PSIG-9707

© All Rights Reserved

Просмотров: 5

PSIG-9707

© All Rights Reserved

- New York Fracking Force Majeure Case
- Axens Corporate Brochure-English
- Shale Gas: New Opportunities, New Challenges
- 2173_KG2_3E
- Cbm Report 2011
- Hydraulic Fracturing at a Glance
- Gas Pooling Report
- Griggs Thesis
- Quimica Sem Fronteiras: O Desafio Da Energia
- Strategy Gas Transm
- Poster ICGR
- C27646_-_APA
- 2013 List of China's Coal-To-Gas Plants
- Articulo 2
- Energy condition BD
- A strategic planning...IRAN e USA_Kabirian e Hemmati.pdf
- 3 PuK Eng 2012 Leistritz
- Coal
- BKG 3433 Transmission & Distribution
- Compressed Air Installation Guide eBook

Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 15

IN THE NETHERLANDS

P. Nienhuis

J. J. Steringa

Gas storage

By P. Nienhuis

optimization

in the

N.V. Nederlandse

Gasunle,

Netherlands.

Gronlngen,

the Netherlands

Abstract

This paper gives a description of the capacity gap that Gasunie is facing in the near

future due to the depletion of the Croningen field. It addresses the method used to

study how this gap can be filled in the most economical way. The method uses supply

and demand figures to set up a capacity balance and uses associated LDCs for volume

calculations. Some details are given upon the capacity measures that already have been

taken.

Background

information

The natural gas era in the Netherlands, and actually in western Europe, started with the

discovery of the giant Groningen gas field in the late 50s. After the discovery, it

gradually became clear that the field could have an enormous impact on the energy

situation in western Europe. On the other hand, at that time it was also believed that

nuclear energy was the most promising future source of energy and that this energy

would become very cheap. As a consequence the gas in the Groningen field would have

to be sold very quickly in order to be of any economic value.

The first energy crisis in 1973 and the second a few years later changed this situation.

Moreover, there was a growing awareness that nuclear energy would not play the role

that was hoped for (Harrisburg, Chernobyl). As a result of all these developments,

the

policy of the Dutch government switched from selling as much gas as quickly as

possible to energy conservation and thus to conservation of the Groningen field as long

as possible. Tax measures were used to stimulate exploration and production from other

fields. This so-called small fields policy turned out to be quite successful : today, only

40 % of all the gas produced in the Netherlands originates from the Groningen field; the

other 60 O/O comes from small fields (see graph below).

Historic

Total Volume Supply

q SUPPlY

volume

Groningen

F

=2

:

1

0

q SUPPlY

volume

gas

0

1963

September

1968

1997

1973

1978

Year

1983

1988

H-

1993

Page

1 of 10

It must be remembered

that the composition

of Groningen gas differs significantly

from

that of other fields. Groningen

gas (G-gas) contains some 14% nitrogen,

which leads to

a Wobbe index of 1200 Btujft- (44 Ml/m3), while gas from other fields (H-gas) has a

Wobbe index of around 1350 Btu/ft (50 MJ/m3). The gas equipment

in the markets that

was supplied initially from the Groningen

field had been adjusted to its specific Wobbe

index; the gas from the new fields had to be accommodated

in such a way that the

major markets could still be supplied with (pseudo) Groningen

gas. Some markets, such

as large industries,

power plants and some export clients switched to the higher Wobbe

index. The Dutch gas transmission

system was adjusted in such a way that two

separate transmission

systems emerged (one for G-gas and one for H-gas) with several

mixing stations (some equipped with nitrogen facilities) to inject H-gas into the G-gas

system. The transmission

system thus became very complex (see attached map).

The system is becoming even more complex since the depletion of the Groningen

field

has come to a stage where free flow will end within a decade from now. Its declining

capacity will have enormous consequences,

since 65 % of the total capacity of the

market is currently

supplied from the Groningen field while only 35% is supplied from

the H-gas fields.

The way the declining capacity of the Groningen field can be addressed is subject of

several studies. The long term strategic capacity study that will be highlighted

in this

presentation

is one of them.

Definition

of the problem

to be solved

(domestic plus

export market) is reviewed each year in the so-called Gas Marketing

Plan. This is an

annual report directed to the Dutch Minister of Economic Affairs. In this document,

a

25-year forecast of supply and demand is given. Until now, each Gas Marketing

Plan has

shown a matching demand and supply situation on a volume basis. See the next graph.

Past and Future Share of H-gas and Ggas

Total Volume Supply (schematic)

in

a SUPPlY

volume

Groningen

field

2

t

2

0

q SUPPlY

volume

gas

H-

2000

Year

However, this is not the case for the capacity situation. The future supply of capacity

by far insufficient

to meet the future capacity demand. This is mainly caused by the

ongoing depletion

of the Groningen

field. See the graph below.

September

1997

Page

is

2 of 10

Others in Total Capacity Supply (schematic)

30

mLNG

0 Capacity

Gap

E Groningen

Free Flow

Field

q H-gas

1980

1990

2000

Year

2010

2020

The problem to be solved in the long term strategic capacity study is how the capacity

gap can be filled in the best possible way.

The graph above shows the difference between the total market demand capacity and

the H-gas and LNG supply capacities. Historically, this capacity has been supplied by the

Groningen field alone. Since the Groningen field acted as the balance between the

market and the H-gas supply, this capacity is called the balance capacity. From this

graph, it is clear that the balance capacity will be insufficient in the future.

Based on previous capacity studies, three measures, all of them underground storages

in porous fields, have already been decided upon. UGS Grijpskerk is operational since

december 1996, UGSs Norg and Alkmaar will be operational from end 1997.

With these capacity measures, part of the gap is filled. See next figure.

Balance Capacity

(1) (schematic)

1 I

E4UGS Alkmaar

RI UGS Grijpskerk

E UGS Norg

0 Capacity

q Groningen

Free Flow

1980

September

1990

1997

Gap

Field

2000

Year

Page

3 of 10

In the long term strategic capacity study, several capacity generating means have been

defined as building blocks to determine whether or not they are suitable to fill the

remaining gap.

The building blocks used are :

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

underground

storage in depleted gas fields,

underground storage in aquifers,

underground storage in salt caverns

LNG storage.

field,

In the study the capacity gap has to be filled in the most cost economical way. Costs of

the building blocks depend on various cost parameters, a.o. capacity, working volume

and geographical location.

In the next section, the method used to determine the cost optimal solution to fill the

gap will be described.

Method

used

but also its working volume and geographical location.

is of importance

To calculate the required working volume, balance Load Duration Curves have to be

constructed.

It must be recognized that the required balance LDC is the difference

between the total market demand and the H-gas supply. To determine this balance LDC,

both the LDC of the market and the availability of the H-gas supply must be derived.

This,is done in the following way.

The market is decomposed into several categories, each category having its own

dependency on effective temperature

(a combination of temperature,

wind speed and

solar radiation). Some 20 categories can be identified (households, greenhouses,

several types of industries, power plants, commercials and export markets).

It is our policy to have sufficient working volume in the underground storages to meet

the demand associated with the temperature profile of any of the past winters.

Therefore, for the LDC calculations the most severe historic winter of the past 80 years

is chosen. For the Netherlands this is a combination of temperature profiles of which the

winter 1941/42 is the most important. The temperature

profile and the temperature

offtake relations together yield the market LDC.

On the supply side, it is experienced that the nominal capacity is not always available

due to technical failures. The failure data of the gas production, treatment and

transmission facilities are used to derive a relationship between the capacity and the

probability that at least this capacity will be available.

There are several ways to derive a balance LDC. Two methods are described here. The

first is the simplest but the second is more realistic since it relies on transport

calculations.

September

1997

Page 4 of 10

First method.

In the first method the total demand associated with the severe winter temperature

profile is calculated. A market LDC is obtained by sorting this demand in descending

order.

To get the balance LDC, the nominal H-gas supply capacity cannot simply be subtracted

since this capacity is not always available. The availability curve is obtained with a

Monte Carlo simulation (this method has been presented in a PSIG meeting). All failure

and success situations with their corresponding capacities and probabilities are

calculated in as many runs as are needed to achieve the required accuracy. Thus a

curve is obtained which shows the probability that at least a given capacity is available.

The graph below gives an example of an availability curve. It indicates e.g. that the

probability of the capacity being larger than 90 is 95%)

Example

of an Availability

Curve

100%

85%

80%

40

60

Capacity

At every single capacity of the market LDC, the capacity of the H-gas supply has to be

subtracted according to its probability. This gives a new series of values which is again

sorted in descending order. The result is the balance LDC.

Second method

In the second method, the balance LDC is deduced from transmission system

calculations.

Starting point is a model of the Dutch main transmission system (see

attached map). Every demand element of the model has capacities associated with the

effective temperature

and every supply element has capacities related with the

probabilities according to the availability curve.

In addition to the flrst method, the transmission system itself (including pipelines,

compressors, mixing stations etc.) and its failure modes are modeled.

The computer model used to perform the network calculations is the in-house developed

Multi-Case-Analysis

program (presented at an earlier PSIG meeting) for the complete

transmission system.

With this computer model, transport calculations can be performed under varying

type of day, hour of

conditions (cases). Possible variations are : effective temperature,

September

1997

Page 5 of 10

the day, failure mode of each transport element, capacity of each supply element.

number of calculations is adjusted to attain the required accuracy.

The

With this method, future bottlenecks in the transmission system can be found. These

bottlenecks can either be solved in the transmission system itself (reinforcement

of

pipelines or installing additional compressor power) or by constructing

regional storage

elements. The computer model can then be used to calculate the required capacity and

working volume of the regional storages.

Schematic

example

of a Load Duration

Curve

(1)

IlU LNG

E3UGS Alkmaar

134UGS Grijpskerk

@IUGS Norg

0 Remaining

Gap

B Groninaen

Field

Time

Above LDC graph shows the size (both in capacity and volume) of the gap that has to be

filled. Note that the existing measures have already been filled in. Some measures

occupy horizontal segments in the LDC and some occupy skewed segments. This is

explained as follows.

The main production area is the Northeastern part of the country (see attached map). If

at a certain ambient temperature the demand exceeds the supply from the Groningen

field, the largest UGS will start producing. With decreasing temperature,

the demand

will increase and the UGS will increase its production. At some stage however,

transmission

capacities are insufficient and force a regional storage (like UGS Alkmaar)

into operation before the larger UGS has been used to its full extent. This explains the

skewed cut-off.

It must

options

upward

the gap

capacity

September

be noticed that the position of the gap in the LDC is not fixed; it depends on

to move the existing measures around. If UGSs Norg and Grijpskerk have

potential in working volume, they may be pushed down in the LDC, thus moving

upwards (see graph below). The required working volume associated with the

gap is thus reduced.

1997

Page 6 of 10

Schematic

example

of a Load Duration

Curve

(2)

FBUGS Aikmaar

0 Remaining

Gap

El UGS Grijpskerk

lime

Another effect which gives a deviation from horizontal segments is the technicalworking volume concept. It identifies the fact that send-out of gas from a UGS will not

be completely limited to the actual moments that it is really needed. In order to be

prepared for send-out, the UGS has to be in stand-by mode first. In this stand-by mode,

gas will be produced at a minimum flow level. The stand-by mode is modeled by an

alarm level (the capacity level above which the UGS must be in stand-by mode) and the

minimum flow (see graph below).

The Technical

technical

k

m

0.

5

Working

- * alzirihi~vel

Gas Concept

working

gas

- -

lime

Once the balance LDC has been calculated, the next step is to try to fill the gap as best

as possible, for all years, with the set of available capacity measures (see graph below).

September

1997

Page 7 of 10

Balance Capacity

(1) (schematic)

FlJGSAlkmaar

RI UGS Grijpskerk

q UGS Norg

Cl Capacity

%I Groningen

Free Flow

1980

1990

2000

Year

2010

Gap

Field

2020

A computer

model has been built to perform capacity, working volume and cost

calculations.

Input to this model are :

l

Total required balance capacity and working volume, for each year

l

Two LDCs for each year : one for a severe winter (to determine investment costs)

and one for an average winter (to determine operational costs)

l

Building blocks with capacity, working volume and relationships with costs (both

investment and operational costs)

The calculation

procedure

Prepare Capacity

I

works as follows:

Balance

1

1Calculate Required Groningen Capacity

Calculate

Groningen

I

Calculate

Build Program

Working

Check Working

I

Calculate

I

September

Volumes

I

I

Costs

Add Discounted

1997

Volumes

Costs

Page

8 of 10

the lowest cost is the most attractive

one.

The model has been built using Excel. It contains several separate worksheets

and

workbooks

that are linked through macros. To run one case, i.e., to calculate the costs

of 1 set of capacity measures, takes about 1 minute on a Pentium 100.

Results

The current

been taken.

situation

in the Netherlands

is that several

These are listed in the table below.

As a result,

the capacity

Balance

Capacity

major investments

have already

(2) (schematic)

1 E4UGS Alkmaar

RI UGS Grijpskerk

e4

q UGS Norg

g 10

0 Capacity

0

o

Gap

0 Minimum Capacity

Groningen Field

8 Groningen Field

Free Flow

0

1980

1990

2000

Year

2010

2020

field has to be installed in order

to produce the required annual volume.

The remaining

gap can be Filled in several ways. From the calculations

it has been

concluded that the most likely solution For the First Few years is installing

additional

compression

on the Groningen

Field. Therefore,

it has been decided to study this option

in more detail (costs, optimum phasing etc.). As part of this study, a pilot project will be

executed by installing

compression

on one of the 29 clusters of the Groningen

field.

September

1997

Page 9 of 10

Balance Capacity

(3) (schematic)

#I UGS Alkmaar

2o B

UGS Grijpskerk

n UGS Norg

Ei Compression

Groningen Field

H Groningen

Free Flow

1980

1990

2000

2010

Field

2020

Year

Planning

method

The procedure described above gives the optimum set of measures for the so-called mid

scenario (based on Gas Marketing Plan). The calculations are also performed (although

not to the same detail) for a high and a low scenario, i.e., scenarios that reflect higher

respectively lower capacity and volume demand.

The planning method used by Gasunie is that investments are done according to the

mid scenario solution, bearing in mind the optimum sets of measures for the high and

low scenarios. The best overall solution is the solution which has low cost in the mid

scenario but is also easily expandable to satisfy the high scenario and easily shrinkable

to respond to the low scenario.

Each year, this study is reviewed to check whether the proposed capacity

still optimum and whether decision moments are still valid.

measures

are

Conclusion

We have given a short

problems that Gasunie

It must be noted that

description given here

September

1997

is facing and the method used to study these problems.

the method is subject to continuous improvements.

The

only reflects todays situation.

Page

10 of 10

k

Casunre

Transmission

---~.-__-~.__

pipelines pipelines pipelines pipelines pipelines construction

system

07F Gasunie

Groningen gas

high-calorific

gas

low-calorific

gas

desulphurized

gas

nitrogen

projects at year-end

1l

~@

~0

0

0

@

@

@

feeder station(s)

compressor and blending station

compressor station

blending station

underground

gas storage

export station

LNG facility

nitrogen plant

BIOGRAPHY

Piet Nienhuls studied theoretical physics at the University of Groningen and graduated in 1981.

After fulfilling his military service (Royal Dutch Navy) he joined the EDP department of Gasunie in

1983, where he had a number of positions, mainly related to tools for technical planning. In 1989

he moved to the technical planning department where he conducted various studies as a project

manager on the areas of gas transmission and gas storage. Currently, he is a senior member of

the Business Development Department.

Education

MSc theoretical

physics

University

of Groningen,

The Netherlands

PhD theoretical

physics

subject: elementary

particle models

University

of Groningen,

The Netherlands

1984

1989

Previous

..

oositron

1990- 1996

Current

1996-now

research physicist

subject: natural gas burner technology

N.V. Nederlandse

Gasunie, research department

Gronlngen,

The Netherlands

..

oosrtlo n

planner

subject: long term planning of supply and demand

N.V. Nederlandse

Gasunie, business development

Groningen,

The Netherlands

of natural

gas

- New York Fracking Force Majeure CaseЗагружено:James "Chip" Northrup
- Axens Corporate Brochure-EnglishЗагружено:Daniil Ghilescu
- Shale Gas: New Opportunities, New ChallengesЗагружено:Ashley Swearingen
- 2173_KG2_3EЗагружено:Nistha Chakraborty
- Cbm Report 2011Загружено:mangoha007
- Hydraulic Fracturing at a GlanceЗагружено:zirimia
- Gas Pooling ReportЗагружено:P Vinayakam
- Griggs ThesisЗагружено:elvinsetan
- Quimica Sem Fronteiras: O Desafio Da EnergiaЗагружено:Diego Farias
- Strategy Gas TransmЗагружено:PGP
- Poster ICGRЗагружено:Guillermo Ochoa
- C27646_-_APAЗагружено:Abelardo Contreras
- 2013 List of China's Coal-To-Gas PlantsЗагружено:arapublication
- Articulo 2Загружено:PatriciaSilva
- Energy condition BDЗагружено:chamakill
- A strategic planning...IRAN e USA_Kabirian e Hemmati.pdfЗагружено:marcianunesmcgns
- 3 PuK Eng 2012 LeistritzЗагружено:iissaacc00
- CoalЗагружено:Sheraz Ahmad
- BKG 3433 Transmission & DistributionЗагружено:AzmiHafifi
- Compressed Air Installation Guide eBookЗагружено:Eleonora
- Perhitungan Anaerobik Digester, floating dome , fixed domeЗагружено:sehono
- Capitalist IdeologyЗагружено:mbelano1
- 20160628-BANXICO-The Effect Natural Gas Shortages on Mexican EconomyЗагружено:Elizabettha Saldaña Martinez
- sntЗагружено:selcukx
- p ProcessingЗагружено:sameer patil
- 01PO_EH_3_6.pdfЗагружено:Marcelo Varejão Casarin
- Business PlanЗагружено:Snqureshi11
- Include me with Organizations Opposing Senate Bill S.1460Загружено:Doug Grandt
- Save the Pine Bush December - January 2018 NewsletterЗагружено:Andy Arthur
- Paper AU 004Загружено:Masood Alam Farooqui

- How to Use the Perf Curves to Evaluate Behavior of Cent Comp (1)Загружено:jorge_h_rivero
- Curriculum_Vitae_Format.pdfЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- Well ControlЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- D_08_AcidGasSweeteningWithDEAЗагружено:Shariq Khan
- HdBk Drilling FLUIDSЗагружено:Jorge Luis Pirela Garcia
- SPE-101388-MS.pdfЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- SPE-165763-MSЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- SPE-161583-MS (1)Загружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- SPE-122073-MSЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- IPTC-17009-MSЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- WPC-18-0910Загружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- SPE 10035 MS Production LoggingЗагружено:Hafiz Asyraf
- Cased Hole Logging Basics -Abbas RadhiЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- Simm & Bacon (2014) - Seismic Amplitude. an Interpreters HandbookЗагружено:Tran Dang Sang
- Advances in Reservoir Geology [Michael Ashton]Загружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- A Primer of Oilwell Drilling (6th ed.) [Ron Baker, 2001] @Geo Pedia.pdfЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez
- Bitumens, Asphalts, And Tar SandsЗагружено:Anyul Lozano Rodríguez

- Series M9400 Valves Installation InstructionsЗагружено:Watts
- aerospace lift documentЗагружено:api-200397614
- IJEE Oct 2009 IssueЗагружено:psuvarnas
- Summary Ac Contactor Failure Cause and EffectЗагружено:Vinci Valcu Parne
- generalhistoryof00defo.pdfЗагружено:Grim
- UntitledЗагружено:eurolex
- Untitled 1Загружено:Beatriz Ventura
- Uniworld River Cruise ShipsЗагружено:Irina Holtman
- Biology Resource Unit 1 Ok (1)Загружено:ninfbleb
- Business Mirror, July 9, 2019, Labor groups slates Sona day protests.pdfЗагружено:pribhor2
- Ramona TowerЗагружено:Dianne Jacob
- 1-s2.0-S0022347680806974-main.pdfЗагружено:Lina Mahayaty Sembiring
- Coke Reactivity & Nut Coke EffectЗагружено:saliljain2001
- Working of Dead WeightЗагружено:Shahid Mehmud
- Functional Safety DemystifiedЗагружено:bashirux
- Common Internal Medicine workups and diseasesЗагружено:Aaron Smith
- Froth Flotation Hb f 08Загружено:Guntur Tri Nugroho
- 193_ftpЗагружено:Syifar
- ASCE 07-2005, 4.6Partial Loading of Live LoadЗагружено:Christian D. Orbe
- MAC MethodЗагружено:surendra ratre
- Free Vibration and Dynamic Response of Continuous SystemsЗагружено:DarsHan MoHan
- Ieee SeminarЗагружено:Beena Ravi
- Drh Commer Fra Man16cg07Загружено:rochim_putech_126885
- Unimolecular Surface ReactionЗагружено:Iqbal Siddiquey
- Considerations for Design of Concrete Structures Subjected to Fatigue LoadingЗагружено:Mr Polash
- The PictureЗагружено:api-3807276
- POMR and SOAP NotesЗагружено:Marc Imhotep Cray, M.D.
- ISMR, 1978 citarЗагружено:Geo García
- Food 2030 StrategyЗагружено:jamaljamal20
- icЗагружено:Deepak Sunil