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Pre-laboratory Discussion

ChE124

EXPERIMENT 3: DETERMINATION
OF HEATING VALUE OF LIQUID
FUELS

Experiment 3
Materials

Calorimeter set-up (includes firing device)


Pellet press
Thermometer
Ignition wire
Oxygen cylinder
Sample
Gelatin capsule

Procedure

Determine
heat
capacity of
calorimeter

Temp rise with


benzoic acid
sample

Testing
volume of
gelatin
capsule
volume

Preparing
the sample

Securing
the gelatin
capsule on
to the
bomb
head with
the wire

Filling the
gelatin
capsule
Setting up
the bomb
into the
set-up

Filling of
oxygen
Experiment
proper

Repeat
procedure,
Disposal

Preparation of sample
NB:
1. Cover container of butanol
at all times.
2. Weigh the gelatin capsule
prior to use.
3. The larger half of the
gelatin capsule should be
nearest the bomb capsule.

EXPT 4: DETERMINATION OF
SPECIFIC HEAT OF METAL AND
HEATS OF SOLUTION

Experiment 4
Materials

Coffee cups
Styrofoam cover
Hot plate/burner set-up
(rubber tubing, wire gauze,
Bunsen burner)
Beakers
Graduated cylinder
Thermometer

Solid pure metal


Mortar and pestle
Tongs
Chemicals, distilled water

Sample
Pure metal

NB:
Mass: be less than 200g
Sample has known heat properties

Specific Heat
the heat required to raise the temperature of the unit mass of a given
substance by a given amount (usually one degree)

Heat of Solution
refers to the change in enthalpy when a solute is dissolved into a
solvent

Source: Boundless. Heat of Solution. Boundless Chemistry. Boundless, 26 May. 2016. Retrieved 13 Oct. 2016
from https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/thermochemistry-6/standard-enthalpy-offormation-and-reaction-61/heat-of-solution-288-6875/

Calibration of coffeecup calorimeter

Procedure

Determination of
Specific Heat of
Metals

Determination of
Heat of Solution

NaOH
KNO3

Calibration of Coffee-cup Calorimeter

Make coffee-cup
calorimeter
(hole-punched
for peripherals
Stacked cups
Styrofoam cover

Check capacity
of calorimeter
One hundred fifty
mL of water
(without spillage)

Pour 100 mL of
distilled water at
ambient
temperature

Heat 50 mL of
distilled water
to 90

Calibration of Coffee-cup Calorimeter (contd)

Pour hot
water, swirl
contents for
uniform temp
distribution

Read
temperature
for 6 minutes
(at 30-s
intervals)

Repeat
procedure

Determine
heat capacity
of calorimeter
set-up.

Determination of Specific Heat Capacity of


Metals
Make calorimeter
set-up
Check capacity of
calorimeter

Pour 100 mL
distilled water at
ambient
temperature
Determine mass of
metal
Heat metal and Thermometer
50mL water to
touches metal
about to 90

Determination of Specific Heat Capacity of


Metals (contd)
Transfer metal, swirl
contents for uniform
temp distribution
Read temperature
for 6 minutes (at
30-s intervals)
Repeat
procedure
Determine heat
capacity of metal,
compare with theo

Determination of Heat of Solution


Make calorimeter
set-up
Check capacity of
calorimeter

Pour 100 mL distilled


water at ambient
temperature
Prep sample (weigh,
grind, weigh, record
mass)
Dissolve powder in
the calorimeter

Determination of Heat of Solution (contd)


Swirl contents
for uniform temp
distribution
Read temperature for 6
minutes (at 30-s
intervals)

Check if solids
completely dissolved

Repeat procedure with lesser solids

Dispose
Repeat
procedure

Determine heat of solution,


compare with theo

Pre-lab Expt. 5: Determination of


Enthalpy of Fusion and Enthalpy of
Vaporization of Pure Substances

Experiment 5
Materials

Coffee cups
Styrofoam cover
Hot plate/burner set-up
(rubber tubing, wire gauze,
Bunsen burner)
Ice
Beakers
Graduated cylinder

Thermometer
distilled water

Sample
Water

Enthalpy of Fusion
change in its enthalpy resulting from providing energy, typically heat,
to a specific quantity of the substance to change its state from a solid
to a liquid at constant pressure

Enthalpy of Vaporization
also known as the (latent) heat of vaporization or heat of
evaporation
energy (enthalpy) that must be added to the substance,
typically a liquid, to transform a quantity of that substance into a gas.

Enthalpy of Fusion of Water


Make
calorimeter setup
Check capacity
of calorimeter
Pour 100 mL
distilled water
at ambient
temperature

Record
temperature
of
Dissolve
ice some
mass of
ice in
the
Record
calorim tempera
eter
ture
every 30

Enthalpy of Fusion of Water (contd)


Weigh the calorimeter

Compute for mass of ice

Determine enthalpy of
fusion of water

Repeat procedure.

Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water


Fill beaker with 900 mL water

Fill graduated cylinder to the 7th or 8th mark with water


Cover top with finger, invert, placed in the beaker
Trapped air should be around 4 to 5 mL
Heat water to about 80 or until air has expanded sufficiently
to extend beyond the graduated scale on the cylinder
Turn off heat source

Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water (contd)


Stir waster in beaker, observe air in the cylinder

When air level reaches 10 mL mark, record volume and


temperature
Transfer beaker

Continue stirring and recording temperature until the 50 is


reached
Rapidly cool water to 5
Record volume and temp
Do whole procedure for 2 trials

CALCULATION FOR ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION


(METHOD 1)

The 10 mL cylinder is graduated to give correct volume readings only when ri


side up. This is due to the shape of the water meniscus. Subtract 0.2 mL from
each of your readings to correct for this effect.
Use the lowest temperature reading (in K), the associated air volume (in L), a
the barometric pressure (in atm) in the ideal gas law to find the number of m
of air (nair) trapped in the cylinder.
The vapor pressure of the water at this low temperature is assumed to be
negligible. Use the other temperature readings and the associated corrected
volumes to calculate the partial pressure of air in the gas mixture at higher
temperatures.

The gas mixture in the cylinder is composed of water vapor and air with a
total pressure equal to the atmospheric pressure when the levels of water
(in the cylinder and beaker) are equal. The total pressure, according to
Daltons Law, is equal to the sum of the two partial pressures of the air and
the water vapor. Calculate this partial pressure of water, which is the
vapor pressure of the water.
Tabulate the vapor pressure, and 1/T on the x-axis. Draw the best straight
fit line through the points and determine its slope.
The Clausius-Clapeyron equation indicates that the slope is (assignment).
Solve for Hvap. Use R=8.314 J/Kmol so that the heat of vaporization is
given in J/mol.

Clausius Clapeyron Equation


estimate the vapor pressure at any temperature

Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water (Method 2)


Fill beaker half-full

Heat water to about 90


Float evaporating dish on the surface of the water

Place 3 drops of water on the dish


Record the time when water has evaporated

Enthalpy of Vaporization of Water (contd)


Cool water by by adding 10 ml of cold water. Record the exact
temperature as T2.

Add 3 drops again and record the evaporation time at


this new temperature as t2.
Repeat this procedure until the water is at room
temperature.
Repeat for total of 2 trials.

CALCULATION FOR ENTHALPY OF VAPORIZATION


(METHOD 2)
Use the Arrhenius equation with E as molar heat of vaporization.
Make a table of Temp (K), 1/T, time t and ln t.
Graph ln t vs 1/T.
Using the slope, determine the enthalpy of vaporization.

Hazards, First Aid, Effects,


Precautions
Butanol
Sodium Hydroxide
Potassium Nitrate

Hazards Identification
Very hazardous
Butanol

Irritation characterized
by:
Redness, watering, itching
Itching, scaling, reddening,
blistering

Skin contact
Eye contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

Can cause
gastrointestinal
disturbances, nausea,
headache, vomiting

First Aid

Eyes flush eyes with running water for >15 minutes, eyes open

Skin flush skin with water for >15 minutes, remove contaminated clothing

Inhalation Bring to fresh-aired area

Ingestion Do not induce vomiting, seek medical help

http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927115

Hazards Identification
Sodium Hydroxide

Very hazardous

Corrosive
Irritant
Permeator

Skin contact
Eye contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

Irritation characterized
by:

Can cause corneal


damage, blindness,
blistering, inflammation,
gastro-intestinal &
respiratory irritation

Redness, watering, itching


Itching, scaling, reddening,
blistering

First Aid
Eyes flush eyes with running water for >15 minutes, eyes open

Skin flush skin with water for >15 minutes, remove contaminated clothing

Inhalation Bring to fresh-aired area

Ingestion Do not induce vomiting, seek medical help

http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927115

Hazards Identification
Very hazardous
Potassium Nitrate

Skin contact
Eye contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

Can cause skin burns


and ulcerations,
respiratory irritations

First Aid
Eyes flush eyes with running water for >15 minutes, eyes
open
Skin flush skin with water for >15 minutes, remove
contaminated clothing

Inhalation Bring to fresh-aired area

Ingestion Do not induce vomiting, seek medical help

http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927115

Hazards Identification
Very hazardous
acetone

Skin contact
Eye contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

Toxic to the CNS,


kidney, reproductive
system, liver, skin

First Aid
Eyes flush eyes with running water for >15 minutes, eyes
open
Skin flush skin with water for >15 minutes, remove
contaminated clothing

Inhalation Bring to fresh-aired area

Ingestion Do not induce vomiting, seek medical help

http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927115

Hazards Identification
Very hazardous
Ethanol

Mutagenic,
Teratogenic, toxic to
blood, reproductive
system, urt, cns

Skin contact
Eye contact
Ingestion
Inhalation

First Aid
Eyes flush eyes with running water for >15 minutes, eyes
open
Skin flush skin with water for >15 minutes, remove
contaminated clothing

Inhalation Bring to fresh-aired area

Ingestion Do not induce vomiting, seek medical help

http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927115