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Electricalsubmersiblepumps
Theelectricalsubmersiblepump,typicallycalledanESP,isanefficientandreliableartificialliftmethodforliftingmoderatetohighvolumesoffluidsfromwellbores.These
volumesrangefromalowof150B/Dtoasmuchas150,000B/D(24to24,600m3/d).Variablespeedcontrollerscanextendthisrangesignificantly,bothonthehighandlow
side.TheESPsmaincomponentsinclude:
Multistagedcentrifugalpump
Threephaseinductionmotor
Sealchambersection
Powercable
Surfacecontrols
Thecomponentsarenormallytubinghungfromthewellheadwiththepumpontopandthemotorattachedbelow.Therearespecialapplications
(/Alternate_ESP_configurations)inwhichthisconfigurationisinverted.
AsareainwhichESPsareappliedextensively,THUMSLongBeachCo.wasformedinApril1965todrill,develop,andproducethe6,479acreLongBeachunitinWilmington
field,LongBeach,California.ESPshavebeentheprimarymethodofliftingfluidsfromtheapproximately1,100deviatedwellsfromfourmanmadeoffshoreislandsandone
onshoresite.

Contents
1HistoryofESPs[1][2]
2ESPsystem
2.1Advantages
2.2Disadvantages
3ComponentsofanESPsystem
4Installationandhandling
5Maintenanceandtroubleshooting
6References
7NoteworthypapersinOnePetro
8Onlinemultimedia
9Externallinks
10Seealso
11Pagechampions
12Category

HistoryofESPs[1][2]
In1911,18yearoldArmaisArutunofforganizedtheRussianElectricalDynamoofArutunoffCo.inEkaterinoslav,Russia,andinventedthefirstelectricmotorthatwould
operateinwater.DuringWorldWarI,Arutunoffcombinedhismotorwithadrill.Ithadlimitedusetodrillhorizontalholesbetweentrenchessothatexplosivescouldbepushed
through.In1916,heredesignedacentrifugalpumptobecoupledtohismotorfordewateringminesandships.In1919,heimmigratedtoBerlinandchangedthenameofhis
companytoREDA.In1923,heimmigratedtotheUnitedStatesandbeganlookingforbackersforhisequipment.Initially,heapproachedWestinghousebutwasturneddown
becausetheirengineersthoughtitwouldnotworkbecauseitwasimpossibleunderthelawsofelectronics.
In1926,attheAmericanPetroleumInstitute(API)conferenceinLosAngeles,twopartiesjoinedtogethertostarttheESPindustry.Justbeforethisconference,Arutunoffhad
joinedforceswithSamualVanWert,asuckerrodsalesmanwhosawthepotentialofthenewdevice.Together,theyinitiatedaprototypetestinaBaldwinHillsoilwell.The
secondpartyinvolvedClydeAlexander,avicepresidentofa9yearoldBartlesville,Oklahoma,oilcompanyPhillipsOilCo.Hewasattheconferencetolookforwaysof
liftingoilfromwellsthatalsorequiredproducinglargeamountsofwater.ArutunoffandPhillipssignedacontracttofieldtesttheconceptintheElDoradofieldnearBurns,
Kansas.Afterasuccessfultest,BartMfg.wasorganized.On15March1930,PhillipssoldhisrightstoCharleyBrown,aBartstockholderandexecutiveinMarlandOilCo.,and
Arutunoff.ThiswasthebirthofREDAPumpCo.In1969,REDAmergedwithTRWInc.,andin1987,itwassoldtoCamcoIntl.,whichmergedwithSchlumbergerin1998.
In1957,asecondcompanywasestablished.ThisproductlinestartedattheByronJacksonPumpfacilityinVernon,California.ByronJacksonwasadivisionofBorgWarner
Corp.In1959,theoilfieldproductlineofByronJacksonPumpwasmovedtoTulsaandquicklybecameknownasa"BJ"pump.In1979,itbecameCentriliftInc.,asubsidiary
ofBorgWarnerCorp.,andwasmovedtoClaremore,Oklahoma,in1980.Justaftertherelocationin1980,CentriliftwassoldtoHughesToolCo.Then,in1987,HughesTool
andBakerInternationalmergedtobecomeBakerHughesInc.
In1962,GouldsPumpOilFieldSubmergibleDivisionapproachedFranklinElectrictofindabettermotorfortheiroilfieldpumpproduct.By1967,theyhaddesignedanew
productandhadformedajointventurecompany,OilDynamicsInc.(ODI).In1997,ODIwassoldtoBakerHughesInc.,anditsproductlinewasmergedintoCentrilifts.
Thestorybehindthethirdcompanybecomesalittlemoreconvoluted.In1965,HydrodynamicswasformedasapartofPeerlessPumptodevelopanoilfieldsubmersible
product.Afterlimitedfinancialsuccess,itwassoldtoFMCCorp.andrenamedOiline.In1976,itwassoldagain,thistimetoKobe,andbecameKobeOiline.Kobewassoldto
Tricoin1983,buttheKobeOilineproductwasspunofftoBakerInternational,anditbecameBakerliftSystems.TricohadalsojustpurchasedtheStandardPumpwaterwell
linefromREDA.AsidebranchtothistreestartswiththeemergenceofWesternTechnologiesin1978.ItwassoldtoDresserIndustriesandrenamedWesTechin1982.Then,in
1985,itwassoldtoBakerliftSystems.WhenBakerInternationalandHughesmergedin1987,theUSoperationofBakerliftwasdivestedandsoldtoTrico,butBakerHughes
retainedtheinternationalsegmentoftheBakerliftbusiness.TricosproductlinewasmadeupofequipmentfromKobeOiline,StandardPump,WesTech,andBakerliftSystems.
ItwasrenamedTricoSubServices.Onanothersidebranch,ESPInc.wasformedin1983.WoodGrouppurchaseditin1990.Then,in1992,TricoSubServiceswaspurchased
byWoodGroupandwasmergedintoESPInc.

ESPsystem
ExamplesofnormalESPsystemconfigurationareshowninFigs.1and2.Itshowsatubinghungunitwiththedownholecomponentscomprisingof:
Amultistagecentrifugalpumpwitheitheranintegralintakeorseparate,boltonintake
Asealchambersection
Athreephaseinductionmotor,withorwithoutasensorpackage

Therestofthesystemincludesasurfacecontrolpackageandathreephasepowercablerunningdownholetothemotor.BecauseoftheESPsuniqueapplicationrequirementin
deep,relativelysmallborecasings,theequipmentdesignerandmanufacturerarerequiredtomaximizetheliftofthepumpandthepoweroutputofthemotorasafunctionofthe
diameterandlengthoftheunit.Therefore,theequipmentistypicallylongandslender.Thecomponentsaremanufacturedinvaryinglengthsuptoapproximately30ft,andfor
certainapplications,eitherthepump,seal,ormotorcanbemultiplecomponentsconnectedinseries.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_627_Image_0001.png)
Fig.1ESPsystemconfiguration[afterCentrilift
Graphics,Claremore,Oklahoma(2003)].

(/File%3AVol4_Page_417_Image_0001.png)
Fig.2SchematicoftypicalESPsystem.
[CourtesyofSchlumberger(REDA).]

Throughouttheirhistory,ESPsystemshavebeenusedtopumpavarietyoffluids.Normally,theproductionfluidsarecrudeoilandbrine,buttheymaybecalledontohandle:
Liquidpetroleumproducts
Disposalorinjectionfluids
Fluidscontainingfreegas
Somesolidsorcontaminates
CO2andH2Sgasesortreatmentchemicals
ESPsystemsarealsoenvironmentallyestheticbecauseonlythesurfacepowercontrolequipmentandpowercablerunfromthecontrollertothewellheadarevisible.The
controllercanbeprovidedinaweatherproof,outdoorversionoranindoorversionforplacementinabuildingorcontainer.Thecontrolequipmentcanbelocatedwithinthe
minimumrecommendeddistancefromthewellheador,ifnecessary,uptoseveralmilesaway.APIRP11S3providestheguidelinesfortheproperinstallationandhandlingofan
ESPsystem.[3]AlltheAPIrecommendedpracticesforESPsarelistedinTable1.

(/File%3AVol4_Page_628_Image_0001.png)
Table1

Advantages
ESPsprovideanumberofadvantages.
Adaptabletohighlydeviatedwellsuptohorizontal,butmustbesetinstraightsection.
Adaptabletorequiredsubsurfacewellheads6ftapartformaximumsurfacelocationdensity.
Permituseofminimumspaceforsubsurfacecontrolsandassociatedproductionfacilities.
Quiet,safe,andsanitaryforacceptableoperationsinanoffshoreandenvironmentallyconsciousarea.
Generallyconsideredahighvolumepump.
Providesforincreasedvolumesandwatercutsbroughtonbypressuremaintenanceandsecondaryrecoveryoperations.
Permitsplacingwellsonproductionevenwhiledrillingandworkingoverwellsinimmediatevicinity.
Applicableinarangeofharshenvironments(/Use_of_ESPs_in_harsh_environments).

Disadvantages
ESPshavesomedisadvantagesthatmustbeconsidered.
Willtolerateonlyminimalpercentagesofsolids(sand)production,althoughspecialpumpswithhardenedsurfacesandbearingsexisttominimizewearandincreaserun
life.
Costlypullingoperationsandlostproductionoccurwhencorrectingdownholefailures,especiallyinanoffshoreenvironment.
Belowapproximately400B/D,powerefficiencydropssharplyESPsarenotparticularlyadaptabletoratesbelow150B/D.
Needrelativelylarge(greaterthan4in.outsidediameter)casingsizeforthemoderatetohighproductionrateequipment.
LonglifeofESPequipmentisrequiredtokeepproductioneconomical.

ComponentsofanESPsystem
ESPcentrifugalpump(/ESP_centrifugal_pump)
ESPsealsection(/index.php?title=ESP_seal_section&action=edit&redlink=1)
ESPmotors(/ESP_motors)
ESPpowercable(/ESP_power_cable)
ESPsurfacemotorcontrollers(/ESP_surface_motor_controllers)
ESPoptionalcomponents(/ESP_optional_components)

Installationandhandling
AlthoughtherecanbemanyfactorsthatinfluenceordirectlyaffecttherunlifeofanESPsystem,properinstallationandhandlingproceduresarecritical.Therecommended
installationandhandlingproceduresaredetailedinAPIRP11S3.[3]Inadditiontothese,manufacturersshouldbecontactedforspecificrecommendationsontheirequipment.

Maintenanceandtroubleshooting
Operating,maintenance,andtroubleshootingrecommendationsarecoveredinAPIRP11S.[4]Additionally,muchcanbelearnedfromthedisassemblyoftheESPcomponents
aftertheyarepulledfromthewell.Thisistruewhethertheyareinreusableconditionorhavebeenthroughacatastrophicfailure.Theequipmentandthewellborealways
indicateitemsthatcanbechangedorimproved.APIRP11S1providesguidelinesonthedisassemblyofESPcomponentsandtheevaluationofthefindings.[5]Also,eachESP
manufacturerhasrecommendationsandguidelinesonthistopic.
Baillie[6]providesapracticalchecklistforoptimizingthelifeofanESPsystem.Itcoversallthecriticalorsensitivesteps,fromthedesignandmanufacturetotheoperational
procedures.TherehavebeenseveralpaperswrittenthatdealwithliteratureonESPapplicationproblemsandsolutions.[7][8][9][10]ThesepaperssummarizeandcategorizeESP
referenceliteraturebyanumberofdifferentapplicationorproblemtopics.Theyareanexcellentbibliographysetfortroubleshootingapplicationrelatedproblemsorissues.

References
1.Williams,J.1980.AStoryofPeopleandaCompanyCalledTRWREDA,1933.Bartlesville,Oklahoma:TRWREDAPumpDiv.
2.Brookbank,E.B.1988.ElectricSubmersiblePumpsTheFirstSixtyYears.Paperpresentedatthe1988EuropeanESPWorkshop,London,24May.
3.3.03.1APIRP11S3,RecommendedPracticeforElectricalSubmersiblePumpInstallations,secondedition.1999.Washington,DC:API.
4.APIRP11S,RecommendedPracticefortheOperation,Maintenance,andTroubleshootingofElectricSubmersiblePumps,thirdedition.1997.Washington,DC:API.
5.APIRP11S1,RecommendedPracticeforElectricalSubmersiblePumpTeardownReport,thirdedition.1997.Washington,DC:API.
6.Baillie,A.2002.OptimizingESPRunLifeAPracticalChecklist.Paperpresentedatthe2002EuropeanESPRoundtable,Aberdeen,6February.
7.Lea,J.F.,Wells,M.R.,Bearden,J.L.etal.1994.ElectricalSubmersiblePumps:OnandOffshoreProblemsandSolutions.PresentedattheInternationalPetroleum
ConferenceandExhibitionofMexico,Veracruz,Mexico,1013October1994.SPE28694MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28694MS(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28694
MS)
8.Lea,J.F.,Wells,M.R.,Bearden,J.L.etal.1994.ElectricalSubmersiblePumps:OnandOffshoreProblemsandSolutions.PresentedattheInternationalPetroleum
ConferenceandExhibitionofMexico,Veracruz,Mexico,1013October1994.SPE28694MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28694MS(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/28694
MS)
9.Lea,J.F.andBearden,J.L.1999.ESP's:OnandOffshoreProblemsandSolutions.PresentedattheSPEMidContinentOperationsSymposium,OklahomaCity,
Oklahoma,2831March1999.SPE52159MS.http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/52159MS(http://dx.doi.org/10.2118/52159MS)
10.Lea,J.andBearden,J.2002.ESPs:OnandOffshoreProblemsandSolutions.Paperpresentedatthe2002SouthwesternPetroleumShortCourseConference,Lubbock,
Texas,2324April.

NoteworthypapersinOnePetro
Lea,J.F.,Wells,M.R.,Bearden,J.L.,Wilson,L.,&Shepler,R.(1994,January1).ElectricalSubmersiblePumps:OnandOffshoreProblemsandSolutions.Societyof
PetroleumEngineers.doi:10.2118/28694MS
Powers,M.L.(1994,May1).TheDepthConstraintofElectricSubmersiblePumps.SocietyofPetroleumEngineers.doi:10.2118/24835PA
Scott,P.A.,Bowring,M.,&Coleman,B.(1991,January1).ElectricalSubmersiblePumpsinSubseaCompletions.SocietyofPetroleumEngineers.doi:10.2118/23050MS

Onlinemultimedia
Noonan,Shauna.2013.ElectricSubmersiblePump(ESP)Reliability.http://eo2.commpartners.com/users/spe/session.php?id=10479
(http://eo2.commpartners.com/users/spe/session.php?id=10479)

Externallinks
UsethissectiontoprovidelinkstorelevantmaterialonwebsitesotherthanPetroWikiandOnePetro

Seealso
AlternateESPconfigurations(/Alternate_ESP_configurations)
UseofESPsinharshenvironments(/Use_of_ESPs_in_harsh_environments)
ESPsystemselectionandperformancecalculations(/ESP_system_selection_and_performance_calculations)
PEH:Electrical_Submersible_Pumps(/PEH%3AElectrical_Submersible_Pumps)

Pagechampions
JoseCaridad(https://www.linkedin.com/in/josecaridad49080265),BSME&MScME

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