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Module 3:
Convective heat and mass transfer

Lecture 30:
A Graetz-Nusselt Problem: Fully
developed V, developing C or T

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Governing equation (vr = 0, fully developed v) is given as

1 C A 2C A
r2
C A
= DAA r
vz
, vz = 2 vz 1 2
+
2
z
r r z
R

Set =

C C0
r
zD
1 z
,= A
,J=
=
2
2 vz R
Re Sc R
R
Cb C0

where Cb is the concentration at inlet and C0 is the concentration at the wall

(1 ) J = 1 + Pe1
2

2
J 2

Pe

Axial conc. dominates axial diffusion

With the following B.Cs

= 1 at J = 0
= 0 at = 1

= 0 at = 0

Solve by separation of variables = f g

Then

1 f 1
1
=
2
f J g (1 )

g
2

= C

f = A exp ( C 2 J ) and

2 g g
+
+ C 2 (1 2 ) g = 0
2
NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

The equation above is the Sturm-Liouville problem


B.Cs:

= 1 at g = 0
= 0 at g' = 0
General solution is

= Pn exp ( Cn 2 J ) g n ( )

( Graetz series )

n =1

Normalization condition to find Pn:


1

(1 ) g ( ) d = P g ( ) (1 ) g ( ) d
2

n =1 0

= Pm (1 2 ) g m ( ) d
2

From the above equation find Pm


Total amount of material transferred to wall in a length z is
z

J = D
0

C A
r

2 Rdz

and

r=R

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

J
v
=
4 Pn exp ( Cn 2 J ) (1 2 ) g n ( ) d

R 2 ( Cb C0 ) z
n =1
0
1

= M n e Cn J
2

n =1

(1)
For large n, series converges rapidly
First 10 eignvalues Cn and coefficient Mn of Graetz series
n

Cn

Mn

2.7043

0.8190

6.6790

0.09752

10.6733

0.0321

14.6710

0.01544

18.6698

0.008788

22.6691

0.0055838

26.66866

0.0038202

30.66832

0.0027564

34.66807

0.0020702

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

10

38.66788

0.0016043

Solution for short entrance length


For short J, the diffusion length is very thin. Then

1 2 = (1 )(1 + ) 2 (1 )
and curvature may be neglected (planer diffusion)

1 d
2
<< 2
d

Then, the governing equation becomes

2 (1 )

2
=
J 2

= 1 at J = 0
= 0 at = 1
= 1 outside the diffusion layer
Similarity transformation

= (1 )( 2 9J )

13

(2)

PDE becomes an ODE


NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

"+ 3 2 ' = 0 =

1
4

( 3)

x3

dx

In terms of the physical variables


13

4 vz
= y

9 zDAA R

where y = R r is the distance from the wall.


The total amount of material transferred to the wall up to J is;

( 48) J 2 3 = 4.070 J 2 3
J
=
2
R ( Cb C0 ) vz
4
3
13

( )

(3)

The mass transfer rate becomes infinite at J = 0 ( N J 1 3 )

Case IV

Plug flow vz = V = const.


Developing T; const. wall T0
T 1 T
=
r
z V r r r
T T
= 0
T0 Ti

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering

Where T0 is the wall temperature and Ti is the inlet temperature


1
=
r

z V r r r

Using separation of variables technique, then we have


V 1 f 1 g
=
r
= C 2
f z r r r

Here f = f 0 e

z
V

NPTEL,IITKharagpur,Prof.SaikatChakraborty,DepartmentofChemicalEngineering