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Manual

FOGEX
HIGH-PRESSURE
WATER MIST CYLINDER SYSTEMS

User Guide
Issue 1 October 2004

Assessed to ISO 9001: 2000


Certificate number 018

e-mail info@watermistftl.co.uk
web www.watermistftl.co.uk
tel 0845 453 1320
fax 01525 285864

Water Mist Fire Technologies Ltd


Unit 5, Youngs Industrial Estate
Stanbridge Road, Leighton Buzzard
Bedfordshire, LU7 4QB

Contents
Chapter 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3
Chapter 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Safety and Environmental Considerations . . . . . . . . . . . . 4
Chapter 3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Design of the System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5
Chapter 4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
System Components . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6
Chapter 5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
System Operation. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
Chapter 6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Post-Discharge & Recharge Procedure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
Chapter 7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Maintenance Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
Appendix 1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Particular System Specification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
Appendix 2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
Relevant Documentation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22

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Chapter 1
Foreword
This manual is written for those who own and/or use FOGEX high-pressure water-mist cylinder
systems manufactured by Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd.
IMPORTANT
This information is the property of Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd who reserves the right to carry
out improvements and/or changes without notice. No reproduction or modication in full or part is
allowed other than for internal use. Every eort has been made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained herein. However, Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd disclaim any liability for the use
thereof. The use of this manual, by whomsoever, is done at their own responsibility and risk.
Any queries concerning the information presented in this manual should be addressed to:
Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd
Unit 5, Youngs Industrial Estate
Stanbridge Road
Leighton Buzzard
Bedfordshire
LU7 4QB
Email: info@watermistftl.co.uk
FOGEX and MISTEX are trade marks of Invention Technologies Pty (trading as Phirex Australia). All
technology, third party verication, test protocols and know-how relating to the design and application that belongs to Invention Technologies Pty, is licensed by agreement to Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd. All other relevant third party verication and know-how are the property of Water Mist
(Fire) Technologies Ltd, such information is protected by copyright, patent and trade mark laws.

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Chapter 2
Safety and Environmental Considerations
Safety is of paramount importance. No-one should interfere or operate water mist systems without
the proper training and instruction.
All personnel who are assigned to maintain and operate the equipment should be properly trained.
Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd recommends that all personnel involved in such activities are
accredited by Water Mist (Fire) Technologies Ltd and are in possession of the relevant IOSH Safety
Passport or CSCS Skills Card.
All personnel working in an enclosure protected by a water mist system should be warned of any and
all dangers associated with such. Personnel in the protected area should be trained in the modes of
actuation in case of re and system activation.
All personnel operating on the system should wear the appropriate PPE (Personal Protective Equipment), which should include as a minimum safety boots and goggles.
As a safety measure, the protection cap supplied with the cylinders must always be tted when the
cylinder is being transported.

During maintenance or building works that could activate the water mist system, e.g. dust in a detector, the system should be isolated or disconnected.
Human safety relating to the deployment of water mist in manned areas has been addressed by the US
Environmental Protection Agency (E.P.A). The overall conclusion was that water mist using potable
water is safe for use in occupied areas.
Areas protected by a water mist system should be evacuated in the event of a re alarm, not because
of the application of mist itself but in order to prevent harm to personnel due to exposure to the re
and its combustion products.
Water mist can signicantly reduce visibility in the protected areas during discharge. It will dissipate
fairly rapidly afterwards, depending on factors such as air temperature and humidity. The design of
escape routes should take into account this fact.
Water mist using potable water does not present an environmental hazard unless the water absorbs
dangerous substances from the fuel or re. In such cases careful consideration should be given to preventing water entering the drainage system or the ground.

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Chapter 3
Design of the System
The design of the system will determine the system performance and user expectations. It is important to review the design with the system supplier.
At present, there are no European prescriptive water mist standards. However, the product supplied
will be in accordance with the relevant product and technical standards available at the time of design.
These documents are referenced in Appendix 2.
Specic details such as system run time, nozzle type and from this, water quantity, will have been
determined by specic type testing for the application; fuel type; size and layout of the protected area
and contents therein; insurer requirement; re brigade attendance time; consultant brief; particular
manufacturer recommendations; or a combination of the above.
Water mist systems are designed to perform one of the following functions:
To extinguish a re completely so that no re-ignition will occur
To suppress a re, so that extinguishment has taken place and intervention can occur to prevent
further re-ignition
To control a re scenario, to allow time for evacuation or re brigade attendance
Particular system components, water quantity and run time should be detailed in the Commissioning
Certicate and Appendix 1.

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Chapter 4
System Components
FOGEX high-pressure water mist cylinder systems are based on similar technology. The actual components used will depend on the particular design of the application.
The FOGEX water mist system comprises of the following main components:
One or more 67.5 litre nitrogen cylinders charged with nitrogen to 230 bars at 15oC
Nitrogen valve, dependent on the type of system and number of cylinders can be one of the following:
Indirect High-Pressure Valve (for automatic closed head systems)
Electric valve for open deluge systems
Pneumatic valve (where there is more than one nitrogen cylinder)
Manual release valve (mounted on master nitrogen cylinder valve)
Pressure regulator
Pressure monitoring gauge (mounted on all nitrogen cylinder valve(s))
Discharge monitoring pressure switch
Low pressure monitoring switch
67.5 litre water cylinder (plastic lined)
Water valve (actuator head), tted into each water cylinder
Interconnecting hoses
Water manifold (where more than 1 water cylinder is installed)
Check valve (where more than 1 water cylinder is installed)
Test point
Directional valve
Stainless steel pipe work
Stainless steel compression ttings
FOGEX water mist nozzle(s)
The quantity of the water and nitrogen cylinders depends on design factors including the number and
type of nozzle and the system discharge (or run) time. The ratio of water to nitrogen cylinders is 2:1.
Cylinder congurations are normally as indicated in Table 4.1.

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System Designation

Qty of
water cylinders

Qty of
nitrogen cylinders

Total System
Water Qty

1+1

67.5 litres

2+1

135 litres

3+2

202.5 litres

4+2

270 litres

5+3

337.5 litres

6+3

405 litres

Table 4.1 Quantity of Water and Nitrogen Cylinders

Nitrogen Cylinder
The nitrogen cylinder has a water capacity of 67.5 litres and is charged with 230 bars of dry nitrogen
at 15oC. The cylinder is seamless with a working pressure of 230 bars and a test pressure of 345 bars.
The cylinder is -marked and complies fully with the European Transportable Pressure Directive. A
system may have more than one nitrogen cylinder. In this case, it is always the rst (or master) cylinder
that is tted with the discharge-initiating valve.

Figure 4.1 Nitrogen Cylinder tted with protective head cap

Indirect High-Pressure Valve


The Indirect High-Pressure Valve (IHP) is tted to the rst nitrogen cylinder of closed-head systems
that contain FOGEX FA automatic bulb-type nozzles.

Figure 4.2 Indirect High-Pressure Valve as used on the rst (master) nitrogen cylinder

The valve comes complete with the following attachments and outlets:
Pressure Gauge
Discharge Outlet
Low pressure actuator c/w manual ball valve
Manual release c/w gauge for low-pressure side and manual ball valve
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The IHP valve is a dierential pressure valve that is normally closed. The valve is held closed by a balance from the high pressure side of the stored nitrogen with that of the low pressure side at the top of
the valve.
The low pressure outlet is tted with a ball valve and then is connected via a non-return valve to the
system pipe work. The high pressure discharge outlet also connects to the system pipe work via a T
piece.
Upon commissioning, the system pipe work is pressurised to 19 bars, and the manual ball valve to the
low pressure actuator is opened.
When one or more nozzles actuate the pressure drops in the pipe work. The drop in pressure causes a
pressure dierence across the valve. The valve opens releasing the cylinder contents at 230 bars through
the discharge outlet. The nitrogen ows via a pressure regulator, where the pressure is reduced to 110
bars. It then ows to pressurise the water cylinder(s). Other nitrogen cylinders that maybe connected
to the system are actuated via the pressure opening a pneumatic valve.
Electric Nitrogen Valve
The electric nitrogen valve is used on open deluge systems only, that use the FOGEX F type nozzle. A
signal from the re alarm control panel opens the valve to discharge the nitrogen.
The valve comes complete with the following attachments and outlets:
Pressure Gauge
Discharge Outlet
Low pressure switch
Manual release

Figure 4.3 Electric Valve as used on the rst (master) nitrogen cylinder of open deluge systems

Pneumatic Nitrogen Valve


A pneumatic valve is used where more than one nitrogen cylinder is required. The valve is opened by
external pressure generated through the opening of an IHP valve, electric valve or manual release of
the rst nitrogen cylinder.

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Figure 4.4 Pneumatic Valve as used on all secondary nitrogen cylinders

Manual Release
The manual release requires the user operate to open the rst nitrogen cylinder to initiate a system
discharge.

Figure 4.5 Manual Release as tted on the IHP valve on the rst nitrogen cylinder

Figure 4.6 Manual Release as tted on the electric valve on the rst nitrogen cylinder

The manual release should only be used in the following cases:


On manual only systems;
When a re has been identied and intervention is required before the detection system has
operated;
If the detection system has failed
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Pressure Regulator
The pressure regulator is a device that reduces the pressure discharged from the nitrogen cylinder
from 230 bars to 110 bars. This ensures that the optimum design pressure of 100 bar at the nozzle is
achieved allowing for potential pressure loss in the pipe work and ttings.

Figure 4.7 Pressure Regulator

Low Pressure Switch


The low pressure switch is tted to all nitrogen cylinders to monitor loss of pressure. The switch is a
volt-free contact set at 160 bars that should be connected and monitored by the control panel. Should
the nitrogen pressure fall below this a fault is generated. The nitrogen should be recharged as soon as
possible thereafter.
Discharge Pressure Switch
The discharge pressure switch is a monitored volt-free contact that is normally open. In the case of a
single water cylinder arrangement it can be tted to the water cylinder valve, nitrogen valve, or via a
T-piece in the downstream pipe work. For more than one water cylinder the pressure switch is tted to the manifold. As the water discharges the switch closes and a signal is sent to the control panel,
indicating system discharge.
An alternative arrangement is on the nitrogen cylinder valve. In this case, switch closure is achieved
through the ow of nitrogen at pressure when the valve opens. The discharge pressure switch is stainless steel in construction.

Figure 4.8 Discharge Pressure Switch

Water Cylinder
The water cylinder has a water capacity of 67.5 litres. The cylinder is seamless with a working pressure
of 200 bars and a test pressure of 300 bars. The cylinder is -marked and complies fully with the European Transportable Pressure Directive. The cylinder is lined with a plastic coating to prevent corrosion
of the steel. The water used is de-mineralised.

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Figure 4.9 Water Cylinder c/w Valve

Water Cylinder Valve


The water cylinder valve consists of two nitrogen ports (one in, one out); and an outlet port. The outlet
section of the valve is a service removable. The " outlet is connected directly to the pipe work for a
single cylinder system or to a manifold for a multi-cylinder system.
The quiescent storage pressure of the water cylinder is zero.
To ensure that the system operating pressure of 100 bars is attained quickly the internal valve mechanism has been tested to operate at no more than 80 bars. At this point, the valve opens and water
discharges through the system to the nozzles.
Should one of the nitrogen ports not be used, a blanking plug is inserted.
Water Manifold
A water manifold is a device that collects all the water outlets from the water cylinders.
Water manifolds may be one of two sizes:
3-port, allows connection of between 1 and up to 3 water cylinders
6-port, allows connection of between 1 and up to 6 water cylinders

Figure 4.10 Manifold Assemblies

The inlet and outlet ports of the manifold are as follows:


3-port water inlet manifold
3 o " inlet ports from water cylinders
4 o " outlet ports
6-port water inlet manifold
6 o " inlet ports from water cylinders
5 o " outlet ports

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At least one outlet port connects to pipe work that extends to the nozzles. Orientation of the outlet
ports mean that one or more choice of direction is available for the pipe work extending to the nozzles.
The other outlet ports may be used as connections to:
A test point used for system pressure test or charging
A discharge pressure switch
Check Valve
A check valve is a non-return valve that prevents the ow of water or nitrogen back through the
manifold to the storage cylinder. It also prevents system failure or potential injury should one of the
connected cylinders be removed from the system.

Figure 4.11 Check Valve

Directional Valve
A directional valve is a manual or more normally an electric ball valve, installed in line with the pipe
work. Its purpose is to direct the ow of water upon discharge to a particular area of the system. An
example would be a common cylinder bank protecting 3 risks. The water quantity could be designed
so that only sucient water was available for a single risk. Upon detection of a re, the system would
be activated and only the directional valve associated with the risk with a re would be opened.

Figure 4.12 Manual Ball Valve that can operate as a directional valve

Figure 4.13 Electric Ball Valve that can operate as a directional valve

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Directional valves are only generally used when a risk assessment or insurer has determined that no
more than one re incident will occur. Water quantity will always be for the largest risk. In the above
case, if one risk were larger than the remaining two, the water quantity would be determined on the
largest risk.
Compression Fittings
A compression tting consists of a body constructed out of 316L grade stainless steel, a locking nut
and a compression ferrule. Compression ttings can have either one ferrule or two ferrules. Tightening
of the locking nut compresses the ferrule(s) onto the pipe and forms a leak-tight seal. Dierent tting types include stud couplings (a combination of a compression coupling to a BSP thread); bushes
(male-female adaptors); sockets; male-male adaptors; bonded seals; adaptors with parallel and/or tapered BSP threads; tees, elbows, crosses, caps and plugs.

Figure 4.14 Examples of Stainless Steel Compression Fittings

Nozzles
The type of nozzle used will depend on the type of system (see below). There are two basic types of
nozzle:
Open Deluge (or F nozzle)
Closed-Head (or FA nozzle)
Both types of nozzles are constructed of an aluminium-bronze or stainless steel body dependent on the
application. All nozzles are tted with a stainless-steel strainer within to prevent blockage.

Figure 4.15 Open deluge F type nozzles

The closed-head nozzle contains an alcohol lled bulb that is temperature dependent. Once the temperature has been achieved the alcohol will expand, and the bulb will shatter, opening up the nozzle.

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Figure 4.16 Closed-head FA type nozzles

For particularly harsh or dirty environments, or applications where the nozzle could be tampered with,
tamper-proof blow-o caps are available.

Figure 4.17 Tamperproof blow-o cap for an open deluge F type nozzle

Figure 4.18 Tamperproof blow-o cap for a closed-head FA type nozzle

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Chapter 5
System Operation
This chapter details how the system will operate in an event of a re.
There are two types of system: one type uses the FOGEX F
F-type open deluge nozzle (i.e. F20, F27
or F11); the other type uses the FOGEX FA-type automatic bulb nozzle (i.e. FA20, FA27 or FA11).
These types of systems are referred to as open deluge and closed head respectively.
Open Deluge
Open deluge systems use the F range of FOGEX nozzles. Once the system is activated water mist is
generated at each and every nozzle
Table 5.1 below details the application of the types of nozzle:
Type of Nozzle

Flow Rate per Nozzle

Application

F20

6.4 litres/min

General room protection below 5m in


height

F27

5.3 litre/min

Door opening or water curtain protection


below 5m in height; escalator protection;
oven or fat-fryer protection

F11

10 litres/min

Local application or general room protection above 5m height

Table 5.1 Types and applications of the F series open deluge nozzles

Open deluge systems are most commonly activated by a detection system. The detection system type
will depend on the application. Heat probes are generally used in ovens; ame detectors on printing
presses and optical or ionisation smoke for general room applications. Activation of the system will
be by the co-incidence connection principle, whereby at least two detectors, wired on separate circuits, will register an alarm or re condition. The control panel will then signal to the water mist to
discharge, after a pre-programmed delay time.
Open deluge systems can also be activated manually, either by way of a manual release tted to the
rst nitrogen cylinder (without the requirement for a detection system); or via the manual release or
break glass of the detection circuit.
Open deluge systems will use an electric valve tted with manual release override on the rst nitrogen
cylinder. The nitrogen ows out of the discharge port, through the pressure regulator and into water
cylinder(s). The water cylinder(s) discharge water at 110 bars into the system pipe work and to the
nozzles. The nitrogen will also open the remaining nitrogen cylinders installed via their pneumatic
valve.
NOTE In an open deluge system water mist will discharge from all open nozzles.
As the water ows through the pipe work a pressure switch will close, indicating that discharge is taking place.
Water discharge will continue until all of the water has been depleted, unless an isolation valve (if tted) is closed.

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Closed Head
Closed head systems use the FA range of FOGEX nozzles. Each nozzle is tted with an alcohol-lled,
temperature-sensitive bulb. The system will only discharge water if one or more of the bulbs are activated. The system is designed for the worst-case scenario where a designed maximum number of nozzles could be actuated. The water quantity required, and hence the number of cylinders, requires this
maximum area of coverage, design runtime and nozzle ow-rate at design stage.
The type of nozzle and the temperature of the bulb installed will have been determined at design
stage.
Table 5.2 below details the application of the types of nozzle:
Type of Nozzle

Flow Rate per Nozzle

Application

FA20

6.4 litres/min

General room protection below 5m in height

FA27

5.3 litre/min

Door opening or water curtain protection below 5m in


height

FA11

10 litres/min

Local application or general room protection above


5m height

Table 5.2 Types and applications of the FA series closed-head nozzles

Table 5.3 indicates the temperature release ratings of the alcohol lled bulbs.
Bulb Temperature Rating

Bulb Colour

Orange

Red

Yellow

Green

57 C
68 C
79 C
93 C
o

Blue

Mauve

Black

141 C
182 C
240 C
Table 5.3 Colour designation of alcohol lled temperature-sensitive bulbs

The 57oC bulbs are tted as standard.


A closed-head system has to be charged with either dry nitrogen or water during the commissioningphase. This pressure is the normal quiescent pressure of operation. At 15oC the pressure contained in
the system pipe work and held back at the nozzle is 19 bars.
A closed-head system always uses one nitrogen cylinder with an Indirect High Pressure (IHP) valve. If
more than one nitrogen cylinder is installed the remaining nitrogen cylinders are tted with a pneumatic valve.
In the event of a re that activates a bulb, the pressure will drop in the system, which will open the
IHP valve on the rst nitrogen cylinder. The nitrogen ows out of the discharge port, through the
pressure regulator and into water cylinder(s). The water cylinder(s) discharge water at 110 bars into the
system pipe work and to the nozzle that activated. The nitrogen will also open the remaining nitrogen
cylinders installed via their pneumatic valve.

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NOTE In a closed head system water mist will only discharge from nozzles that have activated. All
other nozzles will remain closed unless activated through temperature of the re spread.
As the water ows through the pipe work a pressure switch will close, indicating that discharge is taking place.
Water discharge will continue until all of the water has been depleted, unless an isolation valve (if tted) is closed.

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Chapter 6
Post-Discharge & Recharge Procedure
In the event of a system discharge, precautions should be made and a procedure adopted for recharging and re-commissioning the system.
In the event of a re the protected area should not be re-entered unless deemed safe to do so by the
local re brigade or other suitably qualied personnel.
Should there be any standing water near electrical equipment where possible live-voltages may be
present, power should be shut-down, and suitable health and safety precautions should be followed.
The authorised supplier or maintainer of the system should be contacted as soon as possible to recharge and re-commission the system.
Nitrogen and water cylinders will need to be recharged. The water cylinder valve will need to be refurbished in accordance with the manufacturers procedures.
The nozzle(s) through which water has discharged should be removed and replaced. This is to ensure that system performance remains unaected for subsequent activations. In the case of automatic
closed-head bulbs, the alcohol lled bulb will need to be replaced, if activated or damaged. Should any
tamperproof nozzle caps have been damaged or discharge has occurred, these should be replaced.

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Chapter 7
Maintenance Procedures
For the water mist system to protect and operate at optimum performance for the life-time of the
application certain maintenance procedures should be followed.
The system has been designed to meet the design criteria and application at the time of installation.
Change of use, re hazard, size or construction may aect the performance of the system and the system supplier should be contacted as soon as possible after any such changes.
Inspection intervals and procedures are as indicated below.
Weekly
Visual check of the hazard for changes or alterations that could aect the system performance.
Visual check of the control panel to check for faults.
Inspect pressure gauges on the nitrogen cylinders for correct reading.
If installed, check trace heating and localized heating systems.
Carry out a visual check that there is no obvious damage to pipe work.
Carry out a check that all operating controls and components are properly set and undamaged.
Monthly
Check that all personnel who may have to operate the equipment or system are properly trained and
authorised to do so and, in particular, that new employees have been instructed in its use.
Six Monthly
To be carried out by qualied and authorised service providers.
Check connecting hoses for tightness and integrity
Check water cylinder contents
Inspect support brackets and frame of cylinders/manifold
Inspect and test the re alarm system, if tted.
Yearly
Check water quality for signs of deterioration or bacterial contamination.
Ten yearly
Ensure all cylinders undergo a hydrostatic test in accordance with current standards.

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Appendix 1
Particular System Specification
Client Name
Client Address

Telephone
Fax
Email
Responsible Person
Protected Hazard
Fuel Class (please circle)

Class A

Class B

Open Deluge

Closed Head

Particular Fuel
Type of System (please circle)
Type of Actuation (please circle)

IHP

Electric

Manual

Self-contained

Type of Detectors
Type of Control Panel
Type of Nozzle
Number of Nozzles (include any in voids)
Tamperproof blow-off caps (please circle)

Yes

No

System Design Run Time

minutes

Total Water Quantity

litres

Number of Water Cylinders


Number of Nitrogen Cylinders
Number of Directional Valves
Type of Directional Valve
Date of Installation
Date of Commissioning and Handover
As Fitted Drawings present (please circle)

Yes

No

Hydraulic Calculations present


(please circle)

Yes

No

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Other Information

Authorised Signature
Name
Position
Date

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Appendix 2
Relevant Documentation
FOGEX Design and Installation Manual
NFPA750 Standard on Water Mist Fire Protection Systems (2003)
Draft ISO Standard ISO 6182-9 Fire protection Automatic sprinkler system Part 9: Requirements and test methods for water mist nozzles
CEN/TC 91 Draft on Fixed re ghting systems Water mist systems Design and installation
TBN 14 Loss Prevention Council Technical Brieng Note Legionella and Fire Fighting Systems, May 1999
BS5839-1 (2002) Part 1: Code of Practice for System Design, Installation, Commissioning and
Maintenance
BS6266 (2002) Code of practice for re protection for electronic equipment installations
BS EN 1968 (2002) Transportable Gas Cylinders Periodic inspection and testing of seamless
steel gas cylinders

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