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# SMKA SHEIKH HAJI MOHD SAID,

PROJECT WORK
FORM 5 (2015)

## Name: Mohd Harith Akmal bin Zulfaizal Fadillah

I/C No: 980910-05-5577
Angka Giliran:
Nama Guru: En. Mohammad Izzuan bin Termidi

Content:

CONTENT

PAGE

Appreciation

Objective

Introduction to Functions

Part 1

Part 2

15

Part 3

17

Conclusion

24

Reflection

25

Resources

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Appreciation
1

First of all, I would like to say Alhamdulillah, thanks to God for giving me the strength and
health to do this project work in the short time given.
Not forgotten, thanks to my parents for providing me everything, such as laptop and internet
connection, which was a big help as I was able to surf the internet for extra information
regarding this project work. I am also grateful for their help in sharing their experiences and
advices pushing me to finish this project work on time.
Then, I would like to thank my Additional Mathematics teacher, En. Mohammad Izzuan bin
Termidi, that have helped me and the whole class on finishing this project work. Even though
Ive encountered a few difficulties, I was able to finish this up in a matter of the few weeks given
by the help of my ever so kind teacher, En. Izzuan that was really passionate and patient with me
the whole time.
Thanks to my friends, who had always been supporting me in doing this project work. We had
been discussing and sharing ideas between ourselves in order to finish this project work and
Finally, I want to thank to everyone that has been contributing either directly or indirectly in this
little journey of mine on finishing this very project work. Without them, I dont think I would be
able to complete this project work in such a pristine condition.

Objective
The aims of carrying out this project work are:
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## To apply and adapt a variety of problem-solving strategies to solve problems.

To improve thinking skills.
To promote effective mathematical communication.
To develop mathematical knowledge through problem solving in a way that increase
students interest and confidence.
To use the language of mathematics to express mathematical ideas precisely.
To provide learning environment that stimulates and enhances effective learning.
To develop positive attitude towards mathematics.

Introduction to Functions
a) History of Functions
The concept of function is one of the most important in mathematics. However, its history is
relatively short. M. Kline credits Galileo (1564-1642) with the first statements of dependency of
one quantity on another, e.g., "The times of descent along inclined planes of the same height, but
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of different slopes, are to each other as the lengths of these slopes." In a 1673 manuscript Leibniz
used the word "function" to mean any quantity varying from point to point of a curve, like the
length of the tangent or the normal. The curve itself was said to be given by an equation. But in
1714, he already used the word "function" to mean quantities that depend on a variable. The
notation f(x) was introduced by Euler in 1734.

b) What is a Function?
A function is a rule which relates the values of one variable quantity to the values of another
variable quantity, and does so in such a way that the value of the second variable quantity
is uniquely determined by (i.e. is a function of) the value of the first variable quantity.

This is clearly a very general definition. Such rules are general enough to serve as mathematical
models for a large number of natural relationships between variable physical quantities.
We name functions by using symbols like "f," "g," "h," etc. Just as your name signifies all of the
many things that make "you," a symbol like "f" serves as a shorthand for what may be a long or
complicated rule expressing a particular relationship between variable quantities. We name the
variable quantities with symbols like "x," "y," "t," etc. We then write y = f(x) to show that f is
a rule which assigns a unique value of the variable quantity y to values of the variable quantity
x.
Notice that the definition distinguishes between a first variable quantity and a second variable
quantity. It is the second variable which is a function of the first, and when we write y = f(x) we
mean that the value of y depends (in a way specified by the rule f ) on the value of x, but not
necessarily vice versa. For example, what you wear may depend on the weather, but the reverse
is certainly not true. We make this distinction among variables by calling x the input to the
function and y the output, or by calling x the independent variable and y the dependent
variable.
Examples of functions:

y=f(
x)

12

So,
f(x)= 2 x 2
=4
f(x)= 4 x 2
=8
f(x)= 6 x 2
=12

## The domain of this function

is:
{2,4,6}
The codomain of this
function is:
{4,8,12}
Observing both the domain
(x) and the codomain (y),
one could see the relation
between the input and the
output. Thus, we can

## c) Relating function to real life situations

One real life example of a function is a cell phone companys cell phone plan.
If a company charges say \$25 as a setup fee for a cell phone then charges \$0.10
cents for each.
For example, we put 6 in the function, so below notation is obtained:
y(6)= 0.10(6) + 25 =25.60

## Other example is calculating the height of a tree.

Let say a tree grows 50cm annually, so the height depends on the age. A function
notation was created as below:
h(age)= age x 50cm
If the age of the tree is 40 ears so just substitute into the function:
h(40)= 40 x 50cm =2000cm
Age
1
3
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## h(age)= age x 50cm

50
150
1500

Part 1:
School is a social institution where students, teachers, administrators and staffs carry out their
respective roles. An organization can be defined as a group of individuals that work to achieve
their respective goals in certain situation. They need to cooperate and connect with each other in
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order to complete their task. Usually in an organization, the top management of an organization
will determine the direction of the organization through setting of objectives, goals and strategies
to reach their goal.
The following are a part of Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan Bestari organization chart.
Carefully observe the said school organization chart and answer the questions that were given.

Principal

Senior Assistant of
Student Affairs

Senior Teacher of
Language

Mathemati
c
Departmen
t

Senior Assistant of
Curriculum

Senior Teacher of
Science & Math

Science
Departmen
t

Biology
Departmen
t

Senior Teacher of
Human Resource

Chemistry
Departmen
t

Subject Teacher
Pn. Selva

Diagram
a)
1

Senior Assistant of
Co-curriculum

Senior Teacher of
Technical & Vocational

Physics
Departmen
t

Subject Teacher
En. Tan

Subject Teacher
Pn. Rafidah

Mathemati
c
Departmen
Living
Skills
Departmen
t
Principal
Account
Departmen
t

## Principal= {Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior

Assistant of Co-curriculum}
Senior Assistant of Student Curriculum= {Senior Teacher of Languages, Senior Teacher
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## of Science & Math, Senior Teacher of Human

Resource, Senior Teacher of Technical &
Vocational}
Department}

## b) Based on Diagram 1, represent 4 different types of relation by using arrow diagram.

Then,
i)
Determine the domain, codomain, object, image and range.
ii)
Represent every relation above by using different methods.

Principal

Senior Assistant of
Student Affairs

One-to-many

Senior Assistant of
Curriculum
Senior Assistant of Cocurriculum

Domain: {Principal}
Codomain: {Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior
Assistant of Co-curriculum}
Object: Principal
Image: Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior Assistant of
Co-curriculum
Range: {Senior Assistant of Student Affairs, Senior Assistant of Curriculum, Senior Assistant of
Co-curriculum}

One-to-one

Department

Department

Selva
Subject Teacher

## Domain: {Head of Biology Department}

Codomain: {Subject Teacher Pn. Selva}
Image: Subject Teacher Pn. Selva
Range: {Subject Teacher Pn. Selva}

Many-to-one Department
Department

## Subject Teacher En. Tan

Subject Teacher

Mathematics Department

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Codomain: {Subject Teacher En. Tan}
Image: Subject Teacher En. Tan
Range: {Subject Teacher En. Tan}

HoD Math

HoD Science

## Subject Teacher En. Tan

HoD Biology

Many-to-many

HoD Chemistry
Department
HoD Physics

Subject
Teacher
of Pn.
Department
Rafidah
Subject Teacher

HoD Living Skill
HoD Principal Account
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Domain: {HoD Math, HoD Science, HoD Biology, HoD Chemistry, HoD Physics, HoD Add
Math, HoD Living Skill, HoD Principal Account}
Codomain: {Subject Teacher Pn. Selva, Subject Teacher En. Tan, Subject Teacher Pn. Rafidah}
Object: HoD Math, HoD Science, HoD Biology, HoD Chemistry, HoD Physics, HoD Add
Math, HoD Living Skill, HoD Principal Account
Image: Subject Teacher Pn. Selva, Subject Teacher En. Tan, Subject Teacher Pn. Rafidah
Range: { Subject Teacher Pn. Selva, Subject Teacher En. Tan, Subject Teacher Pn. Rafidah}

c) Based on
(b),
relations are functions? Give your reason.

which of the

One-to-one function
{(Head of Biology Department, Subject Teacher Pn. Selva)}

Many-to-one function
Mathematics Department, Subject Teacher En. Tan)}

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In order to answer this question, we must grasp the very definition of function.
A function is a special relation where every object in the domain has one and only one
image in the codomain. For a relation to be called a function, each x value must have
exactly one y value.
Therefore,
if a domain value (x) only maps to one range value (y), then the relation is a function.
The vertical line test can also be used to determine a function. If a vertical line
intersecting the graph more than once can be drawn, the relation is not a function.
For example:

## No vertical line intersecting

the graph more than once can
be drawn. Thus, the relation is
a function.
Subject
Teacher
Tan

En.

HoD
Physics

HoD
Math

d) In your opinion, is there a many-to-many relation situation in your school? If yes, give
HoD Biology
Pn. Zabedah
examples.
HoD Science & Math
Department
Mathematics

HoD Chemistry

Subject
Teacher
En. Izzuan

Pn. Noormah

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Yes. Based on the arrow diagram above, one can conclude that:
ii) Head of Science & Math Department is the leader of both Pn. Zabedah and En.
Izzuan,

Part 2:
a) Provide a creative and interesting organizational chart of your class.

Classroom Teacher

Committee Members
Farah
Assistant
AtiqahClass
binti Monitor
Mohd Pazli
Secretary
Nabila binti Abu Bakar
Class Monitor
Siti Nur Najihah binti Ali

Amir

Treasurer

## Luqman Razani bin Noor

Sham

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b) Write a brief description of the scope of any two parts. Recommend appropriate
incentives for excellent classroom management.

Class Monitor: Make sure that classmates behave properly in class. Taking the
attendance before the start of class.
Cleanliness Committee: Make sure that class is clean and cozy. Making sure that
all classmates carry out their own respective duty assigned.

I would highly recommend the school to held activities that can strengthen the bonds
between teachers and students. This will develop affection between each other and
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## indirectly cultivating a sense of responsibility in students. When people love each

other, they will care for each other as much as they care for themselves. In this
particular situation (classroom), when love exists in a class, the class is bound to have
stronger relationship thus even bigger responsibility towards each other. Every single
one of the classmates will feel the need to own their part in nourishing the little
community they have. This will make classroom management easier as everyone
knows exactly what they have to do without needing any orders to follow.

Part 3:
See Diagram 3, Diagram 4, Diagram 5 and Diagram 6. Answer the following questions.

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Diagram
3

Diagram
4

Diagram
5

Diagram
6

Find
a) Function of h and function of k .
h ( x )=x3
k ( x )=2 x
b) Inverse function for h ( x )k ( x ) .
Let

y=x3

x= y +3

1
h ( x ) =x+3

Let

y=x 2

x= y 2
k 1 ( x ) =

x
2

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## c) Composite function for hk , kh , h k

hk ( x )=h ( k ( x ) )

2 x3
h2 ( x ) =hh ( x ) =h ( h ( x ) )

( 2 x )3

( x3 )3
kh ( x )=k ( h ( x ) )

2 ( x3 )

2 x6

x6

2
k ( x )=kk ( x )=k ( k ( x ) )
1 1
1 1
1
1
2(2 x your
)
d) Function k h ( x ) , h k ( x ) ,(kh) ( x )(kh) ( x) .State
conclusion.

kh ( x )=2 x6
1 1

h k ( x )=h

( k ( x ))
x=

+3
2

()

k 1 h1 ( x )=k1 ( h1 ( x ) )

( kh )1 ( x ) , Let y=2 x6

y+ 6
2

( kh )1 ( x ) =

hk ( x )=2 x 3

x +3
2

x=

y+ 3
2

x +6
2

( 2x )+3

( hk )1 ( x ) , Let y=2 x3

( hk )1 ( x )=

x +3
2

Conclusion,
h1 k1 ( x )=(kh)1 ( x )

e)

k 1 h1 ( x )=(hk )1 ( x )

## h ( 2 ) , k ( 2 ) , h1 (2 )k 1 ( 2 ) . Check your answers.

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h ( x )=x3

h1 ( x ) =x+3

h ( 2 )=23

h1 ( 2 )=2+3

h ( 2 )=1

h1 ( 2 )=5
k 1 ( x ) =

k ( x )=2 x
k ( 2 )=2(2)

k ( 2 )=

k ( 2 )=4
f)

h2 ( x ) =x6

hk ( 2 )=2(2)3

hk ( 2 )=1

kh ( x )=2 x6

h2 ( 2 )=26

2
h ( 2 )4

kh ( 2 )=2 ( 2 )6

kh ( 2 )=2

k 2 ( x )=4 x

k 2 ( 2 )=4 ( 2 )

k 2 ( 2 )=8

1
1
h1 k1 ( 4 ) k 1 h1 ( 1 ) . Check your answers. Then, deduced (hk ) ( 1 )( kh ) ( 4 ) .

h1 k1 ( x )=

( 2x )+ 3
4
+3
2

()

h1 k1 ( 4 ) =

h1 k1 ( x )=(kh)1 ( x )

If,

2
2

## hk ( 2 ) , kh ( 2 ) , h2 ( 2 )k 2 ( 2 ) . Check your answers.

hk ( x )=2 x 3

g)

x
2

k 1 h1 ( x )=

x +3
2

k 1 h1 ( 1 ) =

1+3
2

1 1
111
1
kThus,
h ( x )=(hk
h ) k ( x( )4 ) =( kh) ( 4 )

So,

( kh )1 ( 4 )=5

k 1 h1 ( 1 ) =(hk )1 (1 )
1
(hk ) ( 1 )=2

h)

## h1 h ( 2 ) , h h1 ( 2 ) , k 1 k ( 2 )k k1 ( 4 ) . Deduce the following composition:

19

h h1 ( x ) k k 1 ( x +1 )
1
2
Next, find k k ( m 4 ) .

h1 h ( 2 )=( x3 ) +3
( 23 ) +3

1
h h ( 2 )=( x+ 3 )3

k 1 k ( 2 )=

2x
2

( 2+3 )3 2
4

2
2 x k k 1 ( 4 )=2 x
2 k 1 k ( 2 )=
2
2

()

h h1 ( x ) =x

2 (2)
2

function:

## k k 1 ( x+1 ) =x+1 Thus,

k k 1 ( m24 ) =m24

Further Exploration
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( 42 )

a) Function g is defined by
i)

g ,g , g , g ,g

and

1x
1+ x

1x
1+
1+ x
1

2
g ( x )=g ( g ( x ) )

1+ x 1+ x
1+ x
1+ x +1x

1+ x

g: x
g

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1x
, x 1.
Find:
1+ x
.

g3 ( x )=g ( g 2 ( x ) )

1( x )
1+ ( x )

1x
1+ x

2x
=x
2

1x 5
g ( x )=g ( g 2 ( x ) )
1+ x

1x
1+
1+ x
1x

1+ x
1

g4 ( x )=g ( g3 ( x ) )

## We can conclude that:

g6 ( x ) =g ( g 5 ( x ) )

1+ x 1+ x
1+ x
1+ x +1x

1+ x

1x
1
1+ x

1x
1+
1+x

1+ x 1+ x
1+ x
1+ x +1x

1+ x
i.

ii.

2x
=x
2

when
the function g is raised to the power
of an even number, the object is x.
when the function g is raised to the
power of an odd number, the object
is

2x
=x
2

1x
1+ x .

Thus,
g30 ( x )=x

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1( x )
1+ ( x )

g2 n ( x ) and

## g2 n+1 ( x ) , with n as a positive

integer.
From the question, were able to identify that:
2 n is always going to end up with an even number.

## ( 2 n ) +1 is always going to end up with an odd number.

Based on the data that weve gathered on (a)(i), we can conclude that:
g2 n+1 ( x ) =

g2 n ( x )=x

1x
1+ x

is defined by

f : x

ax+ b
d
, x
f 1 (x ) . Then,
.
Find
cx +d
c

## deduce the inverse function for each one of the following.

i)

ii)

iii)

iv)

f : x

3 x 5
1
, x
1+2 x
2

f : x

2x
1
, x
13 x
3

f :x

12 x
,x 0
3x

f : x

5
1
,x
14 x
4

f ( x )=

ax +b
cx +d
ax +b
cx +d

y ( cx+ d )=ax +b

cyxax=bdy

x ( cy a ) =bdy

Let y=

x=

bdy
cy a

f 1 ( x )=

dx +b
cxa

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(i)

(ii)

3 x5
1
f ( x )=
, x
1+2 x
2
f 1 ( x )=

f ( x )=

x5
2 x3

(iv)

2x
1
, x
13 x
3

( x )=

x
3 x2

(iii)

f ( x )=

12 x
, x0
3x

f 1 ( x )=

f ( x )=

1
3 x +2

In

5
1
, x
14 x
4

f 1 ( x )=

x +5
4 x

## order to make sure that my deductions are

correct, the said functions are inversed normally.

(i)

f ( x )=

(ii)

3 x5
1+2 x

Let y=

3 x5
1+2 x

f ( x )=

2x
13 x

2 xy + y =3 x5

y3 xy=2 x

x ( 2 y3 )=5 y

x (3 y2 )=y

f 1 ( x )=

x5
2 x3

f 1 ( x )=
(iii)

f ( x )=

Let y=

2x
13 x

x
3 x2(iv)

12 x
3x

3 xy=12 x

f 1 ( x )=

1
3 x +2

12
5 x
Let
f ( x )y=
=
14
3 xx
xy=5
xy4
( 3 y +2
)=1

f 1 ( x )=

x +5
4 x

Let y=

5
14 x

x (4 y )=5 y
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Conclusion
After doing some research, Ive gathered that function is basically a plain input-output machine
at its core. When an input goes in; something happens to it inside the machine; an output comes
out. Another input goes in; another output comes out. What's going on inside the machine? If we
know the machine's function rule (or rules) and the input, we can predict the output. If we know
the rule(s) and an output, we can determine the input. We also can imagine the machine asking,
"What's my rule?" If we examine the inputs and outputs, we should be able to figure out the
mystery function rule or rules.
For example:
Circumference of a circle is a function of diameter.
Students can measure the diameter and circumference of several round containers or lids and
record that data in a table. If diameter is the input and circumference is the output, what's the
function rule?
As they divide each container's circumference by its diameter to find that rule,
they should notice a constant ratio -- a rough approximation of pi.
As students begin to use functions in the real world, more and more opportunities will present
themselves, and the concept and value of functions will truly come to life.

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Reflection
While I was conducting this project, I have gathered a lot of new information. I have learnt that
functions, as bizarre as it may look like, happens in our everyday life. For example, measuring
the height of a tree. By knowing and understanding function thoroughly, I am now able to relate
an object with its image or a domain with its codomain.
Apart from that, this project encourages the student to work together and brainstorming ideas to
fully understand the topic. It also encourages student to gather information from the internet,
improve thinking skills and promote effective mathematical communication.
Not only that, I had learned some moral values that I have practiced during the completion of
this project work. This project had taught me to be responsible towards the work that has been
given to me to complete in the timeframe given. This project also had made me felt more
confidence to do works and not to give up easily when we could not find the solution for the
question. There is always a way to find the solution and in fact, Ive found it absolutely fun to
interact not just with my classmates but also with the community that exist in the internet that is
always free to help you in questions you do not understand. I also learned to be more discipline
of time, I was given about a month to complete this project and submit to my teacher just in the
timeframe given. I also enjoy doing this project as I got to spend my time with my friends in
order to complete this project and it had strengthen our friendship by miles.
Last but not least, I proposed this project should be continued annually because it brings a lot
of moral values to the students and also test the students understanding in Additional
Mathematics. It also acts as a medium to introduce the students with project works that they will
eventually embrace once in higher education.

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Resources
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

http://www.scribd.com
http://wmueller.com/precalculus/functions/1.html
http://www.educationworld.com
http://mathcentral.uregina.ca/QQ/database/QQ.09.06/h/san3.html
FOCUS SPM - Additional Mathematics, Pelangi Publication

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