Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 2

Instrumentation and Process Control (2150504)

Sem- V- CH
Chapter Name: Response of Higher Order System

Damped Vibrator: Second order System


A block of mass m resting on a horizontal, frictionless table is
attached to a linear spring.
A viscous damper (dashpot) is also attached to the block.

Assume that the system is free to oscillate horizontally under the influence
of a forcing function F(t).
The origin of the coordinate system is taken as the right edge of the block
when the spring is in the relaxed or unstretched condition.

The block is motionless (dY/dt = 0) and


Block located at its rest position (Y = 0) before the forcing function is
applied, i.e. time t = 0.
Damping is an effect that reduces the amplitude of oscillations in an
oscillatory system.
This effect is linearly related to the velocity of the oscillations.
This restriction leads to a linear differential equation of motion, and a
simple analytic solution.
except for mass-dominated systems.
In mechanics, damping may be realized using a dashpot.
This device uses the viscous drag of a fluid, such as oil, to provide a
resistance that is related linearly to velocity.
The damping force Fc is expressed as follows:

Fc= -CdY/dt

At time zero, the block is assumed to be at rest at this origin.

Consider the block at some instant when it is to the right of Y =


0 and when it is moving toward the right (positive direction). Under
these conditions,
Prepared By: Mukesh M Mahbubani

Page 1

Instrumentation and Process Control (2150504)


Sem- V- CH
Chapter Name: Response of Higher Order System

1. The force exerted by the spring (toward the left) of -KY


where K is a positive constant, called Hookes constant.

The viscous friction force (acting to the left) of -C dY/dt,

where C is a positive constant called the damping coefficient.

The external force F(t) (acting toward the right).

Newtons law of motion, which states that the sum of all forces
acting on the mass is equal to the rate of change of momentum
(F = mass X acceleration), takes the form:
m.d2Y/dt2 = -KY-CdY/dt+ F(t)
Where
with mass m, Spring (Hooks) constant K and , viscous damper
of damping coefficient C,Where
m in kilograms, K in newtons per meter (or kg/sec2), and C is
the viscous damping coefficient, given in units of Newton
seconds per meter (N s/m) or simply kilograms per second. (SI
Units)

Rearranging the equation:

m.d2Y/dt2 +CdY/dt +KC= F(t)


dividing the equation by K results in
(m/K).d2Y/dt2 +(C/K)dY/dt +C= F(t)/K

Compare with standard form of second order equation:

2d2Y/dt2+ 2 dY/dt+Y(t)=X(t)

Time constant : 2=m/K, =m/K (In seconds)


_______________

=(C2/4mK), and are positive (Dimensionless)

Take Laplace Transforms

2 s2 Y(s)+ 2 s Y(s)+Y(s)=X(s)
Transfer function is:
Y(s)/X(s)=1/(

2 s2+ 2 s +1)

Prepared By: Mukesh M Mahbubani

Page 2