Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 6

2015 IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy

A Comparative Analysis of Passive Filters for Power


Quality Improvement
Ani) Baitha

Dr. Nitin Gupta

Department of Electrical Engineering


Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Jaipur, India
aniIbaitha40@gmail.com

Department of Electrical Engineering


Malaviya National Institute of Technology
Jaipur, India
nitingupta.ee@mnit.ac.in

Abstract- This paper presents the design procedure of shunt


passive

filters

for

improving

power

quality

by

eliminating

harmonic distortion caused by non-linear loads. The passive


filters include single tuned passive filter (STPF) and double tuned
passive filter (DTPF) are considered for analysis purpose. In the
design of filters, the parameters of passive elements are obtained

th, 7th, 11th


th
and 13 harmonic order component. The DTPF is
for 5

more effective in removal of harmonic distortion while compared


with STPF. The simulation of proposed system is done in the
MATLAB/Simulink

environment. The various results


satisfied under IEEE- 519 harmonic standard limits.

Keywords-Power Quality, Passive Filter,

are

Single and Double

Tuned Filter, Total Harmonic Distortion, Harmonics.

I. INTRODUCTION
The escalating order of non-linear loads used in recent
days has led to concern the power quality is an important issue
in electric power utilities. The non-linear load such as power
electronic devices, adjustable speed drives (ASD), switch
mode power supply, UPS, arc furnaces, which changes the
sinusoidal nature of the ac power supply current termed as
harmonic current [I]. The consequences of harmonic current
are mal-operation of electromagnetic equipment (meters, relay
etc), losses and heating in the system, poor power factor,
reactive power burden, interference with EM waves, reduction
in efficiency, reduction in voltage rating at point-of-common
coupling (PCC), etc. These problems need to compensate or
eliminate harmonic distortion [1]-[6].
The solutions available for mitigation of harmonic
distortion are passive filters, active power filters and hybrid
active power filters. Conventionally, passive filters are widely
used solution for harmonic suppression and reactive power
compensation, due to its simple in design and cost acceptable.
Passive filters are designed from non-active (passive)
component such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors. It
provide minimum impedance path for the flow of non
sinusoidal components of supply mains [3]. But, passive filters
have many disadvantage, it cannot filter the frequencies other
than those for which it was tuned, bulky in size, series/parallel
resonance problem and also limited to a certain type of load
[7]-[8]. The effective solution to overcome these problems is
active power filter (APF). APFs are better in filtering
performance, small in size and more flexible to use as

978-1-4799-8280-6115/$31.00 2015 IEEE

compared with passive filters. However, active filters required


higher kilovolt ampere rating inverter and hence higher cost of
installation. By considering the advantage and disadvantage of
passive and active filter, a combination of these filters has
been developed, well-known as hybrid active power filter.
Hybrid filters are more cost-effective and feasible with small
rated active power filter, improve the compensation
characteristics of both passive and active filter with some
more additional attributes, such as line voltage regulation,
reactive power compensation and harmonic isolation between
supply and load [9]-[11].
In this paper the shunt passive filter has been designed for
elimination of 5th, ih, IIth and 13th harmonic order component
with both STPF and DTPF. A comparative analysis has been
carried out for STPF and DTPF by considering THD as
comparison constraints. A MATLAB/ Simulink based model
is developed for STPF and DTPF. Different simulation results
have been reported to show the performance of both types of
filters. In section II, basic concept of harmonic distortion is
explained. Section III describes the passive filter design.
Simulation results and comparison has been discussed in
section IV followed by conclusion.
II. DEFINATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION
A harmonic distortion is the steady state deviation of
current or voltage waveform from its ideal sinusoidal wave of
power line frequency. These harmonics are considered as
combination of different sine wave with different frequency,
which is multiple integral of fundamental frequency. The
measurement of harmonic distortion present in the waveform is
termed as total harmonic distortion (THD) and it is defined as
the ratio of the summation of the powers of all harmonic
components to the power of fundamental component. The
magnitude and frequency of harmonic component is obtained
by Fourier analysis of the distorted waveform. The harmonic
spectrum with different harmonic order is shown in Fig. I. The
magnitude of the harmonic content is decreasing in inverse
manner as frequency increases.
The harmonic producing load can be categories as power
electronics devices, arcing device, and saturation device.
Power electronics device includes converters, inverters, switch
mode power supply (SMPS), cyclo-converter, battery

327

2015 [EEE [nternational Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy


charging, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) which are
extensively use in industrial, commercial as well as in
domestic applications. An electric arc furnace, arc welders and
voltaic discharge type lamp (fluorescent, sodium vapor,
mercury vapor etc.) comes under the category of the arcing
device. The voltage- current characteristics of arcing devices
are highly non-linear. Saturation device include alternators,
transformers, motors and some other iron core devices. Most
of the equipments of these devices are designed at the knee
point of the saturation curve or above this point. As a result,
the magnetizing current can be highly distorted and rich in
third harmonic harmonics [12]-[15].

Cd!

C2 -

Ldl

Cd2-

Ld2

C4-

R2
C3

T
Doubk-IlmLxl
Filter

Scwnd-Ordcr High
Pass Filter

Third-Order High
PasshHcr

Doubk13!1nd
Pass Filte:t

Fig. 2. Different configurations of passive filters [II]


120

The capacitive reactance is related to reactive power as [5],

100
80

60

.,
"5"

40

OJ
'"0

(I)
Where, v,.c
is the nominal voltage of condenser
and Qc is reactive power supplied by condenser. The filter
capacitance value is then obtained through,

20
0
Fund.

3rd

5th

7th

9th

11 th

13th

CSTF

harmonic order

Fig.l. Harmonic spectrum with different harmonic order

The effect of harmonic currents are overheating of


electrical distribution system cables, overheating of
transformer and shortened transformer service life, and false
tripping of circuit breaker [4], [6]. As harmonic frequency is
always greater than fundamental frequency so that skin effects
also an important factor to be consider. This reduces the
capability of a conductor to carry current by reducing the
cross- sectional diameter.
III. PASSIVE FILTER DESIGN
Passive filter is most commonly used filtering techniques
for mitigation of harmonics, it offers low impedance path to
divert harmonic current caused by non-linear load. Passive
filter has two types, series passive filter and shunt passive filter
as connection based, a series filter should carry full load
current while shunt type filter takes only a part of full load
current. The shunt passive filter can able to deliver reactive
power at fundamental line frequency and due to lower cost, it is
best suited to practical use for harmonic filters. The shunt
passive filters are of simple series/ parallel arrangement of
resistors, inductors and condensers (capacitor). Fig. 2 shows
the different arrangements of shunt passive filters.
A.

Single Tuned Passive Filter Design

The STPF is most frequently used as shunt passive filter


which may be high-cut filter or pass-band filter. The designing
of this kind of filter is simple and lower cost to employ. The
essential criterion for the filter design is by choosing an
appropriate capacity of condensers, inductors and resistors that
gives an acceptable power factor at line frequency [3].

978-1-4799-8280-6/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE

= 2rr FsXc
1

(2)

Where, is is the frequency of supply mains. The inductance


value of the filter is then calculated by,

LSTF =

2 2
(2rrfs) ho CSTF

(3)

Where, h is order of harmonic to which filter is designed


o
to tune.
The value of filter resistor R is related to quality factor (Q
factor), which shows the sharpness of the resonance. Then the
Q-factor is describe as,

n
R

LSTFj
CSTF

(4)

- --'-----

Where, X is the characteristic reactance. This resistance


n
value can be decided by choosing a suitable value of quality
factor ranging from 30 to 100 [12].
B.

Double Tuned Passive Filter Design

The DTPF is design to eliminate two harmonic components


simultaneously. [t has many advantage when compared with
STPF, such as it require just a single inductor subjected to full
line voltage, smaller in size and only one switchgear required,
etc. [14]. The Fig. 3 shows a basic configuration of DTPF,
which is a combination of series resonance circuit having
parameters Ldl and Cd1 and parallel resonance circuit having
parameters Ld2 and Cd2 .

328

2015 [EEE [nternational Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy

[v. SIMULATION RESULTS

Cdl

Ldl

Cd2

Ld2

FigJ. Double tuned passive filter configuration

In design of a DTPF, the known tuned frequencies COl and


series resonant frequency Ws and parallel resonant
frequency wp are related as [14],
CO2,

(5)
Under the condition of neglecting the reactors resistance
and capacitors dielectric losses, the parameters of DTPF can
be formulated by considering with two single tuned filters. Cdl
is given by,
(6)
Where, C1 and C2 are the capacitances of two single tuned
passive filters. The Ldl value can be obtained from,
(7)
The series resonant frequency
ws -

Ws

is calculated by,

--

.JLd1 Cd1

The proposed model of passive filter is simulated using


MATLAB -platform associated with Simulink and
SimPowerSystems library for a three-phase, three-wire
electrical distribution network as shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. A
diode bridge based non-linear load is considered, which has
non-linear characteristics. The low voltage 230V, 50Hz supply
is fed to the system. The THO without any type of filter in
supply side is 21.58%. The waveform shape, magnitude and
THD of supply side current and load side current are same
when there is no compensation provided by any type of filter.
Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is done to find out
the harmonic components of the supply current wave shape.
The leading components of harmonic are noticed to be 5th, 7th,
11th and 13th. Consequently, these components are the
harmonic to be mitigating in this study. The shunt passive filter
is of two types, STPF and DTPF. The parameters of STPF are
obtained using (1) to (4) and parameters for DTPF are
calculated from (6) to ([0) which is mentioned in Table I.
The balanced non-linear load is considered. Therefore, the
evaluation is based on per-phase system. The different
waveform supply voltage, load current, source current and
compensating current can be noted in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 for
STPF and OTPF respectively. Both filters switched on at
t=0.25 sec. From Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 it can be noticed that before
compensation (time t<0.25 sec) the supply current is non
sinusoidal (distorted) with r.m.s. (root mean square) value of
37.83 ampere. The source current after compensation (12 0.25
sec) by passive filter becomes nearly sinusoidal from the
distorted wave. The %THD of source current reduces to 4.45%
and 1.42% with STPF and DTPF respectively. The r.m.s. value
of compensated source currents are 41.30 ampere with STPF
and 4[.23 ampere with OTPF. After compensation the source
current becomes sinusoidal and in-phase with the supply
voltage. The supply side power factor upgraded from 0.75 to
0.95.

(8)

The parallel resonant frequency is obtained from (5)


and LdZ is given by,

Thr!PhOl!

(9)

The value of capacitance

r-;:;:l

--.Jr

_
_

Cd2 is then given by,


1

Cd2 =
d2

(10)

Fig. 4. SIMULINK model for three-phase distribution network feeding a diode


rectifier with STPF

978-1-4799-8280-6/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE

329

2015 IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy

"':L{ltffi

'------"

I""

bJld:hr

Fig_ 5_ SIMULINK model for three-phase distribution network feeding a diode


rectifier with DTPF

Fig_ 8_ 5tls harmonic filter current (le5),7th harmonic filter current (b), IIth
harmonic filter current (1m), and 131h harmonic filter current
(leu) for STPF

;l:
lit: (
jl:
0.15

Fig_ 6_ Waveform of supply voltage (Vs in volt),load current (IL in amp_),


source current (Is in amp_),and compensating current(lc in amp_)
with STPF

0.2

0.25

03

035

Time(sec)

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

Fig_ 9_ Combined 51h and 71h harmonic filter current (Ic5.?),and combined
11th and 13tls harmonic filter current (lei LU) for OTPF

The individual harmonic currents compensated by two


types of filter are shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9.
The frequency spectrum of load current, source current
with STPF and source current with DTPF are shown in Fig. 10
(a), 10 (b), and 10 (c) respectively for steady state condition.
The source current THD after compensation is satisfied the
IEEE -519 standard limits requirements [1].
Fundamental(50Hz)=53 5 TIID= Z158%
20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2

Fig_ 7_ Waveform of supply voltage (Vs in volt),load current (lL in amp_),


source current (Is in amp_),and compensating current(Ic in amp_)
with DTPF

978-1-4799-8280-6115/$3l.00 2015 IEEE

50

100

150

ZOO

250

300

350

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

Frtquency(Hz)

(a)

330

2015 IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy


Fundlmental (50Hz)=58A, TIlIF4.45Yo

20,-,,-,--,-,--,--,-,

18

1 16
14
12
10

f..

';; 6

OL-
50--L 1OO-l iLO
200
--
250
- OO
J
JL
O400
--4LiO-iOO
L
55O - 650
1 0liO--8LOO
850

Frequeocy(J!z)

The effects of STPF and OTPF in harmonic distortion are


investigated by placing these filters at PCC. The % THO of
supply mains current and load current after placement of these
filters are revealed in Table II. It can be seen that DTPF is
more superior in reducing THD than the STPF. This is because
of DTPF remove two harmonic components at a time as
compared with STPF which removes only one harmonic
component.
V. CONCLUSION

(b)
Fundzmental (50Hz) = 533,TIID= l.4Z1'o
20.-----.----,---,---,
18
16

14

12

10

68
6

w
m
Frequeno:::y(Hz)

(c)
Fig. 10. (a) Frequency spectrum of non-linear load current (b) Frequency
spectrum of source current with STPF (c) Frequency spectrum of source
current with DTPF

This paper presents the comparative effectiveness of STPF


and OTPF for harmonic elimination in the electrical
distribution network. A simulated exploration has been
performed to inspect the effectiveness of shunt passive filter
with two types of filters namely, single tuned passive filter and
double tuned passive filter in harmonic elimination. The
simulation results shows that in reducing harmonic distortion
the DTPF is more effective as compared with STPF. The THD
of the supply current decreases as the quality factor increases
without raising the overall rms current of the supply. The
source current distortion is well satisfied under the harmonic
limits of IEEE-519 standard.
REFERENCES

TABLE I. Parameters of STPF and DTPF


Tuned
Harmonic

Filter Type

Single Tuned Filter

Double Tuned
Filter

Capacitance
()tF)

(mH)

100

4.05

711

100

2.06

100

0.84

1311

100

0.60

5tn &7tn

CI-200,
C2=1902

L1-1.37,L2-0.16

1111&1311

CI-200,

Li-0.35,

C2=7300

L2=0.00984

TABLE II. THD results with and without passive filter


Supply current

Load current

rms
(Amp.)

%THD

rms
(Amp.)

%THD

37.83

21.58

37.62

21.71

20

41.35

12.l9

37.80

2l.94

40

41.36

8.40

37.81

22.01

60

41.33

6.43

37.82

22.04

80

41.30

5.24

37.82

22.06

100

41.30

4.45

37.82

22.07

41.23

1.42

37.82

22.12

Quality
Factor

No Filter

Single Tuned Filter

Double Tuned Filter

978-1-4799-8280-6/15/$31.00 2015 IEEE

Recommended Practice and Requirements for Harmonic Control in


Electrical Systems, IEEE Std. 519-2014 (Rivision of IEEE std.5191992).

[2]

Gonzalez and J. C. McCall, "Design of filters to reduce harmonic


distortion in industrial power systems," IEEE Trans. Industry
Application, vol. IA-23, pp. 504-512, May/June 1987.

[3]

lCDas, "Passive filters-potentialities and limitations," IEEE Trans. on


Industry Applications," vol. 40,no. 1,pp. 232-241,Jan./Feb. 2004.

[4]

R. D. Henderson and P. J. Rose, "Harmonics: The effects on power


quality and transformers," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol.
30,no. 3, pp. 528-532, 1994.

[5]

S.N. AL. Yousif, M. Z. C. Wanik, A Mohamed, "Implementation of


Different Passive Filter Designs for Harmonic Mitigation," in Proc. of
National Power & Energy Conference (PECon) , Kuala Lumpur, pp.
229-234,2004.

[6]

N. Gupta, S. P. Singh and R. C. Bansal, "A Digital Signal Processor


Based Performance Evaluation of Three-phase Four-wire Shunt Active
Filter for Harmonic Elimination, Reactive Power Compensation, and
Balancing of Non-linear Loads under Non-ideal Mains Voltages," Elect.
Power Compon. Syst., vol. 40,no. 10,pp. 1119-1148,2012.

[7]

M. Jayaraman, Sreedevi V.T. and R. Balakrishnan, "Analysis and


Design of Passive Filters for Power Quality Improvement in Standalone
PV Systems," in Proc. of Nirma University International Conference on
Engineering (NUiCONE),pp. 1-6,2013.

[8]

AH. AI-Badi, M.H. Albadi, AS. Al-Hinai, "Designing of Filter to


Reduce Harmonic in Industrial Power Networks," in Proc. of IEEE
International Energy Conference, pp. 177-181,2014.

[9]

H. Akagi, "Active harmonic filters ", in Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 93,no.l2,
pp. 2128-2141,December 2005.

Inductance

5tn

11

[I]

[10] S. Bhattacharya, P.T. Cheng and D. M. Divan, "Hybrid solutions for


improving passive filter performance in high power applications ", IEEE
Trans. On Industry Applications," vol. 33,no. 3,pp. 732-747,1997.
[11]

N. Gupta, S. P. Singh, "Design of Hybrid Active Power Filter to


Improve Power Quality in Three-Phase Electrical Distribution Systems,"
International Review on Modeling and Simulations(lREMOS), vol. 4,
no. 4,pp. 1760-1772,Aug. 2011.

331

2015 IEEE International Conference on Technological Advancements in Power & Energy


[12]

John P. Nelson, "A Better Understanding of Harmonic Distortion in the


Petrochemical Industry," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 40,
no. 1, pp. 220-231,Jan./Feb. 2004.

[13]

George 1. Wakilesh,Power Systems Harmonics: Fundamentals, Analysis


and Filter Design,Springer Science & Business Media,2001.

[14]

Xiao Yao, "Algorithm for the parameters of double tuned filter," in Proc.
of international conference on Harmonics and Qualily of Power, vol. I,
pp. 154-157, 1998.

[15]

Subrata De. and G. Bhuvaneswari, "Investigations on the impact of


VAR rating and quality factor on the effectiveness of a shunt passive
filter," in Proc. of IEEE power India conference, 2006.

978-1-4 799-8280-6115/$3l.00 2015 IEEE

332