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ADDITIONAL MATHEMATICS

PROJECT WORK

FORM 5 (2015)

I/C No: 980910-05-5577

Angka Giliran:

Class: 5 Irsyad

Nama Guru: En. Mohammad Izzuan bin Termidi

Content:

CONTENT

PAGE

Appreciation

Objective

Introduction to Functions

Part 1

Part 2

15

Part 3

17

Conclusion

24

Reflection

25

Resources

26

Appreciation

1

First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, thanks to God for giving me the strength and

health to do this project work in the short time given.

Not forgotten, thanks to my parents for providing me everything, such as laptop and internet

connection, which was a big help as I was able to surf the internet for extra information

regarding this project work. I am also grateful for their help in sharing their experiences and

advices pushing me to finish this project work on time.

Then, I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher, En. Mohammad Izzuan bin

Termidi, that have helped me and the whole class on finishing this project work. Even though

Ive encountered a few difficulties, I was able to finish this up in a matter of the few weeks given

by the help of my ever so kind teacher, En. Izzuan that was really passionate and patient with me

the whole time.

Thanks to my friends, who had always been supporting me in doing this project work. We had

been discussing and sharing ideas between ourselves in order to finish this project work and

answer the questions correctly.

Finally, I want to thank to everyone that has been contributing either directly or indirectly in this

little journey of mine on finishing this very project work. Without them, I dont think I would be

able to complete this project work in such a pristine condition.

Objective

The aims of carrying out this project work are:

2

To improve thinking skills.

To promote effective mathematical communication.

To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increase

students interest and confidence.

To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.

To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning.

To develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

Introduction to Functions

a) History of Functions

The concept of function is one of the most important in mathematics. However, its history is

relatively short. M. Kline credits Galileo (1564-1642) with the first statements of dependency of

one quantity on another, e.g., "The times of descent along inclined planes of the same height, but

3

of different slopes, are to each other as the lengths of these slopes." In a 1673 manuscript Leibniz

used the word "function" to mean any quantity varying from point to point of a curve, like the

length of the tangent or the normal. The curve itself was said to be given by an equation. But in

1714, he already used the word "function" to mean quantities that depend on a variable. The

notation f(x) was introduced by Euler in 1734.

b) What is a Function?

A function is a rule which relates the values of one variable quantity to the values of another

variable quantity, and does so in such a way that the value of the second variable quantity

is uniquely determined by (i.e. is a function of) the value of the first variable quantity.

This is clearly a very general definition. Such rules are general enough to serve as mathematical

models for a large number of natural relationships between variable physical quantities.

We name functions by using symbols like "f," "g," "h," etc. Just as your name signifies all of the

many things that make "you," a symbol like "f" serves as a shorthand for what may be a long or

complicated rule expressing a particular relationship between variable quantities. We name the

variable quantities with symbols like "x," "y," "t," etc. We then write y = f(x) to show that f is

a rule which assigns a unique value of the variable quantity y to values of the variable quantity

x.

Notice that the definition distinguishes between a first variable quantity and a second variable

quantity. It is the second variable which is a function of the first, and when we write y = f(x) we

mean that the value of y depends (in a way specified by the rule f ) on the value of x, but not

necessarily vice versa. For example, what you wear may depend on the weather, but the reverse

is certainly not true. We make this distinction among variables by calling x the input to the

function and y the output, or by calling x the independent variable and y the dependent

variable.

Examples of functions:

y=f(

x)

12

So,

f(x)= 2 x 2

=4

f(x)= 4 x 2

=8

f(x)= 6 x 2

=12

is:

{2,4,6}

The codomain of this

function is:

{4,8,12}

Observing both the domain

(x) and the codomain (y),

one could see the relation

between the input and the

output. Thus, we can

One real life example of a function is a cell phone companys cell phone plan.

If a company charges say $25 as a setup fee for a cell phone then charges $0.10

cents for each.

For example, we put 6 in the function, so below notation is obtained:

y(6)= 0.10(6) + 25 =25.60

Let say a tree grows 50cm annually, so the height depends on the age. A function

notation was created as below:

h(age)= age x 50cm

If the age of the tree is 40 ears so just substitute into the function:

h(40)= 40 x 50cm =2000cm

Age

1

3

30

50

150

1500

Part 1:

School is a social institution where students, teachers, administrators and staffs carry out their

respective roles. An organization can be defined as a group of individuals that work to achieve

their respective goals in certain situation. They need to cooperate and connect with each other in

6

order to complete their task. Usually in an organization, the top management of an organization

will determine the direction of the organization through setting of objectives, goals and strategies

to reach their goal.

The following are a part of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bestari organization chart.

Carefully observe the said school organization chart and answer the questions that were given.

Principal

Senior Assistant of

Student Affairs

Senior Teacher of

Language

Head of

Mathemati

c

Departmen

t

Senior Assistant of

Curriculum

Senior Teacher of

Science & Math

Head of

Science

Departmen

t

Head of

Biology

Departmen

t

Senior Teacher of

Human Resource

Head of

Chemistry

Departmen

t

Subject Teacher

Pn. Selva

Diagram

a)

1

Senior Assistant of

Co-curriculum

Senior Teacher of

Technical & Vocational

Head of

Physics

Departmen

t

Subject Teacher

En. Tan

Subject Teacher

Pn. Rafidah

Head of

Additional

Mathemati

c

Departmen

Head of

Living

Skills

Departmen

t

Head of

Principal

Account

Departmen

t

Assistant of Co-curriculum}

Senior Assistant of Student Curriculum= {Senior Teacher of Languages, Senior Teacher

7

Resource, Senior Teacher of Technical &

Vocational}

Senior Teacher of Technical & Vocational= { Head of Additional Mathematic

Department, Head of Living Skill

Department, Head of Principal Account

Department}

Then,

i)

Determine the domain, codomain, object, image and range.

ii)

Represent every relation above by using different methods.

Principal

Senior Assistant of

Student Affairs

One-to-many

Leader of

Senior Assistant of

Curriculum

Senior Assistant of Cocurriculum

Domain: {Principal}

Codomain: {Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior

Assistant of Co-curriculum}

Object: Principal

Image: Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior Assistant of

Co-curriculum

Range: {Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior Assistant of

Co-curriculum}

One-to-one

Head of Biology

Department

Head of

Department

Leader of

Selva

Subject Teacher

Codomain: {Subject Teacher Pn. Selva}

Object: Head of Biology Department

Image: Subject Teacher Pn. Selva

Range: {Subject Teacher Pn. Selva}

Head of Physics

Many-to-one Department

Head of

Department

Leader of

Subject Teacher

Head of Additional

Mathematics Department

10

Codomain: {Subject Teacher En. Tan}

Object: Head of Physics Department, Head of Additional Mathematics Department

Image: Subject Teacher En. Tan

Range: {Subject Teacher En. Tan}

HoD Math

HoD Science

HoD Biology

Many-to-many

HoD Chemistry

Head of

Department

HoD Physics

Leader of

Subject

Teacher

HoD = Head

of Pn.

Department

Rafidah

Subject Teacher

HoD Living Skill

HoD Principal Account

11

Domain: {HoD Math, HoD Science, HoD Biology, HoD Chemistry, HoD Physics, HoD Add

Math, HoD Living Skill, HoD Principal Account}

Codomain: {Subject Teacher Pn. Selva, Subject Teacher En. Tan, Subject Teacher Pn. Rafidah}

Object: HoD Math, HoD Science, HoD Biology, HoD Chemistry, HoD Physics, HoD Add

Math, HoD Living Skill, HoD Principal Account

Image: Subject Teacher Pn. Selva, Subject Teacher En. Tan, Subject Teacher Pn. Rafidah

Range: { Subject Teacher Pn. Selva, Subject Teacher En. Tan, Subject Teacher Pn. Rafidah}

c) Based on

(b),

relations are functions? Give your reason.

your answers in

which of the

One-to-one function

{(Head of Biology Department, Subject Teacher Pn. Selva)}

Many-to-one function

{(Head of Physics Department, Subject Teacher En. Tan) , (Head of Additional

Mathematics Department, Subject Teacher En. Tan)}

12

In order to answer this question, we must grasp the very definition of function.

A function is a special relation where every object in the domain has one and only one

image in the codomain. For a relation to be called a function, each x value must have

exactly one y value.

Therefore,

if a domain value (x) only maps to one range value (y), then the relation is a function.

The vertical line test can also be used to determine a function. If a vertical line

intersecting the graph more than once can be drawn, the relation is not a function.

For example:

the graph more than once can

be drawn. Thus, the relation is

a function.

Subject

Teacher

Tan

En.

HoD

Physics

HoD

Add

Math

d) In your opinion, is there a many-to-many relation situation in your school? If yes, give

HoD Biology

Pn. Zabedah

examples.

HoD Science & Math

Head

HoDofAdditional

Department

Mathematics

HoD Chemistry

Leader of

Subject

Teacher

En. Izzuan

Pn. Noormah

13

Yes. Based on the arrow diagram above, one can conclude that:

i) Head of Biology Department is the leader of Pn. Zabedah,

ii) Head of Science & Math Department is the leader of both Pn. Zabedah and En.

Izzuan,

iii) Head of Additional Mathematics Department is the leader of En. Izzuan, and

iv) Head of Chemistry Department is the leader of Pn. Noormah.

Part 2:

a) Provide a creative and interesting organizational chart of your class.

Classroom Teacher

Committee Members

Farah

Assistant

AtiqahClass

binti Monitor

Mohd Pazli

Secretary

Nabila binti Abu Bakar

Mohd Amir Faris bin Adzhar

Class Monitor

Asyraf Zikri bin Madzuki

Siti Nur Najihah binti Ali

Amir

Treasurer

Sham

14

b) Write a brief description of the scope of any two parts. Recommend appropriate

incentives for excellent classroom management.

Class Monitor: Make sure that classmates behave properly in class. Taking the

attendance before the start of class.

Cleanliness Committee: Make sure that class is clean and cozy. Making sure that

all classmates carry out their own respective duty assigned.

I would highly recommend the school to held activities that can strengthen the bonds

between teachers and students. This will develop affection between each other and

15

other, they will care for each other as much as they care for themselves. In this

particular situation (classroom), when love exists in a class, the class is bound to have

stronger relationship thus even bigger responsibility towards each other. Every single

one of the classmates will feel the need to own their part in nourishing the little

community they have. This will make classroom management easier as everyone

knows exactly what they have to do without needing any orders to follow.

Part 3:

See Diagram 3, Diagram 4, Diagram 5 and Diagram 6. Answer the following questions.

16

Diagram

3

Diagram

4

Diagram

5

Diagram

6

Find

a) Function of h and function of k .

h ( x )=x3

k ( x )=2 x

b) Inverse function for h ( x )k ( x ) .

Let

y=x3

x= y +3

1

h ( x ) =x+3

Let

y=x 2

x= y 2

k 1 ( x ) =

x

2

17

hk ( x )=h ( k ( x ) )

2 x3

h2 ( x ) =hh ( x ) =h ( h ( x ) )

( 2 x )3

( x3 )3

kh ( x )=k ( h ( x ) )

2 ( x3 )

2 x6

x6

2

k ( x )=kk ( x )=k ( k ( x ) )

1 1

1 1

1

1

2(2 x your

)

d) Function k h ( x ) , h k ( x ) ,(kh) ( x )(kh) ( x) .State

conclusion.

kh ( x )=2 x6

1 1

h k ( x )=h

( k ( x ))

x=

+3

2

()

k 1 h1 ( x )=k1 ( h1 ( x ) )

( kh )1 ( x ) , Let y=2 x6

y+ 6

2

( kh )1 ( x ) =

hk ( x )=2 x 3

x +3

2

x=

y+ 3

2

x +6

2

( 2x )+3

( hk )1 ( x ) , Let y=2 x3

( hk )1 ( x )=

x +3

2

Conclusion,

h1 k1 ( x )=(kh)1 ( x )

e)

k 1 h1 ( x )=(hk )1 ( x )

18

h ( x )=x3

h1 ( x ) =x+3

h ( 2 )=23

h1 ( 2 )=2+3

h ( 2 )=1

h1 ( 2 )=5

k 1 ( x ) =

k ( x )=2 x

k ( 2 )=2(2)

k ( 2 )=

k ( 2 )=4

f)

h2 ( x ) =x6

hk ( 2 )=2(2)3

hk ( 2 )=1

kh ( x )=2 x6

h2 ( 2 )=26

2

h ( 2 )4

kh ( 2 )=2 ( 2 )6

kh ( 2 )=2

k 2 ( x )=4 x

k 2 ( 2 )=4 ( 2 )

k 2 ( 2 )=8

1

1

h1 k1 ( 4 ) k 1 h1 ( 1 ) . Check your answers. Then, deduced (hk ) ( 1 )( kh ) ( 4 ) .

h1 k1 ( x )=

( 2x )+ 3

4

+3

2

()

h1 k1 ( 4 ) =

h1 k1 ( x )=(kh)1 ( x )

If,

2

2

hk ( x )=2 x 3

g)

x

2

k 1 h1 ( x )=

x +3

2

k 1 h1 ( 1 ) =

1+3

2

1 1

111

1

kThus,

h ( x )=(hk

h ) k ( x( )4 ) =( kh) ( 4 )

So,

( kh )1 ( 4 )=5

k 1 h1 ( 1 ) =(hk )1 (1 )

1

(hk ) ( 1 )=2

h)

19

h h1 ( x ) k k 1 ( x +1 )

1

2

Next, find k k ( m 4 ) .

h1 h ( 2 )=( x3 ) +3

( 23 ) +3

1

h h ( 2 )=( x+ 3 )3

k 1 k ( 2 )=

2x

2

( 2+3 )3 2

4

2

2 x k k 1 ( 4 )=2 x

2 k 1 k ( 2 )=

2

2

()

h h1 ( x ) =x

2 (2)

2

function:

k k 1 ( m24 ) =m24

Further Exploration

20

( 42 )

a) Function g is defined by

i)

g ,g , g , g ,g

and

1x

1+ x

1x

1+

1+ x

1

2

g ( x )=g ( g ( x ) )

1+ x 1+ x

1+ x

1+ x +1x

1+ x

g: x

g

30

1x

, x 1.

Find:

1+ x

.

g3 ( x )=g ( g 2 ( x ) )

1( x )

1+ ( x )

1x

1+ x

2x

=x

2

1x 5

g ( x )=g ( g 2 ( x ) )

1+ x

1x

1+

1+ x

1x

1+ x

1

g4 ( x )=g ( g3 ( x ) )

g6 ( x ) =g ( g 5 ( x ) )

1+ x 1+ x

1+ x

1+ x +1x

1+ x

1x

1

1+ x

1x

1+

1+x

1+ x 1+ x

1+ x

1+ x +1x

1+ x

i.

ii.

2x

=x

2

when

the function g is raised to the power

of an even number, the object is x.

when the function g is raised to the

power of an odd number, the object

is

2x

=x

2

1x

1+ x .

Thus,

g30 ( x )=x

21

1( x )

1+ ( x )

g2 n ( x ) and

integer.

From the question, were able to identify that:

2 n is always going to end up with an even number.

Based on the data that weve gathered on (a)(i), we can conclude that:

g2 n+1 ( x ) =

g2 n ( x )=x

1x

1+ x

is defined by

f : x

ax+ b

d

, x

f 1 (x ) . Then,

.

Find

cx +d

c

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

f : x

3 x 5

1

, x

1+2 x

2

f : x

2x

1

, x

13 x

3

f :x

12 x

,x 0

3x

f : x

5

1

,x

14 x

4

f ( x )=

ax +b

cx +d

ax +b

cx +d

y ( cx+ d )=ax +b

cyxax=bdy

x ( cy a ) =bdy

Let y=

x=

bdy

cy a

f 1 ( x )=

dx +b

cxa

22

(i)

(ii)

3 x5

1

f ( x )=

, x

1+2 x

2

f 1 ( x )=

f ( x )=

x5

2 x3

(iv)

2x

1

, x

13 x

3

( x )=

x

3 x2

(iii)

f ( x )=

12 x

, x0

3x

f 1 ( x )=

f ( x )=

1

3 x +2

In

5

1

, x

14 x

4

f 1 ( x )=

x +5

4 x

correct, the said functions are inversed normally.

(i)

f ( x )=

(ii)

3 x5

1+2 x

Let y=

3 x5

1+2 x

f ( x )=

2x

13 x

2 xy + y =3 x5

y3 xy=2 x

x ( 2 y3 )=5 y

x (3 y2 )=y

f 1 ( x )=

x5

2 x3

f 1 ( x )=

(iii)

f ( x )=

Let y=

2x

13 x

x

3 x2(iv)

12 x

3x

3 xy=12 x

f 1 ( x )=

1

3 x +2

12

5 x

Let

f ( x )y=

=

14

3 xx

xy=5

xy4

( 3 y +2

)=1

f 1 ( x )=

x +5

4 x

Let y=

5

14 x

x (4 y )=5 y

23

Conclusion

After doing some research, Ive gathered that function is basically a plain input-output machine

at its core. When an input goes in; something happens to it inside the machine; an output comes

out. Another input goes in; another output comes out. What's going on inside the machine? If we

know the machine's function rule (or rules) and the input, we can predict the output. If we know

the rule(s) and an output, we can determine the input. We also can imagine the machine asking,

"What's my rule?" If we examine the inputs and outputs, we should be able to figure out the

mystery function rule or rules.

For example:

Circumference of a circle is a function of diameter.

Students can measure the diameter and circumference of several round containers or lids and

record that data in a table. If diameter is the input and circumference is the output, what's the

function rule?

As they divide each container's circumference by its diameter to find that rule,

they should notice a constant ratio -- a rough approximation of pi.

As students begin to use functions in the real world, more and more opportunities will present

themselves, and the concept and value of functions will truly come to life.

24

Reflection

While I was conducting this project, I have gathered a lot of new information. I have learnt that

functions, as bizarre as it may look like, happens in our everyday life. For example, measuring

the height of a tree. By knowing and understanding function thoroughly, I am now able to relate

an object with its image or a domain with its codomain.

Apart from that, this project encourages the student to work together and brainstorming ideas to

fully understand the topic. It also encourages student to gather information from the internet,

improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication.

Not only that, I had learned some moral values that I have practiced during the completion of

this project work. This project had taught me to be responsible towards the work that has been

given to me to complete in the timeframe given. This project also had made me felt more

confidence to do works and not to give up easily when we could not find the solution for the

question. There is always a way to find the solution and in fact, Ive found it absolutely fun to

interact not just with my classmates but also with the community that exist in the internet that is

always free to help you in questions you do not understand. I also learned to be more discipline

of time, I was given about a month to complete this project and submit to my teacher just in the

timeframe given. I also enjoy doing this project as I got to spend my time with my friends in

order to complete this project and it had strengthen our friendship by miles.

Last but not least, I proposed this project should be continued annually because it brings a lot

of moral values to the students and also test the students understanding in Additional

Mathematics. It also acts as a medium to introduce the students with project works that they will

eventually embrace once in higher education.

25

Resources

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

http://www.scribd.com

http://wmueller.com/precalculus/functions/1.html

http://www.educationworld.com

http://mathcentral.uregina.ca/QQ/database/QQ.09.06/h/san3.html

FOCUS SPM - Additional Mathematics, Pelangi Publication

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