbySELV(SafetyExtraLowVoltage)atanominalvoltage
notexceeding12Vmaybeinstalled.
255

Fig.1ZoneDimensionsforBasinsAboveGround

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Fig.2ZoneDimensionsofSwimmingPoolsandPaddlingPools
256

ANNEXB
PARTICULARREQUIREMENTSFORLOCATIONSCONTAININGSAUNAHEATERS
(Clause8.5)
1SCOPE
TheparticularrequirementsofthisAnnexapplytolocationsinwhichhotairsaunaheatingequipmentisinstalled.
B2CLASSIFICATIONOFTEMPERATUREZONES
B2.1

Theassessmentofthegeneralcharacteristicsofthelocationshalltakedueconsiderationoftheclassificationofthefourtemperaturezones
whichareillustratedinFig.3.
B3PROTECTIONFORSAFETY
B3.1

WhereSafetyExtraLowVoltage(SELV)isused,irrespectiveofthenominalvoltage,protectionagainstdirectcontactshallbeprovidedbyoneor
moreofthefollowing:
a.insulationcapableofwithstandingatestvoltageof500Vac,rmsfor1min.
b.barriersorenclosures,affordingatleastdegreeofprotectionIP24.
B3.2

Allextraneousconductivepartsshallbebondedwithprotectiveconductorsofallexposedconductivepartssituatedinthesezonesandearthed.
B4SELECTIONOFEQUIPMENT
B4.1

AllequipmentshallhaveatleastthedegreeofprotectionIP24.
B4.2

EquipmentshouldbeselectedinaccordancewiththetemperaturezonesasdepictedinFig.3asperthefollowingdetails:
a.ZoneA:onlythesaunaheatercomplyingwithrelevantsafetystandardandequipment

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Fig.3ClassificationofTemperatureZones
directlyassociatedwithitshallbeinstalled.
b.ZoneB:thereisnospecialrequirementconcerningheatresistanceofequipment.
c.ZoneC:equipmentshallbesuitableforanambienttemperatureof125C.
d.ZoneD:onlyluminariesandtheirassociatedwiring,andcontroldevicesforthesaunaheaterandtheirassociatedwiringshallbeinstalled.The
equipmentshallbesuitableforanambienttemperatureof125C.
B5WIRINGSYSTEMS
B5.1

Flexibleelastomerinsulatedandmechanicallyprotectedcordscomplyingwithappropriatestandard,suitablefor150Cshouldbeused.
B5.2

Switchgearnotbuiltintosaunaheater,otherthanathermostatandathermalcutoutshallbeinstalledoutsidethehotairsauna.
B5.3

ExceptaspermittedinB4.2andB5.2accessoriesshallnotbeinstalledwithinthehotairsauna.
B6OTHERFIXEDEQUIPMENT
B6.1

Luminariesshallbesomountedastopreventoverheating.
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SECTION6SPORTSBUILDINGS
0FOREWORD
Thedesignanderectionofelectricalinstallationinasportsbuildinghavetotakeintoaccountamultitudeoffactorsthatareuniquetothetype

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ofusetowhichitisput.Inawaytheelectricalpowerneedsandtheexternalinfluencesinasportsbuildingarequiteidenticaltothosefortheatresand
othermultipurposebuildingsforculturaleventsexceptingthatforinternationaleventsexactingstandardsofservicesandflexibilityhadtobeprovided
inamultipurposesportsstadia.
Severalstadia,especiallythoseoftheindoortypearemeantforstagingavarietyofgameswhichbetweenthemselvesrequirevaryingstandards
oflightinglevels.Thedesignofilluminationsysteminasportsbuildingthereforerequiresconsultationswithaspecialistandtheguidelinesprovidedin
thisSectionarepurelyrecommendatoryinnatureinthisrespect.
Inindoorstadiawherelargenumberofpeoplecongregateitisessentialtoinbuildadequatefireprecautionsfromthepointofviewofsafety.
Assessingtheneedforadequatestrengthofastandbysupplyforessentialservicesrequiresspecialconsideration.
Itistobenotedthatasportsstadiashouldpreferablybedesignedforuseforotherpurposesaswell,suchasthestagingofculturaleventsand
thisaspectshallbeborneinmindwhiledesigningtheelectricalneedsofthecomplexsoastoensureoptimumutilizationofthefacilities.
Withtheadventofsophisticatedstadiainthecountryaswellaskeepinginviewtheaccentonsports,thisSectionofthisCodehasbeensetaside
tocoversuchofthosespecificrequirementsapplicabletosportsbuildingsfromtheelectricalengineeringpointofview.Takingnoteofthefactthatthe
typeofbuildingsandtheirneedsforthepurposesofsportsandgameswouldbequitedifferentbetweenthem,onlybroadguidelinesareoutlinedinthis
Section.Itisrecommendedthatassistanceofexpertsshallbesoughtinthedesignoftheinstallationattheearlystagesitself.
1SCOPE
ThisPart3/Section6oftheCodecoversrequirementsforelectricalinstallationsinsportsbuildingsandstadia,indoorandoutdoor.
2TERMINOLOGY
ForthepurposeofthisSection,thedefinitionsgiveninPart1/Section2ofthisCodeshallapply.
3CLASSIFICATIONOFSPORTSBUILDINGS
3.1

Thebuildingsforthepurposesofconductingsportsandgamesarecharacterizedbythecriteriathatlargenumberofpeoplecongregate.Sports
complexesnotbasicallymeantforexhibitionpurposes,andnotlikelytobeutilizedforotherpurposes,suchasforstagingspecialorculturalevents,
shallhoweverconformtothespecialrequirementsofthisSection.Thetypeofbuildingshallthereforebeclassifiedasfollows:
a.Basedontypeofbuilding:
1.Indoorstadia.
2.Outdoorstadia:Stadiameantforuseindaylight.Stadiameantforuseduringnightunderartificiallighting.
b.Basedontypeofgame/sport:
1.Singlegamesportshall/stadia.
2.Multigameshall/stadia.
c.Basedonutility:
1.Stadiameantforgamesonly.
2.Multipurposestadiaforotheramusementsaswell.
d.Basedonaudiencefactor:
1.Stadia/hallsmeantforexhibitionpurposeswheregroupsofpeoplecongregate.
2.Stadia/hallsmeantfortrainingandpasstimewhereaudiencemaynotnormallybepresent.
NOTEClassificationd(1)includesstadiameantforstagingtournamentsandevents,andd(2)includesgameshallsineducational
institutionsandthelikewherenormallynoexhibitionisintended.
3.1.1

Referenceshouldbemadeto5.5.1.2forclassificationfromlightingconsideration.
3.2

Theelectricalinstallationneedsinsportsbuildingswouldthereforebegovernedbythetypeofuseindicatedin3.1(a)to(d).Alargesports
complexmayincludethefollowingsubunits:
a.Supplyintake/voltageofsupply
b.Mainsubstationandsatellitesubstations,ifany
c.Centralcontrolroom/switchrooms
d.Electrificationofrestaurant,healthclubshospitals,officesandothersupportstructures
e.Communicationfacilities(telephone,telex,telegraph,dataprocessingTV,radioandpressfacilities)
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f.Fireprotectionservices

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g.Externalelectrificationofgardensandparkinglots,serviceroutes,lakefountains(ifany)
h.Emergencyelectricsupplysystemincludinguninterruptedpowerrequirements
i.Audiosystems,publicaddress/security
j.Dewateringarrangements,sewagedisposal,watersupplysystems
k.Gas/oilarrangementsforsportsflameifrequiredand
l.Miscellaneousrequirementsforpowersocket,microphoneoutlets,scoreboards,etc.
4GENERALCHARACTERISTICSOFSPORTSBUILDINGS
GeneralguidelinesontheassessmentofcharacteristicsofinstallationsinbuildingsaregiveninPart1/Section8ofthisCode.Forthepurposes
ofinstallationsfallingunderthescopeofthisSection,thecharacteristicsgivenbelowshallapply.
4.1Environment

4.1.1

Thefollowingenvironmentalfactorsapplytosportsbuildings:
Environment

Characteristics

(1)

(2)

Presenceofwater

Remarks
(3)

Submersion,possibilityofpermanentand

Locationssuchasswimmingpoolswhereelectricalequipmentispermanentlyand

totalcoveringbywater

totallycoveredwithwaterunderpressuregreaterthan0.1bar.

Presenceofforeignsolid

Thequantityornatureofdustorforeignsolid

Indoorstadia.

bodies

bodiesisnotsignificant

Presenceofdustinsignificantquantify

Outdoorstadia.

Presenceofcorrosiveor

Negligible

Coversmajorityofcases.Stadiaandgamescomplexessituatedbytheseaorindustrial

pollutingsubstances

zonesrequirespecialconsideration.

Lighting

Negligible

Coverscategoryd(2)(see3.1)typeofinstallations.

Indirectexposuretolighting,wherehazard

Installationssuppliedbyoverheadlines.

fromsupplyarrangementsexists

Directexposure