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COMSATS - Lancaster Dual Degree Programme

COMSATS Institute of Information Technology Lahore

Assignment-2 CSC373 (SP14)
Course Title:

Management Information Systems

Course Instructor/s: Dr Umera Imtinan



Batch: SP14-BBA


Programme Name:



Time Allowed:
Students Name:

Maximum Marks: 10
Abdul Wajid Nazeer & Faheem Ahmed



Artificial intelligence


CSC373 (3,0)

Course Code:

Reg. No.

DDP-SP14-BBA-009 & 08


In the field of technology science and engineering of making intelligence machines especially
computers programs robots and many other machines which are reduced humans efforts in
different fields of life. Its related to the similar task of using computers to understand the human
intelligence but artificial intelligence have not much potential to do perform task like human
beings. Artificial intelligence has some importance in the modern era because such type of
machines helpful for the country to upgrade its field of technology. But on the other hand it also
reduces the big impact on the graph of natural intelligence because human beings become
dependent over artificial intelligence. They dont use their own thoughts and ideas to innovate
the new things. Due to Artificial intelligence the rate of unemployment become increased in
advanced countries. Agents includes thermostats, driving less autos, planes, robots, people,
organizations and nations.it is the study of computations that allow for perception, reason and
action. This paper examines features of artificial intelligence, introduction, history, growth and
achievement. It is related to the similar task of using computers to understand human
intelligence. From a Blackberry to a robot that can perform the daily tasks of a human, artificial
intelligence is widespread. Artificial intelligence is a whole new way to go about technology. Any
appliance or machine made to falls under the category of artificial intelligence.

Artificial, Intelligence, robots, computers, modern, humans, social, environment, technology and
speech recognition.

The modern history of AI can be traced back to the year 1956 when John McCarthy proposed the
term as a topic for a conference held at Dartmouth College. In the 1960s and 1970s the focus of
AI research was primarily on the development of KBS or expert system. After a few of early
these failures, AI researchers started setting some more realistic goals for themselves.

Artificial intelligence is that in which we study that how agents perform and act intelligently for
example how computer system able to perform task normally requiring human intelligence, such
as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making and translation between languages.
An agent is something that do something in a domain. Agents includes thermostats, driving less
autos, planes, robots, people, organizations and nations. We are focusing on the activities on an
operators that how he acts. We generally judge an agents by its activities. An agents perform
something intelligently when:
It is functional to modify surroundings and modify objectives. It understands from experience.
An agent is appropriate for its conditions and its objectives. Tends to make acceptable selections
offered their perceptual in addition to computational restrictions. An agent generally cannot
notice situations of the world straight. It has a limited storage devices and also very easy to get
endless time to take action. Applications of AI includes Finance, Medicine, heavy industries,
telecommunications, music, games, robotics and other such things.

Research objectives:
With passage of time and advancement in the technology the requirements of the human beings
changed. They extract different activities from the Artificial intelligence agents. The main
objectives of the Artificial intelligence as fallows,
Assess the effectiveness, strong points, and weak points of the basic information representation,
problem solving and learning methods in fixing particular technology problems.
Develop amazing systems by building solutions to concrete computational problems.
Understand the role expertise representation, problem solving, and learning in amazing
system technology

Research Questions:
Q. Does AI focus to put the human mind into the computer?
Q. Should we become dependent on Artificial Intelligent?

Research Method:
I have used 4 articles and many other sites to compose my research on Artificial Intelligence and
I have red different books mainly I Robot by Isaac Asimov and Dreams Unleashed by Linda
Hawley. I also collect some information from dawn newspaper.

Literature review:
Artificial intelligence is the study in which we study that how agents perform and act
intelligently for example how computer system able to perform task normally requiring human
intelligence, such as visual perception, speech recognition, decision making and translation
between languages.
There some differences between artificial intelligence and Common Intelligence as Artificial
insight (AI) is the set up name for the field however the expression "manmade brainpower" is a
wellspring of much perplexity in light of the fact that computerized reasoning may be translated
as the inverse of genuine knowledge.
For any marvel you can recognize genuine versus fake where the fake is non-genuine. You can
likewise recognize common versus counterfeit. Regular means happening in nature and
simulated means made by individuals. The memory capacity of human brains is the order of ten
thousand million binary digits. Most of common used in remembering visual impressions, and
other likewise wasteful ways.
Normal humans have the same intellectual mechanisms and that differences in intelligence are
related to quantitative biochemical and physiological conditions, but computer programs have
plenty of speed and memory but their abilities correspond to the intellectual mechanisms that
program designers understand well enough to put in programs. Whenever people do better than
computers on some task or computers use a lot of computation to do as well as people, this
demonstrates that the program designers lack understanding of the intellectual mechanisms
required to do the task efficiently.

Example: A tsunami is a huge trend in a sea induced by an earth quake or a landslide. Natural
tsunamis happen from day to day. You could consider a fake tidal wave made by individuals for
instance by growing an impact in the ocean yet which is still a real wave. One could likewise
consider fake tidal waves either manufactured utilizing pc configuration or normal for instance a
delusion that resembles a tidal wave yet is not one.
In 10 years AI will be able to communicate with humans in unstructured English using text or
voice, navigate in an unprepared environment and will have some rudimentary common sense.
There are two major projects aiming for human brain simulation, CCortex and IBM Blue Brain.
Robots take over everyones jobs .The development of meaningful artificial intelligence will
require that machines acquire some variant of human consciousness. The robots are being 'raised'
as humans, who are taught how to roll, then crawl and, finally, walk. This is proven by results
that the changing robots were not only faster in getting to the final goal, but afterward were more
able to deal with new kinds of challenges. Compared to human brains, it is far easier to modify a
computer program. Think about some big AI software projects. Criminals could download them
and with the help of hackers they can modify the source and build AIs to serve their bad purpose.
A time will come when computers will be smarter than humans. And at that point of time
artificial intelligence will surely lead to some sort of human extinction.

10 things you need to know about artificial intelligence:

Following are the 10 important things which are most important and we must know about them
which are given below.
1. AI can trace its roots pretty far back
For a most of us the idea of AI brings photos of a product or other human devices that can think
and reason and also an individual can. The idea of a machine-man is seen when a percentage of
the Historical Misunderstandings, for example, the spiders of Hephaestus. In addition
experiences of alchemy in the Center Age groups referred to the getting of the mind in non-living
things. Likewise a few religions that compensate genuine statues trust the statues to be having of
individual thought and feelings.

2. Alan Turing was a huge influence on AI

In 1950, Alan Turing released his document Processing Equipment and Intelligence, where he
used to decide out if a device could win what he known as "The Fake Activity," which is likewise
the name of the most recent motion picture about Turing. The test had your personal pc try to
differentiate between the genders of two gamers. The document also first presented the Turing
Test. Handling Equipment and Intellect is basically considered as the fundamental work on AI.
3. Formal AI research started in the 1950s
While AI examination was happening past, it didn't turn into a proper educational investigation
self-control until the Dartmouth Meeting of 1956. Embracing of the name "artificial intelligence"
was spurred by Chief David McCarthy. McCarthy progressing adding to the work of AI in
numerous universities until his demise this year.
4. Natural language processing is key to AI
One of the significant objectives of AI is getting a pc to understand and accordingly impart in
natural languages a field called natural languages processing (NLP). The pc must take common
human languages like English or Spanish and get knowledge that it can handle.
5. Autonomous vehicles need AI
A standout amongst the most critical specialized upgrades in transport in the course of the most
recent years has been the creation of autonomous vehicles or autos that can lead themselves.
New cars like Search motors driverless vehicles and some free drones may not be possible
without a top AI mechanical advancement we have these days.
6. Investors are funding new AI companies
What's regarded a "popular" industry for start-ups generally ebbs and moves but it's apparent that
AI is definitely a popular industry. According to CB Ideas the variety of new start-ups being
financed in the area continues to grow. Some organizations like Sentient Technological
innovation have increased more than $100 thousand in financing after a couple of years in
7. Big tech companies are betting on AI

Small start-up organizations aren't completely accountable for the increase in AI. Major technical
leaders are purchasing the space and obtaining AI organizations as well. IBM's Watson is doing
everything from working with medical focuses to cooking dinners. Google create news when it
obtained AI start-up Strong Mind for $400 thousand, and Facebook currently acquired Wit.ai.
8. AI-powered robots can think together
The CoCoRo (Collective Cognitive Robotics) Project in European nations has created robots
with artificial intelligence that will cooperate like a school of fish. The robots can look a region
look at the air and convey data among each other.
9. Some robots can socialize
A robot called Kismet from MIT's Artificial Intelligence Lab can impart by recognizing human
activities and regulation of speech and reporting as indicated by that input. Kismet was outlined
Cynthia Breazeal in the 1990's.
10. AI is polarizing
Few technology are as doubtful as AI. On one side important organizations and universities are
streaming cash into AI analysis and development. On the other side master Stephen Promoting
educated that AI could be the end of mankind. In inclusion Elon Musk and Bill Gates have both
discussed negative thoughts about AI. Whatever strolling you get into there probably won't be a
specific point of view on AI at soon.

Advantage and Disadvantage of Artificial intelligence:

Advantage of Artificial Intelligence:

With artificial intelligence, the chances of mistake are almost nil and greater perfection

and accuracy is obtained.

Frauds recognition in intelligent card-based frameworks is conceivable with the
utilization of AI. It is likewise employed by banking organizations and financial

institutions to arrange and handle information.

Companies use virtual representations of employees that are advanced staff who
correspond with clients, accordingly saving the need of enlisting.

Artificial intelligence can be utilized in holding out repeating and time-consuming

projects effectively.
Robotic pets can offer assistance individuals with depressive disorders and keep them

Disadvantage of Artificial Intelligence:

Too much cost comes on the repairing of the machines and o their equipment.
Due to the modern machines the percentage of unemployment is increased.
They have the lake of common sense they didnt differentiate among the humans they

just perform their task which was given to him.

Due to the advancement in the modern machines humans become dependent on the
machines they didnt use their own thinking abilities so with the passage of time the

thinking abilities of human beings will decline.

If the management of devices goes in a different arms it may cause damage. Machines
won't think before performing. Thus they may be designed to do a different factors or for
huge destruction.

Conclusion and findings:

Throughout the research we have discussed briefly about the artificial intelligence. We have
point out some applications problems and achievements of the Artificial Intelligence.
The main objective of the scientists is to overcome the problems of the entire world and achieve
maximum goals within a minimum time period of time which human beings do not perform
directly or indirectly. Its true that advancement in this field will change the complete scenario of
the world.
In some extant advancement in the artificial intelligence is important for a country to upgrade his
field of technology and compete with other countries who already got advancement in this field
but on the other end it left a big impact on the unemployment because it dont receive reward for
his work. Due to artificial intelligence the graph of the natural intelligence of human beings

going downward because we become dependent on the machines and we dont use our own mind
to accomplish something.


Artificial Intelligence Foundations Of Computational Agents by David Poole and Alan

Mackworth (2006-2010).
Hutter, Marcus (2005). Universal Artificial Intelligence. Berlin: Springer
Artificial Intelligence: A Modern Approach by Russell, Stuart and Norvig, Peter in 2003.
AI Topics, from the Association for the Advancement of Artificial Intelligence
AI on the Web, from Russell and Norvig.