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Sample report for Survey Camp, IOE

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We, students of IOE, Central Campus, studying in third year/ first part (Civil
Engineering) were taken to a Survey Camp in Tribhuvan University Campus as
part of our course. We got experience working in the field. It was good revision
of theoretical knowledge of Surveying and a prefect practical practice. We would
heartily like to acknowledge Department Of Civil Engineering for including such
program in the syllabus. We must recognize the effort of all the staffs who
directly or indirectly helped us during the camp.
We are very grateful to Professor Vishwonath Khanal (HOD), Associate
Professor Narayan Basnet (Co-ordinator), Associate Professor Ramesh
Kumar Bajimaya, Associate Professor Nagendra Raj Sitaula, Associate
Professor Avimanyu lal Singh, Associate Professor Nanda Shakya, Chief
Instructor Tilak Bdr Baniya, Lecturer Bharat Bdr. Dhakal, Lecturer Toran
Pd. Bhatta, Instructor Gopal Krishna Taujale, Instructor Jaya Ram
Maharjan for their sincere help and appreciation. We would like to express our
gratitude to all the non-teaching staffs who helped in managing the camp and
guiding us. It would be unfair to forget the immense support from Tribhuvan
University administration. We would like to show our appreciation to the
Tribhuvan University administration for providing us with the working space for
the Survey Camp. Lastly, working together with our colleagues helped us cope
with the difficulties in the field easily, we are thankful to all our colleagues.

B.E SURVEY CAMP 2070


Group No. 32

Pratik Raj Pahari (068/bce/108)

Sandesh Suyal (068/bce/132)

Sudan Khathiwada (068/bce/156)

Suyog Pradhan (068/bce/180)

Sumit Kumar Sah (068/bce/167)

TABLE OF CONTENTS
SECTION I: MAIN REPORT
1. INTRODUCTION
1.1

Objectives of survey camp

1.2

Project area

1.3

Location

1.4

Topography and geology

1.5

Rainfall , climate and vegetation

1.6

Others

and accessibility

2. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
2.1

Objectives

2.2

Brief description of the area

2.3

Norms (Technical specifications)

2.4

Equipment and accessories

2.5

Methodology

2.5.1

Reconnaissance(recce)

2.5.2

Major traverse

2.5.3

Minor traverse

2.5.4

Leveling

2.5.5

Detailing

2.5.6

Resection

2.5.7

Intersection

2.5.8

Computation and plotting

2.5.9

Comments and conclusions

3. BRIDGE SITE SURVEY


3.1

Objectives

3.2

Brief description of the area

3.3

Hydrology, geology and soil

3.4

Norms (Technical specifications)

3.5

Equipment and accessories

3.6

Methodology

3.6.1

Site selection

3.6.2

Topographic survey

3.6.3

Longitudinal section

3.6.4

Cross section

3.6.5

Leveling

3.6.6

Detailing

3.6.7

Computation and plotting

3.6.8

Comments and conclusions

4.

ROAD ALIGNMENT AND GEOMETRIC DESIGN

4.1

Brief description of the project area

4.2

Hydrology and geology

4.3

Soil

4.4

Norms (Technical specifications)

4.5

Equipment and accessories

4.6

Methodology

4.6.1

Horizontal alignment

4.6.2

Vertical

4.6.3

Leveling

4.6.4

Longitudinal section

4.6.5

Cross section

4.6.6

Topographical survey of road corridor

4.6.7

Structures

4.6.8

Comments and conclusions

alignment

5. CONCLUDING RERMARKS
6. LIST OF TABLES
7. LIST OF DRAWINGS

SECTION II: DRAWINGS

1. INDEX MAP
2. LOCATION MAP
3. WORK SCHEDULE
4. TOPOGRAPHIC MAP
4.1

Drawings of major and minor traverses

4.2

Topographic map of TU ,Kirtipur

5. DRAWINGS OF ROAD AND BRIDGE SITES


5.1

Topographical map of road corridor

5.2

Longitudinal profile

5.3

Cross section of road

5.4

Topographical map of

of road corridor

bridge site

5.5

Longitudinal profile

of river/stream

5.6

Cross section of river/stream

5.7

Drawings of typical structures

6. Bibliography

1. INTRODUCTION
Surveying is the branch of engineering that deals with the art and science of
determining the relative positions of distinctive features on or beneath the
surface of the earth, by measurements of distances, directions and elevations.
The application of surveying requires the knowledge of mathematics, physics,
and to some extent, astronomy. It comes first before and during all Engineering
works such as designing and construction of highways, water supply systems,
irrigation projects, buildings etc.
Surveying is the main roots for the execution of any civil engineering projects.
The science of surveying has been developing since the initial stage of human
civilization according to their requirements. The art of surveying preparation of
maps has been practiced from the ancient times and the further advanced until
present. In the absence of the map, it is impossible to layout the alignments of
road, canals tunnels, transmission power line and microwave or television
relaying towers and so on. Detailed map of the sites of engineering projects are
necessary for the precision establishment of sophisticated instruments.
Surveying is the first step for the execution of any project. As the success of any
engineering is based upon the accurate and complete survey work, an engineer
must therefore be thoroughly familiar with the principle and different methods of
surveying and mapping.
For the purpose of water supply-sanitary system, irrigation system, highway
designing, the relative altitudes are required, which is ascertained by the process
of leveling. The details of the enclosed area and the ground nature can also be
portrayed in the combined form of a topographic map. Not only this, the whole

land can be surveyed as different areas and can be plotted into a single map, the
main thing is not to violate the basic survey principles viz. working from whole to
part, consistency in work, accuracy required according to scale and independent
check. As a basic part of these principles, horizontal and vertical controls are
fixed prior to the work of detailing, while surveying large areas. These necessities
are also fulfilled while fixing intersection points for the primary survey on road.
For the survey on river, especially for bridge site, the triangulation method is
carried over for horizontal control and fixing control station for further
references. In addition, for vertical control fly leveling is run to form closed
circuit. These all are done very precisely and accurately to achieve the good
result. Hence, the work done during the camp duration can be categorized into
three main projects:
1. Topographical survey
2. Bridge site survey
3. Road alignment survey

1.1 Objectives of survey camp

The main objective of this survey camp allocated for civil engineering students is
to consolidate and update their basic knowledge of different surveying
techniques relevant to civil engineering works. Working in actual field conditions
enhances their theoretical and practical knowledge and increases their
confidence that is beneficial to their professional practice in the near future. The
duration of this survey camp enabled a single group of students to perform and
prepare reports on:
* Detailed survey of the given area
*Road alignment survey
*Bridge site survey.

Besides, the main objective mentioned above some other objectives can
be listed as:

To familiarize individuals with the concept of team work as surveying is not a


one-man game.

To familiarize students with the parts, functions and handling of surveying


instruments and their use in surveying.

To familiarize students with the problems that are likely to arise during the
fieldwork. For e.g. Weather, ground features etc.

To complete the given project in scheduled time and thus gives students a feel
of facing and completing deadlines.

*
*

To collect required data in the field in systematic ways.


To compute and manipulate the observed data in the required accuracy and
present it in diagrammatic and tabular form in such a way that it is understood
other engineers easily and gives the layman an idea of what has been done.
Thus, this Survey Camp was organized to give the students an opportunity
to feel the difference between theoretical knowledge and practical work and
hence develop a quality in them by virtue of which they will be able to make a
link between the two different aspects of engineering education.

1.2 Project area

Located only a few kilometers away from the center of Kathmandu, Kirtipur is a
place of diverse landforms. Kirtipur meaning the city of glory is a small town in
the valley, about five kilometers south-east of the capital, Kathmandu. Kirtipur,
also known as Kyapoo is one of the oldest settlements in the valley. Its location is
very different from the other main towns of the valley. Kathmandu and Patan are
both located in plain areas while Bhaktapur is laid out on gently sloping ground.
Kirtipur unlike the others is located on a hilltop and covers almost the whole hill.
Tribhuvan University owns the major portions of the area of Kirtipur. The area
consists of varying topography ranging from very steep slopes and deep ravines
to vast, almost flat grounds.

1.3 Location

and accessibility

The major part of our survey camp work was done in the compound of Tribhuwan
University. Tribhuvan University (TU), founded in 1959, is Nepals first university.
Situated in Kirtipur, five kilometers away from Kathmandu, the University offers a
wide range of academic programs, including 300 courses at certificate level,
1,079 courses at Bachelors level and more than 1,000 courses at Masters level.
With the rapid development of Katmandu and proximity of the capital to
Kirtipur, the town has come under increasing pressure for modern development.
It is a farming town. During the 1960s, the paddy fields to the north east of the
town were chosen as the site for Tribhuvan University, and were compulsorily
purchased from their owners. With the university, came a new-pitched road and
bus transport to the edge of the town. Naya Bazaar, which developed without
any planning two decades ago to the south east of the town, at the foot of the

hill is now the main commercial center. It is of course unrealistic to stop the
development of new areas around Kirtipur but if the growth of Naya Bazaar is
not supervised, it may develop to a large unplanned township without
appropriate infrastructures. With the development of Naya Bazaar and because
of the students commuting to T.U transportation facility in and around Kirtipur is
quite developed. There are regular buses running to and from Kirtipur. Thus, our
project area was quite suitable and easily accessible.

1.4 Topography and geology

Kirtipur has gently steep topography. It is said that the city is standing on a
huge hard rock. Especially the low land below the town is found to be good for
the agricultural product. The area contains ground features ranging from step
slopes to almost flat grounds. These features were shown by contours. The area
also shows a variation in the elevation.
The latitude and longitude of Nepal is as following:
Latitude

2622N to 3027N

Longitude

804E to 8812E

The latitude and longitude of Kirtipur is as follow:


Latitude

2953'06

Longitude

8455'

1.5 Rainfall, climate and vegetation

The weather condition of Kirtipur was not favourable as it was held in the
summer during our survey camp 2070. The day temperature during the camp for
most of the days was +30C.
The climatic conditions during our camp were fine. It was hot during the
days and cold in the mornings. The vegetation in Kirtipur is lush and ranges from
huge trees to weeds. The main agricultural crop of Kirtipur is paddy. They also
grow wheat. The plants that flourish in Kirtipur are the plants and trees that
need a lot of water and sun. The trees that are found are pipal, bamboo, sirish.
Long grasses also flourish in Kirtipur during this season. Large hedges of
neelkanda are also found here. We also saw large patches of touch-me-not or
mimosa pudica and shrubs of burrs. There were also large trees of camphor
and pines. There were also a few Australian pines.

1.6 Others

Kirtipur is one of the oldest settlements in the Kathmandu valley and its
history goes back to ancient times. According to the bamsawali of Nepalmandal,
Kirtipur was the hometown of the earliest Gopalbamshi kings of the valley. In the
Malla period, the people of Kirtipur were known for their skill in building. Kirtipur
stone carvers and wood carvers were employed in constructing the monumental
structures of the valley. In 1743, King Prithivi Narayan Shah made an attack on
Kirtipur with the intention of taking over the valley. At that time, Kirtipur was the
gateway to the valley from which gurkhas should enter it and would allow them
to occupy the three cities. Hence, Malla kings assisted Kirtipur with all forces. In
the battle, which took place near the reservoir at the south west of the town, the
gurkhas were defeated. Prithivi Narayan himself had a narrow escape. His
famous army commander Kalu Pandey was killed. His sword and shield and the
weapons of gurkhas were then hung in the BaghBhairav temple of Kirtipur.
Umamaheswor and BaghBhairav temples are the historic and religious
places of Kirtipur. Panga and Chovar are the neighboring villages. The newly
constructed Buddhist monasteries at Naya Bazaar can attract everybody. From
there, a beautiful view of Lalitpur can be seen.

2. TOPOGRAPHICAL SURVEY
Topographical surveying is the determining of the positions of natural and
artificial features on both plan and elevation. In other words determining the
configuration (relief) of the earths surface and to locate natural and cultural
features on it is topographical survey. From the survey data, topographic maps
that depict these natural and cultural features are produced using various types
of lines and conventional symbols. Topographic is simply the graphical
representation of positions of the earths surface

2.1 Objectives

The map is on sufficiently large scale to enable the individual features


shown on the map to be identified on the ground by their shapes and positions is
known as topographic map.
The main Objective of topographical survey is to prepare the topographic map of
the given area with horizontal control and vertical control on required accuracy.

2.2 Brief description of the area

The area, where topographic survey was performed, is situated at


Tribhuwan University, Kirtipur. The major traverse ran around the university
area. Our job was to prepare a topographic map of the whole university. Our
group i.e. group #32 had to complete the topographic survey of plot no.1 and
minor plot no.5, on which we had to do detailing. Plot no.1, actually was the
most attractive and important area of the university. Gandhi Bhawan,
Department of Physics, Chemistry, Geology, Hydrology, Arts, Fine arts,
management and Central library were near our plot area. Our plot also included
a steep terrain and woody lands.

2.3 Norms (Technical specifications)

1. Conduct reconnaissance survey of the given area. Form a close traverse (major
and minor) around the perimeter of the area by making traverse stations. In the
selection of the traverse station, make sure that the stations are inter visible and
maintain the ratio of maximum traverse leg to minimum traverse leg 3:1 for
minor traverse and 1:2 in the case of major traverse.
2. Measure the traverse legs in the forward and reverse directions by means of a
tape calibrated against the standard length provided in the field, note that
discrepancy between forward and backward measurements should be greater
than 1:2000.
3. In case of distance measurement by total station in both forward and backward
direction the precision of 1:5000 in case of major traverse and 1:3000 in case of
minor traverse should be maintained.
4. Measure traverse angle on two sets of reading by total station. Note the
difference between the mean angles of two sets reading should be within 20
seconds.
5. Determine the R.L. of traverse stations by fly leveling from the given arbitrary
T.B.M. 2 to T.B.M. 3 Perform two-peg test before the start of fly leveling. Note
that collimation error should be less than 1:10000. Maintain equal fore sight and
back sight distances to eliminate collimation error. Permissible error for fly
leveling is 25k mm, where k is the distance in kilometer.
6. R.L. of TBM2 =1291.851
7. R.L. of TBM3 = 1312.924
8. Balance the traverse. The permissible angular error for the sum of interior angles
of the traverse should be less than 30"n and 1n for major and minor
traverse respectively. For major and minor traverse, the relative closing error
should be less than 1:5000 and 1:3000 respectively.
9. Plot the major and minor traverse stations by coordinate method in appropriate
scale (1:1000, 1:500 respectively).
10.

2.4

Carry out the detail survey of the given sub area by total station and
tacheometric surveying with reference to the major and minor traverse, which
have been already plotted. Use conventional symbols for plotting.

Equipment and accessories

1. Total station

2. Reflector, prism & prism pole

3. Auto level

4. Plumb bob
7. Tapes

5. Staffs and ranging rods


8. Nails and pegs

6. Hammer

2.5 Methodology

The methodology of surveying is based on the principle of surveying that


is work should be done from whole to part with independent checks. The work
done should be accurate and consistent.

2.5.1 Reconnaissance [recce]


Recce means the exploration or scouting of an area. In survey, it involves
walking around the survey area and roughly planning the number of stations and
the position of the traverse stations. Recce is primarily done to get an overall
idea of the site. This helps to make the necessary observations regarding the
total area, type of land, topography, vegetation, climate, geology and inter
visibility conditions that help in detailed planning. The following points have to
be taken into consideration for fixing traverse stations:
*

The adjacent stations should be clearly inter visible

The whole area should include the least number of stations possible.

The traverse station should maintain the ratio of maximum traverse leg to
minimum traverse leg less than 2:1.

The steep slopes and badly broken ground should be avoided as far as possible,
which may cause inaccuracy in tapping.

The stations should provide minimum level surface required for setting up the
instrument.

The traverse line of sight should not be near the ground level to avoid the
refraction.

Taking the above given points into consideration, the traverse stations were
fixed. Then two way taping was done for each traverse leg. Thus, permanent
fixing of the control points completes recce.

2.5.2

Major Traverse
Traversing is a type of survey in which a number of connected
survey lines form a framework enclosing the area to be surveyed. Working from
whole to part is the principle. So, the whole area is enclosed by number of
control points of which details are necessary. The skeleton of lines joining those
control points, which covers the whole entire area, is called Major Traverse. Work
on Major traverse must be precise. So two-set of reading should be taken for
Major Traverse. For convenience, the readings are taken by setting the
theodolite at 000 for one set and 900000 for the second set.

In the Kirtipur Survey Camp, two traverses - major and minor had to be
established. The major traverse had 17 control stations including two given
control points. The control stations were named as CP1 and CP2. The leg ratio of
maximum traverse leg to minimum traverse leg was maintained within 1:2. The
discrepancy in length between the forward measurements and the backward
measurements of all the traverse legs was within 1:5000. Two sets of theodolite
readings were taken for measuring the horizontal traverse angles. The difference
between the mean angles of two sets of readings was within a minute for all the
angles. The angular error for the sum of interior angles of the traverse was less
than 30"17. The relative closing error for the major traverse was
1:15637.282 i.e. greater than 1:5000. Finally, the major traverse was plotted by
the coordinate method in a scale of 1:1000 on an A1 size drawing paper with
grid lines provided by the survey instruction committee.

2.5.3

Minor Traverse

It is not sufficient to detail the area by enclosing with the help of


major traverse. Minor traverse is that one which runs through the area to make
detailing easy. Minor Traverse covers only small area. Less precise work than
that of major traverse is acceptable so that single set reading is sufficient for
minor traverse. The minor traverse had 3 major stations and 11 minor stations.
The control stations were named as 32m1, 32m2 and so on. The leg ratio of
maximum traverse leg to minimum traverse leg was maintained within 1:3. The
discrepancy in length between the forward measurements and the backward
measurements of all the traverse legs was within 1:3000. One set of total station
readings was taken for measuring the horizontal traverse angles. The relative
closing error for the minor traverse was 1: 9212.367 & 1:11226.333

in two

loop of minor traverse,

which was nearly equal to or more than 1:3000.


Finally, the minor traverse was plotted by the coordinate method in a scale of
1:500 on an A1 size drawing paper with grid lines.

2.5.4 Leveling
Leveling is a branch of surveying the objective of which is to
(i)

Find the elevations of given points with respect to a given or assumed datum
and

(ii)

Establish points at a given elevation or at different elevations with respect to a


given or assumed datum.
The first operation is required to enable the works to be designed while
the second operation is required in the setting out of all kinds of engineering
works. Leveling deals with measurements in a vertical plane. To provide vertical
control in topographic map, the elevations of the relevant points must be known

so that complete topography of the area can be explored. Leveling was


performed to determine the elevation (relative height from a given datum)
Two types of leveling were performed at the site, namely direct leveling (spirit
leveling) and indirect leveling (trigonometric leveling).

1. Direct leveling: It is the branch of leveling in which the vertical distances


with respect to a horizontal line (perpendicular to the direction of gravity) may
be used to determine the relative difference in elevation between two adjacent
points. A level provides horizontal line of sight, i.e. a line tangential to a level
surface at the point where the instrument stands. The difference in elevation
between two points is the vertical distance between two level lines. With a level
set up at any place, the difference in elevation between any two points within
proper lengths of sight is given by the difference between the rod readings taken
on these points. By a succession of instrument stations and related readings, the
difference in elevation between widely separated points is thus obtained.
Following are some special methods of direct (spirit) leveling:
1.1. Differential leveling: It is the method of direct leveling the object of
which is solely to determine the difference in elevation of two points regardless
of the horizontal positions of the points with respect of each other. This type of
leveling is also known as fly leveling.
1.2. Profile leveling: It is the method of direct leveling the object of which is to
determine the elevations of points at measured intervals along a given line in
order to obtain a profile of the surface along that line.
1.3. Cross-sectioning: Cross-sectioning or cross leveling is the process of
taking levels on each side of main line at right angles to that line, in order to
determine a vertical cross-section of the surface of the ground, or of underlying
strata, or of both.
1.4. Reciprocal leveling: It is the method of leveling in which the difference in
elevation between two points is accurately determined by two sets of reciprocal
observations when it is not possible to set up the level between the two points.

2. Indirect leveling: Indirect method or trigonometric leveling is the process of


leveling in which the elevations of points are computed from the vertical angles
and horizontal distances measured in the field, just as the length of any side in
any triangle can be computed from proper trigonometric relations.

Temporary adjustments of Level


The temporary adjustment for a level consists of the following:
1. Setting up the level: The operation of setting up includes fixing the instrument
on the stand and leveling the instrument approximately.

2. Leveling up: Accurate leveling is done with the help of foot screws and with
reference to the plate levels. The purpose of leveling is to make the vertical axis
truly vertical. It can be done by adjusting the screws.
3. Removal of parallax: Parallax is a condition when the image formed by the
objective is not in the plane of the cross hairs. Parallax is eliminated by focusing
the eyepiece for distinct vision of the cross hairs and by focusing the objective to
bring the image of the object in the plane of cross hairs.

Permanent adjustments of Level


To check for the permanent adjustments of level two-peg test method
should be performed.
Two staffs were placed at A and B of known length (about 50 m). First, the
instrument was setup at the middle point C and both staff readings were taken.
Then the machine was held near A and both staff readings (Top, Middle, and
Bottom) were taken.

The precision obtained in both sets were greater than that of required
precision of 1 in 10000. Therefore, the permanent adjustment was not required.

There are two methods of booking and reducing the elevation of points
from the observed staff reading:

1. Height of the Instrument method

Arithmetic Check:
BS F.S. = Last R.L. First R.L.
Rise and Fall method
Arithmetic Check:
BS F.S. = Rise Fall = Last R.L. First R.L.
Among the two Methods Height of instrument, method is widely used.
After checking the accuracy of the level by two-peg test, fly leveling was
performed between temporary benchmark 2 (TBM2) and
temporary
benchmark3(TBM3). The closing error was found to be 2 mm which was within
the permissible error of 25k = 21.064 mm.
The R. L of TBM3 was then transferred to the control stations of the minor
traverse. The closing error was found within the permissible limits. Then the
linear and angular adjustments were made in each leg.
All the necessary data and calculations are presented in the following
pages in this report.

2.5.5

Detailing

Detailing means locating and plotting relief in a topographic map.


Detailing can be done by either plane table surveying or tachometric surveying.
Plane tabling needs less office work than tachometric survey. Nevertheless,
during our camp, we used the tacheometric method, tangential method and total
station method.
*

Detailing by total station


On the process of detailing by total station we used reflector prism and hence
total station gave the horizontal angle and hor. Dist and vert. distance directly.

Tachometry
Tachometry is a branch of angular surveying in which the horizontal and
vertical distances of points are obtained by optical means. Though it only has
accuracy about 1/300 to 1/500, it is faster and convenient than the
measurements by tape or chain. It is very suitable for steep or broken ground,
deep ravines, and stretches of water or swamp where taping is impossible and
unreliable.
The objective of the tachometric survey is to prepare contour maps or
plans with both horizontal and vertical controls. For the survey of high accuracy,
it provides a check on the distances measured by tape.

The formula for the horizontal distance is

H=100 x S x Cos2
The formula for the vertical distance is
V = 100 x S x (Sin2)/2
Where, S = staff intercept; = Vertical Angle
If the angle used is zenithal angle then
H=100 x S x sin2
V = 100 x S x (Sin2)/2
Where, =zenithal angle

Detailing by tangential method


In this method we have to take two middle staff reading, with 2 different vertical
angle along with horizontal angle with any traverse leg. We use the formula :
S=difference in staff reading
H=S/(tan(90-1)-tan(90-2))
V=Htan(90-2)

;where,1 is smaller zenithal angle and


2 is bigger zenithal angle.

Contouring
A contour is an imaginary line, which passes through the points of equal
elevation. It is a line in which the surface of ground is intersected by a level
surface. A contour line is a line on the map representing a contour. It represents
the elevation and is one of the ways of representing relief. While drawing the
contour lines, the characteristics of the contours should be considered. The
characteristics are as follows:

Two contours of different elevations do not cross each other except in the case
of an overhanging cliff.

Contours of different elevations do not unite to form one contour except in the
case of a vertical cliff.

Contours drawn closer depict a steep slope and if drawn apart, represent a
gentle slope.

Contours equally spaced depict a uniform slope. When contours are parallel,
equidistant and straight, these represent an inclined plane surface.

Contour at any point is perpendicular to the line of the steepest slope at the
point.

A contour line must close itself but need not be necessarily within the limits of
the map itself.

A set ring contours with higher values inside depict a hill whereas a set of ring
contours with lower values inside depict a pond or a depression without an
outlet.

When contours cross a ridge or V-shaped valley, they form sharp V-shapes
across them. Contours represent a ridge line, if the concavity of higher value
contour lies towards the next lower value contour and on the other hand these
represent a valley if the concavity of the lower value contour, lies towards the
higher value contours.

The same contour must appear on both the sides of a ridge or a valley.

Contours do not have sharp turnings.

Taking the reading at the change point on the ground is the indirect
method of locating contours. The interpolation method is used to draw the
contour lines. Interpolation of contours is done by estimation, by arithmetic
calculations or by graphical method. The eye estimation method is extremely
rough and is used for small-scale work only. Generally, arithmetic calculation
method of interpolation is used to draw the contour lines and it is performed as
follows:
Distance of contour point from the lower elevation point = (H/V) x v
where,
H=Horizontal distance between two guide points
V=vertical distance between two guide points
v=vertical distance between lower elevation point and the point to be located

The following steps were followed in tachometric survey:


1. The instrument was set up over the station and centering/leveling was
done accurately.
2. The vertical distance from the top of the station peg to the center of
trunion axis of tachometer was measured.
3. The instrument was oriented with reference to a fixed station whose
distance and bearing was predetermined.
4. The staff was held vertically at the nearest available benchmark and it was
sighted by the tachometer to determine the reduced level of the starting
point.
5. The staff was held at point of feature to be detailed.

6. Horizontal angle between the reference station and the object point was
measured.
7. The vertical angle to the central horizontal wire was observed.
8. The staff readings of the stadia hair were observed.
9. Same procedures were repeated for all the stations.

2.5.6 Resection :
Resection is the determination of the observers position by means of
observations taken to previously fixed points. There are several methods of
resection and they include:
1.

Observing horizontal angles from the unknown point to three known points.

2.

Observing horizontal angles from two unknown points to two known points.

3.

Observing horizontal angles from one unknown point to two known points when
the Azimuth of one of them is known.
In the camp we had adopt first method i.e. resection by observing
horizontal angles from the unknown point to three known points.

2.5.7 Intersection

A minimum of two control stations is required for this operation, with the
unknown point visible from each of them. It is not essential that the control
stations are inter-visible, but it makes it easier if they are. Clearly, the coordinates of the control stations will be known (otherwise they would not be
control stations!) so that the distance between them can be calculated. The
position is illustrated in the following diagram:

b
A
a

unknown
point

Figure 1. Sightings and angles measured for intersection.

The theodolite is set up at each of the stations (control points) A and B in turn.
At station A, the telescope is first sighted on B and then transited round to P,
measuring the angle a. Similarly, at B the angle b between line BA and line BP.
Note that the theodolite is not set up at the unknown point P. For this reason,
intersection is used for the positioning of points over which it is difficult or
impossible to set up the theodolite, for example,

surveying points high up on buildings, perhaps for later use as reference


objects,

measurement of the deflection of large structures (e.g. dams, bridges)

setting out of curves.

Because we know the co-ordinates of stations A and B, and because we know


that the sum of the internal angles in the triangle must equal 180, we can
calculate the following:

Length of line AB =

Bearing of line AB =

Angle p

(E2 + N2)

tan-1 (E / N)

180 - a b

Further calculation allows us to find the length and bearing of each of the lines
AP and BP:

Sine Rule:

AB

AP

=
sin p

and

BP
sin b

sin a

bearing AP

bearing AB + a

bearing BP

bearing BA b

Note that angle b is anticlockwise from BA to BP, hence the negative sign in the
above equation.

Once we have the bearing and length of lines AP and BP then the co-ordinates of
P can be calculated from each line. These two sets of co-ordinates should
correspond within the expected degree of accuracy.

2.5.8 Computations and Plotting


For the calculations as well as plotting, we applied the coordinate method
(latitude and departure method). In this method, two terms latitude and
departure are used for calculation. Latitude of a survey line may be defined as
its coordinate lengths measured parallel to an assumed meridian direction. The
latitude (L) of a line is positive when measured towards north, and termed
Northing and it is negative when measured towards south, and termed Southing.
The departure (D) of a line is positive when measured towards east, and termed
Easting and it is negative when measured towards west, and termed Westing.
The latitude and departures of each control station can be calculated using the
relation:
Latitude = l Cos
Departure = l Sin
Where, l=distance of the traverse legs
=Whole circle bearing
If a closed traverse is plotted according to the field measurements, the
end of the traverse will not coincide exactly with the starting point. Such and
error is known as closing error.
Mathematically,
Closing error (e) = {(L)2 + (D)2 } and
Direction, tan = D/L
The sign of L and D will thus define the quadrant in which the closing error
lies. The relative error of closure = Error of Closure / Perimeter of the traverse
=e/p

= 1 / (p / e)
In a closed traverse, by geometry, the sum of the interior angles should be
equal to (2n-4) x 90 where n is the number of traverse sides. If the angles are
measured with the same degree of precision, the error in the sum of the angles
may be distributed equally among each angle of the traverse.
The Bowditchs method or the compass rule is mostly used to balance a
traverse where linear and angular measurements are of equal precision. The
total error in latitude and in the departure is distributed in proportion to the
lengths of the sides.
Mathematically,
a) Correction in departure of a side of traverse
= (Total departure misclosure / traverse perimeter) x length of that side
b) Correction in latitude of a side of traverse
= (Total latitude misclosure / traverse perimeter) x length of that side
In order to measure the lengths of the sides of the traverse, two way
taping (forward and backward) was done. The difference in values obtained by
forward and backward taping is called discrepancy. In addition, the reciprocal of
the discrepancy divided by the mean of the two measurements is called
precision. Both the discrepancy and the precision for each traverse leg should be
within the given limits.
Mathematically,
Discrepancy = | Forward length - Backward length |
and, Linear precision = 1 / (Mean length / Discrepancy)
The coordinates of traverse stations were found out by resection.

2.5.9 COMMENTS AND CONCLUSION

COMMENTS:
The site for the survey camping was the campus area of TU, Kirtipur. The site
was very much suitable for performing various type of surveying.
The arrangements of the survey instruments was not satisfactory as there
were many faulty instruments which hampered us from running our survey
works smoothly and correctly in less time. Due to limited number of subtense
bar we had to wait for our turn. The lodging and fooding facilities were not up to
the task.

We hope that above mentioned problems will be solved and the up coming
camps will run smoothly without any problems.

CONCLUSION:
The work of the survey camp was finished within the allotted period of 10 days.
Surveying is a subject which is based on not only theory but a lot of practical.
Thus this camp helped us a lot in understanding the principles and techniques of
surveying. The camp also helped us to work in group. This camp will help us in
our future.
The whole area of TU was divided into two number of plots. A group had to
complete a single plot following the routine provided. The topographic maps of
several plots such prepared can be then mosaics to form a single map of the
whole area.
Thus we completed our project by following given norms and technical
specifications within the time allocated.

3. BRIDGE SITE SURVEY


Bridges are the structures that are constructed with the purpose of connecting
two places separated by deep valleys or gorges or rivers and streams. Bridges
are usually a part of road; making them shorter and hence economical. In
countries like Nepal, where the land is undulated and where there are plenty of
rivers, bridges are the most economic and efficient way to join two places. It is a
very convenient way. That is why the task of bridge site surveying has been
included in the curriculum of Bachelor's degree in Civil Engineering at Pulchowk
Campus, IOE.
This part of the Survey Camp dealt with the bridge site survey done at
Kirtipur. It was done at a place where a small stream flowed. It was located in
the woods where two hill slopes formed a deep ravine. The duration of the
survey was 2 days.

3.1 Objectives

Bridge construction is an important aspect in the development of


transportation network. For the construction of bridge, surveying is required for
topographical mapping; while the knowledge of longitudinal section of the river
and cross- sections at both the upstream and downstream is essential. The river
flow level in different seasons should also be taken into consideration before
designing a bridge.

Bridge surveying is necessary to locate a site, obtain information for


design, and furnish lines and grades for construction. A reconnaissance survey is
made at all possible sites. A preliminary survey is made at the best site to
establish horizontal and vertical control and to obtain information for the bridge
design and construction planning.
The main objective of the bridge site survey is to give the students the
preliminary knowledge on selection and planning of possible bridge site for the
future construction of bridge. The purpose of the bridge site survey was not only
to prepare plan and layout of the bridge site but also to collect the preliminary
data about the site. The data should include normal water flow, high flood level,
and geological features of the ground for planning and designing of the bridge
from the details taken during the surveying. The details must be taken from an
engineering point of view.

The other objectives of Bridge site survey are:


*
*

To find the best location for a bridge over the river considering factors like
convenience, economic and geological stability.
To use triangulation method for the calculation of the bridge axis length.

To take sufficient data of the details including the spot heights, around the
bridge in order to prepare a topographical map of the area, cross section of the
river at certain intervals and longitudinal section of the river.

To determine the physical properties of the river like its discharge, velocity of
water, bed slope, etc.

3.2 Brief Description of the area

Bridge site survey was conducted over a small rain stream on the T.U
campus area. The stream flows through a ravine formed by two hill slopes. Our
site was near the basketball court. The site was mossy and swampy. No huge
boulders are to be found near the site. It was damp and hilly.

3.3 Hydrology, Geology and Soil

The site was surrounded by trees and bushes. There were no rocks. The
ground was damp and swampy. The soil was soft and clayey. It was brown in
colour. The hill slopes on both sides are not very steep and are thus geologically
stable. There is not much water to be found on the bridge site. The only water is
collected from rain and other sources.

3.4 Norms (Technical Specifications)

The following norms were followed while performing the bridge site
survey:

Control point fixing as well as determining the length of the bridge axis had to
be done by the method of triangulation. While forming triangles, proper care had
to be taken such that the triangles were well conditioned, i.e. none of the angles
of the triangle were greater than 120 or less than 30.

The triangulation angle had to be measured on two sets of readings by


theodolite and the difference between the mean angles of two sets of readings
had to be within a minute.

Transferring the level from one bank to another bank had to be done by the
method of reciprocal leveling.

The scale for plotting the topographical map was given to be 1:500

In order to plot the longitudinal section of the river, data had to be taken along
the riverbed 150 m upstream and at least 50 m downstream. The plot for the
longitudinal section along the flow line had to be done in a scale of 1:100 for
vertical and 1:500 for horizontal.

For the cross section profile, data had to be taken at 25 m intervals both
upstream and downstream, and one at the bridge axis. Observation had to cover
about 20 m beyond the bank of river on either side. The scale being 1:100 for
both vertical and horizontal directions.

3.5 Equipment and accessories

1. Theodolite or total station


Ranging rods
Plumb bob
7. Compass
9. Sickle
11.Abney level

3.6 Methodology

2. Staffs, reflector prism and pole


4. Tapes
6. Level
8. Hammer
10.Nails and pegs

3.
5.

The various methods performed during the bridge site survey were triangulation,
Leveling, tachometry, cross section, and L-section. The brief descriptions of these
methodologies are given below:

3.6.1

Site Selection

Tentative bridge sites are selected by reconnaissance and the more


promising ones are reconnoitered in detail. The selection of a bridge site is
governed by both tactical and technical considerations. Tactical requirements fix
the general area for the bridge site. Technical requirements fix the exact location
and may sometimes eliminate sites that have been tactically acceptable. For
permanent construction, technical considerations govern the bridge location.
There were various factors for the selection of bridge site such as geological
condition, economical aspect etc. Therefore, the site was chosen such that it
should be formed on very stable hill slope. The bridge should be located at the
straight path of river and at the same time, the river width should not be narrow
from the economical point of view. In our case, it was assumed that the
approximate alignment of bridge axis has already been established with regard
to geo-technical site investigation. For the purpose of the shortest span the
stations were set perpendicular to the river flows direction. The riverbanks are
not eroded and are suitable for bridge construction. The site for the proposed
bridge was selected at a location where a bend in the road continued smoothly
into the bridge. The location of the bridge was selected in such a way that the
heights of the roads joined by the proposed bridge were almost the same. This
prevented a lot of cutting and filling to maintain a gentle gradient.

3.6.2

Topographic Survey

For the topographic survey of bridge site, triangulation was done. The
main purpose of the triangulation was to determine the length of the bridge axis.
The triangulation also serves the control points for detailing. First, the bridge
axis was set and horizontal control stations were fixed on either side. Distances
between stations on the same sides of river i.e. b`ase lines were measured with
tape precisely. Then the interconnecting triangles were formed and angles were
measured with a theodolite with two sets. The bridge axis length or span was
calculated by solving the triangles using the sine rule. Thus, the horizontal
control was set out.

For vertical control, the level was transferred from the arbitrary
benchmark and RL was transferred to the stations on the next bank by reciprocal
leveling while direct level transfer method was used for the same bank.

3.6.3

Longitudinal Section

The L-Section of the river is required to give an idea about the bed slope,
nature of the riverbed, and the variation in the elevations of the different points
along the length of the river. Keeping the instrument at the control (traverse)
stations on the river banks, the staff readings were taken at different points
along the center line of the river at an interval of about 25 m up to a 100 meters
upstream and 50 m downstream. The R.Ls of the traverse stations being known
previously, the levels of the different points on the river were calculated. Then
the L-Section of the riverbed was plotted on a graph paper on scale for vertical
and horizontal.

3.6.4

Cross Section

Cross-section of a river at a particular point is the profile of the lateral


sides from the centerline of the river cut transverse to the L-Section at that
point. The cross section can be used to calculate the volume and discharge of
water at the particular section if the velocity at the cross section is known. Cross
sections were taken at an interval of about 25 m extending 100 m upstream and
50 m downstream of the river. Staff readings of points along a line perpendicular
to the flow of river were taken from the stations points and the elevations of the
points were calculated using tachometric methods. At some places where
tachometric methods were not suitable or feasible, the "danda" method was also
applied. With all the calculations done and the required data in hand, the cross
section was plotted on a graph paper on required scale.

3.6.5

Leveling
Level transfer was done in two steps - firstly to transfer the R.L. from the
given B.M. to any traverse station, and secondly to transfer the R.L. from that
traverse station to all other stations as well as all the detailed objects (detailing).
The R.L. of TBM3= 1312.924 m. The R.L. was transferred by fly leveling from
the B.M. to a station using a level, forming a closed loop and making the
necessary adjustments. Then fly leveling was done in order to transfer the level
from that station to all the other stations of the traverse.
The principal of differential leveling is when the instrument is kept
equidistant from the back and forward staff stations, the difference in elevation
of the two stations is equal to the difference of the staff readings. In addition, it
can be achieved by placing the machine midway of the staffs. When it is not
possible to set up the level midway between two points as in the case of leveling

across large water bodies, the reciprocal leveling is employed to carry forward
the level on the other side of the obstruction.
When it is necessary to carry leveling across a river, ravine or any obstacle
requiring a long sight between two points so situated that no place for the level
can be found from which the lengths of foresight and back sight will be even
approximately equal, reciprocal leveling is done. Reciprocal leveling helps to
eliminate errors such as error in instrument adjustment, combined effect of
earth's curvature and the refraction of the atmosphere and variations in the
average refraction.

Fig.: Reciprocal Leveling

Where,
When theodolite is kept near staff held at A
ha= staff reading at station A
hb= staff reading at station B
When theodolite is kept near staff held at B
ha'= staff reading at station A

hb'= staff reading at station B

Then, the true difference in elevation between the two stations A and B is given
by
H= x [(ha - hb) + (ha'- hb')]

3.6.6

Detailing

Detailing of the entire bridge site was done by tachometric method, the readings
being taken with a theodolite stationed at the different traverse stations. The
detailing was done with respect to the skeleton formed by triangulation. The
vertices of triangles serve as a control point. With the help of tachometer, the
details were booked, up to 100m upstream and 50m downstream. The important
details not included in the cross-section data, were taken. Trigonometric Leveling
was also done to find out the RL of the inaccessible points. Abney level was used
to find out the slope of cliff. The data and the calculations have been tabulated in
a systematic way.

3.6.7

Computation and Plotting

The following tachometric formulas were used for the calculation of the
horizontal distance and R.L. of different points:
Horizontal distance of any point from the traverse station,
H = 100 x S x Cos2
Where, S = Staff intercept = Top - Bottom stadia reading
= Vertical Angle
The topographic map, the longitudinal section and the cross section were
plotted on the respective scales after the completion of calculations. Control
stations were plotted accurately in the grid paper. Then all hard details as well as
contours were plotted with reference to the control stations by the method of
angle and distances.

3.6.8

Comments and Conclusions

The bridge site survey was performed to gain idea for selecting the bridge
axis. Triangulation was performed to get the length of the proposed bridge. For
triangulation, we chose two stations in one bank and two stations on the next
bank. The distance between the two stations was calculated by taping. Similarly,
the cross-section and longitudinal section were performed. The X-section was
performed at the interval of 25m.The longitudinal section was about 100m
upstream and 50m downstream. In addition, details were taken from the
respective stations. The details of existing structures like walls, cliff, bridge,

boulders etc were taken. The cross-section was taken at the banks of river and
at the middle of the river to get the profile of the flowing river. In addition, we
marked the high flood level and low flood level. Similarly, we transferred the
reduced levels of the stations from the known benchmark.

4. Road Alignment and Geometric Design


Roads are specially prepared ways connecting different places for the
transportation of vehicles, people and animals. In countries like Nepal, where
there are less chances of airways and almost negligible chances of waterway,
roads form a major part of the transportation system. Therefore, it would not be
an exaggeration in saying that the roads have an utmost importance.
This part of the Survey Camp dealt with the road alignment survey done
at Kirtipur in T.U facility. The duration of the survey was three days, bridge site
alignment being done simultaneously.

4.1 Brief Description of the Project area

Road alignment is an important aspect in the development of the transportation


network of the country. Road alignment is important part of the survey. Road
alignment and bridge site survey goes side by side to run a road between two
terminals and to carry a survey for the bridge construction along the route. This
specific job is essential for an engineer combating with the mountainous
topography of Nepal.
The place where we complete this project had no road so we made an
imaginary road branching starting from the bridge to the tower about 1000m
away in the North West, through the area dense with trees, sloppy terrain,
terrace and a culvert.

4.2 Hydrology and Geology

The road had to go along a damp route that was much undulated. The place
was damp. There were no large boulders or rocks of any kind along the proposed
site.

4.3 Soil

When the soil surface is inclined, there is a component of gravity that


tends to move the soil downward. If along the potential slip surface in the soil
the stress produced by gravity exceeds the shear strength of the soil along the
potential failure surface, the slope will become unstable. Obviously, the shear
strength of soil is largely depends upon the type of soil. Cohesive soil has more
shear strength than others do. The hard and dense soil is best for slopes.
We found soft clayey soil that was very damp. Other kinds of soils were
not found along our proposed route.

4.4 Norms (Technical Specifications)

Recce alignment selection was carried out of the road corridor considering
permissible gradient (12%), obligatory points, bridge site and geometry of
tentative horizontal and vertical curves.

The road setting horizontal curve, cross sectional detail in 15m interval and
longitudinal profile were prepared.
The topographic map (scale 1:1000) of road corridor was prepared.
Geometric curves, road formation width, right of way, crossings and other details
were shown in the map.
While performing the road alignment survey, the following norms were
strictly followed:
*

The road had to be designed starting at base point of the bridge and ending at
the electrical tower(middle one) located in the North West.

If the external deflection angle at the I.P. of the road is less than 3, curves
need not be fitted.

Simple horizontal curves had to be laid out where the road changed its
direction, determining and pegging three points on the curve - the beginning of
the curve, the middle point of the curve and the end of the curve along the
centerline of the road.

The radius of the curve had to be chosen such that it was convenient and safe.

The gradient of the road had to be maintained below 12 %.

Cross sections had to be taken at 15 m intervals and at the beginning, middle


and ends of the curve, along the centerline of the road - observations being
taken for at least 10 m on either side of the centerline.
Plan of the road had to be prepared on a scale of 1:1000

L-Section of the road had to be plotted on a scale of 1:1000 horizontally and


1:100 vertically.

The cross section of the road had to be plotted on a scale of 1:100 (both
vertical and horizontal).

The amount of cutting and filling required for the road construction had to be
determined from the L-Section and the cross sections. However, the volume of
cutting had to be roughly equal to the volume of filling.

4.5 Equipments and accessories

1. Theodolite

2.staff

3. Ranging rods

4.Abney level

5. Tapes

6.Plumb bob

7. Level

8.Compass

9. Hammer

10.Sickle

11.Nails and pegs

4.6 Methodology

4.6.1 Horizontal Alignment


Horizontal alignment is done for fixing the road direction in horizontal
plane. For this, the bearing of initial line connecting two initial stations was
measured using compass. The interior angles were observed using 6' Theodolite
at each IP and then deflection angles were calculated.
Deflection angle, = 180 - interior angle
If +ve, the survey line deflects right (clockwise) with the prolongation of
preceding line and deflects left if ve (anti-clockwise). The radius was assumed
according to the deflection angle. Then the tangent length, EC, BC, apex
distance along with their chainage were found by using following formulae,
Tangent length (T L) = R x tan(/2 )
Length of curve (L.C) = 3.142 x R x /180
Apex distance = R x 1/(Cos(/2)-1)
Chainage of BC = Chainage of IP TL
Chainage of MC = Chainage of BC +LC/2
Chainage of EC = Chainage of MC + LC/2

The BC and EC points were located along the line by measuring the
tangent length from the apex and the points were marked distinctly. The radius
was chosen such that the tangent does not overlap. The apex was fixed at the
length of apex distance from IP along the line bisecting the interior angle.

4.6.2 Vertical Alignment


Vertical profile of the Road alignment is known by the vertical alignment.
In the L-section of the Road alignment, vertical alignment was plotted with
maximum gradient of 12 %. According to Nepal Road Standard, Gradient of the
Road cannot be taken more than 12 %. In the vertical alignment, we set the
vertical curve with proper design. Vertical curve may be either summit curve or

valley curve. While setting the vertical alignment, it should keep in mind whether
cutting and filling were balanced or not.

4.6.3 Leveling
The R.L. of the T.B.M.3 was given to be 1312.924 m. The method of fly
leveling was applied in transferring the level from the given B.M. to all the I.Ps,
beginnings, mid points and ends of the curves as well as to the points along the
center line of the road where the cross sections were taken. After completing the
work of one way leveling on the entire length of the road, fly leveling was
continued back to the B.M. making a closed loop for check and adjustment. The
difference in the R.L. of the B.M. before and after forming the loops should be
less than 25 k mm, where k is the total distance in km. In our case, the value
of k was within the permissible limit.

4.6.4 Longitudinal Section


The L-Section of the road is required to give the road engineer an idea
about the nature of the ground and the variation in the elevations of the
different points along the length of the road and also to determine the amount of
cutting and filling required at the road site for maintaining a gentle slope. In
order to obtain the data for L-Section, staff readings were taken at points at 15m
intervals along the centerline of the road with the help of a level by the method
of fly leveling. Thus after performing the necessary calculations, the level was
transferred to all those points with respect to the R.L. of the given B.M. Then
finally the L-Section of the road was plotted on a graph paper on a vertical scale
of 1:100 and a horizontal scale of 1:1000. The staff readings at BC, EC and apex
were also taken. The RL of each point were calculated.

4.6.5 Cross Section


Cross sections at different points are drawn perpendicular to the
longitudinal section of the road on either side of its centerline in order to present
the lateral outline of the ground. Cross sections are also equally useful in
determining the amount of cut and fill required for the road construction. Cross
sections were taken at 15m intervals along the centerline of the road and at
points where there was a sharp change in the elevation. While doing so, the
horizontal distances of the different points from the centerline were measured
with the help of a tape and the vertical heights with a measuring staff. The R.L.
was transferred to all the points by performing the necessary calculations and
finally, the cross sections at different sections were plotted on a graph paper on
a scale of 1:100 - both vertical and horizontal.

Cross section was run at right angles to the longitudinal profile on either
side up to 10m distances and the change in the slope was directly measured
using the staff. The method is locally named as Danda method.

4.6.6 Topographic survey of road corridor


Topographic survey of road corridor was done by taking the deflection
angle at each point where two straight roads meet. The chainage of intersection
point, tangent point and middle points were also taken by taping and applying
formula. The staff readings of each of these points were also taken. The R.L was
also transferred to find out the elevation and plot it in a map.

4.6.7 Structures
The main structures provided for road constructions are retaining
structures, cross drain, side drain, bio-engineering structures etc. retaining
structures are provided where the slope is critical. Gabion structure, dry
masonry structures are the example. The cross drainage is provided at the
interval of 150 to 200m of road mostly at the valley and where ever necessary.
Causeways, culverts and bridges are the example of cross drainage. The side
drain is the channel by which the pavement can be protected from the surface
water. It is usually constructed along the road just below the cut slope. The
collected water is drained off by the means of cross drainage.

4.6.8 Comments and Conclusions


In spite of the different kinds of obstacles in the field, our group was
successful in completing the fieldwork as well as the office work in time. In the
field, we had spent quite some time discussing the route of the road and in
designing the curves, which led to good results. The road had to be designed on
a sloping ground, so our group members felt the restrictions during the cutting
and filling and for the construction of different retaining structures.
Moreover, after performing this road alignment survey, we were able to
gain confidence in designing roads at difficult terrain taking factors like economy,
convenience and its use into consideration.

5. Concluding Remarks
Hence, we completed the three projects assigned to us in time although
we faced minor difficulties. All results we obtained were within the limits given to
us. This camp really helped us with the practical parts of survey fieldwork as we
were working in conditions we will surely have to face in the future. It increased
our confidence in handling instruments as well as completing projects within

given deadlines. This trip also offered us relief from the monotony of performing
all survey practical within the college compound. It was also a chance to get to
know our friends from other sections, work closely, and interact with them. This
trip is a good experience in dealing with locals and other people who were
interested in our work. We also learned to explain what we were doing to laymen
in simple terms. We think I.O.E should organize such trips frequently and for all
possible subjects, as practical knowledge is better. In these trips, we gain first
hand concept of the subject matter that makes it easier for us to grasp the
concept. All in this entire trip was very informative, effective and enjoyable.

B.E SURVEY CAMP 2070


Group No. 32

Pratik Raj Pahari (068/bce/108)

Sandesh Suyal (068/bce/132)

Sudan Khathiwada (068/bce/156)

Suyog Pradhan (068/bce/180)

Sumit Kumar Sah (068/bce/167)

ACKNOWLEDGEME
NT
This Report is the outcome of laborious and fruitful Survey
carried by the
Group3
in Survey Camp 2070 from Baishak 6 to 18

th
organized by the Department of Civil Engineering, Thapathali
Engineering College, Thapathali, Kathmandu. The purpose of
this fieldwork was to make the each Student independent to
carry outthe work in real problem. We think, the purpose is
fruitful and which make us to produce the report of the
fieldwork in time.We are sincerely indebted to Department of
Civil Engineering, ThapathaliCampus, for providing opportunity
to consolidate our theoretical and practicalknowledge in
engineering surveying. We would like to express our
sinceregratitude to Camp coordinator and sub coordinator
E r. B h a r a t d h a k a l
&

E r . To r a n P r a s a d B h a t t a

for their helpful suggestions and instructions, during


thefieldwork, with out which it was very difficult to do the work
in the field and to produce the report. We are equally indebted
to our respected teachers cuminstructors ,
Er.,Er.,Er,Mr. ,Mrs.Durga Adhikari
for their valuable instructions;friendly behavior and guiding any
time during the field work and also providing prompt comments
and rectification necessary before finalization of the report.
Wecannot proceed further without thanking to Mr Prakash
Pudashainee(account/logistics),storekeeper Raju Bhandari and
others for providing the instrument onneedy.

2
PREFACE
This Report on Survey Camp is the brief Description of the works that
were done in the Campsite duringthe Period of 12 days. The
Materials in this report are the outcomes of the unbelievable
works of each andevery member of Group 3, who gave their
valuable time and knowledge for this report. This report

iscompilation of great efforts from the group members.The


main objective of this Survey Camp is to provide an opportunity
to consolidate and update the practical knowledge in
engineering Surveying in the actual field condition and
habituate to work indifferent environment with different people. In
this Survey Camp, We are supposed to survey a given plotin all its
aspect and work on road and bridge alignment with proper
cross-section and profile and itstopography fulfilling all
technical requirements.This Report includes the entire description of
the practical carried out during the Survey Camp. Thisreport includes
the Topographic Map of the area which we surveyed. It also includes
the profile andcross-sections at different points of the Road Alignment
and Bridge Site Survey. Also, this report includesthe determination of
various orientations and curve fitting problems. This Report helps us in
our further Engineering Practice. The number of problems and
calculations done in this report helps us to deal withthe similar
problems in our further Engineering practice.Every effort has
been taken to ensure the accuracy in this report. However some errors
might haveoccurred. We will be very much grateful to the viewers who
go through this report for bringing sucherrors in our notice.
Furthermore we would be very thankful for the examiners or viewers
for their suggestions in improving this report.
Survey Camp 2070IOE ThapathaliGROUP: 3
Arjan Wagle 53/BCE/2067Bhola Nath Silwal 61/BCE/2067Manoj
Adhikari 69/BCE/2067Prajjwal Neupane 77/BCE/2067Salina
Maharjan 85/BCE/2067Subash Adhikari 93/BCE/2067

3
ABSTRACT
Surveying is the science and art of determining the relative
positions of above, on, or beneath the surface of earth, and is
the most important part of Civil Engineering. The results
of surveys are used to map the earth, prepare navigational
charts, establish property boundaries,develop data of land used

and natural resource information etc. Further survey


maintainshighways, railroads, buildings, bridges, tunnels,
canals, dams and many more. Thus, theobjective of survey
camp was to make us gain the experience in this field by
performingtopographic survey in a large area, learning to
propose road alignment and select suitable site for bridge
axis.The report reflects the methodology, observations, and
calculations made by thestudents in the Camp with the
corresponding drawings. The large portion of the course
coveredwith elements of topographic surveying, and then those
of road alignment and bridge site surveyfollow it.The main
objective of the Survey Camp organized for us is to take an
opportunity toconsolidate and update our practical and
theoretical knowledge in engineering surveying in theactual
field condition.. In this survey camp we have to prepare a
topographic map of the givenarea, road and bridge site survey
fulfilling all technical requirements. In this regard, we
arerequired to carry out the necessary field works in our subgroup so that we will get ampleopportunity to the decision on
planning and execution of field works for the preparation
of topographic map and detail road and bridge site survey. This
survey camp helps us to build inour confidence to conduct
engineering survey on required accuracy. The summary of
theconduction of whole report is presented as follows:Project
Title : Survey Camp 2070Location : TU Kirtipur,
Kathmandu.Duration : 6
th
Baishak to 17
th
2070 (12 days)Working Time : 07:00am to 05:00 pmSurveyed
by : Group No. 03 (Group captian :Bhola Nath Silwal)2067(III-I)
Batch Civil Engineering

Acronym
R.L. = Reduced Level
BM = Bench Mark
TBM = Temporary Bench Mark
FS = Fore Sight
BS = Back Sight
RECCE = Reconnaissance
I.P. = Intersection Point

12

1.2
Accuracy and Errors:1.2.1

General:
Precision is the degree of perfection used in the
instrument, the methods and theobservations. Accuracy
is the degree of perfection obtained which depend
on precise instrument to simplify the work, save time &
provide economy, on precisemethod to reduce the effect
of all type of error, and good planning to save time
&reduce the possibility of errors. The important
function of surveyor is to securemeasurements which
are correct within a certain limit of error prescribed by
natureand purpose of particular survey. A discrepancy is
the difference between twomeasured values of the same
quantity, it is not an error.
1.2.2
Source of errors:Error may arise from three sources.

Instrumental error:
are those arising due to imperfection or
faultyadjustment of the instrument with which
measurement is being taken.E.g., a tape too short.

Personal error:
Are those arising due to want of perfection of
humansight in observing and of touch in manipulating
instrument. E.g., error in taking level reading.

Natural error:
Error due to variation in natural phenomenon such
astemperature, refraction, magnetic declination etc.
1.2.3
Kind of error
Error may be classified as:

Mistake:
are errors arising from inattention,
inexperience,carelessness and confusion in the mind of
observer. If undetected, it produces a serious effect.
Hence, every measurement to be recorded inthe field
must be checked by independent check.

Systematic error:
Are error that under the same condition willalways be
of same size and sign, a correction can be determined
andapplied, these make the result too great or too small
accordingly treatedas positive or negative error.

Accidental error:
Are those which remain after mistake andsystematic
error have been eliminated and caused by a combination
of

13
reason beyond the ability of observer to control. They
tend sometimesin one direction and sometimes in other.
Accidental error representedthe limit of precision in the
determination of value.
1.2.4
Permissible error:
It is the maximum allowable limit that a measurement
may vary from the truevalue or from a value previously
adopted is correct. Its magnitude in any givencase
depends upon the scale, purpose of the survey, the
instrument available, classof the work etc. The limit of
error cannot be given once for all. The best surveyor is
not he, who is extremely accurate in all his work, but he
who does it justaccurately enough for the purpose
without waste of time & money.
14
Objectives Of Survey Camp
The main objective of the camp is to provide a basic
knowledge of practicalimplementation of different
survey work, which must be encountered in future.
Itenhances the practical knowledge thereby
implementing different work and inother side it
involves self-assured feeling everlastingly. It guides to
tread on the path ending with success.The main
objectives of the survey camp are as follows:

To become familiar with the problems that may arise


during the fieldworks.

To became familiar with proper handling of instrument


and their functions.

To become familiar with the spirit and importance of


teamwork, assurveying is not a single person work.

To complete the given project in scheduled time and


thus knows the valueof time.

To collect required data in the field in systematic ways.

To compute and manipulate the observed data in the


required accuracy and present it in diagrammatic and
tabular form in order to understand byothers.

To tackle the mistake and incomplete data from the field


during the officework.

To make capable for the preparation of final report.