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ELECTROPLATING COSTS CALCULATION Andrea Mazzilli, Manuf. Eng. & Torben Lenau Ass. Prof. Ph.D. Department of Manufacturing Engineer DTU, Building 425 DK.2800 Lyngby Tel, +945 45254811 Fax 4-45 45254803 Esai: Min and max bathissize are the same because such productions ae usualy realized only by large indus reptnayetecprmrtcecar a0 “sin baths size is 1000iterinstend of 200, because i the nim bath sze which ca phiscally contin apa of 100d? b) Labor time "tg" fminipart} ‘The time related to labor (pre- and post-tcatments) is very dependent an the production's type For small industries (small produetion volumes), it depends very much on the component’ state. Ifthe component isan old object whieh requires long preparation, this time increases Very much. Therefore, depending on the components state size and complexity, the time ‘can vary ftom five minutes upto several hous. For high production volumes (big baths), components usually are new and dont require long pre-treatment prior to electroplating. ‘Therefore, this time mostly depends on the production volume For high run volumes of wor surfaces, which must be repaired, however, pre-treatment’ time is very important. ‘The following table! shows reasonable average standard labor times for electroplating, according to different production volumes and pars sizes. cof probeton Local production Industrial production, mises) | Sens | 100pans || s00pans | r000pars | 3000pars | 10000 pars [Snali(lemay | _15 z ta |_0.35__|__ 005 1.05 “Medium (dm2) 20 06 O12 0.024 0.024 Targe . 00m?) 25 4 08 on oon 0.008 ‘Tab. 4 Reasonable average labor times of electroplating processes or different productions contexts (ourface areas ofthe part, production volume). " Values set aceon oa discussion with ter eine. ‘Therefore, the total time employed isthe sum oft, and ty Tet, [minpaet] ‘Considering the parameters previously described, in onder to got the labor cost related to clectroph hourly wages by the throughput time ofthe part ing of one component, one has to rmultiply the C= wpT/ OODRR aT ‘Table 4 indicates the required labor time for six different production scenarios. In order to determine proper time-per-part values from this table, iis important to first define the type of production one is rumning, ic local or industrial production Within these two categories one ean locate the suitable small, medium ot large production volume, Inter~ and extrapolations with respect to production volume may be dane as well, but only within a eategory. Any inter-or extrapolation between categories leads o substantial errors. For production volumes smaller than S pars the same values as for S parts ate reasonable ones. For volumes higher than S000 parts there's almost no ‘gan in time for an increase of production, and therefore the values considered for S000 paris can be used. For volumes between $00 and 1000 parts ‘one can use an extrapolation ofthe values set either for 500 of 1000, according tothe type of production considered. “The same considerations ean be done for he values ofthe bath’s size in table 3, even ifthe values are muuch more similar, and therefore only tree scenarios ate taken into consideration, 3. EQUIPMENT COSTS ‘The estimate of equipment costs isthe same as for labor costs. In this case, one has to consider a hourly cost of the equipment "w," [DKK], which can be empirically estimated! to be about 35 DKK h, ‘Therefore the cost per part, related tothe use of the electroplating equipment is calculated by the formula: C= wT 780 (DKK pany "from the discussion of euceeatment companies. “TOTAL CosT Finally, the total cost for electroplating an object is: PRACTICAL EXAMPLES ‘The following cases are not rigorous examples of how to celeulate costs of electroplating an object, but just a simple ai for understanding the above reptnaymtecprmrtcecar we shown methodology. ‘This is justa method which ties to simplify the extremely huge amount of parameters conditioning electroplating cost. ‘The attempt isto select the most important variables, and to give them average values which can be satisfying representations ofthe real industrial uses of electroplating processes, ‘Therefore the method has many limits, and values are just reasonable and give only indicative solutions. -CANDLESTICK (silver-plating) Candlestick is silver plated for decoration reasons. Commonly, only one or few parts are plated at once for restoring worn surfaces. This would ‘though imply very much labor for preparing the surface prior to coating, and therefore it wouldn't be respected the standard conditions considered in the method. ‘The case which is going to be shown regards the production of large quantities of new candlesticks from metal, which need to be coated by silver as the final step of the production, but which don't require too much labor. This is therefore a more typical case of industrial production (e.g. medium- low production volume ~ 100 parts) 1. Material cost Calculation ofthe surface area ‘This candlestick has a very complicated shape. Therefore, it would be very difficult to calculate its surface area, A reasonable approximation though, seems to be the one made using a cut pyramid which circumseribes the object. Its surface area is 8.2 ddm? (S = 8.2 ém*/pan) (See "Empirical Calculation ofthe Surface Avea of an Object, Andrea Mazzilli & Torben Lenav, 1996") = Coating thickness ‘Typical coating thickness for silver-plaing ranges between 2.5 and 25 ym (table I) ‘Therefore, since this application isnot a special case, a value elose to the typical one of 12.5 ym is used (= 13 pm.) ~ Materia's density ae" 0.01-10,5 = 0.105 [g/dm®- pr] (se table 1) = Material price ‘The price of silver, as the one of all the other metals, varies every day, but its average price is about 14 DKK/e ( table 1) 4 DKKig., trom ‘Based on the values previously determined the material's cost is: G 105 T1482 = 15:7 [DKK pa) 2. Labour cost reptnayetecprmrtcecar wo - Hourly wages [As previously indicated, the average hourly wages has been set to 300 DKK Estimating ofthe time employed - Electroplating time Using the formula for Tp, sith 3 Lams dy values taken from table 2.) the bath time is (0.5 [glem3}; I= 1 [Ampldmn2]; B= 4.024 (g/Amp-h); 100% y= (13:10.560) (1-4.024-100) ~21 {min} Now, from the bathtime, the plating time of a single part has to be found. For this purpose the bath’ size is an important variable, In order to get general results which can be useful in any case, the average ofthe plating time needed using two reasonable baths sizes is considered. But one has to be aware that for large bath the plating time per pat ‘is decreased, while for small ones this time is increased, with an obvious effect onthe plating cost. Considering the suggestions of table 3. regarding baths sizes, one has yy = 21-8292 Average time: 86 [minvpat); fp = 21-8.2)/400 = 04 {min/par] 5 {minart] = Labor time ‘According to tab. 4, the labor time employed for such a production (medium size, 100 parts), is about 3 [min/part] se “Therefore the total time employed is: 5 [min/pat) ‘Based on these values the labor cost is C= 300 (75760) = 37.5 [DKK pan. 3. Equipment cost Using the same time and just considering the hourly cost of the equipment, this costs CS 3ST STAD) = EA DKK TPMT ‘Total cost ‘Considering all the partial costs found, the total cos is [Ga 1574375 + 44 = 57.6 [DKK pari) -WATER TAP (chromium plating) & reptnayetecprmrtcecar ‘Water tap is chromium plated for decoration reasons as well as for corrosion and aging resistance. In order to plate with chromium a part, this previously has tobe prepared by copper and nickel plating: Therefore, water tap is made of diecasted zine, and then successively coated by copper (1) nickel (2) and chromium (3. ‘The case which is going to be shown regards the production of large quantities of new water taps, which therefore don't require too much labor. This is a more typical ease of industrial production (eg. medium-low production volume ~100 parts) 1, Material cost = Caleulation ofthe surface area ‘Water tap is an object which can be considered as composed of more pats; each of them can be more easily approximated with a ‘common geometry. For the purpose of this article though, is the global surface which is required “Approximating the water lap body and the outlet pipe with circumscribed eylinders, and the onfofT handle with a parallelepiped (see “Empirical Caleulation of the Surface Avea of an Object, Andrea Mezzilli & Torben Lena, 1996"), the value of the surface area of the water tap is 8=5.7 dm? = Coating thickness Diceasted zine doesn't have a very smooth surface, Therefore following copper and nickel plating have to depose quit thick layers of ‘material, in order to provide a suitable surface to the very thin following chromium layer. Therefore both copper and nickel will be deposited with a layer of 25 jm, while chromium only 0.3 um to supply the object with suitable sheen. {y= 12 = 25pm; 13 = 034m " he values ae set acconding to able I and to the discussion wih Peter Leisnr abou the spel ofthis as. = Materia's density m1" 0.01" 8.9 ~ 0.089 [gid pr} 01 89 = 0.089 [gidm?-um] gs" 0.01- 7.2 = 0.072 [gid ym] ‘The values of densities in [g/cm™Jare taken from table Material price ‘The price of metals varies every day, but their average price can be set to about ps" 8 DKKiKe, (table 1). [Based on the values previously found out and set, the material's cost is yp = 0089-25°0.025°5.7 = 03 [DKK part Ca = 0089-25°0,08°5.7 = 1 [DKKipart yas 0071-0,3-0,008:5.7 ~ 0 [DKK part) SDK par Cree 2. Labor cost - Hourly wages [As previously indicated, the average hourly wages has been set 0 300 DKK, Estimating ofthe time employed = Specific electroplating time Using the formula for Tp, withthe following values, taken from tables 1. & 2. (except the ones for thickness, previously set) = 25 [wast =25 um y= 03 us ddm)=8.9 [g/em’]; dmy= 8.9 [glom3]; dmy=7.2 [wlem3]; 1, =3 [Ampidm2}; Ip~ 4 [Ampidm2}; 1p = 12 [Ampidm2] By = 1.186 [e/Amph Ey (04 (g/Amprh]; Ey = 0.0032 [p/Amp-bh; YY, 100% Y2" 95% 5" 10%, the baths time is: Typ (25°8.9-60)/ (3:1.186-100) ~ 97.5 [min] 258.960)! (41.04-95) ~ 33.8 [min] ‘Therefore the total time employed is: “Tyy= (0.3°7.2-60)/(120.082-10) ~ 33.75 [min] "Now, from the bath's time, the plating time ofa single part has to be found. For this purpose the same consideration as for the previous example are applied. eta = B7.S'S.7Y 20 ~ 10.7 fminfpat) ty Average time: yy ~ 5.6 [min/part) 37.55.7400 ~ 0.5 [min/part] ‘ag = (83.8'5.7)/ 20 ~9.6 [min/pat; typ = 63.85.7400 ~ 0.5 [minipart] Average time: a ~ 5 minipart]) tesa = (@3.75:5.7'20~ 9.6 [input Average time 3 ~ 5 [minpart) 33.75:5.7)/400 ~ 0.5 [minjpart] «Labour time ‘The three plating processes are carried out by sequentially dipping and dripping the parts in and out the respective three baths. Since dipping time is very shor, it ean be considered as insignificant, and the fact of having three consecutive baths bas an infivence only on the global bath’s time. ‘Therefore the labor time employed is found according to tab, 4, and for such a production (medium size, 100 parts), is about 3 [min part 6+5+S+3= 18. [minipant. [Based on these values the labor cost is 3. Equipment cost [C= 3001760) = 93 [DKK pany Using the same time and just considering the hourly cost ofthe equipment, this cos is Total cost cs ‘Considering all the partial costs found, the total cost is Gad 95F108= 1057 (DKK ipa] -SPOON (gold plating) "Number of parts: 1000; spoon dimensions (length: 200 mm; width: 20... 50 mm); material thickness: 2 mm (ignored); length of "mouth piece": 60 (Sketch) oF —_—_ 1, Material Cost - Surface area “Assumption: The spoon can be deseribed as a combination of the simple shapes ellipse and straight handle, The surface area may thus be calculated as follows: = Oval A= 3.14 ab; Sy =2- 3.14025 0.3 ~0.47 (dn?) + Straight handle Sp =2 0.2 1.4~0.56 [da] ~ Total surface area $= S) + S)~ 1.05 {dm*/par) = Coating thickness 2 {um reptnayetecprmrtcecar - Material density Gey = 0.01 + 193 ~0.193 (de? mm] = Material price = 100 000 [DKK] P= 100 [DKK] ‘Based on the previous values Cq#P Gx" 8“ tIDKK part) 00 O19 10S [PKKipart) 2. Labour cost Hourly wages 100 [DKK] Estimating of the tine employed + Specific electroplating time y= Ty: Si [minjpart] Ty= (dey 6OV- EY) [min] ‘Ty=2 Lmm] - 19.3 [gem] - 60/ (0.25 [A/dm - 6.62 [g/Ah] - 90) ~ 15.55 [ ‘Considering thatthe production of 1000 spoons is reasonably carried out by large industrial plants, the eadse presented is comparable to ‘the Scenario (5000 parts / 1dm?) in ab. 3. Therefore max and min bath’ sizes are the same and of 4000 liter. = $= 1.03 [dim?/part] Bath size = 4000 [liter] 10 bath size = 400 (dm?) 5.55 - 1.03 / 400 ~ 0.05 (minipar] “% | Labour time Based on the consideration done on table 4 0.024 $=0.12 (minipart) ip ty 0.12 + 0.05 = 0.17 [min/part] ‘Based on these values the labor cost is: y= 19/60 T [DKK part) C= 300760-0.17 = 085 [DKK par] 3. Equipment cost = Hourly equipment cast Estimate: we ~ 35 [DKK] Employed time T-0.7k inlpart] (see 2. Labour cost) Ce We (60 -T [DKKpart] 1S= 35160 0.17 ~ 0 [DKK pari 4. Total cost reptnayetecprmrtcecar “nC * Cy [DKKipart] CONCLUSION ‘The examples exposed are used to show how this simplified method for estimating the cost of electroplating processes can be use. ‘The method doesn't aim to provide precise values, which can enable a very precise calculation ofthe cost. Indeed it aims to be easily understood and used, providing a quick way to get ideas about possible magnitude orders of electroplating cost ofa part, and therefore supplying with data which enables a comparison with alternative solutions, already inthe early phase ofthe design stage If considered from this point of view all the approximations and the average considerations contained init, don't decrease its meaningfulness and the ‘method con be a valid aid for overall considerations on the costs involved in electroplating. ‘On the contrary, tae method isnot reliable, and therefore nat recommended, for very precise costs calculations - ACKNOWLEDGMENT | particularly would like to thank the Associate Research Professor, Ph.D. Peter Leisner (Technical University of Denmark) for his kind availability and for his precious advice.- REFERENCES |. "Empirical calculation of the surface area ofan object, Andrea Mazzilli [& Torben Lenau 1996" 2. "Design insite the designer's guide to manufacturing”. Internet link: . Design inSite isthe designers’ guide to manufacturing, Various manufacturing processes and materials are described as well asthe products where they are used, The purpose of Design inSite isto inspite designers in their designwork to consider materials and processes which are new or unknown, to them. By being aware of the new possibilities already in an early stage ofthe development process, new and innovative products will emerge. 3. "Tabellen und Betriebsdaten fir die Galvanotechnik, Eugen G. Leuze Verlag - Saulgau (Wht) 4. The London Metal Exchange or "LME" is a Recognised Investment Exchange pursuant to SchedulelV of the Financial Services Act 1986. This ‘web-site contains some information about what taeL ME does. Internet link: . 6. "Trelleborg AB". Teellborg AB is a Swedish company in which operations are structurally organised in three Business Sectors: Mines & Metals, ‘Rubber Products and Distribution, These Business Sectors are deseribed in detail on the company home page. Intermet link: -hutp:/wow.trellgroup serellgroup/TGE.html> 5. "Metals-Finishing Com", company dealing with metal finishing. Intemet link: