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Quality Improvement

Ani) Baitha

Malaviya National Institute of Technology

Jaipur, India

aniIbaitha40@gmail.com

Malaviya National Institute of Technology

Jaipur, India

nitingupta.ee@mnit.ac.in

passive

filters

for

improving

power

quality

by

eliminating

filters include single tuned passive filter (STPF) and double tuned

passive filter (DTPF) are considered for analysis purpose. In the

design of filters, the parameters of passive elements are obtained

th

and 13 harmonic order component. The DTPF is

for 5

with STPF. The simulation of proposed system is done in the

MATLAB/Simulink

satisfied under IEEE- 519 harmonic standard limits.

are

I. INTRODUCTION

The escalating order of non-linear loads used in recent

days has led to concern the power quality is an important issue

in electric power utilities. The non-linear load such as power

electronic devices, adjustable speed drives (ASD), switch

mode power supply, UPS, arc furnaces, which changes the

sinusoidal nature of the ac power supply current termed as

harmonic current [I]. The consequences of harmonic current

are mal-operation of electromagnetic equipment (meters, relay

etc), losses and heating in the system, poor power factor,

reactive power burden, interference with EM waves, reduction

in efficiency, reduction in voltage rating at point-of-common

coupling (PCC), etc. These problems need to compensate or

eliminate harmonic distortion [1]-[6].

The solutions available for mitigation of harmonic

distortion are passive filters, active power filters and hybrid

active power filters. Conventionally, passive filters are widely

used solution for harmonic suppression and reactive power

compensation, due to its simple in design and cost acceptable.

Passive filters are designed from non-active (passive)

component such as resistors, inductors, and capacitors. It

provide minimum impedance path for the flow of non

sinusoidal components of supply mains [3]. But, passive filters

have many disadvantage, it cannot filter the frequencies other

than those for which it was tuned, bulky in size, series/parallel

resonance problem and also limited to a certain type of load

[7]-[8]. The effective solution to overcome these problems is

active power filter (APF). APFs are better in filtering

performance, small in size and more flexible to use as

higher kilovolt ampere rating inverter and hence higher cost of

installation. By considering the advantage and disadvantage of

passive and active filter, a combination of these filters has

been developed, well-known as hybrid active power filter.

Hybrid filters are more cost-effective and feasible with small

rated active power filter, improve the compensation

characteristics of both passive and active filter with some

more additional attributes, such as line voltage regulation,

reactive power compensation and harmonic isolation between

supply and load [9]-[11].

In this paper the shunt passive filter has been designed for

elimination of 5th, ih, IIth and 13th harmonic order component

with both STPF and DTPF. A comparative analysis has been

carried out for STPF and DTPF by considering THD as

comparison constraints. A MATLAB/ Simulink based model

is developed for STPF and DTPF. Different simulation results

have been reported to show the performance of both types of

filters. In section II, basic concept of harmonic distortion is

explained. Section III describes the passive filter design.

Simulation results and comparison has been discussed in

section IV followed by conclusion.

II. DEFINATION OF HARMONIC DISTORTION

A harmonic distortion is the steady state deviation of

current or voltage waveform from its ideal sinusoidal wave of

power line frequency. These harmonics are considered as

combination of different sine wave with different frequency,

which is multiple integral of fundamental frequency. The

measurement of harmonic distortion present in the waveform is

termed as total harmonic distortion (THD) and it is defined as

the ratio of the summation of the powers of all harmonic

components to the power of fundamental component. The

magnitude and frequency of harmonic component is obtained

by Fourier analysis of the distorted waveform. The harmonic

spectrum with different harmonic order is shown in Fig. I. The

magnitude of the harmonic content is decreasing in inverse

manner as frequency increases.

The harmonic producing load can be categories as power

electronics devices, arcing device, and saturation device.

Power electronics device includes converters, inverters, switch

mode power supply (SMPS), cyclo-converter, battery

327

charging, uninterruptible power supply (UPS) which are

extensively use in industrial, commercial as well as in

domestic applications. An electric arc furnace, arc welders and

voltaic discharge type lamp (fluorescent, sodium vapor,

mercury vapor etc.) comes under the category of the arcing

device. The voltage- current characteristics of arcing devices

are highly non-linear. Saturation device include alternators,

transformers, motors and some other iron core devices. Most

of the equipments of these devices are designed at the knee

point of the saturation curve or above this point. As a result,

the magnetizing current can be highly distorted and rich in

third harmonic harmonics [12]-[15].

Cd!

C2 -

Ldl

Cd2-

Ld2

C4-

R2

C3

T

Doubk-IlmLxl

Filter

Scwnd-Ordcr High

Pass Filter

Third-Order High

PasshHcr

Doubk13!1nd

Pass Filte:t

120

100

80

60

.,

"5"

40

OJ

'"0

(I)

Where, v,.c

is the nominal voltage of condenser

and Qc is reactive power supplied by condenser. The filter

capacitance value is then obtained through,

20

0

Fund.

3rd

5th

7th

9th

11 th

13th

CSTF

harmonic order

electrical distribution system cables, overheating of

transformer and shortened transformer service life, and false

tripping of circuit breaker [4], [6]. As harmonic frequency is

always greater than fundamental frequency so that skin effects

also an important factor to be consider. This reduces the

capability of a conductor to carry current by reducing the

cross- sectional diameter.

III. PASSIVE FILTER DESIGN

Passive filter is most commonly used filtering techniques

for mitigation of harmonics, it offers low impedance path to

divert harmonic current caused by non-linear load. Passive

filter has two types, series passive filter and shunt passive filter

as connection based, a series filter should carry full load

current while shunt type filter takes only a part of full load

current. The shunt passive filter can able to deliver reactive

power at fundamental line frequency and due to lower cost, it is

best suited to practical use for harmonic filters. The shunt

passive filters are of simple series/ parallel arrangement of

resistors, inductors and condensers (capacitor). Fig. 2 shows

the different arrangements of shunt passive filters.

A.

which may be high-cut filter or pass-band filter. The designing

of this kind of filter is simple and lower cost to employ. The

essential criterion for the filter design is by choosing an

appropriate capacity of condensers, inductors and resistors that

gives an acceptable power factor at line frequency [3].

= 2rr FsXc

1

(2)

value of the filter is then calculated by,

LSTF =

2 2

(2rrfs) ho CSTF

(3)

o

to tune.

The value of filter resistor R is related to quality factor (Q

factor), which shows the sharpness of the resonance. Then the

Q-factor is describe as,

n

R

LSTFj

CSTF

(4)

- --'-----

n

value can be decided by choosing a suitable value of quality

factor ranging from 30 to 100 [12].

B.

simultaneously. [t has many advantage when compared with

STPF, such as it require just a single inductor subjected to full

line voltage, smaller in size and only one switchgear required,

etc. [14]. The Fig. 3 shows a basic configuration of DTPF,

which is a combination of series resonance circuit having

parameters Ldl and Cd1 and parallel resonance circuit having

parameters Ld2 and Cd2 .

328

Cdl

Ldl

Cd2

Ld2

series resonant frequency Ws and parallel resonant

frequency wp are related as [14],

CO2,

(5)

Under the condition of neglecting the reactors resistance

and capacitors dielectric losses, the parameters of DTPF can

be formulated by considering with two single tuned filters. Cdl

is given by,

(6)

Where, C1 and C2 are the capacitances of two single tuned

passive filters. The Ldl value can be obtained from,

(7)

The series resonant frequency

ws -

Ws

is calculated by,

--

.JLd1 Cd1

MATLAB -platform associated with Simulink and

SimPowerSystems library for a three-phase, three-wire

electrical distribution network as shown in Fig. 4 and Fig. 5. A

diode bridge based non-linear load is considered, which has

non-linear characteristics. The low voltage 230V, 50Hz supply

is fed to the system. The THO without any type of filter in

supply side is 21.58%. The waveform shape, magnitude and

THD of supply side current and load side current are same

when there is no compensation provided by any type of filter.

Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) analysis is done to find out

the harmonic components of the supply current wave shape.

The leading components of harmonic are noticed to be 5th, 7th,

11th and 13th. Consequently, these components are the

harmonic to be mitigating in this study. The shunt passive filter

is of two types, STPF and DTPF. The parameters of STPF are

obtained using (1) to (4) and parameters for DTPF are

calculated from (6) to ([0) which is mentioned in Table I.

The balanced non-linear load is considered. Therefore, the

evaluation is based on per-phase system. The different

waveform supply voltage, load current, source current and

compensating current can be noted in Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 for

STPF and OTPF respectively. Both filters switched on at

t=0.25 sec. From Fig. 6 and Fig. 7 it can be noticed that before

compensation (time t<0.25 sec) the supply current is non

sinusoidal (distorted) with r.m.s. (root mean square) value of

37.83 ampere. The source current after compensation (12 0.25

sec) by passive filter becomes nearly sinusoidal from the

distorted wave. The %THD of source current reduces to 4.45%

and 1.42% with STPF and DTPF respectively. The r.m.s. value

of compensated source currents are 41.30 ampere with STPF

and 4[.23 ampere with OTPF. After compensation the source

current becomes sinusoidal and in-phase with the supply

voltage. The supply side power factor upgraded from 0.75 to

0.95.

(8)

and LdZ is given by,

Thr!PhOl!

(9)

r-;:;:l

--.Jr

_

_

1

Cd2 =

d2

(10)

rectifier with STPF

329

"':L{ltffi

'------"

I""

bJld:hr

rectifier with DTPF

Fig_ 8_ 5tls harmonic filter current (le5),7th harmonic filter current (b), IIth

harmonic filter current (1m), and 131h harmonic filter current

(leu) for STPF

;l:

lit: (

jl:

0.15

source current (Is in amp_),and compensating current(lc in amp_)

with STPF

0.2

0.25

03

035

Time(sec)

0.4

0.45

0.5

0.55

0.6

Fig_ 9_ Combined 51h and 71h harmonic filter current (Ic5.?),and combined

11th and 13tls harmonic filter current (lei LU) for OTPF

types of filter are shown in Fig. 8 and Fig. 9.

The frequency spectrum of load current, source current

with STPF and source current with DTPF are shown in Fig. 10

(a), 10 (b), and 10 (c) respectively for steady state condition.

The source current THD after compensation is satisfied the

IEEE -519 standard limits requirements [1].

Fundamental(50Hz)=53 5 TIID= Z158%

20

18

16

14

12

10

8

6

4

2

source current (Is in amp_),and compensating current(Ic in amp_)

with DTPF

50

100

150

ZOO

250

300

350

500

550

600

650

700

750

800

850

Frtquency(Hz)

(a)

330

Fundlmental (50Hz)=58A, TIlIF4.45Yo

20,-,,-,--,-,--,--,-,

18

1 16

14

12

10

f..

';; 6

OL-

50--L 1OO-l iLO

200

--

250

- OO

J

JL

O400

--4LiO-iOO

L

55O - 650

1 0liO--8LOO

850

Frequeocy(J!z)

investigated by placing these filters at PCC. The % THO of

supply mains current and load current after placement of these

filters are revealed in Table II. It can be seen that DTPF is

more superior in reducing THD than the STPF. This is because

of DTPF remove two harmonic components at a time as

compared with STPF which removes only one harmonic

component.

V. CONCLUSION

(b)

Fundzmental (50Hz) = 533,TIID= l.4Z1'o

20.-----.----,---,---,

18

16

14

12

10

68

6

w

m

Frequeno:::y(Hz)

(c)

Fig. 10. (a) Frequency spectrum of non-linear load current (b) Frequency

spectrum of source current with STPF (c) Frequency spectrum of source

current with DTPF

and OTPF for harmonic elimination in the electrical

distribution network. A simulated exploration has been

performed to inspect the effectiveness of shunt passive filter

with two types of filters namely, single tuned passive filter and

double tuned passive filter in harmonic elimination. The

simulation results shows that in reducing harmonic distortion

the DTPF is more effective as compared with STPF. The THD

of the supply current decreases as the quality factor increases

without raising the overall rms current of the supply. The

source current distortion is well satisfied under the harmonic

limits of IEEE-519 standard.

REFERENCES

Tuned

Harmonic

Filter Type

Double Tuned

Filter

Capacitance

()tF)

(mH)

100

4.05

711

100

2.06

100

0.84

1311

100

0.60

5tn &7tn

CI-200,

C2=1902

L1-1.37,L2-0.16

1111&1311

CI-200,

Li-0.35,

C2=7300

L2=0.00984

Supply current

Load current

rms

(Amp.)

%THD

rms

(Amp.)

%THD

37.83

21.58

37.62

21.71

20

41.35

12.l9

37.80

2l.94

40

41.36

8.40

37.81

22.01

60

41.33

6.43

37.82

22.04

80

41.30

5.24

37.82

22.06

100

41.30

4.45

37.82

22.07

41.23

1.42

37.82

22.12

Quality

Factor

No Filter

Electrical Systems, IEEE Std. 519-2014 (Rivision of IEEE std.5191992).

[2]

distortion in industrial power systems," IEEE Trans. Industry

Application, vol. IA-23, pp. 504-512, May/June 1987.

[3]

Industry Applications," vol. 40,no. 1,pp. 232-241,Jan./Feb. 2004.

[4]

quality and transformers," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol.

30,no. 3, pp. 528-532, 1994.

[5]

Different Passive Filter Designs for Harmonic Mitigation," in Proc. of

National Power & Energy Conference (PECon) , Kuala Lumpur, pp.

229-234,2004.

[6]

Based Performance Evaluation of Three-phase Four-wire Shunt Active

Filter for Harmonic Elimination, Reactive Power Compensation, and

Balancing of Non-linear Loads under Non-ideal Mains Voltages," Elect.

Power Compon. Syst., vol. 40,no. 10,pp. 1119-1148,2012.

[7]

Design of Passive Filters for Power Quality Improvement in Standalone

PV Systems," in Proc. of Nirma University International Conference on

Engineering (NUiCONE),pp. 1-6,2013.

[8]

Reduce Harmonic in Industrial Power Networks," in Proc. of IEEE

International Energy Conference, pp. 177-181,2014.

[9]

H. Akagi, "Active harmonic filters ", in Proc. of the IEEE, vol. 93,no.l2,

pp. 2128-2141,December 2005.

Inductance

5tn

11

[I]

improving passive filter performance in high power applications ", IEEE

Trans. On Industry Applications," vol. 33,no. 3,pp. 732-747,1997.

[11]

Improve Power Quality in Three-Phase Electrical Distribution Systems,"

International Review on Modeling and Simulations(lREMOS), vol. 4,

no. 4,pp. 1760-1772,Aug. 2011.

331

[12]

Petrochemical Industry," IEEE Trans. on Industry Applications, vol. 40,

no. 1, pp. 220-231,Jan./Feb. 2004.

[13]

and Filter Design,Springer Science & Business Media,2001.

[14]

Xiao Yao, "Algorithm for the parameters of double tuned filter," in Proc.

of international conference on Harmonics and Qualily of Power, vol. I,

pp. 154-157, 1998.

[15]

VAR rating and quality factor on the effectiveness of a shunt passive

filter," in Proc. of IEEE power India conference, 2006.

332

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