Homework solutions for HW 5 Dynamics

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Homework solutions for HW 5 Dynamics

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Question 41

rod of length l as shown in Fig. P4-1. The rod is free to pivot about a hinge

attached to the block at point O. Furthermore, the block rolls without friction

along a horizontal surface. Knowing that a horizontal force F is applied to the

block and that gravity acts downward, determine a system of two differential

equations describing the motion of the block and the particle.

x

m

g

l

O

F

Figure P 4-1

148

Solution to Question 41

Kinematics

Let F be a reference frame fixed to the ground. Then, choose the following

coordinate system fixed in reference frame F :

Ex

Ez

Ey

Origin at O at t = 0

=

To the Right

=

Into Page

=

Ez Ex

Next, let A be a reference frame fixed to the rod. Then, choose the following

coordinate system fixed in reference frame A:

er

ez

e

Origin at O

=

=

=

Along OP

Into Page

Ez er

We note that the relationship between the basis {Ex , Ey , Ez } and {er , e , ez } is

given as

Ex

Ey

= sin er + cos e

(4.1)

= cos er + sin e

(4.2)

= sin Ex cos Ey

(4.3)

er

e

as

= cos Ex + sin Ey

(4.4)

Using the bases {Ex , Ey , Ez } and {er , e , ez }, the position of the block is given

rO = xEx

(4.5)

Then the velocity and acceleration of the block in reference frame F are given,

respectively, as

F

vO

aO

x

= xE

x

= xE

(4.6)

(4.7)

r = rP = rO + rP /O = xEx + ler

(4.8)

F

z

A = e

(4.9)

149

The velocity of point P in reference frame F is then given as

F

vP =

F

d

d

rP /O = F vO + F vP /O

(rO ) +

dt

dt

(4.10)

Ad

d

rP /O =

rP /O + F A rP /O

dt

dt

(4.11)

Now we already have F vO from Eq. (4.6). Next, since rP /O is expressed in the basis {er , e , ez } and {er , e , ez } rotates with angular velocity F A , we can apply

the rate of change transport theorem to rP /O between reference frame A and

reference frame F as

F

vP /O =

A

d

= 0

rP /O

dt

F A

z ler = le

rP /O = e

(4.12)

(4.13)

F

vP /O = le

(4.14)

F

x + le

vP = xE

(4.15)

F

aP =

d F

vP

dt

(4.16)

F

vP = F vO + F vP /O

(4.17)

F

F

vO

vP /O

x

= xE

= le

(4.18)

(4.19)

Consequently,

F

aP =

d F Fd F

vO +

vP /O

dt

dt

(4.20)

in the basis {er , e , ez } and {er , e , ez } rotates with angular velocity F A , we

can obtain F aP /O by applying the rate of change transport theorem between

reference frame A and reference frame F as

F

aP /O =

Ad

d F

F

vP /O =

vP /O + F A F vP /O

dt

dt

(4.21)

150

A

d F

= le

vP /O

dt

F A

z le

= l

2 er

F vP /O = e

(4.22)

(4.23)

F

2 er + le

aP /O = l

(4.24)

Then, adding Eq. (4.7) and Eq. (4.24), we obtain the acceleration of point P in

reference frame F as

F

2 er + le

x l

aP = xE

(4.25)

The acceleration of the center of mass of the system is then computed using

the expressions for F aO and F aP from Eqs. (4.7) and (4.25), respectively. In

particular, we have that

M F aO + m F aP

F

a=

(4.26)

M +m

Substituting the results of Eqs. (4.7) and (4.25) into Eq. (4.26), we obtain

F

a=

2 er + le

)

x + m(xE

x l

M xE

m 2

(4.27)

x+

l er + le

= xE

M +m

M +m

Kinetics

The free body diagram of the block is shown in Fig. 4-1.

R

F

N

Mg

Figure 4-1

Using Fig. 4-1, the forces acting on the block are given as

F

R

N

Mg

=

=

=

=

External Force

Reaction Force of Particle on Block

Reaction Force of Ground on Block

Force of Gravity

151

Now we have that

F = F Ex

(4.28)

R = Rer

(4.29)

Mg = MgEy

(4.31)

N = NEy

(4.30)

FO = F + R + N + Mg = F Ex + NEy + Rer + MgEy

(4.32)

FO = F Ex +NEy +R(sin Ex cos Ey )+MgEy = (F +R sin )Ex +(NR cos +Mg)Ey

(4.33)

Setting FO equal to M F aO , we obtain the following two scalar equations:

F + R sin

= Mx

N R cos + Mg

= 0

(4.34)

(4.35)

The free body diagram of the block-particle system is shown in Fig. 4-2.

(M + m)g

F

N

Figure 4-2

Using Fig. 4-2, the forces acting on the block-particle system are given as

F

= External Force

N

= Reaction Force of Ground on Block

(M + m)g = Force of Gravity

Now we have that

F = F Ex

(4.36)

(M + m)g = (M + m)gEy

(4.38)

N = NEy

(4.37)

152

FT = F + N + (M + m)g = F Ex + NEy + (M + m)gEy

(4.39)

FT = F Ex + N + (M + m)g Ey

a, we obtain

Setting FT equal to (M + m)F

+

F Ex + N + (M + m)g Ey = (M + m) x

m 2

l er + le

M +m

(4.40)

(4.41)

2 er + le

+ m l

F Ex + N + (M + m)g Ey = (M + m)x

(4.42)

Substituting the expressions for er and e from Eqs. (4.3) and (4.4) into Eq. (4.42),

we obtain

h

2 (sin Ex cos Ey )

+ m l

F Ex + N + (M + m)g Ey = (M + m)x

i

(4.43)

+l(cos

Ex + sin Ey )

Eq. (4.43) simplifies to

h

i

2 sin + ml

cos Ex

ml

F Ex + N + (M + m)g Ey = (M + m)x

2 cos + ml

sin )Ey

+ (ml

(4.44)

Equating components in Eq. (4.44), we obtain the following two scalar equations:

F

N + (M + m)g

2 sin + ml

cos

ml

= (M + m)x

2 cos + ml

sin

= ml

(4.45)

(4.46)

The first differential equation is Eq. (4.45), i.e.,

2 sin + ml

cos

ml

F = (M + m)x

(4.47)

The second differential equation is obtained by using Eqs. (4.34), (4.35) and

(4.46). Solving Eq. (4.46) for N, we obtain

2 cos + ml

sin (M + m)g

N = ml

(4.48)

2 cos + ml

sin (M + m)g R cos + Mg = 0

ml

(4.49)

153

Eq. (4.49) simplifies to

2 cos + ml

sin mg R cos = 0

ml

(4.50)

2 cos sin + ml

sin2 mg sin R sin = 0

ml

(4.51)

cos

F cos + R sin cos = M x

(4.52)

cos = 0

F cos + R sin cos M x

(4.53)

2 cos sin + ml

sin2 M x

cos mg sin + F cos = 0

ml

(4.54)

sin2 ml

2 cos sin + mg sin = F cos

cos ml

Mx

(4.55)

The system of two differential equations is then given from Eqs. (4.47) and (4.55)

as

2 sin + ml

cos

ml

(M + m)x

sin2 ml

2 cos sin + mg sin = F cos

cos ml

Mx

= F(4.56)

(4.57)

The system in Eqs. (4.56) and (4.57) can be written in a slightly more elegant

form as follows. Multiplying Eq. (4.56) by cos and subtracting the result from

Eq. (4.57), we obtain

+ mg sin = 0

cos + ml

mx

(4.58)

and (4.58) as

2 sin + ml

cos

ml

(M + m)x

+ mg sin

cos + ml

mx

= F

= 0

(4.59)

(4.60)

154

Solution to Question 42

First, let F be a fixed reference frame. Then, choose the following coordinate

system fixed in reference frame F :

Origin at Location of Block

Ex To The Left

Ez Into Page

Ey = Ez Ex

(4.61)

Now in order to solve this problem we need to apply the principle of linear

impulse and momentum to the system and/or subsystems of the system. For

this problem, it is convenient to choose the following systems:

System 1: Ball Bearing

System 2: Block

System 3: Bullet and Ball Bearing

Application of Linear Impulse and Linear Momentum to Ball Bearing

Applying linear impulse and momentum to the ball bearing, we have that

F

Fm = m vm mF vm

(4.62)

Now the free body Diagram of the ball bearing is shown in Fig. 4-3 where

Fm

Figure 4-3

Now we have that

Fv

m

F

vm

= v0 = v0 cos Ex v0 sin Ey

E + v E

=

vmx

x

my y

(4.63)

Also, let

Fm

F = Fx Ex + Fy Ey

(4.64)

Then, substituting the results of Eq. (4.63) and the result of Eq. (4.64) into

Eq. (4.62), we obtain

Ex + vmy

Ey )

(4.65)

155

Rearranging, we have

Ex + mvmy

Ey

(4.66)

mv0 cos + Fx

Fy mv0 sin

= mvmx

mvmy

(4.67)

(4.68)

For the entire system we have that

F

F = G F G

(4.69)

where F G and G are the linear momenta of the system before and after impact.

Now we have that

F

F

G = m F vm + M F vM

F

m vm

F

+ M vM

(4.70)

(4.71)

have that

Fv

M = 0

(4.72)

F

vM = vMx

Ex + vMy

Ey

Next, the free body diagram of the entire system is shown in Fig. 4-4 It is seen

P

Figure 4-4

where P

is the impulse

that the only impulse applied to the entire system is P

applied by the ground on the system. Therefore,

= PEy

F=P

(4.73)

Substituting the results of Eq. (4.63), Eq. (4.72), and Eq. (4.73) into Eq. (4.69), we

obtain

PEy = m(vmx

Ex + vmy

Ey ) + M(vMx

Ex + vMy

Ey ) m(v0 cos Ex v0 sin Ey )

(4.74)

156

+ MvMx

)Ex + (mvmy

+ MvMy

)Ey

(4.75)

We then obtain the following two scalar equations:

= mvmx

+ MvMx

mv0 cos

P mv0 sin

mvmy

+ MvMy

(4.76)

(4.77)

Kinematic Constraints

We know that, because the bullet embeds itself in the block immediately after

impact the velocity of the bullet and the block must be the same. Therefore,

F

vm

= vM = v

(4.78)

F

v = vx Ex + vy Ey

(4.79)

Second, we know that the bullet and the block must move horizontally after

impact. Therefore,

vy = 0

(4.80)

Solving for the Impulse Exerted By Block on Ball Bearing During Impact

The impulse exerted by the block on the ball bearing can be solved for using the

results of Eq. (4.67), Eq. (4.68), Eq. (4.76), and Eq. (4.77). First, it is convenient

to solve for the post-impact velocity of the block and ball bearing. Because the

post-impact velocity of the block and the ball bearing are the same, we have

from Eq. (4.76) that

+ MvMx

= (m + M)vx

(4.81)

vx =

m

v0 cos

m+M

(4.82)

= mvx = m

m

v0 cos

m+M

(4.83)

Fx = mv0 cos

m

mv0 cos

m+M

(4.84)

157

Simplifying this last expression, we have that

Fx = mv0 cos

M

m+M

(4.85)

= mvy = 0

(4.86)

Fy = mv0 sin

(4.87)

Fm =

F = mv0 cos

M

Ex + mv0 sin Ey

m+M

(4.88)

As stated above, the post-impact velocity of the block and the ball bearing are

the same. From Eq. (4.80) and Eq. (4.82) we have that

F

v =

Consequently,

F

vm

F

vM

=

=

m

v0 cos Ex

m+M

m

v0 cos Ex

m+M

m

v0 cos Ex

m+M

(4.89)

(4.90)

158

Question 43

A block of mass m is dropped from a height h above a plate of mass M as shown

in Fig. P4-3. The plate is supported by three linear springs, each with spring

constant K, and is initially in static equilibrium. Assuming that the compression

of the springs due to the weight of the plate is negligible, that the impact is

perfectly inelastic, that the block strikes the vertical center of the plate, and

that gravity acts downward, determine (a) the velocity of the block and plate

immediately after impact and (b) the maximum compression, xmax , attained by

the springs after impact.

h

M

Figure P 4-2

Solution to Question 43

Kinematics

Let F be a fixed reference frame. Then, choose the following coordinate system

fixed in reference frame F :

Ex

Ez

Ey

Origin at m at t = 0

=

Down

=

Out of Page

=

Ez Ex

Then the velocity of the block and plate in reference frame F are given, respectivley, as

F

v1

v2

= v1 Ex

= v2 Ex

(4.91)

(4.92)

159

The velocity of the center of mass of the block-plate system in reference frame

F is then given as

F

=

v

mv1 + Mv2

m F v1 + M F v2

==

Ex

m+M

m+M

(4.93)

Kinetics

Phase 1: During Descent of Block

The only force acting on the block during its descent is that of gravity. Since

gravity is conservative, we know that energy must be conserved. Consequently,

F

E(t0 ) = F E(t1 )

(4.94)

where t0 and t1 are the times of the start and end of the descent. Now we have

that

F

E = FT + FU

(4.95)

Since the block is dropped from rest, we have that

F

T (t0 ) = 0

(4.96)

Next, the kinetic energy of the block at the end of the descent is given as

F

T (t0 ) =

1 F

1

1

m v1 (t1 ) mF v1 (t1 ) = mv12 (t1 )

2

2

2

(4.97)

F

U (t0 ) = mg r1 (t0 )

(4.98)

where r1 (t0 ) is the position of the block at time t = t0 . Now since the origin of

the coordinate system is located at the block at t = 0, we know that r(t0 ) = 0.

Consequently,

F

U (t0 ) = 0

(4.99)

Finally, the potential energy at the end of the descent is given as

F

U (t1 ) = mg r1 (t1 )

(4.100)

Now since the block is dropped from a height h above the plate, we have that

r1 (t1 ) = hEx

(4.101)

F

(4.102)

160

1

mv12 (t1 ) mgh

2

0=

(4.103)

q

v1 (t1 ) = 2gh

(4.104)

From Eq. (4.104), the velocity of the block in reference frame F at the end of the

descent is given as

q

F

v1 (t1 ) = 2ghEx

(4.105)

Applying the principle of linear impulse and linear momentum to the entire

system during impact, we have that

F

F

F = G(t1+ ) G(t1 )

(4.106)

Now, because the impact is assumed to occur instantaneously and neither gravity nor the spring can apply an instantaneous impulse, during impact there are

no external impulses applied to the system, i.e.,

F=0

(4.107)

(4.108)

Therefore,

F

G(t1+ ) = G(t1 )

F

G = (m + M)F v

(4.109)

Using the expression for F v

F

G = (m + M)

mv1 + Mv2

Ex = (mv1 + Mv2 )Ex

m+M

(4.110)

Then, noting that the plate is motionless before impact and using the expression

for F v1 (t1 ) from Eq. (4.105), we have that

F

q

G(t1 ) = m 2ghEx

(4.111)

q

F

(t1+ ) = m 2ghEx

(m + M) v

(4.112)

161

F

Solving for v

the instant after impact as

m q

F

(t1+ ) =

(4.113)

2ghEx

v

m+M

Next, we know that the impact is perfectly inelastic. Consequently, the coefficient of restitution is zero, i.e., e = 0. Now we have the coefficient of restitution

condition as

F

F

v n v1 n

e= F 2

(4.114)

v1 n F v2 n

F

v2 (t1+ ) n v1 (t1+ ) n

v1 (t1 ) n v2 (t1 ) n

=0

(4.115)

v2 (t1+ ) n v1 (t1+ ) n = 0

(4.116)

F

Now for this problem is it seen that the direction of impact is along Ex , i.e., n =

Ex . Furthermore, since the velocities of the block and the plate are also along

Ex , we have that

F

F

v1 (t1+ ) n = v1 (t1+ )

(4.117)

v2 (t1+ ) n = v2 (t1+ )

(4.118)

v2 (t1+ ) v1 (t1+ ) = 0

(4.119)

v2 (t1+ ) = v1 (t1+ )

(4.120)

It is seen from Eq. (4.120) that the post-impact velocities of the block and plate

are the same. Now we have that

= m F v1 + M F v2

(m + M)F v

F

(4.121)

Consequently, using the expression for v

p

q

m 2gh

F

+

(t1 ) = (m + M)

(m + M) v

Ex = m 2ghEx = mv1 (t1+ )Ex + Mv2 (t1+ )

m+M

(4.122)

+

+

+

But since v1 (t1 ) = v2 (t1 ) v(t1 ), we have that

q

m 2gh = (m + M)v(t1+ )

(4.123)

162

m q

2ghEx

(4.124)

m+M

Therefore, the post-impact velocities of the block and plate in reference frame

F are given as

m q

F

(4.125)

v1 (t1+ ) =

2ghEx

m+Mq

m

F

v2 (t1+ ) =

2ghEx

(4.126)

m+M

v(t1+ ) =

First, it is important to recognize that, because the impact between the block

and the plate was perfectly inelastic, the block and plate will move together

after impact, i.e., the block and plate will move as if they are a single body after

impact. Next, for this part of the problem we see that the only forces acting on

the block and plate are those of the three springs. Since the attachment points

of the springs are inertially fixed (in this case they are fixed in reference frame

F ), we know that the spring forces will be conservative. Thus, the total energy

of the system after impact will be conserved. Now the total energy is given as

F

E = FT + FU

(4.127)

F

v = vEx

(4.128)

F

T =

1

1

(m + M)F v F v = (m + M)v 2

2

2

Next, the potential energy is due to the three springs and is given as

1

3

F

Us = 3

K( 0 )2 = K( 0 )2

2

2

(4.129)

(4.130)

(t1 ) = 0

(4.131)

Now since the springs are compressing in this phase, we know that 0 will

be less than zero for t > t1 . In order to account for the fact that 0 < 0,

let xmax = 0 (t2 ). Then the potential energy in the springs at the point of

maximum compression is given as

3

1

F

2

2

K((t2 ) 0 ) = Kxmax

(4.132)

Us (t2 ) = 3

2

2

163

Then the total potential energy at the point of maximum compression is given

as

3

F

2

U (t2 ) = (m + M)g(h + xmax ) + Kxmax

(4.133)

2

where we note that the potential energy due to gravity at t2 is different from

the potential energy due to gravity at t1 because the position of the particle and

block has changed from hEx to (h + xmax )Ex in moving from t1 to t2 . Now,

using the results from phase 2, we know at t1 that

2

m2 gh

1

m q

F

2gh =

T (t1 ) =

(m + M)

(4.134)

2

m+M

m+M

F

U (t1 ) = (m + M)gh

(4.135)

Then the total energy of the system at t1 is given as

F

(4.136)

F

T (t2 ) = 0

(4.137)

3

F

2

U (t2 ) = (m + M)g(h + xmax ) + Kxmax

2

(4.138)

where we note that the kinetic energy at t2 is zero because t2 is the time at

which the springs have attained their maximum compression. Then the total

energy of the system at t2 is given as

F

3

2

Kxmax

2

(4.139)

(m + M)g(h + xmax ) +

3

2

Kxmax

=0

2

(4.140)

3

2

Kxmax

(m + M)gxmax (m + M)gh = 0

2

(4.141)

2

xmax

2(m + M)gh

2(m + M)g

xmax

=0

3K

3K

(4.142)

Eq. (4.142) is a quadratic in xmax . The roots of Eq. (4.142) are given from the

quadratic formula as

s

2(m + M)g 2 8(m + M)gh

2(m + M)g

+

3K

3K

3K

(4.143)

xmax =

2

164

2(m + M)g

3K

(4.144)

p

a a2 + 4ah

=

2

(4.145)

a=

Then Eq. (4.143) can be written as

xmax

q

q

a a 1 + 4h/a

a

xmax =

1 1 + 4h/a

=

2

2

(4.146)

Now since h and a are positive, we know that the quantity 1 + 4h/a must be

greater than unity. Consequently, one of the roots of Eq. (4.146) must be negative. Choosing the positive root, we obtain

q

a

xmax =

1 + 1 + 4h/a

(4.147)

2

Substituting the expression for a from Eq. (4.144), we obtain the maximum compression of the springs after impact as

s

"

#

6Kh

(m + M)g

1+ 1+

(4.148)

xmax =

3K

(m + M)g

165

Question 48

A particle of mass mA slides without friction along a fixed vertical rigid rod. The

particle is attached via a rigid massless arm to a particle of mass mB where mB

slides without friction along a fixed horizontal rigid rod. Assuming that is the

angle between the horizontal rod and the arm and that gravity acts downward,

determine the differential equation of motion for the system in terms of the

angle .

mB

O

mA

Figure P 4-3

Solution to Question 48

Before beginning the kinematics for this problem, it is important to know which

balance laws will be used. Since this problem consists of two particles, it is

convenient to use the following balance laws: (1) Newtons 2nd law and (2) a

moment balance. Since it is generally convenient to choose the center of mass

as a reference point, the moment balance will be performed relative to the center of mass. Consequently, we will need to compute the following kinematic

quantities: (1) the acceleration of the center of mass and (2) the rate of change

of angular momentum of the system relative to the center of mass.

Kinematics

Let F be a fixed reference frame. Then, choose the following coordinate system

fixed in reference frame F :

Ex

Ey

Ez

Origin at Point O

=

=

=

Along OA

Along OB

Ex Ey

166

Then the position of each particle is given in terms of the basis {Ex , Ey , Ez } as

= l sin Ex

rA

= l cos Ey

rB

(4.149)

(4.150)

mA rA + mB rB

mA + m B

r=

(4.151)

Substituting the expressions for rA and rB from Eq. (4.149) and Eq. (4.150), respectively, into Eq. (4.151), we obtain

r=

mA l sin Ex + mB l cos Ey

mA + m B

(4.152)

F

d

cos Ex

(rA ) = l

dt

F

d

sin Ey

=

(rA ) = l

dt

vA

vB

(4.153)

(4.154)

F

aA

aB

d F

cos

2 sin )Ex

vA = l(

dt

F

d F

sin +

2 cos )Ey

=

vB = l(

dt

(4.155)

(4.156)

F

a=

mA F a A + m B F a B

mA + mB

(4.157)

Substituting the results of Eq. (4.155) and Eq. (4.156) into Eq. (4.157), we obtain

the acceleration of the center of mass in reference frame F as

F

a=

cos

2 sin )Ex mB l(

sin +

2 cos )Ey

mA l(

mA + mB

(4.158)

center of mass, we will need the rate of change of angular momentum relative

to the center of mass. Recalling the expression for the rate of change of angular

momentum relative to the center of mass for a system of particles, we have that

F

d F

= (rA

H

r ) mA ( F a A F

a) + (rB

r) mB (F aB F

a)

dt

(4.159)

167

Now from Eqs. (4.149), (4.150), and (4.152) we have

mA l sin Ex + mB l cos Ey

mA + m B

mB l sin Ex mB l cos Ey

=

mA + mB

mA l sin Ex + mB l cos Ey

rB

r = l cos Ey

mA + m B

mA l sin Ex + mA l cos Ey

=

mA + m B

rA

r = l sin Ex

(4.160)

(4.161)

F

aA F

a =

a =

aB F

sin +

2 cos )Ex + mB l(

cos

2 sin )Ey

mB l(

(4.162)

mA + m B

sin +

2 cos )Ex mA l(

cos

2 sin )Ey

mA l(

(4.163)

mA + mB

The rate of change of angular momentum relative to the center of mass is then

given as

F

d F mB l cos Ex mB l sin Ey

=

H

dt

mA + mB

!

sin +

2 cos )Ex + mB l(

cos

2 sin )Ey

mB l(

mA

mA + m B

mA l cos Ex + mA l sin Ey

mA + mB

!

sin +

2 cos )Ex mA l(

cos

2 sin )Ey

mA l(

mB

mA + m B

(4.164)

2 2

)l

d F (mA mB2 + mB mA

=

H

Ez

2

dt

(mA + mB )

(4.165)

F

d F

mA mB 2

=

H

l Ez

dt

mA + m B

(4.166)

Kinetics

The free body diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 4-5. It can be seen from

168

NB

NA

Figure 4-5

(mA + mB )g

the free body diagram that the following three forces act on the system:

NA

= Reaction Force of Vertical Track on mA

NB

= Reaction Force of Horizontal Track on mB

(mA + mB )g = Force of Gravity at Center of Mass

Now we know that NA and NB act orthogonal to the horizontal and vertical

tracks, respectively, i.e.,

NA

NB

= NA Ey

= NB Ex

(4.167)

(4.168)

(mA + mB )g = (mA + mB )gEx

(4.169)

F = NA + NB + (mA + mB )g = NA Ey + NB Ex + (mA + mB )gEx

(4.170)

F = [NB + (mA + mB )g]Ex + NA Ey

(4.171)

Then, using the expression for F

cos

2 sin )Ex mB l(

sin +

2 cos )Ey

mF

a = mA l(

(4.172)

cos

2 sin )Ex

[NB + (mA + mB )g]Ex + NA Ey = mA l(

sin +

2 cos )Ey

mB l(

(4.173)

169

Equating components, we obtain the following two scalar equations:

NB + (mA + mB )g

NA

cos

2 sin )

= mA l(

sin +

2 cos )

= mB l(

(4.174)

(4.175)

Next, since gravity passes through the center of mass, the moment due to all

forces relative to the center of mass is due to NA and NB and is given as

= (rA

M

r) NA + (rB

r) NB

(4.176)

Substituting the results of Eqs. (4.160), (4.161), (4.161), (4.167), and (4.168) into

Eq. (4.176), we obtain

!

!

mB l sin Ex mB l cos Ey

mA l sin Ey + mA l cos Ey

=

M

NA Ey +

NB Ex

mA + mB

mA + mB

(4.177)

Eq. (4.177) simplifies to

=

M

mB NA l sin mA NB l cos

Ez

mA + mB

(4.178)

)/dt using the expression for F d(F H

)/dt

Setting M

from Eq. (4.166), we obtain

mA mB 2

mB NA l sin mA NB l cos

Ez =

l Ez

mA + mB

mA + mB

(4.179)

mB NA l sin mA NB l cos = mA mB l2

(4.180)

We can now use Eqs. (4.174), (4.175), and (4.180) to obtain the differential

equation of motion. First, multiplying Eq. (4.174) by mA l cos and multiplying

Eq. (4.175) by mB l sin , we obtain

mA NB l cos + mA (mA + mB )gl cos

mB NA l sin

2 2

2 sin ) cos

= mA

l ( cos

(4.181)

2 2

2

(4.182)

mB NA l sin mA NB l cos mA (mA + mB )gl cos

sin +

2 cos ) sin

= mB2 l2 (

(4.183)

2 2

2 sin ) cos

mA

l ( cos

Then, substituting mB NA l sin mA NB l cos from Eq. (4.180) into Eq. (4.183),

we obtain

mA (mA + mB )gl cos = m2 l2 (

sin +

2 cos ) sin

mA mB l 2

B

2 2

2 sin ) cos

mA

l ( cos

(4.184)

170

2

+ (m2 m2 )

2 cos sin

(mA mB + mA

cos2 + mB2 sin2 )

B

A

g

mA (mA + mB ) cos = 0

l

(4.185)

2

mA mB + mA

cos2 + mB2 sin2 = (mA cos2 + mB sin2 )(mA + mB ) (4.186)

+ (m2 m2 )

2 cos sin

(mA cos2 + mB sin2 )(mA + mB )

B

A

g

mA (mA + mB ) cos = 0

l

(4.187)

2

(mA

mB2 ) = (mA mB )(mA + mB )

(4.188)

+ (mA mB )(mA + mB )

2 cos sin

(mA cos2 + mB sin2 )(mA + mB )

g

mA (mA + mB ) cos = 0

l

(4.189)

Finally, observing that mA + mB is common to all of the terms in Eq. (4.189), we

obtain the differential equation of motion as

+ (mA mB )

2 cos sin mA

(mA cos2 + mB sin2 )

g

cos = 0 (4.190)

l

171

Question 417

rigid massless rod of length 2l. Each end of the dumbbell slides without friction

along a fixed circular track of radius R as shown in Fig. P4-17. Knowing that

is the angle from the vertical to the center of the rod and that gravity acts

downward, determine the differential equation of motion for the dumbbell.

R

Bm

A

m

2l

Figure P 4-12

This problem can be solved using many different approaches. For the purposes

of this solution, we will show the following three two most prominent of these

approaches: (1) using point O as the reference point or (2) using the center of

mass as the reference point. In order to apply all of these approaches, we will

need to compute the following kinematic quantities: (a) the acceleration of each

particle, the angular momentum of the system relative to point O, and (c) the

angular momentum of the system relative to the center of mass.

172

Kinematics

First, let F be a fixed reference frame. Then, choose the following coordinate

system fixed in reference frame F :

Ex

Ez

Ey

Origin at Point O

=

=

=

Along OC When = 0

Out of Page

Ez Ex

Next, let A be a reference frame that rotates with the dumbbell. Then, choose

the following coordinate system fixed in reference frame A:

er

ez

e

Origin at Point O

=

=

=

Along OC

Ez (= Out of Page )

ez er

The geometry of the bases {Ex , Ey , Ez } and {er , e , ez } is shown in Fig. 4-6 from

which we have that

e

Ez , ez

Ey

er

Ex

Figure 4-6

Ex

Ey

= cos er sin e

= sin er + cos e

(4.191)

(4.192)

given as

F A

z

= e

(4.193)

Furthermore, the position of each particle is then given in terms of the basis

{er , e , ez } as

rA

rB

= aer le

= aer + le

(4.194)

(4.195)

173

The velocity of each particle can then be obtained using the transport theorem

as

F

vA

vB

drA F A

+ rA

dt

A

drB F A

+ rB

=

dt

=

(4.196)

(4.197)

A

drA

dt

A

drB

dt

= 0

(4.198)

= 0

(4.199)

Furthermore,

F

F

z (aer le ) = le

r + ae

= e

z (aer + le ) = le

r + ae

= e

A rA

A

rB

(4.200)

(4.201)

F

vA

vA

r + ae

= le

r + ae

= le

(4.202)

(4.203)

The acceleration of each particle is then obtained from the transport theorem

as

F

aA

aB

d F F A F

vA + vA

dt

A

d F F A F

vB + vB

=

dt

(4.204)

(4.205)

A

d F

r + ae

= le

vA

dt

A

d F

r + ae

= le

vB

dt

(4.206)

(4.207)

Furthermore,

F

F

A F vA

A

vB

z (le

r + ae

) = a

2 er + l

2 e

= e

z (le

r + ae

) = a

2 er l

2 e

= e

(4.208)

(4.209)

F

aA

aB

a

2 )er + (a

+ l

2 )e

= (l

+ a

2 )er + (a

l

2 )e

= (l

(4.210)

(4.211)

174

Using the accelerations obtained in Eq. (4.210) and Eq. (4.211), the angular

momentum of the system relative to the (inertially fixed) point O is obtained as

F

HO = (rA rO ) mA F vA + (rB rO ) mB F vB

(4.212)

Noting that rO = 0 and substituting the results from Eq. (4.202) and Eq. (4.203)

into Eq. (4.212), we obtain

F

r +ae

)+(aer +le )mB (le

r +ae

) (4.213)

HO = (aer le )mA (le

h

i

F

+ mB (a2 + l2 )

ez

HO = mA (a2 + l2 )

(4.214)

F

z

HO = 2m(a2 + l2 )e

(4.215)

Similarly, the angular momentum of the system relative to the center of mass

of the system is given as

F

= (rA

) + (rB

H

r) mA (F vA F v

r ) mB ( F v B F v A )

(4.216)

r=

m(aer le ) + m(aer + le )

mA rA + mB rB

=

= aer

mA + mB

2m

(4.217)

Therefore,

rA

r = aer le aer = le

rB

r = aer + le aer = le

(4.218)

(4.219)

(4.220)

F

=

v

r F A

d

r Ad

=

+

r

dt

dt

(4.221)

A

d

r

=0

dt

(4.222)

z aer = ae

A

r = e

(4.223)

= ae

v

(4.224)

Furthermore,

F

Consequently,

F

175

We then have that

r + ae

ae

= le

r

= le

vA F v

F

r + ae

ae

= le

r

= le

vB F v

(4.225)

(4.226)

(4.227)

Substituting the results of Eq. (4.218), Eq. (4.219), Eq. (4.225), Eq. (4.226), and

Eq. (4.217) into Eq. (4.216), we obtain

F

r )+le mB (le

r ) = mA l2 e

z +mB l2 e

z = (mA +mB )l2 e

z

= le mA (le

H

(4.228)

Again, noting that mA = mB = m, Eq. (4.228) simplifies to

F

z

= 2ml2 e

H

(4.229)

Kinetics

The free body diagram of the system is shown in Fig. 4-7. It can be seen that the

B

NB

A

2mg

NA

Figure 4-7

NA

= Reaction Force of Track on Particle A

NB

= Reaction Force of Track on Particle B

2mg = Force of Gravity

Now we know that NA and NB must be orthogonal to the track at points A and

B, respectively. Consequently, we can express NA and NB as

NA

NB

= NA uA

= NB uB

(4.230)

where uA and uB are the directions orthogonal to the track at points A and

B, respectively. Now, since the track is circular, we know that the directions

176

orthogonal to the track at points A and B are along rA and rB , respectively, i.e.,

uA

uB

rA

krA k

rB

krB k

(4.231)

(4.232)

NA

NB

rA

krA k

rB

= NB

krB k

= NA

(4.233)

(4.234)

2mg = 2mgEx

(4.235)

terms of er and e from Eq. (4.192), we have that

2mg = 2mg(cos er sin e ) = 2mg cos er 2mg sin e

(4.236)

With the resolution of forces completed, we can now proceed to solve the

problem using the two approaches stated at the beginning of this solution,

namely (1) applying a moment balance using point O as the reference point

and (2) applying a force balance and a moment balance using the center of mass

as the reference point.

Method 1: Point O as Reference Point

Since O is a point fixed in the inertial reference frame F , we have that

F

d F

HO = MO

dt

(4.237)

F

reference frame F from Eq. (4.215), we obtain d F HO /dt as

F

d F

z

HO = 2m(a2 + l2 )e

dt

(4.238)

Next, using the free body diagram of Fig. 4-7), we have have the moment relative

to point O as

MO = (rA rO ) NA + (rB rO ) NB + (rg rO ) 2mg

(4.239)

177

Now since rO = 0, Eq. (4.239) can be written as

MO = rA NA + rB NB + rg 2mg

(4.240)

Now from Eq. (4.233) and Eq. (4.234) we have that the forces NA and NB lie in

the direction of rA and rB , respectively. Consequently, we have that

rA NA

= 0

(4.241)

= 0

(4.242)

MO = rg 2mg

(4.243)

rB NB

Therefore, MO reduces to

Now we note that gravity acts at the center of mass, i.e., rg =

r = aer . Using this

last fact together with the expression for 2mg from Eq. (4.236), we have MO as

MO = aer (2mg cos er 2mg sin e ) = 2mga sin ez

(4.244)

F

Equating MO from Eq. (4.244) with d F HO /dt from Eq. (4.238), we obtain

z = 2mga sin ez

2m(a2 + l2 )e

(4.245)

+

ag

sin = 0

+ l2

a2

(4.246)

Using the center of mass as the reference point, we need to apply a force balance

and a moment balance. Applying a force balance, we have that

F = 2mF

a

(4.247)

F = NA + NB + 2mg

(4.248)

Using the expressions for NA and NB from Eq. (4.233) and Eq. (4.234), respectively, we have NA and NB as

NA

NB

aer le

rA

= NA

krA k

a2 + l2

rB

aer + le

= NB

= NB

krB k

a2 + l2

= NA

(4.249)

(4.250)

Then, adding the expressions in Eq. (4.249) and Eq. (4.250) to the expression for

2mg from Eq. (4.236), we have that

aer le

aer + le

F = NA

+ NB

+ 2mg cos er 2mg sin e

2

2

a +l

a2 + l2

(4.251)

178

l

a

2mg sin e

+ 2mg cos er + (NB NA )

F = (NA + NB )

a2 + l2

a2 + l2

(4.252)

Now the acceleration of the center of mass is given as

F

a=

d F Ad F F A F

=

+ v

v

v

dt

dt

(4.253)

Using the expression for F

A

d F

v

= ae

dt

F A

z ae

= a

2 er

= e

Fv

(4.254)

(4.255)

F

2 er + ae

a = a

(4.256)

a using F

Setting F in Eq. (4.252) equal to 2mF

a

l

(NA + NB )

+ 2mg cos er + (NB NA )

2mg sin e

a2 + l2

a2 + l2

2 er + ae

)

= 2m(a

(4.257)

a

(NA + NB )

+ 2mg cos

2

a + l2

l

2mg sin

(NB NA )

a2 + l2

2

= 2ma

(4.258)

= 2ma

(4.259)

of mass, i.e.,

F

d F

=

H

(4.260)

M

dt

F

F

/dt

from Eq. (4.229), we obtain d F H

First, using the expression for H

F

d F

z

= 2ml2 e

H

dt

(4.261)

Next, since gravity passes through the center of mass, the moment due to all

forces relative to the center of mass of the system is given as

= (rA

M

r) NA + (rB

r) NB

(4.262)

179

Then, using the expressions for rA

r and rB

r from Eq. (4.218) and Eq. (4.219),

respectively, and the expressions for NA and NB from Eq. (4.249) and Eq. (4.250),

as

respectively, we obtain M

+ le

ae le

NB ae

= le NA r

r

+ le

M

2

2

2

a +l

a + l2

(4.263)

al

= (NA NB )

ez

(4.264)

M

2

a + l2

F

from Eq. (4.264) equal to d F H

/dt from Eq. (4.261), we obThen, setting M

tain

al

z

(NA NB )

ez = 2ml2 e

(4.265)

a2 + l2

al

(NA NB )

= 2ml2

2

2

a +l

(4.266)

Eq. (4.259), Eq. (4.259), and Eq. (4.266) can now be used together to obtain

the differential equation. First, multiplying Eq. (4.259) by a, we obtain

al

(NB NA )

a2 + l2

(4.267)

(4.268)

+

ag

sin = 0

a2 + l2

(4.269)

180

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