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Innovation
Null-Steering
Antennas for
Interference
Rejection

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

JAGER UAV

ANTENNA
CHARACTERIZATION
FOR UAV-BASED JAMMER HUNTING
2016 GNSS
ANTENNA SURVEY
UAV HURRICANE
DATA GATHERING
LIDAR MARKET REPORT,
INERTIAL ADVANCES

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VO L . 27 N O. 2

FEBRUARY

G P SWO R LD.CO M

2016
JAGER
UAV

FEATURE
62 INNOVATION

NULL-STEERING ANTENNAS
Assessing the Performance of Multi-Antenna
Interference Rejection Techniques
BY James T. Curran, Michele Bavaro and
Joaquim Fortuny-Guasch
Several factors affect the levels of signal rejection
using antenna arrays. Our authors describe
experiments to assess the bounds the factors
impose on its signal rejection capability.

MARKET WATCH

COVER STORY
48

ANTENNA PILOTS UAV

BY Adrien Perkins, Louis Dressel, Sherman Lo and Per Enge

A jammer-hunting UAV employs a radio frequency (RF) detection system


and a navigation control scheme.

SPECIAL 24-PAGE INSERT

S1 2016 ANTENNA SURVEY


After choosing the most appropriate receiver for your
application from the Receiver Survey in the January
issue, you may need an antenna, too. We have collected
key specifications for 320 antennas from 30 manufacturers.

APPLICATIONS, TRENDS AND NEWS

16 OEM
39 SURVEY
42 MAPPING
44 UAV

OPINIONS AND DEPARTMENTS

SECTOR UPDATES
57 MOBILE
58 TRANSPORTATION
60 DEFENSE
61 MACHINE CONTROL
FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

GPS WORLD 3

ONLINENOW
NEWSLETTER EXCERPT

The GNSS
of Things

Geospatial
UAV Rules,
Tower of Babel Moves Update

BY Tim Reynolds

BY art kalinski

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR,
EUROPE

of t w are of fering an
open-source
innovation platform for the GNSS of
Things won the Special Prize in the
Galileo Masters competition. Another
entry showed opportunities at the
interface of Galileo and Copernicus,
the EUs Earth-observation satellite
project. The UK government published
its first-ever space policy document,
and I am amazed as well as somewhat
surprised that it took so long.
The winner of the European GNSS
Agency Special Prize at the Masters
was Rafael Olemedo, a serial GNSS innovator and entrepreneur; his KYNEO
concept is very much of the moment.
The Internet of Things (IoT) the
integration of uniquely identifiable
devices on the Internet is one of
the main current global technology
themes, and GNSS is integral to its
success. Location-based services and
timing data are essential to IoT applications in particular as a means to control
and monitor mobile IoT devices.
The basis of the KYNEO concept is
a real need to be able to fast prototype
applications and devices in the rapidly
developing IoT field. Rafael describes
KYNEO as an open innovation
platform for the GNSS of Things.
In 2012 R afael won with his
3DSound idea: integration of acoustic
binaural technologies and GNSS for
personal navigation.

Read Tims complete column at


www.gpsworld.com/opinions.

4 GPS WORLD

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR,
GEOINTELLIGENCE

session at
a recent
GEOINT
workshop focused on OpenSensorHub
and related information published on
GitHub. Its aim: clearing the path
for use of geospatial-capable devices
via the Internet, thus preventing a
geospatial Tower of Babel.
Today, plug-and-play is common
in mass-market devices such as printers, scanners and cameras. But most
other devices can still present maddening connection challenges. This
phenomena presents itself in spades
when trying to integrate sensors, data,
and geospatial databases, whether in
yor own office or across the Internet.
OpenSensorHub is a license-free,
open-source software platform for
geospatial (FOSS4G) sensors that allows you to easily, rapidly and affordably network sensors into a seamless
SensorWeb of real-time, locationaware, interoperable, web accessible
services.
With OpenSensorHub, these OGC
compliant SensorWebs can be enabled
across all manner of space-based, airborne, mobile, in situ and terrestrial
remote sensors including your
basic mobile device. OpenSensorHub
finally makes it possible to integrate
location-aware sensors into the geospatial mainstream.

Read Arts complete column at


www.gpsworld.com/opinions.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

BY Tony murfin

CONTRIBUTING EDITOR,
PROFESSIONAL OEM

Federal
Aviation
Adminsistration fact sheet in mid-December
2015 outlined safety reasons for federal
oversight of aviation and airspace, and
explained federal responsibility. The
object appears to be to let states know
that the FAA has federal jurisdiction,
and is therefore in charge of regulating
access to and operations in the U.S.
national air space (NAS). The sheet
perhaps also aims to slow recent local
efforts Miami, Albany County and
New Jersey to publish their own UAV
ordinances.
Meanwhile, the FAAs new UAV registration requirements for anything
unmanned that takes to the air in the
U.S. have met with mixed reactions. U.S.
drone operators have registered more
than 300,000 UAVs, but one individual
has filed a suit against the FAA. AUVSI,
which represents a good portion of the
UAS industry, has come out supporting
the FAAs UAV registration program.
To help move UAV integration forward, NASA has been working on traffic management concepts for UAS. The
first section of this system was tested in
August, looking mostly at topics such
as geofencing so drones automatically
avoid certain restricted areas, and also
trajectory planning. NASA, Google,
Amazon and Verizon have all been
looking into UAS Traffic Management
(UTM) systems.

Read Tonys complete column at


www.gpsworld.com/opinions.

ONLINENOW
READER POLL

F R E E W E B I NA R S

SHOULD THE U.S. GOVERNMENT


INSTALL A FULL ELORAN NETWORK
OF BROADCAST STATIONS TO BACK
UP GPS IN CASE OF JAMMING,
INTERFERENCE OR OTHER
EMERGENCIES?
Yes

85%

No

5%

More
study
needed

9%

Dont
know

1%

MARKET INSIGHTS
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Presentations by: IFEN, Racelogic, Spectracom and
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Complete survey by Feb. 22. See results in March issue.
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FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

GPS WORLD 5

OUT IN FRONT
The Ethics of Autonomy

BY Alan Cameron

EDITOR-IN-CHIEF AND GROUP PUBLISHER

will support autonomous driving must


reduce latency to nearly imperceptible
levels for functions like crash avoidance
and lane awareness to work reliably.
We were encouraged to consider the
ethics of autonomous navigation by
Mikel Miller of the Air Force Research
Lab, Sensors Directorate. Once the
vehicle becomes autonomous, it decides
for the driver including life or death
choices.
Imagine a situation that could actually
happen less than a decade from now.
Riding in a driverless car on a curving
coast highway, you round a curve to see
a group of children crossing the road.
Detecting them, the car begins to brake,
but quickly calculates it cannot stop in
time. Programmed to avoid collisions
with pedestrians and other vehicles,
it is also programmed to protect its
passengers. It must choose between
carnage on the highway or driving you
off the adjacent cliff into the ocean.
Which to choose? Four lives versus
one. Other ethical dilemmas have arisen
in the history of GPS, GNSS, and precise
PNT, chiefly concerning privacy. We are
about to enter a more difficult realm.

he talk veered off into rather


heady philosophical realms at
the plenary session for IONs
International Technial Meeting in late
January. Two of the three speakers had
been encouraged to go well outside the
box and not to employ any equations
in doing so to address or envision the
autonomously navigated future.
We are caught in the act of seeing
ourselves become obsolete, at least behind
the steering wheel of an automobile.
The Google driverless car has logged
more than a million miles, exploring the
traffice terrain that will soon be home to
millions of autonomous vehicles. What
has it found? That the human in the loop
(HiL) is the biggest source of error and
catastrophe.
There remain a few technical issues
to sort out before this particular future is
upon us. One of these,
one that excites John
Fischer of Spectracom,
is the time-sensitive
network concept:
a standard and
securable network that
provides a platform
for connecting critical
system infrastructure
with IT features..
These networks deal
in velocity accuracies
of centimeters per
millisecond, The V2V
and V2X (vehicle-tovehicle and vehicle-to- Attention-grabbing graphic from Navigating Autonomous
network) systems that Requirements at ION-ITM.
6 GPS WORLD

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM
EDITORIAL
Editor-in-Chief & Group Publisher Alan Cameron
editor@gpsworld.com | 541-984-5312
Managing Editor Tracy Cozzens
tcozzens@northcoastmedia.net | 541-255-3334
Senior Digital Editor Joelle Harms
jharms@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3780
Digital Editor Allison Barwacz
abarwacz@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3796
Art Director Charles Park
EDITORIAL & PRODUCITON OFFICES
1360 East 9th St, Suite 1070
Cleveland, OH 44114, USA
847-763-4942 | Fax 847-763-9694
www.gpsworld.com | gpsworld@gpsworld.com
CONTRIBUTING EDITORS
Innovation Richard Langley | lang@unb.ca
Defense PNT Don Jewell | djewell@gpsworld.com
European GNSS Tim Reynolds | treynolds@gpsworld.com
Professional OEM Tony Murfin | tmurfin@gpsworld.com
Geospatial Eric Gakstatter | egakstatter@gpsworld.com
GeoIntelligence Art Kalinski | akalinski@gpsworld.com
Survey Tim Burch and Dave Zilkoski
Wireless LBS Insider Kevin Dennehy | kdennehy@gpsworld.com
Janice Partyka | jpartyka@gpsworld.com
BUSINESS
INTERNATIONAL ACCOUNT MANAGER Michelle Mitchell
mmitchell@northcoastmedia.net | 216-363-7922
DIGITAL OPERATIONS MANAGER Bethany Chambers
bchambers@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3771
WEB DEVELOPER Jesse Malcmacher
jmalcmacher@northcoastmedia.net | 216-363-7925
MARKETING MANAGER Scott Gebler
sgebler@northcoastmedia.net | 216-363-7932
PUBLISHING SERVICES
Manager, Production Services Chris Anderson
canderson@northcoastmedia.net | 216-978-5341
Senior Audience Development Manager Antoinette Sanchez-Perkins
asanchez-perkins@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3750
Reprints & Permissions Brett Petillo
bpetillo@wrightsmedia.com | 877-652-5295
Circulation/Subscriber Services
gpsworld@halldata.com | USA: 847-763-4942
NORTH COAST MEDIA, LLC.
President & CEO Kevin Stoltman
kstoltman@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3740
Vice President of Finance & Operations Steve Galperin
sgalperin@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3705
Editorial Directors
Marisa Palmieri | mpalmieri@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3764
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VP Graphic Design & Production
Pete Seltzer | pseltzer@northcoastmedia.net | 216-706-3737
MANUSCRIPTS: GPS World welcomes unsolicited articles but cannot be held responsible
for their safekeeping or return. Send to: 1360 East 9th St, Suite 1070, IMG Center, Cleveland, OH 44114,
USA. Every precaution is taken to ensure accuracy, but publishers cannot accept responsibility
for the accuracy of information supplied herein or for any opinion expressed. REPRINTS:
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GPS WORLD does not verify any claims or other information appearing in any of the
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other damages incurred by readers in reliance on such content.

Published monthly

TAKING POSITION

Unsung Heroes of the Industry

BY Tracy Cozzens

M A N AG I NG EDITO R

ntennas. When I was a kid,


antennas meant the pair
of rabbit ears sitting on
top of the family TV set. We had to
constantly adjust the angles to get the
best reception, using aluminum foil to
improve the signal.
Wow, how things have changed.
Today, consumer users of smartphones,
Fitbits, smartwatches, tablets and a
hundred other electronic devices
dont even think about antennas. Most
consumers probably havent given a

thought to the fact that their favorite


device contains an antenna.
Unlike broadcast antennas back in
the day, modern GNSS antennas in
consumer devices are invisible to the
consumer, but perform even in lessthan-ideal conditions. Every year brings
new improvements and smaller sizes.
Then there are the external antennas,
which grow more rugged to withstand
the elements while receiving more

signals from more constellations, such


as BeiDou and Galileo.
GPS World has traditionally
published its Antenna Survey in
February following the Receiver Survey
in January. The first antenna survey
appeared in 2001, nine years after we
published our first receiver survey.
Perhaps it took a few years to realize how
critical antennas are in GNSS systems.
As usual, the Antenna Survey encapsulates the important specifications on
dozens of antennas, from stand-alone
designs for high-precision commercial,
defense and timing applications to micro
antennas for integration into a variety of
smartphones, UAVs and automobiles.
This year, 30 antenna manufacturers
provide all the details on their products.
Check out the 20-page survey supplement, sponsored this year by NovAtel,
following page 18.

||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||||
Q: What is the optimum number of GNSS signals to

include/process in a consumer-grade PNT device?

A:

DANIEL
AMMANN

GIAN GHERARDO
CALINI

CHAMINDA
BASNYAKE

E XECUTIVE VICE
PRESIDENT
U - B L OX G R O U P

HEAD OF MARKET
DEVELOPMENT
EUROPEAN GN SS AGE NC Y

P R I N C I PA L E N G I N E E R
RENESAS ELECTRONICS

The cost for including additional


silicon to a receiver for
processing more signals is low, thanks
to multiplexing hardware and high
clock speeds. Having more satellite
measurements allows the receiver
to be selective about which ones it
actually uses for PVT calculations, so
a number of 30 or higher is desirable.
Such a high number, and especially
if the signals come from multiple
constellations, enables the receiver to
have a good view on integrity, too.

A:

The answer depends on


application and environment
where the device will be used. With
the increasing need for ubiquitous
positioning in difficult environments like
urban canyons, the minimum number
of satellites from one constellation
is not sufficient. The technology
makes it possible today to achieve
better performance using multiple
constellations with low impact on
power consumption, and this is where
we see the future.

FEBRUARY 2016

A:

Demand for more accuracy,


availability, and reliability will drive
design evolution. Sensor/map augmentations will likely drive system availability
while depending on GNSS for better
accuracy and reliability. As accuracy is
a function of measurement quality and
sky view with the latter fixed for most
use cases placing more emphasis
on minimizing errors appears ideal.
Therefore, I see dual-constellation, dualfrequency GNSS as the optimal combination and the right balance between
complexity versus performance.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

GPS WORLD 7

SYSTEM
OF

Policy and System


Developments
GPS

Galileo

GLONASS

BeiDou

SYSTEMS

GPS III Bidding Opens Again

he GPS Directorate at
the Space and Missile
Systems Center (SMC)
continues to look for
someone to build 22 GPS
III satellites in the near future.
SMC issued a request for proposals
on Jan. 8, with rather complicated
terms. The first eight GPS III satellites
are already under contract, and two
have been built, but delivery and
launch schedules have dragged. The
Air Force incorporated several other
payload requirements for the satellites,
beyond those of new GPS signals
themselves.
This is the Air Forces third effort to
find a builder.

The RFP is for 11+ Phase 1


Production Readiness Feasibility
Assessment. It covers GPS III space
vehicles 11 and beyond. The process,
if followed as the Air Force envisions,
will award up to three relatively small
fixed-price contracts.
According to an Air Force press
release, The scope of this effort
includes the current GPS III SV0108
technical baseline with the addition
of redesigned Nuclear Detonation
Detection System (NDS), Search and
Rescue/GPS (SAR/GPS), and Laser
Retroreflector Array (LRA) payloads,
Unified S-Band (USB) compliance,
Regional Military Protection capability
No changes are allowed to the GPS

Next Generation Operational Control


System (OCX) or Military GPS User
Equipment (MGUE) interfaces.
The first Air Force effort to
recompete the contract for future GPS
III satellites came in 2014. A 2015
initiative lowered the bar as far as
requirements, but also lowered the
award very dramatically, from $200
million each for two companies to $6
million each for three companies.
The 2016 announcement appears
to replicate the terms of the 2015
campaign. There has been no official
explanation as to why the terms
changed between 2014 and 2015, and
why they did not between 2015 and
2016.

First GPS III Satellite Coast Guard Issues Jamming Alert


Passes Critical Test
he U.S. Coast Guard issued a gyro units and ECDIS, resulting in no

he first GPS III satellite has


passed a critical on-ground,
in-lab test, according to
Lockheed Martin.
Rick Ambrose, executive vice
president of Lockheed Martin Space
Systems, tweeted on Jan. 13 that the
satellite had successfully completed its
thermal vacuum test (TVAC).
Lockheed Martin Space Systems is
the prime contractor on the GPS III
program to build a total of eight GPS
IIIs. The contract includes options
for up to four more satellites, and the
Air Force has told Congress it expects
to execute options for at least two of
those satellites.
The first GPS III satellite is expected
to launch in 2017.

8 GPS WORLD

safety alert on Jan. 16, warning


mariners of the potential
detrimental impact to navigation
caused by GPS interference or
jamming. The warning emphasizes
the importance of understanding how
vessel equipment could be impacted by
the loss of a GPS signal.
The Coast Guard states that this past
summer, multiple outbound vessels
from a non-U.S. port suddenly lost
GPS signal reception. The net effect
was various alarms and a loss of GPS
input to the ships surface search radar,

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

GPS data for position fixing, radar over


ground speed inputs, gyro speed input
and loss of collision avoidance capabilities on the radar display.
Fortunately, the vessels were able
to safely continue theirvoyage using
radar in heads up display, magnetic
compass and terrestrial navigation.
Approximately six nautical miles later,
the vessels GPS units resumed operation. Although the vessels had backup systems to allow a safe transit, the
consequences could have been severe,
warns the Coast Guard.

DIRECTIONS

2016
We have two more satellites in this constellation,
which we intend to complete in the next couple of months.

IRNSS Launches
Fifth Satellite
he fifth satellite in Indias Regional Navigation Satellite System
rode into orbit Jan. 20, joining a
growing fleet of spacecraft to provide
positioning services to users across
South Asia.
With this satellite in place, within
our country we will be able to get, 24
x 7, a good positional accuracy, said
A.S. Kiran Kumar, chairman of the
Indian Space Research Organisation
(ISRO).
IRNSS 1E will raise its orbit to an

IRNSS 1D in earlier lab testing.

altitude of nearly 36,000 kilometers


(22,300 miles) over the next few weeks,
entering an orbit centered on 111.75
degrees east longitude and oscillating

FEBRUARY 2016

up to 28.1 degrees north and south of


the Equator.
Two more IRNSS spacecraft are
due for launch bythe end of March to
complete the constellation.
The seven satellites four in inclined geosynchronous orbits like the
one intended for IRNSS 1E, and three
in equatorial geostationary orbit will
give India an independent navigation
system with coverage over Indian territory and regions extending up to 1,500
kilometers (932 miles) from its borders.
India started launching its navigation satellites in 2013. Each spacecraft
is designed to operate for 12 years.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

GPS WORLD 9

Inertial

Ranging & eLoran

Wi-Fi

Bluetooth

INERTIAL

Inertial Effort Underway for MGUE

he U.S. Air Forces Joint


Service Systems Management
Office (JSSMO) has awarded
Northrop Grumman
Corporation an order to support
embedded GPS/inertial navigation
system (INS) pre-Phase 1 modernization
efforts.
Integration of inertial technology
with GPS systems across all military
platforms some, such as munitions,
are already so equipped could
have far-reaching effects. The move
reflects the militarys concern over
GPS vulnerabilities in challenged
environments.
The Military GPS User Equipment
(MGUE) program is developing
M-code-capable GPS receivers, which
are mandated by Congress after fiscal
year 2017 and will help to ensure the
secure transmission of accurate military
signals. Under the $4.8 million order,
Northrop Grumman will perform trade
studies, assess the state of development of
MGUE for upcoming applications, and
contribute to architecture development
for next-generation GPS/inertial

Blue Force Tracker units may add inertial to GPS for unit and individual soldier location.

navigation systems.
The JSSMO is responsible, among
other things, for a GPS lab in the
Department of Defense that helps
develop and test software for GPS
systems used throughout the military.
One of the systems it maintains is the
Blue Force Tracker (BFT), which is used
by all military branches and can track
friendly units regardless of their location.
Not only can the system see where the
unit is located, it can also determine
whether or not a unit is moving and what
form of transportation it is using.

Inertial Market to Top $8.9 Billion by 2020

he inertial navigation system


(INS) market is projected to
grow from $4.64 billion in 2015
to $8.87 billion by 2020, according to a
January 2016 reported from research
firm ReportLinker. Factors driving the
global INS market include the increasing number of aircraft, technological
advancements in navigation systems,
increasing demand for accuracy in
navigation, and availability of smaller
components at lower cost.
Commercial platform application
10 G P S W O R L D

segment to witness the highest growth


during the forecast period, says the
report.
Key applications considered in the
market study are naval, airborne, land
and commercial platforms. The overall
INS market is dominated by the naval
platform segment. However, the commercial platform segment is projected
to grow at a comparatively higher
CAGR during the forecast period of
2015 to 2020, primarily driven by the
demand for new aircraft in response

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

Aviation Use. The updated GPS/inertial


navigation system will also comply with
the Federal Aviation Administrations
NextGen air traffic control requirements
that aircraft flying at higher altitudes be
equipped with Automatic Dependence
Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B) Out
by January 2020. ADS-B Out transmits
information about an aircrafts altitude,
speed and location to ground stations
and to other equipped aircraft in the
vicinity. The modernized system is
expected to be available for platform
integration starting in 2018.
to the burgeoning rise in air travel and
congestion of airspace.
Recent advances in inertial technology have replaced the mechanical
components with electronic ones,
particularly micro-electro-mechanical
sensors (MEMS). Overall focus has
remained on increasing the accuracy
and reducing weight of the INS.
The major companies profiled in the
report include Northrop Grumman
Corporation (U.S.), Honeywell International Inc. (U.S.), Sagem (France),
Rockwell Collins (U.S.) and Thales SA
(France), among others.

LIDAR

IMAGERY

Lidar Market
Grows with 3D

RoboParachute Drops
he U.S. Armys Joint Precision Airdrop System
(JPADS) has developed a new capability exploiting a
navigation alternative to GPS. In recent tests, JPADS
were dropped from planes, and immediately determined their location using optical sensors to compare local
terrain with commercial satellite imagery. The new system
demonstrated navigation to its intended point, using nothing
but imagery to guide it. The new JPADS also works with little
knowledge of the aircrafts location at the drop point.
JPADS, largely guided by GPS, has already proven its importance in supplying troops with necessary materials and
equipment, relying less on vulnerable convoys.
Contractor Draper will continue developing the system
to eliminate current obstacles, such as cloud cover that
degrades the vision-aided navigation systems ability to
compare vision sensor inputs with satellite imagery. These
imagery-data analysis technologies could be used to help
guide military freefall paratroopers and autonomous aerial
vehicles.

new market report on light detection and ranging


(lidar) technology says that the demand for
lidar is increasing in line with an increase in the
demand for 3D scanning and 3D imagery.
According to the report, the global lidar market is anticipated to expand at 15 percent annually from 2014 to 2020,
growing from a value of $225 million in 2013 to $605 million in 2020.
Lidar enables direct measurement of 3D structures and
underlying terrain with high resolution and high data accuracy.
The adoption of lidar technology is slowly penetrating in
various government sectors such as roadways, railways and
forestry management, among others.
However, the lidar market faces challenge related to the
complexity in interpreting the output data, because of the lack
of data-set standardization.
The 80-page research study is
titled LiDAR Market: Global Industry
Analysis, Size, Share, Growth, Trends
www.ifen.com
and Forecast 20142020, available
for sale from Transparency Market
Research.
The lidar market can be segmented
based on types into airborne and terrestrial lidar and based on applications
into coastal, forestry, transportation,
infrastructure, defense and aerospace,
transmission lines and flood mapping,
among others.
Geographically, the lidar market
is dominated by North America
owing to high adoption of advanced
3D imagery technologies by the U.S.
with NavX-NCS
government. Europe follows with
a minimal difference in the market
share. A large number of key players
are based in Europe and are involved
in making innovations to meet the
requirements of consumers in different
applications.
The report has been segmented by
type, application and geography. It
also includes the drivers, restraints,
opportunities and value chain of the
global lidar market.

IRNSS-1Professional
L5 & GPS/GNSS
S-band
Simulator

For additional information, contact us.

In co-operation with

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 11

LAUNCHPAD | OEM
1

1. GNSS RECEIVER
NEXT GENERATION FOR PRECISE
SCIENTIFIC AND GEODETIC
APPLICATIONS

The PolaRx5 offers 544 hardware


channels for robust and high-quality
GNSS tracking. The receiver supports
all major satellite signals including GPS,
GLONASS, Galileo and BeiDou, as well
as regional satellite systems including
QZSS and IRSS. Septentrios Advanced
Interference Mitigation (AIM+)
technology enables it to filter out both
intentional and unintentional sources
of radio interference, from narrowband
signals over high-powered pulsed signals
to chirp jammers and Iridium interferers.
Septentrios APME+ multipath mitigation
technology eliminates short delay
multipath without introduction of bias
and guarantees superior measurement
quality. The user can deactivate APME+
to obtain unmodified measurements.
Septentrio, www.septentrio.com

2. FLEXIBLE ANTENNAS
FOLDING DESIGN FOR
PLUG-AND-PLAY INTEGRATION

Bentoni is a positioning antenna for all of


the global public satellite constellations:
GPS, GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo. It is
designed to be used in trackers, portable
devices, network components, drones

12 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

and wearable electronics. It offers high


performance and maintains good isolation
in situ within a device. Bentoni is a flexible
FPC antenna in Antenovas flexiiANT
product range. They are supplied with an
I-PEX MHF connector and a 1.13 mm RF
cable in a choice of three lengths. They can
be folded to save space in operation within
a device, with the aim being plug-and-play
simplicity. The antennas are self-adhesive
mounted so that they can easily be fixed
inside an electronic device.
Antenova, www.antenova-m2m.com

3. L-BAND ANTENNA
OEM ANTENNA CAN BE CUSTOM-TUNED

The Tallysman TW2926 antenna is an


unhoused OEM version of the TW2920,
designed for simultaneous reception of
L-band correction signals and all of the
upper band GNSS signals, including GPS
L1, GLONASS G1, Galileo E1 and BeiDou
B1. The TW2926 is 56 millimeters in
diameter and has four drilled plated holes
for secure mounting within customers
products. It can be custom tuned to ensure
optimal performance within an enclosure.
The 1-dB bandwidth of both the TW2920
and TW2926 covers 15251559 MHz
for the L-band downlink and 15591610
MHz for the upper-band GNSS. The
LNA provides 28-dB of gain. The
antennas employ Tallysmans Accutenna
technology, which provides strong cross-

FEBRUARY 2016

polarization rejection for greatly improved


multipath rejection, low axial ratio and
tight phase center variation.
Tallysman, www.tallysman.com

4. NFC CONTROLLER
ENABLES TINY ANTENNAS
FOR MOBILE, IOT, WEARABLES

The Near Field Communication (NFC)


88NF100 controller with active load
modulation (ALM) is desgined to support
the smallest antenna sizes critical to
mobile, the Internet of Things (IoT),
wearable and automotive applications.
Adhering to NFC Controller Interface
(NCI) Technical Specification version
1.1, the 88NF100 provides an extended
operating range and is extremely energy
efficient to enable extended battery life
for power-critical applications. ALM
technology supports the smallest antenna
sizes to enable OEMs to implement
NFC capabilities into small form-factor
designs. The controller has extremely
low power operation in polling mode
to provide increased battery life for
power critical applications and three
single-wire protocol (SWP) interfaces to
secure element (eSE) devices for secure
payments. The two-pin antenna interface
supports a maximum distance of two
meters between the chip and antenna.
Marvell,
www.marvell.com

SURVEY & MAPPING | LAUNCHPAD


1. INTRODUCTION TO
MAPPING TECHNIQUES
AVAILABLE AS PRINT OR EBOOK

Designing Better Maps: A Guide for GIS


Users, second edition, is an updated
and comprehensive guide to creating
maps that communicate effectively.
Cartographer Cynthia A. Brewer covers
the basics of good cartography, including
layout design, scales, projections, color
selection, font choices and symbol
placement; she also describes her
ColorBrewer application, an online

color selection tool. The second


edition includes a new chapter on map
publishing. One reviewer wrote, It
is also worth a look by experienced
cartographers who seek a refresher and a
few new tips. Brewer is a professor and
chair of the Department of Geography at
Pennsylvania State University and map
and atlas design consultant.
Esri, esripress.esri.com

2. RTK NTRIP ANDROID APP


EOS PRO TOOLS IS TIGHTLY INTEGRATED
WITH GOOGLE MAPS

Eos Pro Tools is a comprehensive RTK


NTRIP app for Android that works with
its Arrow line of RTK GNSS receivers. An
Arrow GNSS receiver combined with the
NTRIP app turns an Android smartphone
or tablet into a powerful data collector
capable of recording 1-centimetter accurate
GIS data in real-time. The app, named Eos
Tools Pro, has user-configurable audible
and visual alarms to alert the user of high
PDOP, lost RTK correction, unacceptable
correction age and several other important
metrics. It supports all current and future
constellations (GPS, GLONASS, Galileo
and Beidou).
Detailed satellite
information such
as a skyplot that
plots each visible
satellite, whether
its being used or
not, and signal
strength bar
graphs from each
constellation are
also displayed.
Finally, a
terminal screen
displays the
NMEA data
flowing and
allows the user to
send commands to the receiver.

Eos Positioning Systems,


www.eos-gnss.com

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 13

LAUNCHPAD | SURVEY & MAPPING


3
2

1. RUGGED FIELD TABLET


LIGHTWEIGHT, ERGONOMIC DESIGN
FOR THE MOBILE WORKFORCE

The 7-inch Algiz RT7 Android tablet is fully


rugged, meeting stringent MIL-STD810G U.S. military standards for protection against drops, vibrations and extreme
temperatures. Its IP65 rating means that
its waterproof as well as fully sealed
against sand and dust. The tablet comes
with a built-in accelerometer, gyroscope
and e-compass as well as a stand-alone
u-blox EA-7M GPS receiver for navigation, along with built-in Qualcomm IZat
location services.
Handheld Group, www.handheldgroup.com

2. RECEIVER WITH OPEN OS


OVER-THE-AIR UPDATES
ENABLE FUTURE FUNCTIONALITY

The i80 GNSS receiver computes a true triple-frequency real-time kinematic (RTK)
tilted pole solution using all four worldwide and multiple regional constellations,
providing a futureproof sub-centimeter
RTK solution to surveyors and contractors. Without the need of a data collector
or computer, the i80s LCD graphic user
interface allows for common workflow
operations, such as static logging, autobase,
autorover and UHF channel selection, to
be easily performed. The CHC i80 incorpo-

14 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

rates dual hot-swappable batteries, allowing for days of uninterrupted work. While
small and lightweight, it is packed with a
full array of sensors and modules: multiple
micro-electrical-mechanical (MEMS),
internal Tx/Rx UHF, multiband cellular
modem, Wi-Fi, Bluetooth, serial and USB.
CHC Navigation, www.chcnav.com

3. DATA COLLECTOR
ALL-IN-ONE GPS, GNSS AND RTK
DATA COLLECTOR SERIES

The SXPro series is built for mobile survey


and GIS users for applications such as
water, electric and gas utilities; transportation; mining; agriculture; and forestry.
The professional-grade rugged handheld
receivers include a battery life of more than
10 hours on a charge as well as a large outdoor-viewable touchscreen. The handhelds
are rated IP65 for protection against water
and dust, and equipped with a 5-megapixel
autofocus camera and Microsoft utilities.
The SXPro RTK (real-time kinematic)
model offers 220 multi-constellation channels for centimeter accuracy with RTK
networks. The SXPro GNSS offers 372
multi-constellation channels for sub-meter
accuracy with SBAS corrections.
Geneq, www.geneq.com

4. LIDAR ANALYSIS SOFTWARE


NEW POINT CLOUD ANALYSIS AND
VISUALIZATION CAPABILITIES

The latest release of ENVI software


adds lidar point cloud analysis and
visualization capabilities that previously
were only available in the ENVI lidar
software package. ENVI 3.6 offers users
a single software interface to work
with hyper-spectral, multi-spectral,
panchromatic and lidar data. The outof-the-box functionality includes 3D
point-cloud visualization, derived terrain
product generation (such as digital
elevation models) and lidar analytics such
as viewshed line-of-sight calculation. For
users who need point-cloud or terrain
products in an area where collecting lidar
is not feasible or is too expensive, the
ENVI Photogrammetry Module is able to
generate synthetic 3D point clouds from
stereo optical imagery to take advantage of
existing imagery archives. The dimension
of time can be critical for a thorough
geospatial analysis of an area, and the new
ENVI release has added enhancements
to the Spatio-Temporal analysis toolset.
Spatio-Temporal analysis visualizes
change and derives statistics from data
over time, enabling users to observe
past events to better predict upcoming
activities.
Harris Corporation, www.exelisvis.com

FEBRUARY 2016

UAV | LAUNCHPAD
1

1. PRECISION AGRICULTURE
SMART CROP-SPRAYING DRONE

The eight-rotor DJI Agras MG-1 UAV can


load more than 10 kilograms of liquid for
crop-spraying and can cover between seven
and 10 acres per hour more than 40
times more efficient than manual spraying.
It can fly up to eight meters per second and
adjusts spraying intensity to flying speed
to ensure even coverage. It is dustproof,
water-resistant and made of anti-corrosive
materials. It features DJIs flight-control
system and microwave radar to ensure
centimeter-level accuracy. During flight, the

drone scans the terrain below in real time,


automatically maintaining its height and
distance from plants to ensure application
of an optimal amount of liquid. The drones
intelligent-memory function means after the
Agras MG-1 is brought back to base for refill
or recharge, it will return to its last memory
point to pick up spraying where it left off.
DJI, www.dji.com

2. ANT-DRONE SYSTEM
ONE DRONE NETS ANOTHER

The EXCIPIO is an anti-drone system that


uses a drone to shoot out a net to capture

another drone.The EXCIPIO Aerial Netting


System is comprised of a UAS equipped with
a first-person view camera and a net-firing
gun. When the EXCIPIO has reached the
threat target, it fires a net, then can either
release the net with the target ensnared or
keep the net tethered. Though the initial
system concept was focused on intercepting
and neutralizing an airborne UAV, the
conceptual applications have expanded to
include manned aircraft, ground vehicles,
people and animals (whether airborne or on
the ground).
Theiss UAV Solutions,
www.theissuav.com

Visit us on Stand 7H18

3 constellation simulator
Recreate real world conditions
GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, BeiDou, QZSS and SBAS
One touch record/replay of RF signals
Signal simulation software available
Free library of worldwide recordings and simulations

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 15

MARKET
WATCH

Segment Snapshot:
Applications, Trends & News

OEM

KVH Introduces FOG-Based GNSS Inertial


Navigation for Unmanned Applications

VH Industries has introduced the


GEO-FOG
3D inertial
navigation system (INS).
The new product offers
roll, pitch and heading
accuracies of .05 degrees
for demanding applications
in unmanned, autonomous
and manned aerial, ground,
marine and subsurface
platforms, such as subsea
remotely operated vehicles
or mining systems.
The GEO-FOG 3D is based
on the companys high-performance fiber optic gyro
(FOG) technology combined with centimeter-level
precision real-time kinematic (RTK) GNSS receivers
and advanced sensor fusion
algorithms. The result is a

solution that continuously


provides fast, ultra-accurate
position, velocity and attitude measurements that
keep applications operating
no matter how challenging
the conditions, according to
KVH Industries.
The core inertial sensor
is KVHs 1750 IMU, an
inertial measurement unit
incorporating three axes of
KVHs DSP-1750 FOG
a high-performance fiber
optic gyro with three axes
of advanced accelerometer
technology.
The 1750 IMU is then
fully integrated with a GNSS
receiver and a three-axis
magnetometer, a barometric
pressure sensor and a triplef re qu e nc y RT K G N S S
receiver to deliver reliable,
real-time, centimeter-level

The GEO-FOG 3D Dual INS


is designed for applications that
require heading at system startup
or in low dynamic conditions.

positioning and orientation


measurements.
The systems sensor fusion
algorithms automatically
switch from loosely to
tightly coupled filtering for
improved performance under
poor GNSS signal conditions.
The system also offers high-

speed update rates and rapid


north-seeking gyrocompass
capabilities for high-accuracy
heading in environments
when magnetometers and
GNSS-aided heading cannot
be used.
A variant, the GEO-FOG 3D
Dual, is an INS and attitude
and heading reference
system (AHRS) that features
two GNSS antennas on a
fixed RTK baseline. It offers
the same performance as
the GEO-FOG 3D with
increased heading, pitch and
roll accuracy for static and
dynamic applications where
single antenna systems can
be problematic.
Both versions support
current and future satellite
navigation systems including
GPS, GLONASS, Galileo and
BeiDou.

PCTEL Launches GNSS Antennas for Transportation


CTEL Inc. has launched a new antenna
for high-speed rail, fleet and other
transportation modes.
The new SkyCompass Dual multiple
input, multiple output (MIMO) Long Term Evolution (LTE) antenna is designed for high data-rate
applications such as direct video feeds and
broadband connectivity for commuters.
The SkyCompass series comprises six new
configurable antenna platforms, including
single-band and multiband GNSS options
that address the majority of rail and fleet
management installation needs.

16 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

The antenna features outstanding


electrical efficiency performance, a new
ultra-ruggedized design and housing, high
isolation between elements and pattern
consistency.
In addition, as wireless routers adopt
multiple-input and multiple-output,
(MIMO), the antennas inherent MIMO
capabilities protect a networks investment
in cellular and LTE installations.
The series is currently available to select
OEM customers and will be generally available at the end of January 2016.
FEBRUARY 2016

MARKET WATCH

OEM

Antenova Modules Add GNSS to Wearables

ntenova Ltd. has released


two new modules for GPS
and GNSS. Both provide
an easy drop-in receiver
solution a way to add a location
capability to very small consumer
devices.
The two modules are similar, both
measuring 9.0 x 9.0 x 1.8 millimeters,
with low current consumption, making them suitable for smartwatches,
navigation devices, OBD II modules,
asset tracking, personal safety, sports
cameras and equipment. They are
based on a MediaTek processor.
The M10578-A2 module operates
with GPS with a 15 Hz update rate,
and the M10578-A3 operates with GPS,

Architecture of the M10578 (top side.)

GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo with


a 110 Hz update rate.
Antenova has added two features to
enhance performance of the modules.
An internal self-generated orbit prediction uses two GNSS systems simultaneously to give a faster time to fix,

and a second high-quality low noise


amplifier (LNA) boosts low-powered
satellite signals.
The M10578 modules are the latest
in Antenovas Radionovaseries of
fully optimized RF modules for
wireless M2M and embedded devices.
Both modules are pin compatible,
offering easy integration and upgrade
from GPS to GNSS; for the antenna
function, Antenova offers the small
Sinica SR4G008 GNSS antenna.
The modules are built on highgrade FR4 substrates with a high
density, multi-layered design that
places the critical RF functions in the
best position for location finding and
performance, the company said.

Performance in real-time

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 17

MARKET WATCH

OEM

Qualcomm Unveils Processor for Connected Cars

he Snapdragon 820A is
Qualcomm Technologies
newest automotive-grade
system-on-chip (SoC).
It offers a scalable nextgeneration infotainment, graphics and
multimedia platform with machine
intelligence, along with a version
that has integrated LTE (long-term
evolution)-Advanced connectivity.
Qualcomm Technologies has taken
a modular approach to designing the
Snapdragon 820A, enabling a vehicles
infotainment system to be upgradable
through both hardware and software
updates, so that vehicles can easily
have the latest technology.
The Snapdragon 820As sensor
i nteg rat ion prov ides cog nit ive
awareness and vehicle self-diagnostics,
supports advanced driver assistance
systems (ADAS) features for improved
vehicle safety systems, and provides
location and navigation through GNSS
and dead-reckoning technologies.
The Snapdragon 820A family

PRIZE FOR
GNSS OPINIONS
Geomatics specialist Larry
Tinney won the $50 gift
card in our January drawing
among takers of the
Reader Poll. You can win,
too! Go to www.gpsworld.
com/febpoll by Feb. 22
to answer the question:
What is the biggest
challenge in simulating
GNSS environments for
testing products under
development? All poll
takers will be entered in a
drawing for a $50 gift card.
After Feb. 22, go to www.
gpsworld.com/marpoll to
register your opinion on an
issue relating to Galileo.

18 G P S W O R L D

is based on 14-nanometer FinFET


advanced process node running
Qua lcomms 6 4 -bit Qua lcomm
Kryo central processing unit (CPU),
Qualcomm Adreno 530 graphics
processing unit (GPU), Qualcomm
Hexagon 680 digital signal processor
(DSP) with Hexagon Vector eXtension
(H V X) a nd Qua lcom m Z erot h
machine intelligence platform. The
Snapdragon 820Am version has an
integrated X12 LTE modem capable of
600 Mbps downlink/150 Mbps uplink.

The 820A is engineered w it h


custom-built, highly optimized
cores designed for heterogeneous
computing the ability to combine
its diverse processing engines within
the SoC, such as the CPU, GPU and
DSP cores, to achieve performance
and power savings.
The Zeroth initiative is designed
to enable automakers to develop deep
learning-based solutions using neural
networks for ADAS and in-vehicle
infotainment scenarios.

Atmel Targets IoT, Wearables


tmel Corporation
has launched an
ultra-low-power
connected platform for
cost-optimized applications
for the Internet of Things
(IoT) and wearable markets.
The platform is designed
for battery-operated
a p p l i c a t i o n s re q u i r i n g
activity and environment
monitoring.
Embodied in a 30 x 40
millimeter form factor, the
platform integrates the
Atmel SMART ultra-low
power MCU, Bluetooth
SMART low-energy con-

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

nectivity, capacitive touch


interface, security solution,
complete software platform, real-time operating
system, a BHI160 six-axis
SmartHub motion sensor
and a BME280 environmental sensor from Bosch
Sensortec. The platform can
be powered by a coin cell
utilizing low-power consumption.
It also features a lowpower ARM Cortex-M0+ and
the Atmel SMART SAM L21
microcontroller, which has
a power consumption down
to 35A/MHz in active mode

and 200nA in sleep mode.


Atmels Bluetooth
SMART solution is packaged
in a 2.2 x 2.1 millimeter
wafer-level chipscale package, enabling designers to
build ultra-small industrial
designs for next-generation
connected IoT and wearable
applications.
The new platform is
compatible with Atmels
flagship Studio 7, an integrated development
environment, and Atmel
Start, a web-based platform
for software configuration
and code generation.

Brought to you by

2016

ANTENNA SURVEY
After choosing the most appropriate receiver for your application from the Receiver Survey
in the January issue of GPS World, you may need an antenna, too. We have collected key
specifications for 320 antennas from 30 manufacturers.
We publish the Antenna Survey each year in our February issue. To recommend improvements
or to be listed in the survey next year, please email gpsworld@gpsworld.com.

FOOTNOTES
1

A
D
E
G
L
M
N
O
P
R
S
T
V
2

ABBREVIATIONS

User environment and applications:


=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=
=

aviation
defense
meteorology
survey/GIS
land
marine
navigation
other
other position reporting
real-time DGPS reference
space
timing
vehicle/vessel tracking

GPS L1 frequency 1575.42 MHz


GPS L2 frequency 1227.60 MHz

A single voltage standing wave ratio


(VSWR) figure indicates a combined
antenna and amplifier.

Noise figure is expressed in maximum


decibels.

L/D = lightning/diode.

cm:
dB:
:
ft:
g:
g:
Hz:
in:
kg:
lb:
m:
mA:
max:
MHz:
min:
mm:
na:
nr:
qty:
RHCP:
typ:

centimeter
decibel
diameter
foot
force of gravity
gram
hertz
inch
kilogram
pound
meter
milliampere
maximum
megahertz
minimum
millimeter
not applicable
no response
quantity
right-hand circular
polarization
typical

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


A WORD FROM OUR SPONSOR

Selecting the Right GNSS Antenna


Where do you start?
The antenna you choose must match
your receivers capabilities and specifications. Since the antenna behaves
both as a spatial and a frequency filter,
it will have significant impact on the
performance of the GNSS receiver.
Choose an antenna that covers the
signal frequencies transmitted by the
constellation and bandwidth supported by your GNSS receiver. Your
application will also help determine
form factor and antenna performance.

What GNSS constellations and


signals do I want to receive?
Active GNSS constellations include
GPS, GLONASS, Galileo, QZSS and
BeiDou. Position correction services,
known as Space Based Augmentation
Services (SBAS), transmit on geostationary satellites in orbit around the
earth.
Each of the constellations and SBAS
have their own signal frequencies
and bandwidths, some of these frequencies are shared (e.g. GPS L1,
WAAS (SBAS), Galileo E1). Multiple
frequency antennas are used to help
correct for ionospheric errors in RTK
applications.
The signal bandwidth of your antenna is important as many GNSS
receivers take advantage of the full
signal power transmitted. NovAtels
GNSS receivers utilizes a patented
Pulse Aperture Correlator technology (PAC) which uses a wider signal bandwidth to mitigate position
errors caused by multipath and can
support precision carrier phase RTK
algorithms with centimetre accuracy.
Other basic GNSS receivers only look
at the constellations coarse acquisition
(C/A) code and only require a narrow
bandwidth of a few MHz and as such
are restricted to positional accuracies
of a few metres.

S2 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

What amount of antenna gain do I


need?
Gain is one of the key performance indicators of a GNSS antenna. A minimum
gain is required to achieve a minimum
C/N0 (carrier-to-power-noise ratio) to
track the GNSS satellites. The antenna
gain is directly related to the overall C/
N0 of the navigation GNSS receivers.
Hence, antenna gain helps define the
tracking ability of the system.
GNSS receiver manufacturers will
typically specify the expected RF input
level required for optimum performance. This level is important to avoid
underdriving (causing poor C/N0) or
overdriving (causing limiting or distortion) the front end of the receiver. Nearly
all receivers have automatic gain control,
but there is only so much dynamic
range in the system and the antenna
gain, including cable losses, needs to be
considered carefully.

elevation angles such as 10 degrees.


Most choke ring antennas will typically
not receive signals below 30 degrees with
the exception of NovAtels GNSS-750
which can track down to and below
the horizon.

What is Noise Figure?


Noise figure directly impacts the C/N0
of the GNSS receiver. The lower the
overall noise figure the better the C/N0
and tracking capability.
The noise figure is the difference
between the signal-to-noise ratio at the
input and output of the receiver and
identifies how much additional noise
is being added into the signal through
the system or its individual components
such as the low noise amplifier. Good
antennas will have a noise figure less
than 3dB.

What is VSWR?

The element gain defines how efficient


the antenna element is at receiving the
signals. In any signal chain, you are
only as good as the weakest link, so an
antenna element with low element gain
might be compensated by an increased
low noise amplifier gain, but the signal
to noise ratio or C/N0 is degraded.

The voltage standing wave ratio or


VSWR is a measure of how much power
is reflected back upon the transmission
line (coaxial cable between receiver and
antenna) and indicates how well the
antenna is matched to a specific impedance, typically 50 ohms. An ideal VSWR
of 1 indicates that a perfect match exists
and that no power is reflected back from
the antenna.

How important is antenna


beamwidth and gain roll-off?

Why should I be concerned about


multipath rejection?

Very important. Gain roll-off is a factor


of beamwidth and specifies how much
the gain changes over the elevation
angle of the antenna. From the antennas
point of view the satellites rise from the
horizon towards zenith and fall back
to the horizon. The variation in gain
between zenith (directly overhead) and
the horizon is known as the gain roll-off.
Different antenna technologies have
different gain roll-off characteristics.
Patch antennas can track down to low

Positioning errors are caused by multipath, which is multiple reflections of


the GNSS signal off of nearby or far
objects.
Multipath degrades the positioning
accuracy and should be suppressed.
For optimum multipath rejection, an
antenna should be mounted as close to
the horizontal surface as possible and
away from reflecting objects including
water, antenna masts, air conditioners,
ventilation shafts, etc.

Why is element gain so important?

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY

Many users can accept accuracies


of less than a metre so these small
phase center variations cause a negligible amount of position error. But
if you require high precision, Real
Time Kinematic (RTK) receivers can
achieve position accuracies of 2-4 cm
and a few millimetres of phase center

error translates to a 10-15% error in


reported position. For RTK survey
applications, geodetic grade antennas
such as the NovAtel GPS-70x and
Antcom G8 series offer superior PCO/
PCV performance. For reference station applications a NovAtel GNSS-750
antenna is ideal.

What are the requirements for my


application?
Depending on the application, an antenna may have to meet certain environmental, mechanical, and operational
requirements.
GNSS Antenna is characterized by
several metrics: gain, gain roll-off,
multipath rejection, axial ratio, bandwidth, PCO, PCV.
Gain is not necessarily the most
important metric; various antenna
parameters can impact positioning
accuracy.
Survey, PPP positioning using L-band
delivered corrections, and Heading
applications are shown to be impacted by antenna selection.
A well-designed antenna is a critical
part of a GNSS System.
The table below highlights some of
the important desirable features needed
for a GNSS antenna based upon the
users application.
Go to novatel.com/antennas to learn
more.

What is phase center stability and


why is it important?
Plot of Good and Poor
Antenna Phase Center Offset over
Elevation Angle

Plot of Good and Poor


Antenna Phase Center Variation over
Elevation Angle

Survey
GIS
Reference Station
Aviation/Aerial Survey
Marine
Construction/Mining
Precision Agriculture
Vehicle Tracking
Dock Operations
Unmanned Aircraft
Unmanned Vehicle
Timing

FEBRUARY 2016

Extended
Temperature Range
Small Form-factor/
Lightweight
High Altitude
Operation

TSO/FAA Certiication

Pole Mount

Magnetic/Surface
Mount

High Multipath
Suppression

Corrosion Resistant

Weatherproof

Multi Frequency
(RTK)
L-band frequency
(Correction Services)

Multi Constellation

Rugged

Single Frequency

High Vibration

Low PCO/PCV

Low Proile

Desirable Feature
Ultra-low PCO/PCV

The phase center of the antenna is the


point where the signals transmitted
from satellites are collected. When
your receiver reports a location fix, that
location is essentially the phase centre
of the antenna.
If you are specifying an antenna for
use with geodetic survey or a reference
station application, phase center offset
(PCO) and phase centre stability or
variation (PCV) are important. The
electrical phase center of any antenna
will vary with the position of the transmitting signal it is receiving by as much
as a few millimetres. As GNSS satellites
move across the sky, the electrical phase
center of the signal received will typically move with the satellite position
unless the antenna has been carefully
designed to minimize PCO/PCV.
The Phase Center Offset with respect to the antenna reference point
(ARP) is the difference between the
mechanical center of antenna rotation
and electrical phase center location.
The PCO is also frequency dependent
which means that there can be a different offset for each signal frequency.
The Phase Center Variation identifies
how much the phase center moves with
respect to the satellite elevation angles.

Narrow Bandwidth

Choke ring antennas offer high multipath rejection due to their unique
concentric ring design that block out
multipath signal reflections to the antenna element.
The Axial Ratio also defines the antennas ability to reject multipath-generated replicas of the original GPS signal.
A good GNSS antenna provides a low
axial ratio not only at each of the GNSS
frequencies, but also over all elevations
angles of the satellites in view. NovAtels
GPS-700 series of antennas maintains
an axial ratio as low as 3dB at azimuth
or horizon.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S3

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

AEI
www.GPSantennas.com

GPS-SMA

2008

All interior/exterior

43 x 33 x 14mm

100g

1575.42 MHz

2:01

2dBi

253 dB

RHCP

1.5 dB

GPS, GSM & WIFI Dual & Triway


Antennas

2009

All interior/exterior

D80 x H15mm

165g

1575.42 MHz / 824 MHz~894


MHz / 1710 MHz~1990 MHz /
2400~2500 MHz

2:01

2dBi

253 dB

RHCP

1.5 dB

2:01

3dBi

253 dB

RHCP

1.5 dB

2.0:1

3 dB Max @
Boresight

38 dB

RHCP

2.4 dB Max

AeroAntenna Technology, Inc.


www.aeroantenna.com

GPSMRS232, GPSMUSB

2008

All interior/exterior

H14 x W32 x L43mm

135g

1575.42 MHz

GPS GSM Jamming signal detector,


AE-55SP

2014

Detects GPS GSM


Jamming Equipment
and triggers gps
panic button

L 9 x W 5 x T 1.7 cm

65g

50 MHz
6.0 GHz

AT1675-7 L1/L2 GPS & GLONASS

2007

7.25 x 3.20in

1.36lb

1590 25 & 1238


21.5 MHz

AT1675-8 GPS/GLONASS L1
-BEIDOU B3/ B1

2009

4.70 x 3.00 x .75in

8oz

1268 12 MHz & 1590


125MHz

2.0:1

as above

42 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

AT1675-17 GPS/GNSS Antenna

2000

AG

4.70 x 3.0 x .75in

8oz

1590 25 & 1238


21.5 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26 & 40 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

AT1675-19, GPS/GLONASS L1

2010

LD

2.20 x .57in

75g

1565-1607 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

AT1675-32 GPS/GNSS Antenna

2009

LG

5.75 x 2.46in

1.00lb

157045 & 1164-1260 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26 and 39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-80 (TSO ) GPS/GNSS/LBand Antenna

2008

AG

4.70 x 3.0 x .92in

10oz

1570 45 & 1238 21.5 MHz

1.5:1

as above

43 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-116

2010

LG

3.5 x .84in

200g

1551 -1615 MHz

2.0:1

as above

43 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

11.00lb

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-120 GPS/GNSS
Choke Ring

2009

LG

14 x 13in

AT1675-180 GNSS Airborne


Antenna, Iridium Protected

2011

4.31 x 1.46 x 5.55in

AT1675-182 GPS/GNSS Antenna

2009

LG

5.75 x 2.46in

Antcom, Inc.
www.antcom.com

2.0:1

as above

26 and 39 dB

RHCP

2.0:1

as above

26 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

157045 & 1164-1260 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26 and 39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-219 GNSS Antenna

2014

4.45 x 1.43in

220g max

1525-1610 & 1160-1252 MHz

2.0:1

as above

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-286 GNSS Marine

2014

5.64 x 3.79in

1.2lb

1525-1610 & 1160-1252 MHz

2.0:1

as above

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

1565-1607 & 1217 -1260 MHz

2.0:1

as above

20-30 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

11lb

L-Band, L1/L2, G1, G2, E%a,


E5b, B1, B2 and B3

2.0:1

as above

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

1525-1610 & 1160-1252 MHz

2.0:1

as above

39 & 45 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-257, GPS e Glomass


Embedded Antenna

2014

1.35 x 1.35 x .54in

AT1675-300, GNSS Choke Ring


Antenna

2014

14.70 x 13.77in

AT1675-460, GNSS Antenna,


Inmarsat Protected

2013

7.00 x 3.17in

AT1675-540 GNSS Antenna, Rover

2011

7.0 x 2.88in

1.0lb

1525-1610 & 1160-1252 MHz

2.0:1

as above

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-560, GNSS Marine


Antenna, Inmarsat Protected

2013

7.00 x 3.17in

1.6lb

1525-1610 & 1160-1252 MHz

2.0:1

as above

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

AT1675-382, GNSS ANTENNA

Allis Communications Co., Ltd.


www.alliswireless.com

1.00lb

157045 & 1164-1260 MHz


1565-1607 MHz & 12171260 MHz

RHCP

2,5 dB Max

AT1675-339, L1 GPS + GLONASS

2010

LG

7.50 x 2.88in

1.0lb

1565-1615 MHz

2.0:1

as above

38 dB

RHCP

2,5 dB Max

AT1621-23,, Dual Iridium Antenna

2012

7.85 x 3.99 x .88in

1.1lb

1616-1626.5 MHz

1.8:1

as above

3.1 dBic

RHCP

.65lb

1575 MHz

2.0:1

as above

43 dB

RHCP

2010

5.75 x 2.46in

LG

1.1lb

1525-1615 & 1164-1260 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26 & 39 dB

AT575-230, GPS Antenna

2013

3.75 x 4.00 x .93in

AT1621-20, Active Iridium Antenna

2012

LM

4.86 x 5.61in

AT7521-4 GPS/iridium Antenna,


Gooseneck

2012

.79 x 5.83in

1.90oz

1575 & 1616-1626 MHz

2.0:1

as above

AT1675-242, GPS Antenna

2015

GM

3.00 x 3.16in

10oz

1565-1610 MHz

2.0:1

as above

39 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

AT1675-0 GPS/GLONASS Antenna

1997

3.00 x 4.70 x .75in

8oz

1565-1615 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26, 36 dB

RHCP

2.5 dB Max

1616-1626.5 MHz

3.0 dB Max

RHCP
RHCP

AT1675-304, L-Band GPS/GLONAS


Antenna

2012

2.71 x 1.05in

.275lb

1525-1607 MHz

2.0:1

as above

28 dB

RHCP

2,5 dB Max

AT1675-504, GPS/GLONASS
Antenna

2012

2.71 x 1.05in

.275lb

1565-1615 MHz

2.0:1

as above

26 & 36 dB

RHCP

2,5 dB Max

AT1675-450, GPS/GLONASS
Antenna

2011

3.5 x .84in

213g

1565-1607 & 1217-1260 MHz

2.0:1

2.0:1

43 dB

RHCP

2,5 dB Max

AT2775-65, L1/L2 GPS Antenna

2000

4.00 x 3.75 x 59in

11oz

1227 & 1575 MHz

2.0:1

2.0:1

36 dB

RHCP

3.0 db

GCRTB

2003

NV

100 D x 39mm

280g max. (without


cable)

GPS: 1575.42 3
MHz Cellular: 824~960
/1850~1990 MHz

GPS: 2.0: 1 max.


Cellular: 2.0: 1 max.

GPS: 3 dB max.

GPS: 27dB typ.

GPS: RHCP Cellular:


Omni-direction/ Linear

GPS: 1.5 dB
max.

M828G

2015

48 x 40 x 13mm

42g max. (without


cable)

GPS/ GLONASS: 1560~1605


MHz

2.0: 1 max.

3 dB max.

27dB typ.

RHCP

2.0dB max.

CMIDM

2013

MO

75 D x 15.8mm

75g max. (without


cable)

Iridium: 1621 3 MHz

1.5: 1 max.

3 dB max.

4dBic typ.

RHCP

na

CE200

2015

124 x 21.7 x 5.9 mm

11.5g max.(without
cable)

Cellular: 824~960MHz,
1710~2170MHz

3.0: 1 max.

na

3dBi max.

Omni-direction/ Linear

na

GCRGI

2013

MN

100 D 67mm

280g max. (without


cable)

GPS: 1575.42 3 MHz


Iridium: 1621 3 MHz

GPS: 1.5: 1 max.


Iridium: 1.5: 1 max.

3 dB Max.

GPS: 28 dB typ.
Iridium: 5dBic typ.

RHCP

GPS: 1.8 dB
max.

MPIDM

2013

MO

48 x 40 x 13 mm

42g max. (without


cable)

Iridium: 1621 3 MHz

1.5: 1 max.

3 dB max.

4dBic typ.

RHCP

na

AM460

2013

MNOV

139 D 60mm

<1.1kg (without cable)

GPS: 1575.42 3 MHz


Iridium: 1616~1626MHz
Cellular: 696~960MHz,
1710~2170MHz Wi-Fi:
2.4~2.5GHz, 4.7~5.9GHz

GPS: 1.5: 1 max.


Iridium: 2.0: 1 max
Cellular: 3.0: 1 max.
Wi-Fi: 3.0:1 max.

GPS/ Iridium: 3
dB Max.

GPS: 27dB typ.


Iridium: 4dbic typ.
Cellular: 6dBi max.
Wi-Fi: 7dBi max.

GPS/ Iridium: RHCP


Cellular/ WiFi: Omnidirection/ Linear

GPS: 1.8dB
max.

IMPP9

2013

MN

100 D 67mm

280g max. (without


cable)

GPS Module: 1575.42


3 MHz
Cellular: 824~960MHz,
1710~2170MHz Wi-Fi:
2.4~2.5GHz, 4.7GHz~5.9GHz

GPS Module: na
Cellular: 2.0:1 max.
Wi-Fi: 2.0:1 max.

GPS Module: 3
dB Max.

GPS Module: na
Cellular: 5dBi max.
Wi-Fi: 6dBi tmax.

GPS Module: RHCP


Cellular/ WiFi: Omnidirection/ Linear

na

SG25C

2015

48 x 40 x 13mm

42g max.(without
cable)

GPS/GLONASS/BDS:
1559MHz ~1615MHz

2.0: 1 max.

3 dB max.

25dB typ.

RHCP

2.0dB max.

X830B

2013

36 x 36 x 13.9mm

35g max. (without


cable)

GPS/GLONASS/BDS:
1559~1615MHz

2.0: 1 max.

3 dB max.

30dB typ.

RHCP

1.5 dB max.

0.9G15A-XX-X (active)
0.9G15P-XX-X (passive)

2009

DLMOV

31.75 x 31.75 x
13.59mm

30g

1575.42 12 MHz

1.5:1

2.5 dB typ

24 dB typ (passive
also available)

RHCP

1 dB typ

1G1215A-XX-X (active)
1G1215P-XX-X (passive)

2007

DLMOV

52.78 x 52.78 x
17.54mm

82g

1575.42 15 MHz
1227.60 15 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

L1: 33 dB typ
L2: 35 dB typ
(passive also
available)

RHCP

3 dB typ

1.3G1215A-XX-X (active)
1.3G1215P-XX-X (passive)

2013

DGLMNOV

33.53 x 33.53 x
17.58mm

53.9g

1575.42 15 MHz
1227.60 12 MHz

1.5:1

L1: 1 dB typ
L2: 3dB typ

24 dB typ (ilter
option available)

RHCP

1.8dB typ

S4 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

3~5V

8~15mA

40 to +85C

3~5V

8~15mA

40 to +85C

Vibration

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

Waterproof IP66

SMA, BNC, FME, MCX, MMCX,


SMB, SMC, TNC, FAKRA

RG174/3meter

stick / magnet / screw mount

$6 to $12

Custom cable lengths,mounts


and connectors available

Waterproof IP66

SMA, BNC, FME, MCX, MMCX,


SMB, SMC, TNC, FAKRA

RG174/3meter

stick / magnet / screw mount

$12 to $34

Custom cable lengths,mounts


and connectors available

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

5V

5mA

40 to +85C

Waterproof IP66

USB or RS232

RG174/3meter

stick / magnet / screw mount

$20 to $38

Custom cable lengths,mounts


and connectors available

12V ~ 24V DC

9ma

40 to +85C

Interior use only

N/C and N/O relay contact output

20 guage

Stick / Screw mount

$45 to $65

Installs nest to GPS antenna


and GSM modules to detect any
Jamming frequency transmitters
in area to dissable the GSP
systems. Unit triggers GPS
panick buttom with built in relay

+4.25 to +15 VDC

70 mA

-40 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.5-+15 VDC

70 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC/SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+5 to +15 VDC

28, 55 and 75 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC OR SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+2.5 -+5.5 VDC

60 mA

-40 to +85

nr

SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.2 +15 VDC

40 & 65 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+5 to +15 VDC

70 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.5 -+18 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.2 +15 VDC

40 & 65 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

+2.5 TO +5.5 vdc

38 mA

-50 to +70

nr

SMA Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.2 +15 VDC

40 & 65 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.2 +15 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+4.2 +15 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +70

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

3.3 VDC

Amphenol Cable and


Connector

Roof Mount

+4.2 +15 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female or N Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

+5 to +18 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +70

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

+3 to +15 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +70

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

+3 to +15 VDC

70 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

4.3 ro 15 VDC

65 mA

nr

TNC, BNC OR SMA Female

4.2 to 15 VDC

65 mA

+4.5 -+15 VDC

-40 to +55

40 mA

3-15 VDC

-55 to +85

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

-40 to +70

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

-55 to +71

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

-55 to +85

None

Ampliier

nr

SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

-40 to +85

nr

TNC Male

None

Hand Held Mount

nr

Ampliier

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Pole Mount

nr

Ampliier

4.5-19 VDC

50 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

3.3 to 5.5 VDC

20 mA

-40 to +70

nr

SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

3.3 to 5.5 VDC

45 mA

-40 to +85

nr

SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

-55 to +85

nr

TNC & SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

nr

Ampliier

nr

4.5 to 18 VDC
4.5-15 VDC

50 mA

-55 to +85

nr

TNC & SMA Female

None

Roof Mount

GPS: 2.7~6V

8.54.5mA

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-10Hz
each axis

Y: IP56/IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

GPS: RG174/ RG316 Cellular:


RG58/ RG174/ RG316

Thread Permanent Mount

GPS/ Cellular

Ampliier

2.7~5.5 V

6~11mA

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-10Hz
each axis

Y: IP56/IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

RG174/RG316

Magnetic base

GPS/ GLONASS

nr

nr

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-16Hz
each axis

Y: IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

RG174/3m

Magnetic base

Iridium only

nr

nr

-40C~+85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-18Hz
each axis

Y: IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

RG174/RG316

na

Cellular

2.7~6.0V

125.5 mA

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-18Hz
each axis

Y: IP56/IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

GPS: RG174/ RG316 Cellular:


RG58/ RG174/ RG316

Thread Permanent Mount

Iridium/ GPS

nr

nr

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-19Hz
each axis

Y: IP56/IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

RG174/3m RG316/3m

Magnetic base

Iridium only

GPS: 2.7~6.0V

8.54.5mA

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-20Hz
each axis

Y: IP67 stainless
bottom

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

GPS: RG174/ RG316 Cellular:


RG58/ RG174/ RG316 Wi-Fi:
RG58/ RG174/ RG316

Thread Permanent Mount

GPS/ LTE/ 2G/ 3G/ Wi-Fi

GPS: 5.0V

50mA

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-21Hz
each axis

Y: IP56/IP67

N/N

GPS: USB A Type C: Option


WiFi: Option

GPS Module: USB Cable O.D.


3.50.2mm Cellular: RG58/
RG174/ RG316 Wi-Fi: RG58/
RG174/ RG316

Thread Permanent Mount

GPS NEMA/ Cellular/ Wi-Fi

2.7~5.5V

12~16mA

-40C~85C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-21Hz
each axis

Y: IP56/IP67

N/N

BNC, TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX, SMC,


MMCX, FAKRA

RG174/RG316

Magnetic base

GPS/GLONASS/BDS/Galileo

2.7~6 V

9.54.5mA

-40C~86C

Sine Sweep,1G(0P),10-150-22Hz
each axis

Y: IP67

N/N

SMA

RG174/5m

Magnetic base

GPS Only

2.5 - 24 VDC

15 to 25 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

RA MCX, MCX, SMA, SMB, SSMA,


SSMB, SSMC, TNC, Lemo

RG-316/15.24cm (custom
length available)

2x lange mounts

Contact Antcom

nr

2.5 - 24 VDC

20 to 50mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA F, TNC, TNC-Bulkhead, N,


N-Bulkhead, MCX, MMCX

RG-178/7.39cm (custom
length available)

4x screws back mount &


adhesive gasket

Contact Antcom

nr

2.5 - 28 VDC

15 to 25 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA F, MCX, QMA, TNC, SMB,


SSMA, SSMB, SSMC, SSMP,
MCX, SMP

cable and hardward options


available

4x screws back mount + o-ring

Contact Antcom

nr

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S5

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

Antenova
www.antenova-m2m.com

ftech Radio Frequency System


Corporation
www.f-tech.com.tw
GPS Source, Inc.
www.gpssource.com

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

1.9G1215A-XX-X (active)
1.9G1215P-XX-X (passive)

2004

DGLMNOV

50 x 50 x 13.54mm

68g

1575.42 12 MHz
1227.60 12 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

20 dB and 30 dB
typ (ilter option
available)

RHCP

<3dB typ

2G1215A-XX-X (active)
2G1215P-XX-X (passive)

2007

ADGLMNOTV

66.04 x 18mm nomag. 66.04 x 22mm


with-mag

113g no mag 198g


with mag

1575.42 15 MHz 1227.60


15 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

L1: 33 dB typ
L2: 35 dB typ (ilter
option available)

RHCP

3 dB typ

G3Ant-2XXX (2.7 dia. screw/


thruhole/magmount)
G3Ant-3XXX (3.5 dia. aviation/
screw thruhole)

2009

ADGLMNOTSV

2.7: 68.81 x
17.30mm
3.5: 88.90 x
21.89mm

184g
256g

1575.42 17 MHz
1609 7 MHz
1542.4 14 MHz
1561.098 10 MHz

1.5:1

1 dB typ

33 dB typ (passive
also available)

RHCP

3 dB typ

G5Ant-42XXX (ARINC 743)

2009

ADGLMNOTSV

119.38 x 76.20 x
22.80mm

227g

1575.42 16 MHz
1609 7 MHz
1227.6 12 MHz
1252.5 7.5 MHz
1542.5 14 MHz

2.0:1

2 dB typ

33 - 35 dB typ
(passive also
available)

RHCP

3.0 dB typ

G8Ant-52A4XX Rev A (active)


G8Ant-52PXX (passive)

2013

DGLMNOV

127 D x 83.55mm

567g

1575.42 17 MHz
1598 - 1609 MHz
1164.45 - 1219.14 MHz
1242 - 1252 MHz
1266.75 - 1290.75 MHz
1227.6 12 MHz
1207.14 10MHz
1252.5 7.5 MHz
1542.5 14 MHz

2.0:1

1 dB typ

42 - 43 dB typ
(passive also
available)

RHCP

2.6dB

4NC-3.5CG1215X-XS-X-X Rev B

2006

CRPA

88.90 D x 17.53mm

146g

1575.42 50 MHz
1227.60 27 MHz

2.0:1

2 dB typ

na (active also
available)

RHCP

na

5NF-4.5CG1215P-XS-X Rev D

2007

CRPA

114.3 D x 13.90mm

146g

1575.42 24 MHz
1227.60 24 MHz

2.0:1

2 dB typ

na (active also
available)

RHCP

na

Cyaneus A10137

2006

LMNOPRV

20.1 x 9.0 x 1.6

<0.7g

1575 MHz

1.4:1

na

RHCP

Brevis A10204

2009

LMNOPRV

22 x 3 x 3

<0.2g

1575 MHz

1.4:1

na

RHCP

Brevis GNSS 10204-1

2014

LMNOPRV

11 x 6.1 x 3.2

<0.2g

1559-1609 MHz

1.5:1

na

RHCP

Sinica SR4G008

2015

LMNOPRV

7 x 5.8 x 0.4

<0.2g

1559-1609 MHz

1.4:1

na

RHCP

Belti SRG013

2016

LMNOPRV

15.65 x 4.4 x 3.2

<0.5g

1559-1609 MHz

2.24:1

na

RHCP

Bentoni SRFG017

2016

LMNOPRV

40 x 14 x 0.15

<0.5g

1559-1609 MHz

1.48:1

na

RHCP

Asper SRFW018

2016

LMNOPRV

81 x 14 x 0.15

<0.5g

1559-1609 MHz / 2.4-2.5 GHz

1.4:1

na

RHCP

M10382 GPS RF Antenna Module

2011

LMNPTV

24.2 x 9.9 x 3.8mm

1.1g

GPS L1 frequency 1575.42


MHz, 30MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

M10477 GPS and GNSS RF


Antenna module

2012

LMNPTV

24.2 x 9.9 x 3.8

1.1g

1575MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

M10478-A1

1013

LMNPTV

13.8 x 9.5 x 1.8

<1g

1575MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

M10478-A2-1

2015

LMNPTV

13.8 x 9.5 x 1.8

<1g

1575MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

M10478-A3

2013

LMNPTV

13.8 x 9.5 x 1.8

<1g

1575-1609MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

M10578-A2

2016

LMNPTV

9 x 9 x 1.8

<1g

1575MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

M10578-A3

2016

LMNPTV

9 x 9 x 1.8

<1g

1575-1609MHz

na, integrated reciever

na, integrated
reciever

na, integrated
reciever

RHCP

na, integrated
reciever

FA02

2010

ALMNV

52.5 x 36.5 x 11.65mm

20g

1575.42MHz/L1

<= 5

29

RHCP

0.65

L1A

2006

ADELMNOTV

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

3.5

1575.5 k +/- 10MHz

2:01

nr

3 dB/33dB

Hemispheric

2.0dB

L1P

2006

ADELMNOTV

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

2.7oz

1575.5 k +/- 10MHz

2:01

nr

3 dB

Hemispheric

na

L1L2-2GP

2010

ADELMNOTV

2.6 x .94in

6.4oz

1575.5 k 10MHz 1227.6


k 10MHz

2:01

nr

3 dB

Hemispheric

na

L1L2-2GA

2010

ADELMNOTV

2.6 x .94in

6.4oz

1575.5 k 10MHz 1227.6


k 10MHz

2:01

nr

L1 3dB/33 dB
L2 6.7dB/33 dB

Hemispheric

na

L1L2-RA-1

2011

ADELMNOTV

3 x 2.27in

6.3oz

1575.42 k 15MHz 127.6


k 15MHz

2.0:1

2dB max

L1 3dB/26 dB
L2 3dB/26dB

Hemispheric

2.8dB

L1L2-RA-2

2011

ADELMNOTV

3.4 x 2.2in

6.7oz

1575.42 k 15MHz 1227.6


k 15MHz

2.0:1

2dB max

L1 3dB/26 dB
L2 3dB/26dB

Hemispheric

2.8dB

L1G1A

Gutec AB
www.gutec.se

Hemisphere GNSS
www.hemispheregnss.com

2015

ADELMNOTV

L1G1P

2015

adELMNOTV

GNSS-3A

2014

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

ADELMNOTV

3.5oz

1585 +/- 25MHz

2.0:1

2dB max

3 dB/30dB

Hemispheric

2dB

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

2.7oz

1585 +/- 25MHz

2.0:1

2dB max

3 dB

Hemispheric

2dB

3.5 x .97in

9.6oz

1584 +/- 26MHz


1215 +/- 25MHz

2.0:1

2.8dB max

L1 3dB/30 dB

Hemispheric

3dB

2.8dB max

3 dB

Hemispheric

2dB

GNSS-3P

2014

L1AW

2015

ADELMNOTV

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

3.5

1575.5 k +/- 10MHz

2.0:1

nr

3 dB/33dB

Hemispheric

2dB

L1PW

2015

ADELMNOTV

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

3.5 x .97in

3.5

1575.5 k +/- 10MHz

2.0:1

nr

3 dB

Hemispheric

2dB

L1G1A-STD

2015

ADELMNOTV

3.5 x 3.5 x .65in

3.5

1585 +/- 25MHz

2.0:1

nr

3 dB/33dB

Hemispheric

2dB

GNSSA210

2015

96 x 170mm

300g

GPS L1, GPS L2, GPSL5,


GLONASS G1, GLONASS
G2, GLONASS G3, GALILEO
E1, GALILEO E5

<0.1

<3 dB

6 dB/29 dB

Hemispheric

<1.5 dB

9.4oz

2.0:1

A21

2009

ADEGLMNV

70 x 130mm

380g

1525 - 1610MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

A22

2009

ADEGLMNV

70 x 130mm

380g

1525 - 1610MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

A25

2014

DEGLMNV

47 x 152mm

400g

1525 - 1615MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

A31

2011

DEGLMNV

104 x 145mm

730g

283.5 - 325kHz, 1525 1610MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

A42

2011

DEGLMNV

70 x 130mm

380g

1165 - 1253MHz, 1525 1613MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

A43

2012

DEGLMNV

104 x 145mm

730g

283.5 - 325kHz, 1165 1278MHz, 1525 - 1613MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

A45

2014

DEGLMNV

47 x 152mm

500g

1165 - 1278MHz, 1525 1615MHz

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

S6 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

2.5 - 24 VDC

20 to 50 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA F, TNC, TNC-Bulkhead, N,


N-Bulkhead, MCX, SMA

cable and hardward options


available

4x corner lange mounts

Contact Antcom

nr

2.5 - 24 VDC

<50 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA F, TNC, N, MCX, MMCX,

cable and hardward options


available

screw mount, magnetic mount

Contact Antcom

nr

2.5 - 24 VDC

30 to 40 mA

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA MALE, TNC, N, MCX, MCX

cable, hardward options and


other enclosure form factors
available

screw mount, 4x hole surface


mount, magnetic mount

Contact Antcom

nr

2.5 - 24 VDC

20 to 50 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

TNC F, SMA, BNC, TNC Bulkhead,


N, N Bulkhead, MCX, MMCX

cable, hardward options and


other enclosure form factors
available

4x hole, surface

Contact Antcom

nr

2.5 - 24 VDC

<50 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

TNC F, SMA, BNC, TNC Bulkhead,


N, N Bulkhead, MCX, MMCX

cable, hardward options and


other enclosure form factors
available

5/8-11 UNC

Contact Antcom

nr

na

na

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA, SMB, SMC, SSMA, SSMB,


SSMC, MCX, MMCX

cable, hardward options and


other enclosure form factors
available

4x hole, surface

Contact Antcom

nr

na

na

-55 to +85

>30 G

Y/hermetically

Y/Y

SMA, TNC, SMB, SMC, SSMA,


SSMB, SSMC, MCX, MMCX

cable, hardward options and


other enclosure form factors
available

5x hole, bottom

Contact Antcom

nr

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

1.13mm RF Cable with IPEX MHF

50mm,100mm,150mm

self-adhesive

Contact distributor or
Antenova

na

na

-40 to +125

na

na

1.13mm RF Cable with IPEX MHF

100mm,150mm,200mm

self-adhesive

Contact distributor or
Antenova

1.8 VDC or 3.3 VDc

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact Antenova

Antenna, RF Front-end,
GPS engine

1.8 VDC

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

1.8 VDC

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

2.8-4.2 VDC

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

2.8-4.2 VDC

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

2.8-4.2 VDC

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

2.8-4.2 VDC

na, integrated
reciever

-40 to +85

na

na

na

na

SMD

Contact distributor or
Antenova

2.5~3.3

-40 to +85

Y/ IP65

SMA/MCX/MMCX

various length available

magnetic /sticker

price will be quoted by qty.

na

3-16 VDC

20 mA max

-30 to +70

Sine 10-500 Hz 5G
XYZ, Shock 30G

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

na

na

-30 to +70

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GPS

-54 to +71

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

6-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GPS

GPS

3-10 VDC

50 mA max

-54 to +71

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

6-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GPS

2.5 - 10 VDC

30 mA max

-54 to +71

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA

na

Magnet or 10-32 1-hole and


6-32 3-hole

Please call

GPS

2.5 - 10 VDC

30 mA max

-54 to +71

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

6-32 4-hole

Please call

GPS

3-16 VDC

20 mA max

-30 to +70

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GNSS

3-16 VDC

na

-30 to +70

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GNSS

3.3 - 10 VDC

35 mA max

-54 to +71

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

6-32 4-Hole or 10-32 4-Hole

Please call

GNSS

na

na

-54 to +71

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GNSS

3-16 VDC

20 mA max

-30 to +70

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GPS

na

na

-30 to +70

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GPS

3-16 VDC

20 mA max

-30 to +70

as above

Y/Water Proof

DC ground

SMA, TNC, N

na

10-32 4-Hole 2.3in

Please call

GNSS

415 VDC

15 mA

-40 to +85

Sine10200 Hz 1 G
XYZ, Shock 10 G

Y/ventilated
body(Gore vent),
hermetic connector

na

TNC

na

5/8in UNC

2500

3 - 12 VDC

24mA typ

/- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 1 or 5/8


adapter

call

L1 GPS / L1 GLONASS / L-Band

3 - 12 VDC

24mA typ

/- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 1 or 5/8


adapter

call

L1 GPS / L1 GLONASS / L-Band

3 - 12 VDC

12mA typ

/- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 5/8

call

L1 GPS / L1 GLONASS / B1
BeiDou / E1 Galileo/ L-Band

5 - 12 VDC

50 - 60mA typ

/- 30 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 1 or 5/8


adapter

call

L1 GPS / L1 GLONASS / L-Band


/ Beacon

3 - 12 VDC

35mA typ

/- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 5/8

call

L1/L2/L5 GPS / L1/L2


GLONASS / B1/B2/B3 Beidou /
Galileo / QZSS / SBAS / L-Band

5 - 12 VDC

50 - 60mA typ

/- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 1 or 5/8


adapter

call

L1/L2/L5 GPS / L1/L2


GLONASS / B1/B2/B3 Beidou /
Galileo / QZSS / SBAS / L-Band/
Beacon

3 - 12 VDC

25mA typ

/- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 5/8

call

L1/L2/L5 GPS / L1/L2


GLONASS / B1/B2/B3 Beidou /
Galileo / QZSS / SBAS / L-Band

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S7

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

Inventeksys
www.inventeksys.com

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

A52

2010

DEGLMNV

76 x 185mm

780g

1165 - 1253MHz, 1525 1613MHz

Jiashan Jinchang Electron


Co., Ltd
www.jinchanggps.com

Leica Geosystems AG
www.leica-geosystems.com

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

30 dB

RHCP

2.0, typ

ACTPAT154-01-IP

2007

GLMNV

15 x 15 x 4mm

0.01oz

1578.00 +/-2.0 MHz

1.5

2 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ACTPAT184-01-IP

2007

GLMNV

18 x 18 x 4mm

0.01oz

1578.00 +/-2.0 MHz

1.5

2 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ACTPAT182-025-IP

2008

GLMNV

18 x 18 x 2mm

0.01oz

1578.00 +/-2.0 MHz

1.5

2 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ACTPAT182-01-IP

2008

GLMNV

18 x 18 x 2mm

0.01oz

1578.00 +/-2.0 MHz

1.5

2 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ACTPAT182-07-IP

2008

GLMNV

18 x 18 x 2mm

0.01oz

1578.00 +/-2.0 MHz

1.5

2 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ACTPAT254-01-IP

2008

GLMNV

25 x 25 x 4mm

0.01oz

1581.00 +/-2.0 MHz

2 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ANTDOM-05-01-WPM

2008

ADGLMNV

45 x 14.5mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ANTDOM-10-MCX-WPM

2008

ADGLMNV

45 x 14.5mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ANTDOM-10-MCX-WPMT

2008

ADGLMNV

45 x 14.5mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ANTDOM-05-MMCX-WPM

2008

ADGLMNV

45 x 14.5mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

ANTBULK-0.2-SMB-RG316

2009

ADGLMNV

47 x 15.2mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.5

ANTBULK-05-SMA

2009

ADGLMNV

47 x 15.2mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

ANTBULK-05-SMA-RG316

2009

ADGLMNV

47 x 15.2mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.5

15.2 x 15.2mm

0.01oz

1575.42 MHz

1.0 dB Typical

26 to 35 dB

RHCP

1.4

PAT152
JAVAD GNSS
www.javad.com

VSWR 3

1.5

GrAnt-G5T

2014

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

515g

15551610 MHz, 11641300


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

Omnidirectional,
hemispherical

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

GrAnt-G3T-JS

2012

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

515g

15651610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 333 dB
4 / L2 333 dB

as above

L1 2.8 dB
L2 2.8 dB

GrAnt-G3T

2008

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

515g

15551610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

GrAnt-G3

2008

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

450g

15551610 MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 32 2 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB

RingAnt-G5T

2014

GDLMNRVPO

326 x 88mm

2.7kg

15551610 MHz, 11641300


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

RingAnt-G3T-JS

2012

GDLMNRVPO

326 x 88mm

2.7kg

15651610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 333 dB
4 / L2 333 dB

as above

L1 2.8 dB
L2 2.8 dB

RingAnt-G3T

2008

GDLMNRVPO

326 x 88mm

2.7kg

15551610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

RingAnt-DM

2008

GDLMNRVPO

380 x 138mm

4.4kg

15551610 MHz, 11641300


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

6 / L1 322 dB
5 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 2.2 dB
L2 1.7 dB

AirAnt-G3T

2008

ADNVPO

120 x 74 x 44.5mm

320g

15591610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

4 / L1 303 dB
3 / L2 303 dB

as above

L1 2.5 dB
L2 2.0 dB

GyrAnt

2008

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

570g

15551610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

TriAnt

2008

GDLMNRVPO

128 x 128 x 54mm

425g

15551610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

TyrAnt-G2T

2008

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

600g

15551610 MHz, 11641253


MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 322 dB
4 / L2 322 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB
L2 1.7 dB

TyrAnt-G3

2008

GDLMNRVPO

140 x 140 x 62mm

600g

15551610 MHz

1.5:1/ 2.0:1

3 dB

5 / L1 32 2 dB

as above

L1 1.7 dB

GPS/GLONASS Antenna JCA002

2014

Tracking, navigation,
automative car, pnd
and so on

48 x 39 x 14mm

100g

1575.42/1602/1561 MHz

1.5:1

28

RHCP

1.5

94 x 135mm

450g

1575.42 MHz

1.5:1

20

RHCP

<2.0

base station

300 x 200mm

5000g

1207/1227/1252/1268/1561/1
575/1602 MHz

2.0:1

45

RHCP

<2.0

Timing reciver JCSS005

2015

Choke antenna

2015

Surveying antenna

2015

surverying devices

146 x 63mm

350g

1207/1227/1252/1268/1561/1
575/1602 MHz

2.0:1

40

RHCP

<2.0

GPS/GLONASS/4G/WIFI
Combonation antenna JCE058

2015

Tracking, navigation,
automative car, pnd
and so on

50 x 48mm

300g

1575.42/1602/1561/6982700/2400 MHz

2.0:1

28

RHCP

<2.0

4G antenna JCG017L

2015

communication
devices

115 x 22 x 6.4mm

55g

698-2700 MHz

1.5:1

RHCP

<2.0

433MHZ antenna jcg411

2015

home alarm system

10 x 53mm

15g

433 MHz

1.5:1

RHCP

<2.0

868MHZ antenna JCG410

2015

home alarm system

13 x 195mm

20g

868 MHz

1.5:1

GPS/COMPASS Antenna jca057

2015

Tracking, navigation,
automative car, pnd
and so on

59 x 52 x 15mm

150g

1575.42/1602/1561 MHz

1.5:1

RHCP

<2.0

28

RHCP

<2.0

AS05

2009

DGLMNRV

62 x 170mm

0.44kg

1565.5-1611.5 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/27 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

AS10

2009

DGLMNRV

62 x 170mm

0.44kg

1552.0-1609.0 MHz, 1165.01255.0 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/29 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

AR10

2010

EGLMNORST

136 x 240mm

1.12kg

1525.0-1612.0 MHz, 1164.01301.0 MHz

<2.0:1

<1.4dB @ zenith

-/29 dB +/- 3dB typ

Omni-Directional;
RHCP

<1.8 dB

AR20

2012

EGLMNORST

163 x 320mm

5.9kg

1525.0-1612.0 MHz, 1164.01301.0 MHz

<1.8:2

<1.2dB @ zenith

-/29 dB +/- 3dB typ

Omni-Directional;
RHCP

<2.0 dB
<2.0 dB

AR20-LHCP

2013

EGLMOP

163 x 320mm

5.9kg

1525.0-1612.0 MHz, 1164.01301.0 MHz

<1.8:2

<1.2dB @ zenith

-/29 dB +/- 3dB typ

Omni-Directional; LHCP

AR25

2008

EGLMNORST

200 x 380mm

7.6kg

1513.5-1623.5 MHz, 1152.01312.0 MHz

<1.5:1

2 dB @ zenith

-/ 40 dB +/- 3dB typ

Omni-Directional;
RHCP

<1.2 dB

GS08plus

2012

DGLMNRV

71 x 186mm

0.70kg

1558.4-1616.0 MHz, 1215.61259.7 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/37 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<3 dB

GS14

2012

DGLMNRV

90 x 190mm

0.93kg

1552.0-1609.0 MHz, 1165.01255.0 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/27 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

GS12

2010

DGLMNRV

89 x 186mm

0.95kg

1552.0-1609.0 MHz, 1165.01255.0 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/27 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

GS15

2009

DGLMNRV

198 x 196mm

1.34kg

1552.0-1609.0 MHz, 1165.01255.0 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/27 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

GMX901plus

2013

DGLMNRV

71 x 186mm

0.7kg

1558.4-1616.0 MHz, 1215.61259.7 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/37 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<3 dB

GG03

2012

DGLMNRV

71 x 186mm

0.7kg

1558.4-1616.0 MHz, 1215.61259.7 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/37 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<3 dB

S8 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

3 - 12 VDC

35mA typ

- 40 to +70

EP455

Y/IP69K

N/N

TNC

5m typ

Magnetic, screw 5/8

call

L1/L2/L5 GPS / L1/L2


GLONASS / B1/B2/B3 Beidou /
Galileo / QZSS / SBAS / L-Band

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

U.FL

63

Active Patch

$9.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

U.FL

63

Active Patch

$9.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

U.FL

25

Active Patch

$9.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

U.FL

63

Active Patch

$9.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

U.FL

165

Active Patch

$9.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

U.FL

25

Active Patch

$9.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

SMA

5000

Active Dome

$12.75

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

MCX

10000

Active Dome

$13.27

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

MCX

10000

Active Dome

$13.27

2.7-5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

MMCX

5000

Active Dome

$13.27

3.0- 5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

SMB

200

Bulkhead

$14.75

3.0- 5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

SMA

5000

Bulkhead

$13.27

3.0- 5.4 V

10

-40 to +90

nr

SMA

5000

Bulkhead

$13.27

3.0- 5.4 V

10

-40 to +85

nr

None

315 V DC

45 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

4.515 V DC

90 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow Cone;
opt. N-type connector

315 V DC

45 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

315 V DC

25 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

315 V DC

45 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

4.515 V DC

90 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow Cone;
opt. N-type connector

315 V DC

45 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

315 V DC

45 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/N

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

4.712 V DC

85 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

RG58/3 m

4 holes

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

Antenna 315 V DC
IMU 9-35 V DC

Antenna 45 mA
@5V
IMU 100 mA
@9V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC; M12

RG58/3 m, M12 Connector

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

Combined Antenna with IMU

315 V DC

45 mA @ 5 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

RG58/3 m

Threaded 1in-14; 3 hole

nr

GPS/GLONASS/GALILEO/
BeiDOU/QZSS/SBAS; opt. Snow
Cone; opt. N-type connector

$5.00

9-35 V DC

170 mA @ 9 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/Y

M12

M12 Connector

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

Smart Antenna, integrated with


Receiver TR-G2T

9-35 V DC

130 mA @ 9 V

-45 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/Y

M12

M12 Connector

Threaded 5/8-11; 1in-14;


4 holes

nr

Smart Antenna, integrated with


Receiver TR-G3

3-5V

5-15 mA

-45 to +85

TP67

SMA/MCX/FAKRA and so on

RG174, LMR195,RG58
and so on

Magnet/3M adhesive

1.5-5USD

GPS/GLONASS/COMPASS

8-36V

<100 mA

-45 to +85

IP67

SMA/MCX/FAKRA and so on

RG174, LMR195,RG58
and so on

Screw

10-100USD

3-5.5V

<40 mA

-45 to +85

IP67

tnc-k

Screw

1000USD

3-5.5V

<40 mA

-45 to +85

ip67

tnc-k

Screw

1000USD

3-5V

5-15 mA

-45 to +85

ip67

SMA/MCX/FAKRA and so on

RG174, LMR195,RG58
and so on

Screw

5-15USD

3-5V

5-15 mA

-45 to +85

ip67

SMA/MCX/FAKRA and so on

RG174, LMR195,RG58
and so on

3M adhesive

0.5-2USD

3-5V

5-15 mA

-45 to +85

ip67

SMA

SMA

3-5V

5-15 mA

-45 to +85

ip67

SMA

SMA

0.5-1.5USD

3-5V

5-15 mA

-45 to +85

IP68

SMA/MCX/FAKRA and so on

RG174, LMR195,RG58
and so on

Magnet/3M adhesive

1.5-5USD

4.518 V DC

35 mA max

-40 to +70

MIL-STD-810G method
514.6-cat.24

Y/IP68

N/N

TNC female

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, SBAS

4.518 V DC

35 mA max

-40 to +70

MIL-STD-810G method
514.6-cat.24

Y/IP68

N/N

TNC female

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

3.312 V DC

100 mA max

-40 to +70

MIL-STD-810F /
ISO9022-36-05

Y/IP67

N/N

TNC female

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

3.312 V DC

100 mA max

-55 to +85

MIL-STD-810F /
ISO9022-36-05

Y/IP67

N/N

N female with TNC adapter supplied

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

3.312 V DC

100 mA max

-55 to +85

MIL-STD-810F /
ISO9022-36-05

Y/IP67

N/N

N female with TNC adapter supplied

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

3.312 V DC

100 mA max

-55 to +85

MIL-STD-810F /
ISO9022-36-05

Y/IP67

Y/Y

N female with TNC adapter supplied

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

na

na

-40 to +65

MIL-STD-810G method
514.6-cat.24

Y/IP68

Y/Y

8-pin LEMO-1 / Bluetooth

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS , GLONASS, SBAS

0.5-1.5USD

na

na

-40 to +65

MIL-STD-810G method
514.6-cat.24

Y/IP68

Y/Y

8-pin LEMO-1 / Bluetooth

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS

na

na

-40 to +65

MIL-STD-810G method
514.6-cat.24

Y/IP68

Y/Y

8-pin LEMO-1 / Bluetooth

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS

na

na

-40 to +65

MIL-STD-810G method
514.6-cat.24

Y/IP68

Y/Y

2 * 8-pin LEMO-1 / UART / Bluetooth

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

na

na

-40 to +65

MIL-STD-810F /
ISO9022-36-05

Y/IP68

Y/Y

8-pin LEMO-1

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS

na

na

-40 to +65

MIL-STD-810F /
ISO9022-36-05

Y/IP68

Y/Y

8-pin LEMO-1 / Bluetooth

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S9

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

MARUWA Co., Ltd.


www.maruwa-g.com

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

ICG60

2012

DGLMNPRV

130 x 197mm

1.45kg

1552.0-1609.0 MHz, 1165.01255.0 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/27 dB typ

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

CGA60

2014

DGLMNRV

<2 dB

MWSL-1203C

0.44kg

1552.0-1609.0 MHz, 1165.01255.0 MHz

<2.0:1

na

-/29 dB typ

Omni-Directional

14g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<1.5dB

passive

RHCP
RHCP

MWSL-1203D

33 x 15mm

14g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<1.5dB

passive

MWSL-1204

34 x 13mm

7g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<2.0dB

+16 dBic

RHCP

0.8 dB

MWSL-1206

45 x 15mm

8.4g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<2.0dB

+25 dBic

RHCP

1.0 dB

MWSL-1208

22 x 10mm

7g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<2.0dB

passive

RHCP

MWSL-1251

23 x 10mm

7g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<2.0dB

passive

RHCP

MWSL-1252

24 x 13mm

7g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<2.0dB

passive

16 x 8mm

3g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<1.5dB

passive

RHCP

16 x 8mm

3g

1575 MHz

<2.0:1

<1.5dB

passive

RHCP
RHCP

43 x 19mm

29g

1616-1626 MHz

<2.0:1

<1.5dB

+2 dBic

M1621HCT-P-SMA (Passive Iridium)


p/n: 100-00003-02 - IRIDIUM
CERTIFIED

2013

48 x 18.5mm

11g (typical)

1616-1626 MHz

1.5 (max)

0.2dB (typical) /
0.5dB (max)

passive

M1516HCT-P-SMA (Passive GPS/


GLONASS) p/n: 100-00002-02

2013

48 x 18.5mm

11g (typical)

1575 MHz/1602 MHz

1.5 (max)

0.5dB (typical) / 1
dB (max)

passive

M1227HCT-A2-SMA (Active L1/L2,


GLONASS) p/n: 100-00004-02

2014

51 x 30mm

24g (typical)

1217-1250 MHz (L2) / 15651610 MHz (L1)

<1.5

0.5dB (typical) / 1
dB (max)

30 dBic @ 1227
Mhz / 28 dBic @
1575 MHz / 28 dBic
@ 1602 MHz

M1575HCT-22P-MR (Passive GPS


L1) p/n: 100-00042-01

2013

41.65 x 19.30mm

10g (typical)

1575 MHz

1.5 (max)

1dB (typical) /
1.5dB (max)

passive

M1575HCT-22P-SMA (Passive GPS


L1) p/n: 100-00043-01

2013

38 x 18.5mm

10g (typical)

1575 MHz

1.5 (max)

1dB (typical) /
1.5dB (max)

passive

M1575HCT-15A-SMA (Active GPS


L1) p/n: 100-00028-07

2015

41.85 x 18.50 mm

10g (typical)

1575 MHz

1.5 (max)

1dB (typical) /
1.5dB (max)

28 dBic (typical)
@ 3.3 V

M1600HCT-P-SMA (Passive Iridium/


GPS) p/n: 100-00050-01

2013

48 x 18.5mm

11g (typical)

1616-1626 MHz / 1575


MHz (GPS)

1.5 (max)

0.5dB (typical) / 1
dB (max)

passive

SATFleet (Iridium/GPS Active)


p/n: 100-00045-01 - IRIDIUM
CERTIFIED

2014

61 x 116 x 50mm

117g

1621 MHz / 1575 MHz

2 (max)

1.5dB (typical)
Iridium / 1.5dB
(typical) / 2.5dB
(max) GPS

1.5 dBic (typical) @


Broadside Iridium /
5.5 dBic GPS

M1621HCT-EXT (Passive Iridium)


p/n: 100-00044-02 - IRIDIUM
CERTIFIED

2014

52.20 x 36mm

52g (typical)

1616-1626 MHz

1.5 (max)

2dB (max)

passive

M1575HCT-22-P (Passive GPS L1)


p/n: TBD (custom)

2013

24.3 x 12.85mm

2g (typical)

MULTIBAND-HELIX-1539
OMNISTAR-GPS-GLONASS-BDS
ANTENNA 100-00049-01

1575 MHz

1.5 (max)

1dB (typical) /
1.5dB (max)

passive

29.99 x 17mm

1539 MHz-1610 MHz

2.0:1 (max) @ 50
Ohm U.FL connector

2.0 dB (typical) @
bore-sight

Peak bore-sight gain


0.2 dBic (typical)
@1575 MHz

MPA-104 (Passive) L1 GPS


10mm Patch

2012

10 x 10 x 4mm

1575 MHz

1.3:1

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

passive

MPA-124 (Passive) L1 GPS


12mm Patch

2012

12 x 12 x 4mm

1575 MHz

1.3:1

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

passive

MPA-154 (Passive) L1 GPS


15mm Patch

2012

15 x 15 x 4mm

1575 MHz

1.3:1

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

passive

MPA-184 (Passive) L1 GPS


18mm Patch

2012

18 x 18 x 4mm

1575 MHz

1.3:1

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

passive

MPA-254 (Passive) L1 GPS


25mm Patch

2012

25 x 25 x 4mm

1575 MHz

1.3:1

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

passive

MIA-GPS-10 (Active) L1 GPS


10mm Patch

2012

10.2 x 10.2 x 6.7mm

1575 MHz

1.3

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

25.5 dB @ 2.5 V /
28.5 dB @ 3.5 V

MIA-GPS-12 (Active) L1 GPS


12mm Patch

2012

12 x 12 x 5.9mm

1575 MHz

1.3

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

20 dB @ 2.5 V / 24
dB @ 3.5 V

MIA-GPS-15 (Active) L1 GPS


15mm Patch

2012

16.38 x 16.38 x
4.89mm

1575 MHz

1.3

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

16 dB @ 2.5 V / 16
dB @ 3.5 V

MIA-GPS-18 (Active) L1 GPS


18mm Patch

2012

18.42 x 18.42 x
5.59mm

1575 MHz

1.3

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

24 dB @ 2.5 V / 28
dB @ 3.5 V

MIA-GPS-25 (Active) L1 GPS


25mm Patch

2012

25.27 x 25.27 x
9.13mm

1575 MHz

1.3

1.5 dB (typical) /
2.5 dB (max)

34 dB @ 2.5 V / 34
dB @ 3.5 V

MPA-D254-1621 (Passive) Iridium


25mm - IRIDIUM CERTIFIED

2012

25 x 25mm antenna
w/ 45 x 45mm ground
plane

1616-1626 MHz

1.3:1

4 dB (typical)

Passive

MPA-1618 (Passive) Globalstar


25mm

2012

25 x 25 x 4mm

1618 MHz

1.3:1

2.5 dB (typical) / 5
dB (max)

Passive

MPA-1516 (Passive) GPS/


GLONASS 25mm

2012

25 x 25 x 4mm

MPA-1516 (Active) GPS/GLONASS


25mm

2012

25 x 25 x 9.13mm

1.5:1

1 dB (min)

30 dB @ 2.5 V / 32
dB @ 5 V

Microwave Photonic Systems


www.b2bphotonics.com

OFW-3478, Fiber Optic Antenna


Link, Multidrop

2002

DELMOT

6in D

500g

L1, L2

1.5:1

NavCom Technology, Inc.


www.navcomtech.com

ANT-3001R

2009

DGLMN

5.75 x 2.46in

1.1lb

1570 45 & 1164-1260 MHz

2.0:1

NovAtel, Inc.
www.novatel.ca

RHCP

MWSL-1300
MWSL-1350
MWSL-3105
Maxtena, Inc.
www.maxtena.com

62 x 170mm
33 x 19mm

1590 MHz

0.8 dB
(typical) LNA
chain only

Passive

1590 MHz
14g

1.5 dB
(typical)

3 dB Max @
Boresight

35 dB

Omni-Directional

<2 dB

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

ANT-3001A

2009

DGLMN

5.75 x 2.46in

1.1lb

1570 45 & 1164-1260 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB Max @
Boresight

39 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

ANT-3001BR

2009

14.82 x 13.83in

10.5lb

1570 45 & 1164-1260 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB Max @
Boresight

38 dB

RHCP

2.6 dB Max

GNSS-501

2015

LNOPRV

45 x 155 mm

450g

1588.5 23.0 MHz


1545.0 20.0 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1/B1/E1/G1:
4.0 dBic min / 29
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GNSS-502

2015

LNOPRV

45 x 155 mm

450g

1588.5 23.0 MHz


1220.0 31.0 MHz
1545.0 20.0 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1/B1/E1/G1:
4.0 dBic min / 29
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GPS-703-GGG

2009

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

500g

1580.5 28.5 MHz


1210.0 45 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1: 5 dBic / 29 dB
typ; L2: 3 dBic / 29
dB typ; L5: 3 dBic /
29 dB typ

RHCP

2.0 dB typ

GPS-703-GGG-HV

2014

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

530g

1580.5 28.5 MHz


1210.0 45 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1: 5 dBic / 29 dB
typ; L2: 3 dBic / 29
dB typ; L5: 3 dBic /
29 dB typ

RHCP

2.0 dB typ

S10 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

4.518 V DC

50 mA max

-40 to +65

MIL810F, Fig. 514.5C-3

Y/IP67

Y/Y

8-pin LEMO-1 / Bluetooth / USB


Host/QN Female /TNC Female/
UART

na

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

4.518 V DC

35 mA max

-40 to +70

MIL-STD-810F method
514.5-cat.24

Y/IP68

N/N

TNC female

diff. type & length from


1.2m-70m available

5/8 Threaded

nr

GPS, GLONASS, GALILEO,


BEIDOU, SBAS, QZSS, L-band

-40+85

SMA(male)

na

SMA

Inquire

Screw mount

-40+85

SMA(male)

na

SMA

Inquire

Screw mount

1.8-3.6V

3.4 mA

-40+85

PCB

na

PCB

Inquire

PCB

2.8-3.6V

13.0 mA

-40+85

PCB

na

PCB

Inquire

PCB

-40+85

3-pin

na

3-pin connector

Inquire

3-pin

-40+85

PCB

-40+85

PCB

na

PCB

Inquire

PCB

-40+85

3-pin

na

3-pin connector

Inquire

3-pin

-40+85

PCB

na

PCB

Inquire

PCB

-40+85

SMA(male)

na

SMA

Inquire

Screw mount

SMA/U.FL or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

3-12 V

25 mA (typical)

30 mA (typical)
@ 3.3 V

2.5 to 5 V

7 mA @ 2.5 V / 11
mA @ 3.5 V

(Y) IP67/68

na

PCB

Inquire

PCB

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

SMA/U.FL or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

SMA/U.FL or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

SMA/U.Fl or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

SMA/U.Fl or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

SMA/U.Fl or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

SMA/U.Fl or other

no cable standard

SMA

screw-on standard

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67 and UV


Stable

SMA Plug (M) standard customization on demand

508 mm standard customization on demand

Screw mount w/ cable and


connector

Screw mount

-40 - +85C

(Y) IP67/68

TNC, SMA, SMB, MCX

1500 mm

Mag mount w/ cable and


connector

Mag mount w/ cable

Integrated 3 pin connector

3 pin

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

3 pin, U.FL or other

no cable standard

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

Pin connector

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

Pin connector

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

Pin connector

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

Pin connector

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

Pin connector

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

2.5 to 3.5 V

9 mA @ 2.5 V / 15
mA @ 3.5 V

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

2.5 to 3.5 V

4 mA @ 2.5 V / 7
mA @ 3.5 V

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

2.5 to 3.5 V

4 mA @ 2.5 V / 7
mA @ 3.5 V

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

2.5 to 3.5 V

5 mA @ 2.5 V / 7
mA @ 3.5 V

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

2.5 to 5 V

7 mA @ 2.5 V / 11
mA @ 3.5 V

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

100 mm cable with custom


connector

adhesive/embedded

embedded

-40 - +85C

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

adhesive/embedded

embedded

(N) (embedded)

U.FL or other

no cable standard

embedded

TNC Femle

up to 10km

Multiple

12,000.00

Fiber Optic Antenna Link

2.5 to 5V

11 mA (max)

-40 - +85C

+5V to +18V DC

<50 mA

-40 to +85

Random & Sinusoidal


Certiied

Yes, MIL-STD-810F

+4.2 +15 VDC

65 mA

-55C TO +85C

nr

TNC Female

Antenna Cable / 12ft

Pole Mount

nr

nr

+4.2 +15 VDC

65 mA

-55C TO +85C

nr

TNC Female

Antenna Cable / 12ft

Fuselage/Vehicle Flush Mount


(FAA Certiied)

nr

nr

+4.2 +15 VDC

65 mA

-55C TO +85C

nr

TNC Female

Antenna Cable / 12ft

Roof Mount

nr

nr

3.3 - 18 VDC

20 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-810G(CH1),
514.7 Annex E;
Procedure 1,
Category 24

Y/Water Resitant to
IP67, IP69K

N/N

TNC

na

2 magnetic mounts
2 M4 screw inserts

Inquire

nr

3.3 - 18 VDC

20 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-810G(CH1),
514.7 Annex E;
Procedure 1,
Category 24

Y/Water Resitant to
IP67, IP69K

N/N

TNC

na

2 magnetic mounts
2 M4 screw inserts

Inquire

nr

4.5 - 18 V DC

36 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-810F method
514.5; ASAE EP455
Section 5.15.2 Level 1

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

4.5 - 18 V DC

36 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-810G
514.6E-1, Category
24; MIL-STD-810G
514.6C-3, Category 4;
ASAE EP455 Section
5.15.2 Level 1; ISO
9022-3 Method 36

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

FEBRUARY 2016

embedded

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S11

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

OriginGPS LTD.
www.origingps.com

Parsec Technologies, Inc.


www.parsec-t.com

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

GPS-702-GG

2006

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

500g

1588.5 23 MHz
1236.0 18.3 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1: 5 dBic / 29
dB typ
L2: 2 dBic / 29
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GPS-702-GG-HV

2014

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

530g

1588.5 23 MHz
1236.0 18.3 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1: 5 dBic / 29
dB typ
L2: 2 dBic / 29
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GPS-702L

2005

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

500g

1575.4 20 MHz
1227.6 20 MHz
1543 20 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1: 5 dBic / 27
dB typ
L2: 1.5 dBic / 27
dB typ
L: 5 dBic / 27
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GPS-701-GGL

2007

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

500g

1588.5 23 MHz
1545 20 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1, L: 5 dBic / 29
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GPS-701-GG

2006

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

500g

1575.4 -10/+36 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1, L: 5 dBic / 29
dB typ

RHCP

2.5 dB typ

GPS-704X

2006

DGLMNOPRV

69 x 185mm

468g

1.15GHz -1.65 GHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1, L: +6 dBic
L2, L5: +2 dBic

RHCP

nr

Pinwheel OEM

2013

DGLMNOPRV

30 x 143mm

120g

1525-1611 MHz
1164-1254 MHz

2.0:1

3 dB max

L1/L: 3 dBic / 23
dB typ
L2: 2 dBic / 23
dB typ
E5b/B2: 0 dBic / 23
dB typ

RHCP

2.0 dB typ

ANT-26C1GA-TBW-N

2006

ALGMV

18 x 66mm

113g

1575.4 12 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

2.4 dB typ

ANT-26C1GOA-196MNSB

2012

LGMOV

19 x 63mm

184g

1575.4 15 MHz
1609.0 7 MHz
1542.0 14 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

3 dB typ

3GOXX16A4-XTR-1-2-CERT

2013

ALGMV

18 x 89mm

184g

1575.4 12 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

2.2 dB typ

3GOXX16A4-XTR-1-1-CERT

2013

ALGMV

19 x 89mm

191g

1575.4 15 MHz
1227.6 15 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

3.0 dB typ

42G1215A-XT-1-CERT

2013

ALGMV

119 x 76 x 18mm
(ARINC 743A)

198g

1575.4 12 MHz
1227.6 12 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

3.0 dB typ

42GO16A4-XT-1-CERT

2013

ALGMV

119 x 76 x 20mm
(ARINC 743A)

191g

1525-1595 MHz
1602-1626 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

40 dB typ

RHCP

3.0 dB typ

42G1215A-XT-1-2-CERT

2013

ALGMV

119 x 76 x 20mm
(ARINC 743A)

191g

1575.4 12 MHz
1227.6 12 MHz
1542.5 17.5 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

1.9 dB typ

42G1215A-XT-1-3-CERT

2013

ALGMV

119 x 76 x 20mm
(ARINC 743A)

191g

1575.4 12 MHz
1227.6 12 MHz
1542.5 17.5 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB typ

40 dB typ

RHCP

1.9 dB typ

42GOXX16A4-XT-1-1-CERT

2013

ALGMV

119 x 76 x 23mm
(ARINC 743A)

227g

1575.4 15 MHz
1609 7 MHz
1227.6 12 MHz
1252.5 7.5 MHz
1542.5 14 MHz

2.0:1

2 dB typ

33 dB typ

RHCP

3.0 dB typ

ANT-C2GA-TW-N

2006

GLR

223 x 308mm

4.1kg

1575.4 13 MHz
1227.6 13 MHz

1.5:1

nr

32 dB typ

RHCP

3.0 dB typ

GNSS-750

2008

GLR

380 x 200mm

7.6kg

1525-1612 MHz
1164-1301 MHz

1.5:1

2 dB @ zenith

5 dBic / 43 dB typ

RHCP

2.0 dB typ

Micro Hornet (ORG1410)

2012

DLMNTV

10 x 10 x 5.8mm

2.5g

GPS L1, SBAS (WAAS,


EGNOS), QZSS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Nano Hornet (ORG1411)

2014

DLMNTV

10 x 10 x 3.8mm

1.6g

GPS L1, SBAS (WAAS,


EGNOS), QZSS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Hornet (ORG1415)

2010

LMNTV

17 x 17 x 4.8mm

3.5g

GPS L1, SBAS (WAAS,


EGNOS), QZSS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
R+A4:J4eceiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

AB1 Hornet (ORG1415-AB1)

2011

ELMNTV

18 x 20 x 5.6mm

4.2g

GPS L1, SBAS (WAAS,


EGNOS), QZSS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Ultra Sensitive Hornet (ORG1418)

2010

LMNTV

18 x 18 x 4.8mm

4.8g

GPS L1, SBAS (WAAS,


EGNOS), QZSS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Snap-In Snap-Out Hornet


(ORG4502)

2015

ELMNTV

18.5 x 28 x 7mm

8g

GPS L1, GLONASS L1,


SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS),
QZSS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Multi Hornet (ORG1218)

2013

LMNTV

17 x 17 x 6mm

8g

GPS L1, GLONASS L1,


SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS),
QZSS, Galileo and Beidou
Ready

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Multi Micro Hornet (ORG1510-R01)

2015

DLMNTV

10 x 10 x 5.9mm

2.5g

GPS L1, GLONASS L1,


SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS),
QZSS, Galileo and Beidou
Ready

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

Multi Micro Hornet (ORG1510MK04)

2015

DLMNTV

10 x 10 x 6.1mm

2.4g

GPS L1, GLONASS L1,


SBAS (WAAS, EGNOS),
QZSS, Galileo and Beidou
Ready

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

ORG9805

2012

LMNTV

49 x 39 x 15mm

106g including cable


and connector

1575 / 20MHz

1.5 :1

2.0 (max)

4dBic (min) /
27dB (typ)

Hemispheric, RHCP

1.5 (max)

ORG9802

2011

LMNTV

13.4 x 13.4 x 6.5mm

4g / 6.3g including
150mm cable and
connector

1575 / 10MHz

1.5 :1

2.5 (max)

-1dBic / na

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Passive
Antenna

ORG12-4T GPS

2011

LMNTV

12 x 12 x 4mm

3.4g

1575 / 10MHz

1.5 :1

3.0 (max)

-1.3dBic / na

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Passive
Element

ORG12-4T GNSS

2014

LMNTV

12 x 12 x 4mm

3.4g

GPS L1 / GLONASS L1

1.5 :1

3.0 (max)

-1.3dBic / na

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Passive
Element

ORG18-4T

2012

LMNTV

18 x 18 x 4mm

6.5g

GPS L1 / GLONASS L1

1.5 :1

3.0 (max)

0.3dBic / na

Hemispheric, RHCP

na, Passive
Element

PTA1.5-9 - Antenna

13-Dec

ALMNOPTV

9 x 7.0 x 0.8mm

.5g

1560 -1610 MHz

1.5:1

na

0.9dB max- No LNA

LP

No LNA

PTA1.5-16- Antenna

13-Dec

ALMNOPTV

16.25 x 7.0 x 0.8mm

.5g

1560 -1610 MHz

1.5:1

na

2.1dB max No LNA

LP

No LNA

PTA1.5-V- Antenna

13-Dec

ALMNOPTV

14.25 x 6.0 x 0.8mm

.5g

1560 -1610 MHz

1.5:1

na

2.1dB max No LNA

LP

No LNA

PTA1.5M-9 - Active Antenna

13-Dec

PTA1.5M-16- Active Antenna

13-Dec

ALMNOPTV

16.25 x 9.175 x 1.3mm

1.5g

1560 -1610 MHz

1.5:1

na

15dB

LP

1.25dB

PTA020

15-Jul

ALMNOPTV

45 x 17 x 3mm

14.5g

1560MHz-1610MHz

1.5:1

na

1.5dBi

LP

0.65dB

PTA070

15-Jul

ALMNOPTV

36.5 x 29.5 x 3mm

18.5g

1560MHz-1610MHz

1.5:1

na

na

LP

0.65dB

PTA 1600

15-Dec

ALMNOPTV

65.4 x 17.15 x2.5mm

16.5g

1560MHz-1610MHz

1.5:1

na

6.2dBi

LP

0.65dB

S12 G P S W O R L D

ALMNOPTV

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

9 x 9.175 x 1.3mm

1.5g

FEBRUARY 2016

1560 -1610 MHz

1.5:1

na

15dB

LP

1.25dB

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

4.5 - 18 V DC

35 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-202F
method 214

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC, N

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

4.5 - 18 V DC

35 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-810G
514.6E-1, Category
24; MIL-STD-810G
514.6C-3, Category 4;
ASAE EP455 Section
5.15.2 Level; ISO
9022-3 Method 36

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

4.5 - 18 V DC

35 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-810F method
514.5; ASAE EP455
Section 5.15.2 Level 1

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

4.5 - 18 V DC

35 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-202F method
214; SAEJ1211
section 4.7

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

4.5 - 18 V DC

35 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-202F method
214; SAEJ1211
section 4.7

Y/Water Resistant
to IPX7

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

nr

Passive

-40 to +85

nr

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

5 V DC

35 mA typ

-40 to +85

MIL-STD-202F;
SAEJ1211 Section 4.7

Y/Y

R/A MMCX

na

Screw Flange

Inquire

Required

2.5 - 24 V DC

<30 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole back mount, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<40 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

SMA Male

7.7 m/RG-316

4-hole back mount, lush


magnetic

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<30 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<50 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<35 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<39 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<35 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<35 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

35 mA @ 3.3V typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

4-hole, surface

Inquire

nr

2.5 - 24 V DC

<35 mA typ

-55 to +85

>30 Gs

Y/nr

Y/Y

TNC

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

3.3 -12 V DC

70 mA typ

-55 to +85

ISO 9022-3 Method 36

Y/MIL-STD-810F
IEC-60529

Y/Y

N-Type with TNC adaptor supplied

na

Threaded

Inquire

nr

1.8V or 2 - 5.5V

8 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA10

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

1.8V or 2 - 5.5V

8 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA10

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

2 - 5.5V

10 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA22

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

2 - 5.5V

10 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

5 position hole array

na

Through Hole

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

1.8V or 2 - 5.5V

10 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA22

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

2 - 6V

10 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

10 position ZIF connector

na

FPC cable

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

3 - 3.6V

40 (full power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA22

Contact Distributor

GNSS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

3 - 3.6V

10 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA10

Contact Distributor

GPS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

1.8V

10 (low power
tracking)

-40C to +85C

na

na

SMD LGA10

Contact Distributor

GNSS Receiver Module With


Integrated Antenna

3 - 5V

8.5 (typ)

-40C to +85C

Sine sweep 5 55 5
Hz, 1 octave/min

Y / IP66

SMA plug

RG-174 / 5m

Magnetic base

Contact Distributor

GPS Active Antenna

na, Passive Antenna

na, Passive
Antenna

-40C to +85C

na

Hirose W.FL / I-pex MHFIII plug

AWG36 / 43mm or 150mm

na

Contact Distributor

GPS Passive Antenna

na, Passive Element

na, Passive
Element

-40C to +85C

Sine sweep 5 55 5
Hz, 1 octave/min

na

Manual Soldering

Contact Distributor

GPS Antenna Element

na, Passive Element

na, Passive
Element

-40C to +85C

Sine sweep 5 55 5
Hz, 1 octave/min

na

Manual Soldering

Contact Distributor

GPS/GLONASS Antenna
Element

na, Passive Element

na, Passive
Element

-40C to +85C

Sine sweep 5 55 5
Hz, 1 octave/min

na

Manual Soldering

Contact Distributor

GPS/GLONASS Antenna
Element

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

SMT

call

GPS/GNSS

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

SMT

call

GPS/GNSS

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

na

SMT

call

GPS/GNSS

1.8 -6v

4mA-50mA

0-85

na

na

na

na

na

SMT

call

GPS/GNSS

1.8-6v

4mA-50mA

0-85

na

na

na

na

na

SMT

call

GPS/GNSS

1.0-5v

2.5mA-50mA

0-85

na

na

na

na

na

U.FL

call

GPS/GNSS

1.0-5v

2.5mA-50mA

0-85

na

na

na

na

na

U.FL

call

GPS/GNSS

1.0-5v

2.5mA-50mA

0-85

na

na

na

na

na

U.FL

call

GPS/GNSS

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S13

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

8111D-HR

DLMNOPTV

1.77 x 2.01 x 0.47in

0.26lb

GPS L1, GLONASS L1 /


1574-1610MHz

1.5:1

nr

3 dBic / 26 dB

RHCP

< 2.0 dB
(typ.)

GPS-L1L2-28MAG

ADLMNOPTV

2.75 D x 0.95in H

5.7oz

GPS L1 (+/-10MHz), GPS L2


(+/-10MHz)

<2.0:1

< 4 dB @ 30
elevation; < 3 dB
@ 45 elevation;
< 2 dB @ 70
elevation

>3 dBic @ 10
elevation; 4 dBic @
90 elevation / 33
dB @ GPS L1; 35
dB @ GPS L2

RHCP

2.5 dB

GPSGL-TMG-RCVR422

LOPT2

3.2 D x 5.0in H

0.6lb

GPS L1, GALILEO E1,


GLONASS L1

<2.0:1

nr

4 dBic / 28 dB`

RHCP

< 2.5 dB
(typ.)

GEO-GNSS-AC-S1

DHLMNOPTV

0.8 D x 3.4in H

1.23oz

GPS L1, GLONASS L1 /


1574-1610MHz

1.5:1 (typ.)

nr

-2.0dBic / 26.5dB
(typ.)

RHCP

<2.0 dB

Manufacturer

Model

PCTEL
www.antenna.com

Raytheon UK
www.raytheon.co.uk

Rojone
www.rojone.com

Spectra Precision
www.spectraprecision.com

Intro. Date

GLHPDM3-SF

12/31/2015

DLMNOPV

5.1 x 3.6in; (130 x


92mm)

GPS L1, GLONASS L1 /


1574-1610MHz; 698-960
MHz; 1710-2170 MHz;
2300-2700 MHz; 2.4-2.5 GHz;
4.9-5.9 GHz

< 2.0:1

nr

2.5 dBi (4G LTE),


3-4 dBi (Wi-Fi) / 26
dB +/- 3 dBic

Vertical, linear
(Comms), RHCP
(GPS)

< 2.0 dB
(typ.)

GPSDLTEMIMO-LTB

12/31/2015

DLMNOPV

4.05 x 3.46in

GPS L1, 4G LTE 698-960


MHz; 1710-2170 MHz;
2300-2700 MHz); Wi-Fi (2.42.5GHz, 4.9-5.9GHz)

< 2.0:1

nr

2.5 dBi (4G LTE),


3-4 dBi (Wi-Fi) / 26
dB +/- 3 dBic

Vertical, linear
(Comms), RHCP
(GPS)

1.8 dB (typ.)

GPS-TMG-HR-26N

LOPT

5.0 H x 3.2in D

0.6lb

GPS L1 (+/-10MHz)

1.5:1

nr

3.5 dBic / 26.5 dB

RHCP

4.0 dB
(typ.)

GNSS1-TMG-26N

LOPT

5.0 H x 3.2in D

0.6lb

GPS L1, GALILEO E1,


GLONASS L1, BEIDOU B1

< 2.0:1

nr

3 dBic / 26.5 dB
3 dB @ GPS
L1/GALILEO E1;
24.5 dB 3 dB
@ GLONASS L1/
BEIDOU B1

RHCP

< 2.5 dB
(typ.)

8171D-HR-NDH-W

DLMNOPTV

2.36 x 2.80in

0.15lb

GPS L1, GLONASS L1 /


1574-1610MHz

< 2.0:1

nr

2 dBic / 26 dB (typ.)

RHCP

< 2.0 dB
(typ.)

GPS-LB12GL-MAG

ADGLNOPV

4.71 x 3.17 x 1.10in

6.8oz

GPS L1, GPS L2, L-Band,


GLONASS G1

< 2.0:1

45 elevation:
9 dB(GPS
L1, L-Band, &
GLONASS), 6dB
(GPS L2)

33 dB +/- 4dB (GPS


L1/L2, GLONASS,
L-BAND)

RHCP

2.5 dB (typ.)

GAS-1 7 Element Anti-Jam

1998

ADLMNOTV

CRPA=350mm
AE=220x60x330mm

CRPA 3.8Kg, AE 4kg

GPS L1/GPS L2
Simultaneous

nr

nr

7-40dB

nr

nr

ADAP 7 Element Anti-Jam

2005

ADLMNOTV

CRPA=350mm
AE=220x60x330mm

CRPA 3.4Kg, AE 4.5kg

GPS L1/GPS L2
Simultaneous

nr

nr

7-40dB

nr

nr

Mini-GAS 4 Element Anti-Jam


(Integrated CRPA & AE)

2012

ADLMNOTV

125 x 100mm

1.5kg

GPS L1/GPS L2
Simultaneous

nr

nr

7-28dB

nr

nr

Landshield 4 Element Anti-Jam


(Integrated CRPA & AE)

2015

ADLMNOTV

115 x 62mm

1kg

GPS L1/GPS L2
Simultaneous

nr

nr

7-38dB

nr

nr

SAS 5 Element Anti-Jam (AE)

2009

ADLMNOTV

144 x 115 x 76mm

1.5kg

GPS L1/GPS L2
Simultaneous

nr

nr

7-38dB

nr

nr

MicroGAS 2 Element Anti-Jam,


DAGR & Non DAGR (Integrated
CRPA & AE)

2015

ADLMNOTV

35 x 35 x 70mm

260g

GPS L1/GPS L2
Simultaneous

nr

nr

7-30dB

nr

nr

MaxiNav

2000

DGLMV

110 x 18mm

150g

1575 5 MHz

<1.5:1

3 dB

6/36 dB

Omni-Directional

1.2 dB

GPSA9-wide

2004

DLMNRV

115 x 30mm

220g

1535-1576 MHz DGPS-GPS

<1.5:1

3 dB

6/36 dB

Omni-Directional

<1.0 dB

A-GEN-RTA-REVD-3M-CS

2015

DGLMV

134 x 134 x 24mm

150g

GPS L1, Galileo, SBAS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na / Integrated
Receiver

Omni-Directional

na, Integrated
Receiver

A-IGPS-GSM-SMA

2015

DGLMV

135 x 135 x 98mm

200g

GPS L1, Iridium, GSM

<1.5:1

3 dB

6/30,3,0 dB

Omni-Directional

1.2dB

A-GPSA56-TRI

2015

DGLMV

134 x 134 x 22mm

170g

1575 5 MHz; 820 to


960 MHz

<1.5:1

3 dB

6/32, 0,2 dB

Omni-Directional

0.6 dB typ.

L1/L2

2004

DR

154 x 154 x 41mm

730g

1535-1576 MHz; 12201230 MHz

<1.5:1

3 dB

6/36 dB

Omni-Directional

<1.0dB

A-GPSA80NS

2012

DGLMVT

135 x 135 x 98mm

235g

1575 5 MHz

<1.5:1

3 dB

6/35 dB

Omni-Directional

1.2 dB

ASH-661 (L1/L2/L5 GNSS Antenna)

2010

GLMNORT

190.5 x 73.15mm
7.50 x 2.88in

0.53kg; 1.12lb

L1/L2/L5 GPS; L1/L2


GLONASS; GALILEO E1/E5a

<2.0:1

3 dB max @
BORESIGHT

38 dB 2 dB

nr

2.5 dB max

ASH-660 (L1 GNSS Antenna)

2010

GLMNORT

190.5 x 73.15mm
7.50 x 2.88in

0.45kg; 1lb

L1 GPS; L1 GLONASS

<2.0:1

3 dB max @
BORESIGHT

38 dB 2 dB

nr

2.5 dB max

GNSS Machine/Marine Antenna

2009

GLMNORT

143 x 38.8 (+9.6)mm


5.755 x 1.53
(+0.38)in

0.45kg; 1lb

L1/L2 GPS; L1/L2 GLONASS;


L-Band

<2.0:1

3 dB max

38 dB 2 dB

nr

2.6 dB max

GNSS Choke Ring Antenna

2009

GLOR

376 x 351.2mm
14.82 x 13.83in

4.7kg
10.5lb

L1/L2/L5 GPS
L1/L2 GLONASS
GALILEO E1/E5a
L-Band

<2.0:1

3 dB max @
BORESIGHT

39 dB 2 dB

nr

2.6 dB max

Surrey Satellite Technology


Ltd.
www.sstl.co.uk

SGR Patch Antenna


ASY-00741-04

2000

45 x 50 x 20mm

50g

1574.5 - 1576.5MHz

<2:1

24dB

RHCP

2.5dB

Synergy Systems, LLC


www.synergy-gps.com

ART-10S

2006

2.36 x 1.49in

1lb

1575.42MHz/2 MHz min

2 dB

3 dB

28 dB

SSA-5

2011

NDV

3.40 D x 1.2in H

10.3oz

1575.42 MHz

1.5 max

3 dB

28 dB

VP 6000 All GNSS Frequencies +


L-Band Geodetic Antenna

2015

DEGLMNOR

167 D x 124.5mm

700g

GPS L1/L2/L5 + GLONASS


G1/G2/G3 + Galileo E1/
E5/E6 + BeiDou B1/B2/B3
+ L-Band

<1.5:1

< 0.5 @ zenith,


<2.0 @ horizon

5-7 dBic/35 or 50 dB

Hemispherical

<1.5

TW1421 / TW4421- GPS L1+


GLONASS G1, Dual Feed, Patch
Antenna

2012

ADLNOPTV

35 D x 7.25mm

30g

GPS L1+GLONASS L1/1574


to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

< 3.5

4.5 dBic/28 dB

Hemispherical

1.25

TW2406 / TW2410 - GPS L1+


GLONASS G1, Dual Feed Antenna

2010

ADLGNOPTV

50 D x 7.8mm

100g

GPS L1+GLONASS L1/1574


to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<3

4 dBic/ 28 dB

Hemispherical

TW4721 - Dual Feed GPS/


GLONASS/Galileo/BeiDou L1

2013

DGLMNOPTV

38 x 38 x 14.3mm

50g

1559 - 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.5 dBic / 26 dB

Hemispherical

TW2710 - GPS + GLONASS +


Galileo + BeiDou, Magnet/Screw
Mount, Dual Feed Antenna

2013

ADLGNOPTV

57 D x 15mm

150g

1557 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.75 dBic / 28 dB

Hemispherical

<1

Tallysman
www.tallysman.com

S14 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

1.5 dB
2.0 dB

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

2.8-6 VDC

< 25 mA (typ.)

-40 to +85

3 axis, sweep=15
min 10-200 Hz log
sweep:3G

SMA Male, options available

RG174 / 3M

Magnetic (5lb lift-off) or


screw mount

62.35

High Rejection Magnet Mount


Antenna

2.5-5.5 VDC

37mA (typ.), 50mA


(maximum)

-40 to +85

Mil Std 810F, Method


514.5, Procedure II,
Category 5

SMA Female

na

Magnetic > 20lb pull force

425

Precision Guidance, MIL-Grade


L1/L2 Active Magnet Mount
Antenna

nr

nr

-40 to +85

0.008 g2/Hz 5 to 20
Hz, 0.05 g2/Hz 20 to
100 Hz

12-pin circular connector conforming


IEC 60130-9.v3.0

na

Medium duty mount with


grounding screw

773.5

GPS/GLONASS Integrated
Receiver + Timing Antenna

2.5-5.5V (operating)
12.0V (survivability)

20mA

-40 to +85

nr

SMA Male, SMA Female

na

Panel Mount, Direct Connect or


Cable Connection

95.77

Handheld GNSS, Helical,


High Rejection, Rugged Active
Antenna

2.8-6.0 V (operating)
12.0 V (survivability)

25 mA (typical)

-40 to +85

nr

Y / IP67

Two (2) SMA Male (4G LTE); Three


(3) Reverse Polarity SMA Male
(Wi-Fi); One (1) SMA Male (GNSS
GPS/Glonass)

Two (2) 17 ft. Pro-Flex Plus


195; (4G LTE Elements);
Three (3) 17 ft. Pro-Flex Plus
195; (Wi-Fi Elements); One
(1) 17 ft. RG-174/U; (GNSS
Element)

1-inch hole, 3/4-inch; long (.75)


zinc stud; mount with jam nut

399

Multiband LTE MIMO, 802.11ac


MIMO and high rejection GNSS
(GPS L1/Glonass) Antenna

2.8-6.0 V (operating)
12.0 V (survivability)

20 mA (nominal)

-40 to +85

nr

Y / IP67

MSMA (4G LTE), RP-MSMA (Wi-Fi),


MSMA (GPS L1)

Two-17 feet Pro-Flex Plus


195; (4G LTE Elements);
Two-17 feet Pro-Flex Plus 195;
(802.11n Wi-Fi Elements);
One-17 feet RG-174/U (GPS
Element)

1-inch hole, 3/4-inch long (.75);


zinc stud mount with jam nut

375

Multiband LTE MIMO, 802.11ac


MIMO and high rejection GPS
L1 Antenna

3.3-12V

40 mA

-40 to +85

0.008 g2/Hz 5 to 20
Hz, 0.05 g2/Hz 20 to
100 Hz

N Female

na

Mounting Options to pipes


1-1.45

225

High Rejection Timing Antenna

3.3-9.0 V

< 35 mA

-40 to +85

0.008 g2/Hz 5 to 20
Hz, 0.05 g2/Hz 20 to
100 Hz

N Female

na

Mounting Options to pipes


1-1.45

260

Global GNSS Timing Antenna

2.8-6.0 V

< 25 mA (typ.)

-40 to +85

3 axis, sweep = 15
min 10-200 Hz log
sweep:3G

N Male

na

Panel mount or bracket mount

98.5

High Rejection, Small Cell


Timing Antenna

3.3-12.0 VDC

42 mA (typ.)

-40 to +85

Mil Std 810F, Method


514.5, Procedure II,
Category 5

SMA Female

na

Magnetic > 20lb pull force

535

Precision Guidance, MIL-Grade


L1/L2/GLONASS/L-BAND Active
Magnet Mount Antenna

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

TNC

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

TNC

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

SMA

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

SMA

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

TNC

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

nr

SMA

nr

nr

nr

330 V DC

25 mA

-40 to +60c

na

Y/IP68

DC ground

N preferred but all available

As applicable

Magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

530 V DC

80 mA

-40 to +60c

na

Y/IP68

DC ground

N preferred but all available

As applicable

magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

nr

5-28VDC

50-60mA

-40 to +85c

na

Y/IP68

dc ground

serial/usb output as required

up to 8 meters

Magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

GPS Receiver Module with


Integrated Antenna

5VDC

30 mA typ.

-40 to +60c

na

Y/IP68

dc ground

SMA/N/TNC

As applicable

Magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

nr

3.3-20 V DC

30 mA typ.

-40 to +60c

na

Y/IP68

dc ground

SMA/SMA RP

As applicable

Magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

nr

530 V DC

80 mA

-40 to +60c

na

Y/IP68

DC ground

N preferred but all available

As applicable

Magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

nr

315 V DC

35 mA

-40 to +65c

na

Y/IP68

DC ground

N preferred but all available

As applicable

Magnetic/Pole/ Screw

nr

nr

+4.2 to +15 VDC

nr

-40 to +70

DO-160D

nr

N/N

TNC (f) coaxial conn. 50 ohms

nr

5/8-11 UNC-2B

nr

nr

+4.2 to +15 VDC

nr

-40 to +70

DO-160D

nr

N/N

TNC (f) coaxial conn. 50 ohms

nr

5/8-11 UNC-2B

nr

nr

+4.2 to +15 VDC

60 mA

-55 to +85

D0-160D; ENV CAT:


E1-ABB [CLMY]
XSFDFSZAAACPH
[A3] [2A] CA

nr

N/N

TNC (f) coaxial conn. 50 ohms

nr

8X .213 THRU
82 CSINK x .365

nr

nr

+4.2 to +15 VDC

65 mA

-55 to +85

D0-160D; ENV CAT:


E1-ABB [CLMY]
XSFDFSZAAACPH
[A3] [2A] CA

nr

N/N

TNC (f) coaxial conn. 50 ohms

nr

1-14 UNS-2B THREAD


3X 3/8-16UNC-2B INSERTS
ON A B.C. 12.70

nr

nr

2.7 - 5 VDC

24mA typ

-35 to +60

> 10g

N / outgassing
allowance

N/N

SMA

2m K02252D

4 Screw

2.5 to 5.5 Vdc

12 mA

-30C to +85C

TNC

16ft

3/4in pipe

$41.50

TNC

bulkhead

3.0 Vdc to 6.0 Vdc

11 mA typ; 13
mA max

-40C to +85C

2.7 to 24

<40

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

IEC 61373 (1999)


15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC or N-Type

2.5 to 16

15

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

15 KV ESD
Protection

SMA Male, MCX, MMCX, SMB,


MCX right angle, H.FL., U.FL., SMA
right angle, SSMA

2.5 to 16

10

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

15 KV ESD
Protection

2.5 to 16

10

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

2.5 to 16

15

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

nr

1-14 Marine Mnt; or bulkhead

$127.50 - $144.50

5/8 x 11 tpi

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Room for customer provided


circuitry

1.5mm dia. CO-6F.FH-SB


cable/custom

Screw or adhesive

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Custom Tuning available

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL., SMA Right Angle, Waterproof
SMA, SSMA, Reverse Polarity SMA,
SMA on bulkhead, H.FL.

1.5mm dia. CO-6F.FH-SB


cable/custom

Screw or adhesive

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Custom Tuning available

15 KV ESD
Protection

SMA, MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC,


SMA, SMB, SMA Right Angle,
Waterproof SMA, SSMA, Reverse
Polarity SMA

RG174/ Custom

magnetic or adhesive

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

15 KV ESD
Protection

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL., SMA Right Angle, Waterproof
SMA, SSMA, Reverse Polarity SMA,
SMA on bulkhead, H.FL.

RG174/ Custom

Magnet, screw or adhesive

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

Custom labelling available

G P S W O R L D S15

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

Taoglas
www.taoglas.com

Topcon Positioning
Systems, Inc.
www.topconpositioning.com

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

TW1721 - GPS L1 + GLONASS


G1 + Galileo E1 + BeiDou B1
(Embedded)

2013

ADELMNSV

35 D x 8.75mm

30g

1559 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.5 dBic / 28 dB

Hemispherical

<1.5

TW1430 - GPS L1 + GLONASS


G1 + Galileo E1 + BeiDou B1
(embedded)

2015

ADELMNSV

35 D x 8.75mm

30g

1559 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.5 dBic / 32 dB

Hemispherical

<1.5

TW3152 - GPS L1

2015

TL

66.5 x 21mm

150g

1565 - 1585 MHz

<1.5:2

<1

4.5 dBic / 50 dB

Hemispherical

1.5

TW3870E - GPS L1/L2 + GLONASS


G1/G2 + Galileo E1 + BeiDou B1
(Embedded)

2015

ADMGLMNOSTV

60 D x 15.7mm

75g

1213 to 1261 MHz + 1559 to


1610 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.5 dBic and 3dBic


/ 35 dB

Hemispherical

TW2920 - GPS L1 + GLONASS G1


+ Galileo E1 + BeiDou B1 + L-band

2015

DGLMNOPTV

57 D x 15mm

100g

1525 - 1610 MHz

<1.5:1

4.25 dBic / 35 dB

Hemispherical

<2.5

TW3970 - GPS L1/L2/L5 +


GLONASS G1/G2/G3 + Galileo E1/
E5 + BeiDou B1/B2 + L-band

2016

DGLMNOPTV

66.5 x 21mm

185g

1164 to 1254 MHz + 1525 1610 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

L1: 3.5dBic / 35dB


L2: 4.5dBic / 35dB
L5: 0dBic / 35dB

Hemispherical

2.5

TW3740 - Dual Feed High Gain


GPS/GLONASS/Galileo/BeiDou

2014

DGLMNOPTV

66.5 D x 21mm

150g

1559 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.25 dBic / 40 dB

Hemispherical

TW3400 - GPS L1+ GLONASS,


Thru-hole Mount Antenna - Low
Proile

2010

DGLMNOPTV

66.5 D x 21mm

150g

1574 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

4.25 dBic/ 28 dB

Hemispherical

TW3440 - GPS L1+ GLONASS,


Timing Antenna

2012

DGLMNOPTV

66.5 D x 21mm

150g

1574 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

4.25 dBic / 40 dB

Hemispherical

TW3710 - GPS + GLONASS +


Galileo + BeiDou, Thru-hole mount,
Dual Feed Antenna

2013

DGLMNOPTV

66.5 D x 21mm

150g

1557 to 1606 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.75 dBic / 28 dB

Hemispherical

TW3870 -GPS L1/L2 + GLONASS


G1/G2 + Galileo E1 + BeiDou B1

2015

DGLMNOPTV

66.5 x 21mm

185g

1213 to 1261 MHz + 1559 to


1610 MHz

<1.5:1

<2

4.5 dBic + 3dBic


/ 35 dB

Hemispherical

TW2600 - Iridium Certiied Magnet/


Screw Mount, Dual Feed Antenna

2011

DMNV

57 D x 15mm

150g

1616 to 1626.5 MHz

<1.5:1

<3

4.25 dBic / --

Hemispherical

1 (GPS)

GP.1575.25.2.A.02

May 11

LNOV

25 x 25 x 2mm

na

1575.42

1.5max

3.0 dBi max

2.0dBi typ.

RHCP

na

CGGBP.35.6.A.02

March 14

LNOV

35 x 35 x 6.5mm

na

1561 - 1602 MHz

2.5 max

0-1dBi

3.85dBi typ.

RHCP

na

AGGBP.25B.07.0060A

April 15

LNOV

25.1 x 25.1 x 7.9mm

11.46g

1561 - 1602 MHz

2.0 max

na

28dBi typ.

RHCP

2.8dBi

Cloud FXP611

January 13

LNOV

38 x 37 x 0.15mm

neg.

1559 - 1610 MHz

1.2 max

na

3dBi typ.

linear

na

GGBLA.01

March 14

LNOV

3.2 x 1.6 x 0.5mm

neg.

1575.42 - 1608 MHz

2.0 max

na

2.8dBi typ.

linear

na

A.41.A.301111 Hercules Gen II

October 14

LNOV

47.8 x 47.8 x 28.5mm

157g

1575.42 MHz

3.26

3dBi typ.

28dBi typ.

RHCP

2.8 dBi

AA.171.301111 MagmaX

January 15

LNOV

53 x 50 x 17mm

92g

1561 - 1602 MHz

<3dBi

28dBi typ.

RHCP

2.4 dBi typ.

AA.107.301111 Stingray

February 13

LNOV

55 x 51.7 x 10.8mm

na

1575.42/1602 MHz

na

28dBi typ.

RHCP

2.2 dBi typ.

AA.108.301111 Titan

February 13

LNOV

25 x 25 x 4mm

na

1575.42

1.92 Max

3dB typ.

28dBi typ.

RHCP

1.3dBi typ.

A.30.A.301111 Ultima

September 15

LNOV

55.23 x 55.23 x
19.6mm

89g

1575-1606

2.0 Max

na

27dBi typ.

RHCP

1.3dBi typ.

PL-S1

2012

GL

14.2 x 14.2 x 5.4cm


w/o GP, 20.0 x
5.4cm w GP

.430kg

1586.5 25 MHz ; 1236


20 MHz; L-Band 1535
10 MHz

2.0:1

4.5/33

Symmetrical

1.5

PG-S1

2012

GLR

14.2 x 14.2 x 5.4cm


w/o GP, 20.0 x
5.4cm w GP

.430kg w/o GP, 0.615kg


w/GP

1586.5 25MHz; 1236


20 MHz; L-Band 1535
10 MHz

2.0:1

4.5/33

Symmetrical

1.5

PG-F1

2015

GLR

14.2 x 14.2 x 6.7cm


w/o GP, 20.0 x
6.7cm w GP

.490kg w/o GP, 0.675kg


w/GP

Lower band 1230 MHz70


MHz; Upper band 1565
MHz50 MHz

2.0:1

5.5/35

Symetrical

1.5

MG-A8

2012

MN

8.9cm D x Height w/o


adapter 10.2cm or w/
adapter 20.5cm

0.280kg w/o adapter

Upper band 1520 - 1590


MHz; Lower Band 1215 1260 MHz

2.0:1

5.5/35

Symmetrical

1.5

S16 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

2.5 to 16

10

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

15 KV ESD
Protection

Full range

RG174 or Micro-Coax

Screw

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Custom Tuning available

2.5 to 16

10

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

15 KV ESD
Protection

Full range

2.5 to 17

25

-40 to +86

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC or N-Type

2.5 to 18

25

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

15 KV ESD
Protection

Full range

RG174 or Micro-Coax

Screw

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Custom Tuning available

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

15 KV ESD
Protection

Full range

RG174

Screw, Magnetic or Adhesive

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

3/4in (19mm) thru-hole with


option L-bracket or mast mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Conical or low proile radome in


White or Grey

2.5 to 19
2.5 to 20

20

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC or N-Type

2.5 to 16

15

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC female or N Type on bottom


of base, or MMCX, MCX, SMB,
SMC, SMA, SMB, SMA Right Angle,
Waterproof SMA, SSMA, Reverse
Polarity SMA,

RG174/ Custom

3/4in (19mm) thru-hole with


option L-bracket or mast mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Conical or low proile radome in


White or Grey

2.5 to 16

10

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC female or N Type on bottom of


base, or MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC,
SMA, SMB, U.FL., SMA Right Angle,
Waterproof SMA, SSMA, Reverse
Polarity SMA, H.FL.

RG174/ Custom

3/4in (19mm) thru-hole with


option L-bracket or mast mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Conical or low proile radome in


White or Grey

2.5 to 16

10

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC female or N Type on bottom of


base, or MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC,
SMA, SMB, U.FL., SMA Right Angle,
Waterproof SMA, SSMA, Reverse
Polarity SMA, H.FL.

RG174/ Custom

3/4in (19mm) thru-hole with


option L-bracket or mast mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Conical or low proile radome in


White or Grey

2.5 to 16

15

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC female or N Type on bottom of


base, or MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC,
SMA, SMB, U.FL., SMA Right Angle,
Waterproof SMA, SSMA, Reverse
Polarity SMA, H.FL.

RG174/ Custom

3/4in (19mm) thru-hole with


option L-bracket or mast mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Conical or low proile radome in


White or Grey

2.5 to 16

25

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

TNC female or N Type on bottom of


base, or MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC,
SMA, SMB, U.FL., SMA Right Angle,
Waterproof SMA, SSMA, Reverse
Polarity SMA, H.FL.

RG174/ Custom

3/4in (19mm) thru-hole with


option L-bracket or mast mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Conical or low proile radome in


White or Grey

na

na

-40 to +85

3g (3 axis, 15min, 10 to
200Hz sweep)

Y/ IP67

15 KV ESD
Protection

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL., SMA Right Angle, Waterproof
SMA, SSMA, Reverse Polarity SMA,
SMA on bulkhead, H.FL.

RG174/ Custom

Magnet, screw or adhesive


mount

Contact distributor or
Tallysman

Custom labelling available

na

na

-40C to 85C

na

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

na

Pin and adhesive tape

Contact Taoglas

Taoglas provides GPS internal


and external antennas suitable
for very small environments to
large automotive and outdoor
applications to many M2M and
IoT brands worldwide. Particular
focus is spend on optimising
axial ratio . We provide GPS
integration testing and tuning
optimisation, including, gain,
eficiency, axial ratio, receive
strength, noise igure, desense
testing for all our customers
worldwide in our own RF
facilities

na

na

-40C to 85C

na

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

na

Pin and adhesive tape

Contact Taoglas

1.8-5.5v

10mA typ.

-40C to 85C

na

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

coaxial cable 1.13/60mm

Adhesive tape

Contact Taoglas

5.0V

na

-40C to 85C

na

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

na

Surface mount

Contact Taoglas

2.5-5.5V typ.

na

-40C to 85C

na

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

na

Surface mount

Contact Taoglas

3.0V typ.

10mA

-40C to 85C

na

Y - IP67 & IP69K

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

RG174/3m

Screw Mount

Contact Taoglas

3.0V typ.

7.3mA

-40C to 85C

na

Y - IP65

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

RG174/3m

Magnetic mount

Contact Taoglas

3.3V typ.

10mA

-40C to 85C

na

Y - IP65

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA , SSMA, Reverse Polarity
SMA, SMA on bulkhead

RG174/3m

Adhesive mount

Contact Taoglas

2.5-5.5V typ.

7mA typ.

-40C to 85C

na

Y - IP67

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA, SSMA, Reverse Polarity SMA,
SMA on bulkhead

RG174/3m

Adhesive mount

Contact Taoglas

2.5-5.5V typ.

10mA

-40C to 85C

na

Y - IP67 and IP69K

na

MMCX, MCX, SMB, SMC, SMA,


U.FL, SMA Right angle, waterproof
SMA, SSMA, Reverse Polarity SMA,
SMA on bulkhead

RG174/3m

Screw Mount

Contact Taoglas

3-18

55 (typ)

50C to +85C

IEC 60068-2-34, Test


Fd; IEC 60068-2-6,
Test Fc

Y/IP67

Y/Y

TNC

RG-58/Variable Length

5/8-11 UNC-2B Threaded

Contact distributor

< 1cm centering

3-18

55 (typ)

50C to +85C

IEC 60068-2-34, Test


Fd; IEC 60068-2-6,
Test Fc

Y/IP67

Y/Y

TNC

RG-58/Variable Length

5/8-11 UNC-2B Threaded

Contact distributor

<1mm, microcentered antenna

3-15

60 (typ)

50C to +85C

MIL-STD-810G

Y/IP65

Y/Y

TNC

Variable

5/8-11 UNC-2B Threaded

Contact distributor

na

3-18

60(typ)

-40C to +70C

Y/IP67

Y/Y

TNC

Variable

5/8-11 Threaded

Contact distibutor

na

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S17

ANTENNA SURVEY 2016


Manufacturer

Trimble
www.trimble.com

u-blox AG
www.u-blox.com

Wang Electro-Opto
Corporation
www.weo.com

Model

Intro. Date

User Environment 1

Size: Length x Width


x Height

Weight

Frequency/Bandwidth 2

VSWR 3

Axial Ratio
(dB)

Gain/Gain with
Ampliier (dB)

Pattern

Noise Figure
(dB) 4

CR-G5

2011

GLR

30.8 x 15.5cm (w/o


dome)

4.9kg (w/o dome)

Lower band 1230 MHz70


MHz; Upper band 1565
MHz50 MHz

1.5:1

5/43 typical

Symmetrical

1.0

PN-A5

2011

GLR

41.5 x 29.2cm (dome


included)

7.8kg (dome included)

Lower band 1230 MHz70


MHz; Upper band 1565
MHz50 MHz

1.5:1

5/43 typical

Symmetrical

1.0

G5-A1

2015

GLR

29.8 x 7.5cm

1.3kg

Lower band 1230 MHz70


MHz; Upper band 1570
MHz40 MHz

2.0:1

10/35 typical

Symmetrical

1.0

G3-A1

2005

GLR

14.2 x 14.2 x 5.8cm


w/o GP, 20.0 x
5.4cm w GP

.515kg w/o GP, .685kg


w/ GP

1586 25 MHz / 1236 20


MHz / 1176 12 MHz

<1.8:1

5/30

Symmetrical

1.0

CR-G5-C

2015

GLR

30.8 x 15.5cm (w/o


dome)

6.4kg (w/o dome)

Lower 3dB Pass Band:


1160...1300 MHz; Upper 3dB
Pass Band: 15401610 MHz

1.5:1

5/43 typical

Symmetrical

1.0

Magnetic Mount 3 V Antenna,MCX,


SMA connectors

2001

LNPVY

37.4 x 34 x 12.9mm

25g (without cable)


cable length 5m

1575 MHz

2.0 max

4 dB @ 90

27 dBi 3 dBi
typ temp

Upper hemispherical

1.8 (+25C)
/2.3(+85C)

Magnetic Mount 5V Antenna. SMB,


SMA connectors

2001

LNPVY

37.4 x 34 x 12.9mm

25g (without cable)


cable length 5m

1575 MHz

2.0 max

4 dB @ 90

27 dBi 3 dBi
typ temp

Upper hemispherical

1.8 (+25C)
/2.3(+85C)

Unpackaged Embedded 3.V

2001

LNPVY

22 x 21 x 7.5mm

20g (cable length


85mm

1575 MHz

2.0 max

4d B @ 90

27 dBi 3 dBi
typ temp

Upper hemispherical

1.5 (+25C)
/2.0(+85C)

Bulkhead

2001

LNPVY

64.5 x 40mm

150g

1575 MHz

2.0 max

4d B @ 90

27 dBi 3 dBi
typ temp

Upper hemispherical

1.8 (+25C)
/2.3(+85C)

GPS/GLONASS Magnetic Mount 3


V Antenna, MCX, SMA connectors

2011

LNPVY

49.14 x 46.14 x
15.94mm

25g (without cable)


cable length 5 m

1575 to 1615 MHz

2.0 max

4 dB @ 90

30 dBi typ

Upper hemispherical

2.0 typ

GPS/Beidou Magnetic Mount 3V


Antenna, MCX, SMA connectors

2016

LNPVY

49.14 x 46.14 x
15.94mm

25g (without cable)


cable length 5 m

1558 to 1615 MHz

2.0 max

5 dB max @ Zenith

30 dBi typ

Upper hemispherical

2.7 max

GPS/Beidou Magnetic Mount 5V


Antenna, SMA connector

2016

LNPVY

49.14 x 46.14 x
15.94mm

25g (without cable)


cable length 5 m

1558 to 1615 MHz

2.0 max

5 dB max @ Zenith

30 dBi typ

Upper hemispherical

2.6 max

GPS/GLONASS Bulkhead

2011

LNPVY

64.5 x 40mm

150g

1575 to 1615 MHz

2.0 max

4d B @ 90

30 dBi typ

Upper hemispherical

2.0 typ

Trimble A3

2005

DGLMNRV

16 x 6.2cm

0.39kg

1575 MHz

2.0 max

nr

42 dB

Upper hemispherical

nr

Zephyr 2 Antenna

2006

DGLMNRV

34.3 x 7.6cm

0.60kg

L1/L2/L3/L5/G1/G2/B1/
B2/E1/E2/E5ab/E6/RTX/
OmniSTAR/SBAS

2.0 max

2 dB @ Zenith

50 dB 2.0

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB

Zephyr 2 Rugged

2008

DGLMNR

25.4 x 11.1cm

1.8kg

L1/L2/L3/L5/G1/G2/B1/
B2/E1/E2/E5ab/E6/RTX/
OmniSTAR/SBAS

2.0 max

2 dB @ Zenith

50 dB 2.0

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB

Zephyr Geodetic 2 Antenna

2006

DGLMnrV

34.3cm x 8.5cm

1.36kg

L1/L2/L5/G1/G2/G3/E1/E2/
E5ab/E6/Compass

2.0 max

2 dB @ Zenith

50 dB 2.0

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB

Trimble GNSS Choke Ring

2008

DEGLR

38cm x 12.7cm

4.3kg

L1/L2/L5/G1/G2/G3/E1/E2/
E5ab/E6/Compass

2.0 max

2 dB @ Zenith

50 dB 2.0

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB

Trimble GNSS-Ti Choke Ring

2011

DEGLR

38cm x 14.6cm

4.3kg

L1/L2/L5/G1/G2/G3/E1/E2/
E5ab/E6/Compass

2.0 max

2 dB @ Zenith

50 dB 2.0

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB

Bullet III GPS Antenna

1990

LMNOPTV

77.5 mm x 66.2mm

0.2kg

GPS L1

2.0 max

4d B max @ 90

30 dB 3.0 (5 V)

Upper hemispherical

3.0 dB typ

Bullet GG (GPS & GLONASS)


Antenna

2014

LMNOPTV

77.5 mm x 66.2mm

0.2kg

GPS L1 / GLONASS L1

2.0 max

4d B max @ 90

32 dB 3.0 (5 V)

Upper hemispherical

3.3 dB max

Bullet L1 L2 Antenna

2015

LMNOPTV

77.5 mm x 66.2mm

0.2kg

GPS L1 / GPS L2

2.0 max

<3 dB

36 dB 3.0 (5 V)

Upper hemispherical

3.3 dB max

Bullet 360 Antenna

2015

LMNOPTV

77.5 mm x 66.2mm

0.2kg

GPS L1 / BeiDou B1 /
GLONASS G1 / Galileo E1

2.0 max

<5 dB GPS

28 dB 3.0

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB typ

Bullet 40dB Antenna

2015

LMNOPTV

77.5 mm x 66.2mm

0.2kg

GPS L1

2.0 max

<3 dB

40 dB 3.0 (5 V)

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB typ

Bullet GB Antenna

2015

LMNOPTV

77.5 mm x 66.2mm

0.2kg

GPS L1 / Beidou B1

2.0 max

< 5 dB GPS

28 dB 3.0 (5.0 V)

Upper hemispherical

2.0 dB typ

PAM-7Q GPS antenna module

2014

DMNTV

22.0 x 22.0 x 8.0mm

9g

GPS / QZSS L1 C/A


SBAS: WAAS, EGNOS,
MSAS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

Hemispherical, RHCP

na, Integrated
Receiver

CAM-M8Q GNSS antenna module

2014

DMNTV

9.6 x 14.0 x 1.95mm

0.5g

GPS/QZSS L1 C/A,
GLONASS L10F; BeiDou B1
SBAS L1 C/A: WAAS,
EGNOS, MSAS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

Hemispherical,
Linear pol.

na, Integrated
Receiver

CAM-M8C GNSS antenna module

2015

DMNTV

9.6 x 14.0 x 1.95mm

0.5g

GPS/QZSS L1 C/A,
GLONASS L10F; BeiDou
B1; SBAS L1 C/A: WAAS,
EGNOS, MSAS

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

na, Integrated
Receiver

Hemispherical,
Linear pol.

na, Integrated
Receiver

ANN-MS

2003

LMNVT

48 x 40 x 13mm

42ggg (without gcable);


<105gg (with gcable)

GPS L1,10 MHz

2.0 max

3 dB typ

4 dB/27 dB

nr

1.8 dB typ

GNSS-D060-L-P0900

2011

LNVT

60 x 15mm

180g

1150 - 1620 MHz

<2.0:1

<4dB

4dBi typ

RHCP

2 dB typ

GNSS-D060-L-P0900-LNA

2011

LNVT

60 x 15mm

182g

1150 - 1620 MHz

<2.0:1

<4dB

4dBi / 20dBi typ

RHCP

2/2.5 dB typ

GNSS-D060-L-P0500

2011

LNVT

60 x 15mm

180g

1150 - 1620 MHz

<2.0:1

<4dB

4dBi typ

RHCP

2 dB typ

GNSS-D060-L-P0100

2011

LNVT

60 x 15mm

180g

1150 - 1620 MHz

<2.0:1

<4dB

4dBi typ

RHCP

2 dB typ

GNSS-D060-L-P0100-LNA

2011

LNVT

60 x 15mm

182g

1150 - 1620 MHz

<2.0:1

<4dB

4dBi / 20dBi typ

RHCP

2/2.5 dB typ

GNSS-D115-L-P0100

2011

DGLNVT

115 x 30mm

250g

1100 - 2000 MHz

<2.0:1

<3 dB

5dBi typ

RHCP

1.7 dB typ

GNSS-D115-L-P0010

2011

DLNVT

115 x 30mm

250g

1100 - 2000 MHz

<2.0:1

<3 dB

5dBi typ

RHCP

1.7 dB typ

GNSS-D115-L-P0010-LNA

2011

DLNVT

115 x 30mm

252g

1100 - 2000 MHz

<2.0:1

<3 dB

5dBi / 21-43dBi typ

RHCP

1.7/2 dB typ

GNSS-D200-L-P0010

2011

DGLNVT

200 x 30mm

360g

1100 - 2000 MHz

<2.0:1

<3 dB

5dBi typ

RHCP

1.5 dB typ

GNSS-D200-L-P0010-LSQ

2012

DGLNVT

200 x 30mm

362g

1100 - 2000 MHz

<2.0:1

<3 dB

5dBi typ

RHCP

1.5 dB typ

S18 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

SPONSORED BY
Ampliier DC Voltage Ampliier Current
(mA)

Operating Temperature
(C)

Vibration

Environmentally
Sealed (Y/N)/Type

L/D 5

Connectors

Cable Type/Length

Mounting Coniguration

List Price in U.S. Dollars

Integration

3-12

100

-50C to +85C

MIL-STD-810G

Y/IP67

Y/Y

RG-58/Variable Length

Threaded

Contact distributor

na

3-12

100

-50C to +85C

MIL-STD-810G

Y/IP67

Y/Y

RG-58/Variable Length

Threaded

Contact distributor

na

3-16

65

-40C to +75C

MIL-STD-810G

Y/IP67

Y/Y

TNC

Variable

5/8-11 Threaded

Contact distributor

< 1mm

3-18

30

50C to +70C

MIL-STD-810F

Y/IP65

Y/Y

TNC

RG-58/Variable Length

5/8-11 Threaded

Contact distributor

na

3.3-12

100

-50C to +85C

MIL-STD-810G

Y/IP67

Y/Y

RG-58/Variable Length

Threaded

Contact distributor

< 1mm

3 V DC

20 max

40 to +85

as above

Y/waterproof
JISD0203 S2

nr

SMB, SMA

1.5DS-QEHV/5 m

Magnetic mount

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

5 V DC

30 max

40 to +85

as above

Y/waterproof
JISD0203 S2

nr

MCX, SMA

1.5DS-QEHV/5 m

Magnetic mount

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

3 V DC

13 max

40 to +85

as above

nr

nr

H.FL

0.8 D/8 cm

Mounting holes

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

5 V or 3 V

35 max

40 to +86

as above

nr

nr

TNC

na

Threaded

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

3 V DC

8 typ

40 to +85

as above

Y/waterproof
JISD0203 S2

nr

MCX, SMA

1.5DS-QEHV/5 m

Magnetic mount

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

3 V DC

10 typ

40 to +85

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3G

Y/waterproof
JISD0203 S2

nr

MCX, SMA

RG-174/5 m

Magnetic mount

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

5 VDC

17 typ

40 to +85

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3G

Y/waterproof
JISD0203 S2

nr

SMA

RG-174/5 m

Magnetic mount

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

5 V or 3 V

6.5 typ @ 3V 13
typ @ 3V

40 to +85

as above

nr

nr

TNC

na

Threaded

OEM pricing; inquire

nr

2.9511.5 V DC

nr

50 to +85

MIL-STD-810-F

as above

nr

TNC-type

Any with up to 10 dB loss

Tripod, tribrach

Contact Distributor

nr

3.3-20 V DC

125

40 to +70

as above

as above

nr

TNC female

Any with up to 10 dB loss

Tripod, tribrach, pole

Contact Distributor

nr

3.3-20 V DC

125

40 to +70

Designed for extreme


shock and vibration
installations. Bouyant

+/- 5 psi sealing.


Rain and spray per
IEC 60945

nr

TNC female

Any with up to 10 dB loss

Rugged 4 point mount to pole,


or 5/8in thread to pole

Contact Distributor

nr

3.3-20 V DC

125

55 to +85

MIL-STD-810-F

Rated to IP67

nr

TNC female

Any with up to 10 dB loss

Tripod, tribrach, pole

Contact Distributor

nr

3.3-20 V DC

125

55 to +85

4.3 GRMS

Rated to IP67

nr

N-Type female

Any with up to 10 dB loss

Tripod, tribrach, monument

Contact Distributor

nr

3.3-20 V DC

125

55 to +85

4.3 GRMS

Rated to IP67

nr

N-Type female

Any with up to 10 dB loss

Tripod, tribrach, monument

Contact Distributor

nr

3.3 V or 5.0 V dc
options

30 max (5 V)

-40 to +90

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3g, 3-axis

Y / up to IP67

nr

TNC (F option for 5 V antenna)

depends upon use case

1 - 14 UNF or 3/4 NPT

OEM or System
Integrator pricing contact:
technology@trimble.com

nr

3.3 V or 5.0 V dc
options

30 max (5 V)

-40 to +90

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3g, 3-axis

Y / up to IP67

nr

TNC (F option for 5 V antenna)

depends upon use case

1 - 14 UNF or 3/4 NPT

OEM or System
Integrator pricing contact:
technology@trimble.com

nr

3.3 V or 5.0 V dc
options

35 max (5 V)

-40 to +90

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3g, 3-axis

Y / up to IP67

nr

TNC (F option for 5 V antenna)

Up to 75 ft RG-58 or RG-59

1 - 14 UNF or 3/4 NPT

OEM or System
Integrator pricing contact:
technology@trimble.com

nr

3.3 V or 5.0 V dc
options

20 max (5 V)

-40 to +90

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3g, 3-axis

Y / up to IP67

nr

TNC (F option for 5 V antenna)

depends upon use case

1 - 14 UNF or 3/4 NPT

OEM or System
Integrator pricing contact:
technology@trimble.com

nr

3.3 V or 5.0 V dc
options

35 max (5 V)

-40 to +90

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3g, 3-axis

Y / up to IP67

nr

TNC (F option for 5 V antenna)

depends upon use case

1 - 14 UNF or 3/4 NPT

OEM or System
Integrator pricing contact:
technology@trimble.com

nr

3.3 V or 5.0 V dc
options

20 max (5 V)

-40 to +90

10Hz - 200Hz, log


sweep 3g, 3-axis

Y / up to IP67

nr

TNC (F option for 5 V antenna)

depends upon use case

1 - 14 UNF or 3/4 NPT

OEM or System
Integrator pricing contact:
technology@trimble.com

nr

2.7V...3.6V

-40C...+85C

8-pin contact header

na

Pin contact

contact u-blox

GPS receiver modules with


integrated patch antenna

2.7V...3.6V

-40C...+85C

31 contact LCC

na

SMD

contact u-blox

Extremely sensitive module


with integrated chip antenna.
Concurrent reception of GPS
with GLONASS or BeiDou.

1.65V...3.6V

-40C...+85C

31 contact LCC

na

SMD

contact u-blox

Extremely sensitive module


with integrated chip antenna.
Concurrent reception of GPS
with GLONASS or BeiDou.

2.7 - 6.0V

Typ. 8.5 mA,


+/- 4.5 mA

-40 to +80

Sine sweep 1 G (o-p)


10-150-10 Hz ea axis

Y/rubber sealed

N/N

Choice: SMA, SMB, MCX, FAKRA

RG-174, 5 m

Magnetic

contact u-blox

nr

3-5 VDC

na

- 30 to +60

MIL-STD-810F

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery

Cover all GNSS bands; thin and


conformal

3-5 VDC

4 mA

- 30 to +60

MIL-STD-810F

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery

Cover all GNSS bands; thin and


conformal

3-5 VDC

na

- 30 to +60

MIL-STD-810F

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery

Cover all GNSS bands; thin and


conformal

3-5 VDC

na

- 30 to +60

MIL-STD-810F

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery

Cover all GNSS bands; thin and


conformal

3-5 VDC

4 mA

- 30 to +60

MIL-STD-810F

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery

Cover all GNSS bands; thin and


conformal

na

na

- 45 to +70

MIL-STD-810F,
DO-160E

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery

Cover all GNSS bands and


some cell bands; thin and
conformal

na

na

- 45 to +70

MIL-STD-810F,
DO-160E

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery
schdule

Cover all GNSS bands and


some cell bands; thin and
conformal

3-5 VDC

4-20 mA

- 45 to +70

MIL-STD-810F,
DO-160E

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery
schdule

Cover all GNSS bands and


some cell bands; thin and
conformal

na

na

- 45 to +70

MIL-STD-810F,
DO-160E

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery
schdule

Cover all GNSS bands and


some cell bands; thin and
conformal

na

na

- 45 to +70

MIL-STD-810F,
DO-160E

Y/Rubber Sealed

N/N

SMA/other available

na

Side or bottom feed

Low cost; inquiry with


quantity and delivery
schdule

Cover all GNSS bands and


some cell bands; LightSquared
compatible

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D S19

To get the positioning accuracy that best meets the requirements of your application,
regardless of your operating environment or communications infrastructure, choose
NovAtel CORRECT. Our proprietary firmware delivers optimal positioning performance
on our GNSS receivers using RTK, PPP or SBAS corrections. Get the accuracy you need
with NovAtel CORRECT. To learn more call 1-800-novatel or visit novatel.com/correct

MARKET WATCH

SURVEY

GNSS Echo Sounder Guides Medical


Ship through Uncharted Waters

n Australian company
that manufacturers GNSS
echo sounders aided
the aiders leading a
medical ship through uncharted waters
in Papua New Guinea.
The CEESCOPE echo sounder
enabled the ship to reach volunteers
who were working to save the life of
a newborn.
The ship, operated by YWAM
Medical Ships Australia (YWAM
MSA), visits remote villages in Papua
New Guinea, giving communities
access to life-saving medical and
dental services. The village locations
are accessed by river, and while often
there is adequate tide information to
help navigate, there are no available
charts or bathymetry data for the
passages upriver.
Without a navigable route to follow,
the medical ships simply could not
travel to locations where help is needed
the most.
To solve this problem, YWAM
decided to make its own charts, with
help from CEE HydroSystems. Using
a small, fast launch equipped with a
CEESCOPE single-beam echo sounder
and GPS hydrographic survey system,
YWAM volunteer and master mariner

The track of the medical ship on the previously


uncharted Bamu River.

Jeremy Schierer, a YWAM volunteer and master mariner, uses the CEESCOPE Echo Sounder to chart
a river in Papua New Guinea. (Photo courtesy of YWAM)

Jeremy Schierer set out to find safe


routes through vast river deltas ahead
of the medical ship.
While surveying at high speed to
maximize the area covered, Schierer
executed reconnaissance patterns along
the river while continuously updating
the hydrographic survey plan based on
the results seen.
Survey data gathered and processed
in HYPACK acquisition software were
exported to the navigation system of
the ship to provide waypoints marking
the safe passage route along the river.
Used with available and observed tide
data, the navigator of the vessel could
confidently travel upriver without the
risk of grounding.
The CEESCOPE is a one-box survey
system that can be swapped between
the two available 4.2-meter and 5.2meter boats. It can be used without an
acquisition PC on the survey launch
FEBRUARY 2016

if needed all data recorded on the


internal memory, and can run on its
own battery power for an extended
duration. With operation in remote
areas on small boats, reliability and
usability were key for YWAM.
YWAM also used the CEESCOPE
with HYPACK from the wheelhouse
to navigate the ship along the surveyed
routes on custom electronic charts.
In the third year of YWAMs
operation in Papua New Guinea,
Schierer recorded a staggering 3,400
kilometers (2,000 miles) of bathymetry
to help navigate the Pacific Link. All
of the rivers were uncharted before
the ship traveled upstream. With
incomplete tide-station coverage,
determining the ships path was a
complex calculation. Despite this, and
complicated by a bore tide, YWAM
was able to take its vessel 75 kilometers
Continued on 40

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

>>

G P S W O R L D 39

MARKET WATCH

SURVEY
Continued from 39

>>

upstream in the Bamu River, Western Province, without


published charts.
However, the most startling example of the benefit of the
YWAM hydrographic survey approach took place in the
second year of operation.
Baimuru is up the Pie River from Port Romilly in the Gulf
Province, Schierer said. The only previous known route
took us about four hours through the rivers and required
high tide and daylight.
We went out with the CEESCOPE to see if we could
find an alternate and more direct route to the open sea. We
left the ship just before sunrise and went as far as 8 nautical
miles off the coast to confirm a good passage and we
found one that was deep enough.
Instead of leaving when scheduled, the ship received an
emergency call from the medical center about 300 meters
away on the shore, where there is no electricity or running
water.
A lady had just given birth, and they were requesting
attendance by our doctor and midwife. Evidently the baby
was born in the canoe on the way to the medical center,
and for some time the baby lay in the bottom of the canoe.
By the time we unsecured our small boat and got the
medical team ashore, the baby was 35 degrees Celsius and
not warming up. Our medical team was able to assist in
warming the baby and reported that if we had not been
there, they were quite certain that the baby would not have
survived the night.
The only reason we were still there was because we
had the CEESCOPE and had been able to find another
route. Weve charted more than 1,200 kilometers with the
CEESCOPE so far, and it is making a huge difference,
Schierer said.

The volunteer organization YWAM operated the MV Pacific Link out of


Townsville, Australia, between 2010 and 2014, before acquiring a new
larger ship, the MV YWAM PNG in 2015.

Based in Sydney, CEE HydroSystems opened an office in


San Diego, California, in late 2015, to serve the United States
and Canada. The company specializes in RTK GNSS-enabled
precision shallow water hydrographic echo sounders. Its
products are aimed at surveyors conducting shallow water
bathymetric surveys.
For inshore hydrographic surveys of water bodies such as
canals, lakes, rivers or industrial water impoundments, survey
firms inexperienced in hydrographic methods often have to
resort to conventional and laborious processes using sounding
lines, range poles or basic sonar equipment, said Peter Garforth,
CEE HydroSystems managing director. Our CEESCOPETM
survey system puts a RTK GNSS solution and precision echo
sounder into a compact single package, allowing surveyors to
vastly improve productivity on these surveys.
The CEE range of echo sounders with GPS was first developed
to offer surveyors a one-box solution to reduce hardware setup
time and the need for interconnecting components.

PORTABLE ECHO SOUNDER


The CEESCOPE uses a built-in RTK GNSS receiver and UHF radio modem to acquire RTKquality position and elevation that is used in hydrographic surveying software to output
xyz point-cloud data files of bottom elevations in local coordinates and datums. In RTK
mode, the CEESCOPE can be directly connected to the local UHF base station radio. The
internal CEESCOPE GNSS receiver provides accurate position data at 120 Hz, and the
single-beam echo sounder records soundings at up to 20Hz.
Both data streams plus any ancillary measurements fed into the unit such as heave,
pitch and roll are precisely time-tagged using a 1PPS signal and then recorded on the
CEESCOPE internal memory. Simultaneously, the data are output to an acquisition PC or
tablet.

The CEESCOPE aboard a kayak.


40 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

MARKET WATCH

SURVEY

Harris, Boundless Join on Open-Source GIS Technology


arris Corporation
has expanded a
collaboration with
Boundless to further extend its capabilities
in open-source geospatial
technology. This partnership makes it easier and
more cost-effective for
customers to access, manage and share the huge
amount of location-based
data available from devices, sensors and satellites, the companies said.
Most recently, Harris has
developed a geospatial data
warehouse called One Ob-

ject One Time (1O1T), which


eliminates redundant data
and stores the most current represent ation of
geospatial objects such as
a lighthouse or communications tower. This capability

ensures data currency and


significantly reduces the
time required for processing
and delivering content and
products compared with
traditional methods.
Harris is using 1O1T to

FEBRUARY 2016

provide content management services and create


high-quality data and produc t s for use by a wide
variety of government and
commercial customers.
Boundless OpenGeo
Suite is an open-source
enterprise geospatial software bundle. It expands
Harris existing offerings
like 1O1T. Boundless experts support and consult
around the implementation
of OpenGeo Suite components including GeoServer,
PostGIS, Open Layers and
QGIS.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 41

MARKET WATCH

MAPPING 2
HD Live Map Enables Automated Driving

ERE HD Live Map is an


advanced cloud-based
map asset commercially
available for vehicles.
Ready to be deployed in
connected vehicles in North America
and Western Europe, HD Live Map
creates a highly detailed and dynamic
representation of the road environment, enabling a vehicle to effectively
see around corners beyond the reach
of its on-board sensors.
HD Live Map is an integrated offering, consisting of multiple layers of
data delivered in a map-tile format. It
is designed to enhance both Advanced
Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS)
and automated driving functionality.
HD Live Map includes data that
tends to have high permanency, such
as lane level information; data that is
temporal in nature, such as road construction, traffic and accidents; and
analytics data, including speed profile
information that informs the vehicle
about how to drive based on actual
human behavior data.
With HERE HD Live Map, automakers can enhance a vehicles ADAS
functionality such as adaptive cruise
control, adaptive headlights and curve
speed warnings by giving it access
to more accurate and more reliable
near real-time content and contextual
information about its environment.

HERE has started to collect richly detailed information using lidar.

Self-Maintaining Map. HERE HD


Live Map is the first map from HERE
that is self-maintaining: through multiple modes of sensor aggregation and
ingestion, the vehicles map is updated
and delivered in near real-time.
For example, if vehicle sensors detect a speed limit sign that is inconsistent with the map, the map would
update so other vehicles approaching
the same spot have the new, correct
information. This is important for
ADAS functionality such as adaptive
cruise control.
Similarly, if a new lane closure is reported, the map would update so that
other vehicles approaching the area
can prepare to switch lanes or reroute

if traffic is heavy.
HD Live Map is data-efficient, requiring a small data footprint.
HERE is exploring enriching its
platform with new sensor data from
Audi, BMW and Mercedes-Benz vehicles, which would benefit all automakers deploying HD Live Map.
HERE has already been providing
either parts or full specifications of
HD Live Map for automated-driving
testing purposes to more than 10 automotive companies. Many of those have
taken advantage of HD Live Map data
HERE is offering of specific stretches
of open road in Silicon Valley and
Michigan in the United States, as well
as in France, Germany and Japan.

Garmin Acquires Lidar Company PulsedLight


PulsedLight is the maker of the LIDARLite (shown at right), an optical distance
measurement sensor for automotive blindspot sensing, city traffic monitoring, 3D
image scanning, collision avoidance, industrial
measurements and security systems.
The PulsedLight office and its design
associates will be retained by Garmin
International.

Garmin International has acquired PulsedLight Inc., a privately held designer of optical
distance measurement technology in Bend,
Oregon.
PulsedLight makes sensor boards that
are highly accurate, small and lightweight.
PulsedLight developed and owns the
intellectual property that enables this
technology, Garmin stated in a news release.

42 G P S W O R L D

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FEBRUARY 2016

MARKET WATCH

MAPPING

Survey Lasers in on Iron-Age Archaeology

new digital geologic map


of Alaska from the U.S.
Geological Survey (USGS)
gives visual context to
the abundant mineral and energy
resources found throughout the state
in a detailed and accessible format.
The map is a new compilation, the
first 100 percent digital statewide
geologic map of Alaska. It reflects the
changes in modern understanding of
geology as it builds on the past.
More than 750 references were
used in creating the map, some as
old as 1908 and others as new as
2015. As a digital map, it has multiple
associated databases that allow

creation of a variety of derivative


maps and other products.
The map will be used for natural
disaster preparation, resource
development, land use planning and
management, infrastructure and
urban planning and management,
education and scientific research.
More than other areas of the United
States, Alaska reflects a wide range
of past and current geologic environments and processes. Geologic
processes in Alaska include active volcanoes, frequent earthquakes, receding and advancing glaciers and visible
climate impacts. The map sheds light
on the geologic past and present.

FEBRUARY 2016

In the past, starting in 1904,


geologic maps of Alaska were
revised once a generation, said said
Frederic Wilson, USGS geologist and
lead author of the map.
This latest edition reflects major
new mapping efforts in Alaska by
the USGS and the Alaska state
survey, as well as a revolution in
the science of geology through the
paradigm shift to plate tectonics,
and the development of digital
methods, Wilson said. Completion
of this map celebrates the 200th
anniversary of worlds first geologic
map by William Smith of England in
1815.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 43

MARKET WATCH

UAV

Coyote Howls into the Wind


NOAA, Raytheon Deploy UAS for Hurricane Research

team from the National Oceanic and


Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and
Raytheon has successfully demonstrated advancements of
the Coyote Unmanned Aircraft System
(UAS), verifying new technology that
improves Coyotes ability to collect vital
weather data on hurricanes.
Coyote drops out of a P-3 weather
surveillance plane, spreads its wings
and flies straight at a hurricane, braving violent winds and punishing rain
to gather weather data and beam it
back to meteorologists.
Coyote solves a problem that has
limited forecasters ability to tell how NOAA scientist Paul Reasor demonstrates the Coyote. (Photo: NOAA)
hard a hurricane will hit. The secret
Force Range in Florida, to measure the
behind the storms punch lies in what for more measurements.
is known as the boundary layer
Coyote will gather data specifically transmission range of upgraded techa low-altitude area that includes the in the eye wall where it can provide nologies. It set a new distance record
surface of the ocean. Because hurri- information for forecasters to predict for flight control and data transmiscanes are fueled by warm ocean water, intensity from a safe distance, said sion to the P-3, and provided hurricane
information collected at the interface John Hobday, Raytheon. This is a forecasters with real-time data on atof atmosphere and ocean is vital to significant difference for researchers: mospheric air pressure, temperature,
the understanding and prediction of instead of providing a snapshot of data, moisture, wind speed and direction as
well as surface temperature.
a storms strength.
its a full-length movie.
Data collected will help improve
Thats where the energy is extracted
the accuracy of forecasts. Here at the
from the ocean to the atmosphere, OPERATIONAL UPGRADES
said Joe Cione, a NOAA hurricane In a Jan. 7 test, the Coyote was released National Hurricane Center (NHC),
researcher. Unfortunately, it is too from NOAAs Hurricane Hunter P-3 we are keenly interested in obtaindifficult for us to go with manned aircraft and flew over the Avon Park Air ing measurements from the Coyote
of the strongest winds near
aircraft to fly down there.
the center of the storm,
The Coyote can maneuver
said Chris Landsea, science
in the most violent regions
operations officer at NHC.
of a hurricane.Traditional
Coyote could help us paint
weather instruments paraa better picture of current
chute from a plane and grab
storm intensity for our storm
only a snapshot of humidity,
updates.
wind speed and other facIn 2014, NOAA deployed
tors, but Coyotes winged
four of the Coyote planes
design enables it to linger
into Hurricane Edouard, a
and return to certain areas The Coyote after a successful flight on Jan. 7. (Photo: NOAA)
44 G P S W O R L D

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FEBRUARY 2016

MARKET WATCH

UAV

Category 3 storm, at controlled altitudes as low as 400 feet.


Scientists on board the P-3 received meteorological data in
both the eye of the storm and the eye wall.
However, the P-3 had to fly 5 to 7 miles from the Coyote to pick up its signal. So engineers at Raytheon and the
NOAA Aircraft Operations Center upgraded Coyotes
sensor systems and improved its communications package
to allow it to talk to the plane over longer distances. Now,
Coyote can fly for 50 miles away from the launch aircraft,
which will be free to continue its own mission.
Coyote also was outfitted with an upgraded instrument
package that includes an infrared sensor to measure sea
surface temperature, which will help scientists understand
how a hurricane extracts energy from the ocean and
how it might intensify or change. The team also is working
toward optimizing battery life.
The test flight verified the Coyotes ability to transmit
the data collected from its instrument package to operators aboard the P-3 as well as at the NHC, where personnel
monitor storms and develop forecasts.

Drew Osbrink and Eric Redweik of Sensintel and NOAA hurricane


researcher Joe Cione monitor data from the Coyote as it flies into
Hurricane Edouard in 2014. (Photo: NOAA)

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 45

MARKET WATCH

UAV 2
Intel to Acquire Ascending Technologies

rian Krzanich,
Intel CEO, demonst r ated t he
broad capabilities UAV technology during
his keynote presentation on
Jan.5 at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
The company also announced that it would be
acquiring Ascending Technologies, a drone company
in Krailing, Germany, that
produces drone auto-pilot
software and algorithms.
Intel has already partnered to combi ne A scend i ng Technolog ies
sense-a nd-avoid a lgorithms with Intel RealSense
technolog ys rea l-t ime
depth-sensing capability.
These technologies can
improve drone safety, helping them avoid obstacles

and collisions.
With Ascending Technologies, Intel gains expertise and technology to
accelerate the deployment
of RealSense technology
into the fast-growing drone
market segment.
The Ascending Technologies team is expected
to continue supporting its
current customers while
also collaborating with Intels Perceptual Computing
team to develop UAV technology that can help drones
fly with more awareness of
their environments.
Drones a re qu ick ly
emerging as an important
computing platform of the
future, writes Josh Walden
on an Intel blog. With practical applications ranging
from disaster response, to

Krzanich highlighted UAV technology in his CES keynote, such the


Yuneec Typhoon H with Intel RealSense Technology, designed for
collision avoidance. (Photo: Intel)

infrastructure inspection,
to delivery of goods, UAVs
offer an incredible opportunity for innovation across a
multitude of industries.
As a result, Intel is positioning itself at the fore-

front of this opportunity to


increasingly integrate the
computing, communications, sensor and cloud technology required to make
drones smarter and more
connected.

Insurance and Law Firms Start Drone Services


nsurance companies in the U.S. and
Canada have jumped on the UAV
bandwagon, with many now offering coverage for commercial drone
users. The insurance usually covers
liability for any damage caused by the
drone, with comprehensive options
covering damage to the drone itself.
Unmanned Risk Management, which
also insures helicopters and other aircraft, has insured drones in all 50 U.S.
states and in other countries, and has
insured the seven film operators that
received Section 333 exemptions.
ProSight Specialty Insurance, which
operates in the U.S. and UK, was given
a Best in Biz Award partly for creating
insurance for drone operators. Its so

46 G P S W O R L D

prescient and forward-thinking given


the burgeoning use of drones in todays business world, said a Best in
Biz judge.
AIG has developed commercial UAV
coverage designed for the exposure
faced by remotely piloted, semi-autonomous and fully autonomous aircraft.
In Canada, Intact Insurances UAV
coverage caters to small and medium-

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

sized businesses that use or plan to use


drones in their business operations.
Meanwhile, a Chicago law firm is
now specializing in federal commercial drone law. Antonelli Law became
the first law firm in the U.S. to be invited by drone maker DJI to participate
in the companys referral program for
commercial drone users to help them
receive Section 333 exemptions from
the Federal Aviation Administration
(FAA). In 2015, Antonelli Law filed more
than 50 petitions with the FAA.
The firm also launched a specialized
drone law service to help police and fire
departments, community colleges, universities and municipalities obtain FAA
exemptions.

MARKET WATCH

UAV

Commercial Drone Sales to Rise by 84 Percent

study from U.K.-based Juniper


Research has found that annual revenues from commercial drones sales are expected to reach
$481 million this year, up 84 percent
from last years figure of $261 million.
The new research Drones: Consumer & Commercial Applications,
Regulations & Opportunities 20152020 found that a low price point
had significantly reduced the barrier
to entry in many sectors, with highperformance models now available
for less than $3,000. The reduction in
drone price points has, in turn, resulted
in their commercial application in an
array of new fields including mapping,
inspection and monitoring.

Agriculture to Lead Growth. The


strongest growth will occur in the agricultural sector, which Juniper expects
to account for 48 percent of all commercial drone sales this year. UAVs help
save time and costs over walking fields
on foot or using planes for fly-overs.
Film and Television. Demand for
UAVs in the film and television sectors
is soaring as a less expensive alternative to helicopters to capture footage.
Delivery Drone Concerns. The research cautions that privacy, safety
and security concerns mean that the
use of drones for delivery purposes is
likely to be severely constrained or even
prohibited within built-up areas.
According to researcher Windsor

Holden, regulators will be extremely


wary of allowing planned services
such as Amazon Prime Air and Googles
Project Wing, except as a means of delivering to isolated rural communities.
Regulators are understandably
concerned that the deployment of
delivery drones in inner cities would
significantly increase the risk of potentially fatal collisions with cars or even
pedestrians, Holden warned.
Security Concerns. The research
also claims that there is a danger that
delivery drones could be hacked by
terrorists, conceivably delivering an
explosives payload into areas where
they would be capable of causing high
levels of civilian casualties.

March 22-23, 2016


Sheraton Brussels Hotel
Brussels

Promoting Airspace Access.


Driving Market Growth.

REGISTER TODAY
www.auvsi.org/use
FEBRUARY 2016

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G P S W O R L D 47

COVERSTORY

DIRECTIONAL
ANTENNA
MOUNTED ON
UNDERSIDE OF
UAV.

ANTENNA PILOTS UAV


A JAMMER-HUNTING UAV employs a radio frequency (RF) detection system and a navigation control scheme. The RF detection
component uses a directional antenna and the unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) ability to rotate to determine a bearing to the jammer. The
navigation control scheme selects a trajectory for making bearing measurements that enable rapid jammer localization, based on three bearing
calculation methods: max, cross-correlation, and a modification of max leveraging the shape of the antennas main lobe, known as max3.
BY Adrien Perkins, Louis Dressel, Sherman Lo and Per Enge

hether malicious or unintentional,


GPS jamming events have already
proven to disrupt airports and pose
an increased risk to commercial
aviation in the future. An important
mitigation for this risk is the ability to rapidly locate and
interdict the GPS jamming device.

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FEBRUARY 2016

The system must be capable of reliably determining


jamming direction and quickly localizing the source in
the semi-urban environments typically found in and
around airports. This article examines both aspects.
In developing a localization algorithm, the
measurements being made by the system can greatly
impact performance. Using a directional antenna as

/
the primary sensor, our multirotor platform Jammer
Acquisition with GPS Exploration & Reconnaissance
(JAGER) can measure the bearing to the jammer, which
is the main input into the localization algorithm. Here we
examine three different bearing calculation techniques
from a gain pattern: max, cross-correlation and max3.
The closed-loop navigation controller uses the gathered
information to determine where to go next to most
quickly localize the jammer. In this article, the localization
objective is modeled as a partially observable Markov
decision process (POMDP) to determine the optimal
route. The viability of this technique for locating the
jammer source is demonstrated through flight testing in
a simulated environment.

PROBLEM OVERVIEW
Because our vehicle is an agile, multirotor UAV, it can
translate, climb, rotate and make received signal strength
indicator (RSSI) measurements at the same time. It is
computationally difficult to reason over such a large input
space. Therefore, to simplify the problem, we constrain
the vehicle to a constant altitude and assume a single,
stationary jammer. We also decouple the problem into two
actions: rotating to measure bearing, and moving to
another measurement location.
This article focuses on the first action: How accurately
can bearing be estimated if the vehicle samples RSSI values
while rotating in place, and how can those measurements
affect the decisions of where to rotate next?
POMDP Formulation. The problem of choosing successive
rotation locations has been formulated as a POMDP.
POMDPs are a principled approach to decision making
and closed-loop control in stochastic domains.
At each time step, the problem can be described by a
state s S, where S is the state space, or set of all possible
states. To limit the size of the state space, the search area
is split into a grid. A state consists of four state variables:
the vehicle x-index xv, the vehicle y-index yv, the jammers
x-index xj, and the jammers y-index yj. At each time
step, the state is only partially observable the jammers
position is unknown.
At each time step, the vehicle can take some action a
A, the set of available actions. In our formulation, the
vehicle can travel to any of the neighboring grid cells,
rotate in place to make a bearing measurement, or simply
hover, resulting in 10 possible actions. After taking action
a from state s, the problem will transition to some state s.
At any time step, the state is unknown to the vehicle.
Instead, it makes an observation o O, where O is the
set of all possible observations. In our problem, these

observations are the bearing measurements made when


the vehicle rotates. To reduce the number of possible
observations and computational complexity, the bearing
measurements are discretized and include a null
observation when the vehicle cannot determine a bearing.
The POMDP formulation includes an observation
model Z(a, s, o) = P(o | a, s) describing the probability
of making observation o after taking action a and
transitioning to state s. This probability is a function
of the bearing measurement quality. Prior to the work
presented here, it was assumed bearing measurements
had zero-mean Gaussian noise with a 10-degree standard
deviation. It was also assumed that if the vehicle rotated
in the same grid cell as the jammer, it would receive the
null measurement, because the space directly under the
vehicle is outside the main lobe of its directional antenna.
An updated observation model, using the characterization
performed in this work, can be found in the section entitled
Effect on Algorithm.
Although the vehicle is unaware of the true state, it
maintains a probability distribution over the state space,
called a belief, denoted b. After taking an action and
making a new observation, Bayes law is used to update
the belief. This updated belief is used in conjunction with
policy to determine the next action to take. A policy (b)
maps beliefs to actions.
Due to the large belief space, this research uses SARSOP,
which allows a policy to be computed offline and uploaded
to the vehicle before a mission. The vehicle then relies on
this policy to make decisions while in flight.
Generating a policy requires a reward model that
encourages the vehicle to perform certain actions. In
our formulation, we reward the vehicle when it stops in
the grid cell containing the jammer. This encourages the
vehicle to first find the jammer, which is our goal. We give
penalties for movement and rotations to reflect the time
taken to perform them.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP
Our jammer-hunting UAV, JAGER, is a commercially
available DJI S1000. The S1000 is made to carry film-grade
cameras, but weve modified it to carry our experimental
payload. For control and navigation, the vehicle is equipped
with a Pixhawk autopilot system running a custom
version of the PX4 firmware. The Pixhawk has sensors to
determine the vehicles attitude, altitude, and position. The
localization decisions are made on the flight computer,
which is an Odroid-U3 ARM-based computer that
communicates with the autopilot throughout the flight. All
signal strength measurements are made with a directional

FEBRUARY 2016

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G P S W O R L D 49

ANTENNAS
CHARACTERIZATION
GUIDES UAV NAV

FIGURE 1 Schematic of components on UAV.

yagi antenna connected to the RN-XV WiFly module. A


schematic of this configuration and the flow of information
can be seen in FIGURE 1.
Given the small size of this payload, the flight time
achieved during testing was 20 minutes on 4 pounds of
batteries (two 6-cell 8000-mAh batteries).
Signal Source. Due to restrictions on active interference
with GPS signals, a 2.4-GHz Wi-Fi router was used as a
proxy jammer for all our flight testing. The Wi-Fi router
was placed on the ground at a surveyed location. In these
tests, GPS was used for navigation as we are still developing
alternate and GPS jamming resistant navigation.
Antenna. A single the L-com HG2409Y yagi antenna was
used for this experiment. This 2.4-GHz Wi-Fi antenna has
a 60-degree beam width both horizontally and directionally
as shown in FIGURE 2. As depicted in the OPENING GRAPHIC, the
antenna was mounted below the vehicle in order to have
the clearest view to a ground based signal. Furthermore,
the antenna is placed angled down at 30 degrees in order
to have the main lobe of the antenna extend out to the
horizon. This also leaves a cone underneath the vehicle
with a weak signal that was aimed to be leveraged as a null
measurement when over the jammer.
While we are currently using a Wi-Fi-based system to
stand in for GPS, we eventually plan to test this system

on a true GPS jammer. Despite the different frequencies,


the same methodology and approach will be able to be
used when localizing a GPS jammer. The biggest change
the system will require is the antenna required to make
bearing measurements. For Wi-Fi, we have been able to
successfully use an off-the-shelf directional antenna, but
for GPS either a custom directional antenna or a dualantenna solution will be needed.
Measurements. Throughout the UAVs flight, the
directional antenna makes RSSI measurements at 2 Hz.
To calculate bearing from a given location, the vehicle
simply rotates at a rate of 15 degrees/second at that
position and combines all of the RSSI measurements using
magnetometer data to form the antennas gain pattern. This
gain pattern can then be used to estimate the bearing of the
signal source from that given position. In this paper that
bearing calculation is done with three different methods:
max, cross-correlation and max3.
The max method simply finds the maximum RSSI
value in the measured pattern and uses that heading as
the bearing to the jammer.
The cross-correlation method normalizes the measured
pattern and compares it with the known truth pattern for
the antenna. The truth pattern is shifted by some angle.
The cross-correlation is computed for every possible
shift . The shift yielding the highest cross-correlation
coefficient is taken to be the bearing to the jammer.
To get our truth pattern, we sampled RSSI every
10 degrees at distances ranging from 10 to 40 meters,
normalized the resulting patterns, and took the mean of
these normalized patterns.
The max3 method is an improvement on the max
method where the bearing is the mean of the bearing of
the two crossings of 3 dB below the maximum RSSI value
for the pattern, as depicted in FIGURE 3.
Flight Area. Test flights were performed at the Joint

FIGURE 2 Directional antenna gain pattern from datasheet: vertical, left; horizontal, right.

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FEBRUARY 2016

FIGURE 3 Depiction of Max3 method.

/
Interagency Field Experimentation
(JIFX) event hosted by the Naval
Po st g r a du ate S cho ol. Mo st
measurement were taken at an altitude
of 100 feet AGL with a handful of
measurements made near the signal
source at an altitude of 50 feet AGL.
When the localization algorithm
was tested, a 9 by 9 grid (each cell
11 meters on a side) was used as the
world, with the signal source located
in the top right cell and the vehicle
starting in the center cell, 62 meters
from the signal source.

RESULTS
During flight tests with the JAGER
vehicle, 88 different experimental gain
patterns were created, and bearing
calculations were made with each
of the three previously described
methods.

FIGURE 4 Location of all experimental gain pattern measurements colored by signal strength
(from -65dBm, green, to -80dBm, red).

The POMDP-based localization


algorithm was successfully executed
to locate the signal source. Leveraging
the performance results of the crosscorrelation and max3 methods,
the model for the POMDP was
updated and produced a significantly
different flight profile. In addition

to the POMDP-based localization


algorithm, a baseline algorithm
was also used to demonstrate the
advantages of the POMDP-based
algorithm.
Effects of Distance. Throughout
the experiment, measurements were
made at distances from the signal

ENC 2016
EUROPEAN NAVIGATION CONFERENCE 2016
30 MAY 02 JUNE 2016 HELSINKI, FINLAND

IMPORTANT DEADLINES
Full-paper Submission (Full-Paper Peer Review):
Abstract Submission (Light Peer Review):
Acceptance Notification:
Early Registration:

15th February, 2016


15th February, 2016
31th March, 2016
15th April, 2016

CALL FOR PAPERS, CALL FOR SPONSORS


AND EXHIBITORS NOW OPEN!
Innovative Technical Program - Please Visit www.enc2016.eu

FEBRUARY 2016

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G P S W O R L D 51

ANTENNAS
CHARACTERIZATION
GUIDES UAV NAV

FIGURE 5 Gain pattern at 7 meters from


signal source (Near).
CC

Max

Max3

Overall

27.9

25.4

22.1

Ideal

13.7

17.9

13.2

Near

45.1

44.1

39.4

TABLE 1 Standard deviation [deg] of


calculated bearing for each method.

source ranging from directly overhead


to almost 350 meters away. FIGURE4
shows all the locations in which
measurements were taken during
flight tests, with the signal source in
the center of the main grouping. Each
marker represents one measurement,
and its color represents roughly the
maximum RSSI value measured at
each location. As expected, as the
vehicle traveled further from the
signal source, the maximum RSSI
value measured dropped. Near the
signal source, the signal is no longer
captured by the main lobe, which
result in poor measurements, as can
be seen by the grouping of orange and
red markers near the source.

MEASUREMENT CLASSIFICATION
Because of effects of distance on the
measurements and the configuration
of the antenna on the vehicle, all
measurements were split into three
classifications: near, ideal and far.
Near. Near measurements are

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FIGURE 6 Gain pattern at 250 meters from


signal source (Far).

FIGURE 7 Gain pattern at 26.6 meters from


signal source (Ideal).

measurements made where the signal


source is within the cone underneath
the vehicle, where the main lobe of the
antenna no longer reaches. When the
signal source was near the vehicle, we
did not obtain null measurements, but
rather obtained gain patterns such as
the one shown in FIGURE 5. These gain
patterns do not resemble the ideal
gain pattern of the antenna due to the
noise in the measurements from the
signal source not being picked up by
the main lobe, making it challenging
for any of the bearing calculation
methods to successfully determine
the bearing.
Far. Far measurements are any
measurement further than 200 meters
from the signal source. At these
distances, the RSSI measurements
were at or below the receiver sensitivity.
At these distances, the resulting
gain patterns no longer had enough
measurements to clearly resemble
the ideal gain pattern of the antenna.
FIGURE 6 shows a gain pattern from
250 meters away with a true bearing
of 267 degrees and demonstrates
the partial pattern that is measured.
The cross-correlation estimate of 182
degrees suffers from the inability to
match the partial pattern with the
required truth pattern. On the other
hand, the simplicity of the max and
max3 methods result in more accurate

estimates of 271 and 285 degrees,


respectively.
Ideal. This leaves the ideal category,
which is any measurement made
between near and far. At this distance,
the signal source was able to both be
within the main lobe of the antenna
and within reasonable rage of the
WiFlys sensitivity. In the ideal range,
the gain patterns produced resemble
the true pattern of the antenna, as
shown in FIGURE 7.
In the flight tests, the majority of
the measurements taken were in the
ideal range. Only a few measurements
were made in the far range so no
detailed analysis is presented for
measurements in the far range.

FEBRUARY 2016

BEARING METHODS PERFORMANCE


An overview of the standard deviation
of all the results can be seen in TABLE1.
As expected, each of the methods
had approximate zero mean Gaussian
error distributions for the overall
and ideal cases as depicted in FIGURE 10
for cross-correlation. Overall, Max3
outperformed the other two methods.
The noise in the measurements near
the signal source made each of these
methods unreliable, with all three
having very high standard deviations
as shown. At ideal distances, max3
and cross-correlation performs
similarly while max is a little worse.

FIGURE 8 Bearing error as a function of


distance for max technique.

FIGURE 9 Bearing error as a function of


distance for cross-correlation technique.

The proper characterization of the antenna is vital to the


performance of the POMDP localization algorithm. Using
the results presented with the max3 and cross-correlation
methods, the POMDP model can be updated to better
reflect the measurements in order to improve the flight
profile for localization.
Max. The max method is the simplest method used
to calculate the bearing to the signal from a given set of
measurements. This method is also the reason for the poor
performance in calculating the bearing. This method can
too easily pick a wrong estimate if there is a spike in what
should be a smooth main lobe as depicted in Figure 11.
These spikes cause a large spread in the errors in calculating
bearing seen in FIGURE 8.
Cross-Correlation. Cross-correlation is the most complex
of the methods used and in the ideal range is one of the
best performing methods (on par with the max3 method).
The overall performance of the cross-correlation
suffered from the poor performance near and far from the
router. Since this method requires a known truth pattern,
when the experimental measurements dont yield enough
results to create a full pattern, the cross-correlation can
mistakenly identify the partial pattern for a side lobe
instead of a main lobe as was seen in Figure 6.
In the ideal range, it greatly outperforms the max
method as expected. When looking at the bearing error
shown in FIGURE 9, it can be seen that the errors are much
more tightly grouped near zero than those seen in Figure 8
for the max method. The outliers for the far measurement
caused by a failure to match the partial patterns to the truth
can also be clearly seen in this figure.
The increase in performance from near to ideal can
clearly be seen in Table 1, where the standard deviation of
the error is significantly smaller for the ideal case.
Max3. Max3 is the strongest of the three bearing
calculation methods tested; overall, it performed the best
and max3 has the advantage of simplicity over cross-

FIGURE 10 Distribution of errors for crosscorrelation technique for different distance


classifications.

correlation. It can perform on par with cross-correlation


in the ideal range as can be seen by the similarly close error
groupings in FIGURES 12 (max3) and 9 (cross-correlation) and
by the similar standard deviations seen in Table 1.
The benefit over the cross-correlation method of not
requiring a known truth pattern allows max3 to perform
well when the number of measurements is very small and
the gain pattern is mostly incomplete. However, max3 has
difficulty making accurate bearing calculations when close

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G P S W O R L D 53

ANTENNAS
CHARACTERIZATION
GUIDES UAV NAV

FIGURE 11 Gain pattern explaining benefits of


Max3 method over max.

FIGURE 12 Bearing error as a function of


distance for max3 technique.

to the router, though not as badly as


the other two methods.
The advantage max3 has over
the simple max is well illustrated in
FIGURE11. While the gain pattern looks
very promising, there is a spike along
the otherwise mostly smooth main
lobe at 116 degrees. This spike is
off from the true 92-degree bearing
which results in the max method
estimating an incorrect bearing. By
taking the mean of the bearing of
the two crossing points 3 dB below
the max (marked in blue xs), effects
from spikes like the ones depicted are
reduced allowing for a much better
estimate of 93 degrees.

performance seen from max3 can be


used to update the POMDP model to
improve the localization algorithm,
as described in section Effect on
Algorithm.

a)

ALGORITHM PERFORMANCE
One of the goals of our flight tests
was to determine the feasibility of
the POMDP approach and begin to
understand the performance of the
POMDP method. A simple baseline
method was used for comparison.
The baseline method used in this test
was a variable step greedy algorithm
that moved in the direction of the
calculated bearing (using the max
method) with a variable step size. The
step size was based on the similarity
between measurements, resulting in

FIGURE 13 Flight path of the variable step


size, greedy localization algorithm. White
lines are true bearing from measurement
locations, red lines are cross-correlation
bearings and black lines are max bearings.

an increased step size when moving


in the same direction toward the
signal source.
Using this baseline method, JAGER
was able to move toward the location
of the signal source, and with the
assistance of a user monitoring the
behavior, was able to locate the signal
source. The flight path of the vehicle
for this test can be seen in FIGURE 13.
With a user in the loop with this
baseline method, a good estimate of
the location can be determined by
watching the behavior of the vehicle.

b)

Through this characterization, the

a)

b)

c)

d)

c)

FIGURE 14 POMDP signal source belief state


at each step. Darker the red in the cell,
the more likely the signal source is in that
location.

54 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FIGURE 15 Flight path of the POMDP


localization flight with an overlay of the final
grid state.

FEBRUARY 2016

FIGURE 16 Simulation steps of POMDP with


updated model.

/
Looking at Figure 13, it can be seen that the vehicle
kept crossing its path near one location, which can be
determined to be an estimate of the location of the signal
source. It is worth noting that the baseline method does
take four steps to get in the region of the signal source, and
then another four or five steps for the user to be confident
that the vehicle is in the vicinity of the signal source.
POMDP Localization. With a baseline determined, the
POMDP approach was executed from the same starting
location and used the simple max bearing method for
determining bearing from each location. This localization
took a mere two steps and three measurements to be able
to locate the signal source. FIGURE 14 shows the state updates
as the vehicle made subsequent measurements. After the
first measurement is made at the starting location, the
vehicle is able to immediately narrow down the location
of the signal source to a small region within the grid.
Unlike the simple method of moving slowly in the
direction of the max bearing, the POMDP method can
make large changes in order to get to the next best location
to make a measurement.
When running this algorithm, we had an assumption
that when the vehicle is in the same cell as the signal source,
a null measurement would be made. Unfortunately, near
and over the signal source resulted in noisy measurements,
and that noise resulted in location of the signal source
being off by one cell.
Effect on Algorithm. The experiments in this paper were
performed to obtain a better observation model for the
localization algorithm. Previously, the model assumed
10-degree noise except when the vehicle was in the same
cell as the jammer; there the modeled assumed a null
measurement would be obtained. These assumptions were
used in the experimental trajectory shown in FIGURE15 and
affected the selected trajectory. The vehicle always moved
toward regions with high probability of containing the
jammer (the dark red cells). Because we assumed that
rotation would only yield a null measurement when over
the jammer, receiving a null observation after rotating
would convince the vehicle that the jammer was in its
current cell. For this reason, the vehicle moves to regions
with high probability of containing the jammer; it hoped
to receive this high-information measurement and solve
the problem with a single rotation.
Experimental results have shown that measurement
noise increases greatly close to the jammer. Our new
model assumes 40-degree noise if the jammer is in any
of the adjacent grid cells when the vehicle rotates, and
13-degree noise if the jammer is farther away. If the vehicle
rotates in the same cell containing the jammer, it no longer

receives a null measurement. Instead, it can receive any


measurement with uniform probability.
Generating a policy with this new model leads to
different trajectories. A simulated rerun of the experimental
trajectory from Figure 15 is shown in FIGURE 16. The vehicle
avoids the darker cells, which indicate higher probability
of containing the jammer. Instead the vehicle chooses to
rotate in cells it believes are farther away from the jammer
to avoid possible measurement noise.

CONCLUSION
This article presents the development of the localization
component of a UAV to locate the source of a GPS
jamming signal. For the scenarios tested, modeling the
localization as a POMDP is a viable solution that can
locate a static signal source in very few steps. It is faster
and has greater confidence than a simple, greedy search
baseline solution.
Through extensive test flights using a single directional
antenna and rotation-based measurements, three different
bearing methods have been analyzed. All three methods
suffered when near the signal source due to the antenna

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 55

ANTENNAS
CHARACTERIZATION
GUIDES UAV NAV

/ reception pattern, which resulted in


very noisy measurements. Of the
three, max3 and cross-correlation
fared the best in the ideal distance
from the signal source. Max3 was
able to outperform cross-correlation
when the UAV was far from the
signal source due to the limitations
of cross-correlation requiring a truth
pattern for correlation. However,
cross-correlation can also provide
a useful correlation coefficient that
can be used in the future to merge
several bearing calculation methods.
The characterization of antenna
bearing performance is a vital
component to the localization
process. The characterization affects
the optimal behavior determined
by POMDP. When we changed
our initial assumptions about
measurement performance near
the jammer to one better informed

56 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

by our tests, the actions determined


POMDP resulted in a significantly
different profile.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors gratefully acknowledge
the Naval Postgraduate School for
providing an unmatched space to
be able to perform test flights of the
JAGER system at the Joint Interagency
Field Experimentation events. The
authors would also like to thank the
Stanford Center for Position Navigation and Time (SCPNT) and its
members for supporting this work.

is based on PX4 by Pixhawk.org. The


tracking hardware comprises a 2.4
GHz Yagi antenna from L-com; an
RN-XV Wi-Fi module by Roving
Networks; and an Odroid-U3 computer by Hardkernel Co.
ADRIEN PERKINS is a Ph.D. candidate in
the GPS Research Laboratory at Stanford
University, where he received his MSc. in
aeronautics and astronautics.
LOUIS DRESSEL is a Ph.D. candidate in the
Aeronautics and Astronautics Department
at Stanford, where he works on a joint
project with the Stanford Intelligent
Systems Lab and the GPS Research
Laboratory.

MANUFACTURERS

SHERMAN LO is a senior research engineer


at the Stanford University GPS Laboratory.

The JAGER UAV airframe is a S1000


octocopter by DJI Innovations; the
flight batteries are a 8000 mAh model
by Hextronik; the autopilot hardware
and GPS antenna is a Pixhawk by 3D
Robotics, Inc.; the autopilot software

PER ENGE is a professor of aeronautics


and astronautics at Stanford, where he
directs the GPS Research Laboratory.

FEBRUARY 2016

This article is based on a technical paper


presented at the 2015 ION-GNSS+
conference in Tampa, Florida.

MOBILEUPDATE
u-blox Offers Platform for Wearables

he new u-blox8
GPS/GLONASS
re c e ive r pl at form, coming in
the second quarter of 2016,
complements the u-blox
GNSS platform portfolio by
addressing power sensitive
usage. The existing u-blox
M8 platform continues to
serve applications where
navigation performance and
highest accuracy are paramount.
u-blox 8 offers significant improvements over its
predecessor u-blox7. The
tracking sensitivity has been
increased by 4 dBm, and is
now -166 dBm.
The enhanced odometer

NEWSBRIEFS
8M DEVICES MANAGE
FLEETS, WORKERS

functionality, a new geofencing feature, and optimized preset power-save


modes can halve the power
requirements for sport
products. Also, AssistNow,
which boosts GNSS acquisi-

tion performance, has been


improved.
The new positioning
platform is designed for all
battery-powered devices,
especially wearables and
sports trackers.

Eight million GPS/wireless devices are used to manage fleet


vehicles, trailers, construction
equipment and mobile workers,
according to a new report by C.J.
Driscoll & Associates, a supplier
of telematics market research
and consulting services.According to the 201617 U.S. Mobile
Resource Management (MRM)
Systems Market Study, by 2019
this market will expand to more
than 14 million units, and annual
hardware and service revenues
will grow to nearly $4.7 billion.
The study provides in-depth
information on each major MRM
market segment.

NEWTECH
NEXTNAV RECEIVES SUPPORT FOR
METROPOLITAN BEACON SYSTEM
The final specification for 3GPP Release 13 will include
messaging support for the Metropolitan Beacon System
(MBS).
NextNav is deploying MBS positioning technology
across the U.S. to allow mobile phones and other devices
to reliably determine their location in indoor and urban
environments where GPS signals cant be received.
NextNav has adopted MBS for its nationwide deployment, which it calls a terrestrial constellation bringing
GNSS-like positioning performance to indoor and urban
environments where satellite-based positioning is either
unavailable or significantly degraded. By standardizing the
core network information flow in 3GPP, support for MBS
will become available across any Release 13-compliant longterm evolution (LTE) network platforms globally, similar
to previously standardized GNSS systems such as GPS,
GLONASS, BeiDou and Galileo satellite signals.
NextNavs system is complementary to GPS and delivers
hig-precision latitude, longitude and floor-level altitude in
GPS-challenged areas such as indoors and urban locations
across an entire metropolitan area.

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 57

TRANSPORTATIONUPDATE

Broadcom Announces Automotive


Global Navigation Chip at CES 2016

roadcom Corporation has added a new GNSS


wireless connectivity chip to its automotive
portfolio, which it unveiled at the Consumer
Electronics Show (CES), held in Las Vegas
Jan. 69.
Automotive GPS shipments are expected to more than
double by 2022, creating significant opportunities among
component suppliers and increasing competition for market
share, Broadcom said.
The companys new BCM89774 chip offers wideband
capture radio technology for simultaneous tri-band reception
of all visible GNSS satellites including GPS, Galileo, QZSS,
GLONASS, BeiDou and global SBAS augmentation systems.
By integrating the sensor hub and CPU on a single
chip, the BCM89774 provides improved location and
positioning while lowering power consumption for invehicle applications and reducing bill of materials (BOM)
costs for car makers.
It delivers original equipment manufacturers one of the
most accurate solutions available today, Broadcom said.
The new chip also improves positioning in dense urban
environments and foliage-blocked areas to enhance the
consumer experience.
The BCM89774 has been tested to AECQ100 automotive
environmental stress requirements, is manufactured in
TS16949 certified facilities, and offers full production part
approval process (PPAP) support.
Broadcom said the new GNSS connectivity chip will
keep car makers and tier-one suppliers ahead of the curve
with advanced precision and reduced power consumption,
according to Richard Barrett, Broadcom Director of
Automotive Wireless Connectivity.
The BCM89774 is currently sampling.

BCM89774 FEATURES
Low-power mode for emergency service and theft
tracking applications
Location-awareness capabilities added to traditional
functions of a sensor hub for lower power consumption
and BOM costs
Simultaneous reception of GPS, GLONASS, BDS, QZSS
and Galileo navigation satellites
Support for global Satellite Based Augmentation
Systems (SBAS)
Management of controller area network (CAN bus)
inputs and sensors such as accelerometers, gyroscopes
and magnetometers to provide a fused sensor data
tracking subsystem
Full production part approval process (PPAP) support

NEWSBRIEFS
DRIVERLESS: THE BUSINESS OF AUTONOMOUS VEHICLES
MARCH 22 - MARCH 23

With automakers and Silicon Valley


technology companies rolling out strategies
for the autonomous car, keeping on top of
the latest technology, worldwide markets
and regulation will be critical. Enter
Driverless, a conference set for March 2223

58 G P S W O R L D

in San Francisco. Attendees will find out


what technology and markets will prevail
from both a Detroit and Silicon Valley
perspective from those in the business,
said event organizer and GPS World LBS
Editor Kevin Dennehy. Driverless will

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

feature more than 30 executive speakers


covering the most important issues facing
the autonomous vehicle industry. The
exclusive one-day conference features an
early bird reception on the evening before,
a hosted luncheon, and a two-and-a-half
hour reception with more than 15 exhibits
from prominent companies. Learn more at
driverlessmarket.com.

TRANSPORTATIONUPDATE

NEWTECH
EXCELFORE LAUNCHES INTELLIGENT TRANSPORTATION CONNECTIVITY
Excelfore has launched a comprehensive suite of secure
cloud and connectivity solutions. Excelfore provides an
end-to-end intelligent transportation framework to the
automotive industry using a cloud platform along with invehicle connectivity technologies.
Excelfore uses its machine-to-machine (M2M)
distributed architecture to support cloud-to-vehicle
connectivity and multiple in-vehicle networks including
LIN, CAN, FlexRay and Ethernet. Advanced security
features include enhanced hash functions, multiple levels of
encryption, content-delivery network integration and endto-end security from the cloud to the vehicle components.

WayRay Offers Holographic Navigation System

wiss startup WayRay has introduced an augmented


reality navigation system that projects holographic
GPS imagery and driver notifications onto the
windshield of a car.
Navion, billed as the first-ever holographic navigation
system for cars, is placed on a cars dashboard and projects
a virtual route into the regular focal range of the driver.
The driver sees the navigation signs laid out directly on the
road ahead of the moving vehicle, while the drivers eyes are
safely focused on the road at all times. We call this concept
natural navigation, and we believe it will change the way we
drive, WayRay said in a press release.
In contrast to other augmented reality devices currently on the market, no additional eyewear or headgear
is needed to see the image. Navions interface provides the
driver with clear route indicators even in bright sunlight,
the company said.
Navion responds to simple hand gestures and voice control. Certain features are available for use only when the car
is stopped or moving at a very low speed.
The company first developed the WayRay Element, a
smart car tracker that collects data from the car and trans-

forms it into statistics about the driver. Element works in


conjunction with the WayRay Navion. Both products are
to be released in 2016.

Aerialtronics

Use Promo Code GPSWORLD

for FREE exhibit hall


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spar3d.com/event

Produced by

FEBRUARY 2016

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 59

DEFENSEUPDATE

DARPA Awards Unmanned


Demonstration Contract

The Tern system would deploy and recover UAVs from small-deck naval ships.
(Illustration: Northrop Grumman)

he U.S. Defense Advanced


Research Projects Agency
(DARPA) and the Office
of Naval Research have
awarded Northrop Grumman the
third phase of the Tern unmanned
systems program. Phase three plans
include final design, fabrication and
a full-scale, at-sea demonstration of
the system.
Tern seeks to develop an autonomous, unmanned, long-range, global
and persistent intelligence, surveillance, reconnaissance (ISR) and strike
system intended to safely and dependably deploy and recover from
small-deck naval vessels with minimal
ship modifications.
Designed to operate in harsh maritime environments, Tern aims to
enable greater mission capability and
flexibility for surface combat vessels
without the need for establishing
fixed land bases or requiring scarce
aircraft carrier resources.
According to DARPA, Tern would
use smaller ships as mobile launch
and recovery sites for medium-altitude long-endurance (MALE) un-

60 G P S W O R L D

manned aircraft (UAVs). Named


after the family of seabirds known
for flight endurance many species migrate thousands of miles each
year Tern aims to make it much
easier, quicker and less expensive
for the Department of Defense to
deploy persistent airborne ISR and
strike capabilities almost anywhere
in the world.
Ideally, Tern would enable on-demand, ship-based unmanned aircraft
systems (UAS) operations without
extensive, time-consuming and irreversible ship modifications. It would
provide small ships with a mission
truck that could transport ISR and
strike payloads to very long distances
from the host vessel.
The solution would support fieldinterchangeable mission packages for
both overland and maritime missions.
It would operate from multiple ship
types and in elevated sea states.
Northrop Grummans Tern solution seeks to provide an innovative
system that integrates mature and
advanced technologies, including a
distinctive propulsion solution.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

NEWTECH
MICROSEMI OFFERS
SECURITY-HARDENED
TIMING PLATFORM
Microsemi Corporation is offering a
network time protocol (NTP) server
for defense and security.
The new SyncServer S650 provides
a highly secure, accurate and flexible
timing and frequency platform for
synchronizing network elements and
mission-critical electronics systems
in government instrumentation applications such as satellite communications and defense operational
infrastructure. It offers time synchronization with hardware-based
time-stamp support that significantly
reduces jitter and latency in time
served, without losing accuracy. It is a
highly versatile timing and frequency
system with the companys FlexPort
technology for multiport, user-definable output signal configuration.
Along with the SyncServer S600,
aimed at IT networks, the new timing
platform makes significant advances
in the security hardening of timing
ports, as well as adaptability to various network topologies and flexibility of timing output configuration.
Other benefits include clock accuracy
typically better than 10 nanoseconds
to universal time, and environmental
design robustness.
Webinar. Microsemi will host a free
webinar on network timing protocols
and other timing security issues on
March 31. Register at gpsworld.com/
webinars.

Inside the
SyncServer S650.

MACHINECONTROLUPDATE

Farmer and Surveyor Share Data


BY Tim Burch

S U RV E Y S CEN E CO LU M N I ST

s surveyors, we are constantly


trying to find ways to incorporate our skills into other
occupations to increase productivity.
We also see the modern farmer moving
away from small family operations with
only several hundred acres, morphing
into farm management corporations
with tens of thousands of acres as well
as millions of dollars of equipment.
Efficiency is what they are after,
and they are spending significant
amounts of money on technology to
make it happen. My own curiosity
and research has opened my eyes to
how far the farming profession has
grown, and in many ways surpassed
the land surveyor with technology. But
I think there is still common ground
that needs to be explored, so lets start
at the root of each profession.
As different as the two professions
may seem, farming and surveying have
one large common link: data. More
specifically, the tools, methods and
procedures they operate to acquire
the data used in their everyday jobs
and projects.
The implementation of GPS equipment and the ability to collect location
data has greatly improved the productivity of both professions, but for
drastically different reasons. However,
as technology continues to march forward, and storage and data evaluation
use grows, the surveyor and the farmer
will begin to use each others skillsets
to increase their own usefulness.

COMING TOGETHER
Both of these noble professions are
using a highly accurate form of measurement and data recording, but we
must review further how they can help
each other. To do that, we must analyze
what each is doing with the technology.

Surveyors and GPS Use. Roles of the


surveyor are to measure land, provide
professional knowledge regarding
parcel boundaries, and collect data for
engineering and drainage purposes.
Most of this data is now collected by
GPS methods and is in NAD83 state
plane coordinates with NAVD88 elevations. This information can be
supplemented by county and state
GIS data as well. Surveyors also have
knowledge of existing monuments by
local, state and federal authorities tied
to these coordinate systems/datums
Tim Burch,
GPS Worlds
co-contributing editor
for survey, is survey
department manager
for Chastain &
Associates LLC in the
Decatur, Illinois, area.
He has been working
as a professional land
surveyor since 1985,
and is the secretary,
Board of Directors,
National Society of Professional Surveyors.
Read his full column at gpsworld.com/
opinions and subscribe to the Survey Scene
newsletter at gpsworld.com/subscribe.

so all future surveys can be related to


each other geographically.
Farmers and GPS Use. Farmers who
have embraced GPS technology now
have the power not only to map and
collect data, but to also utilize previous
data for crop efficiency. This ability to
run a more efficient farming system
is happening now for many farmers.
The farmer is educated in regard to
seed germination, weed and bug prevention, and maximizing crop yields
so collecting this data has become a
necessary task.

HARVESTING DATA
The farmer and the surveyor can use
their knowledge in many ways for

FEBRUARY 2016

the mutual benefit of increasing crop


yields, efficiently working the land and
maximizing production.
The surveyors knowledge of topography and drainage can assist the
farmer with shaping land to minimize
water runoff and loss of key nutrients
in the soil. This loss is estimated to be
an average of two to three tons of soil
per acre per year. Installation of drainage tile in addition to grading can be
critical to minimizing soil loss, and the
surveyor can help with this analysis.
Accurate boundaries allow the
farmer to know the limits of his property. The surveyor can provide this
information so the farmer can maximize his planting configuration, yet
not encroach on adjacent property.
The surveyor can also help with the
creation of land-management systems
to help farmland owners plan for financial decisions and tax strategies.
The biggest opportunity for the
surveyor is to offer assistance to the
farmer who has little or no knowledge
of data collection. This geospatial data
can be confusing to those not familiar
with this information. Farmers who
become educated in analyzing and
reading crop data can increase production and yields.
Surveyors have the math skills and
background to assist with the management of the data from a location
standpoint. This effort will help the
farmer know soil conditions, germination, spray application and harvesting
to maximize the cost effectiveness of
his investment in the land.
Together, the farmer and the surveyor can create a successful partnership that can increase crop production
worldwide. Data is the crop that brings
them together, and planted with the
right amount of care and nurturing,
this data can become more valuable
than ever.

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

G P S W O R L D 61

WITH RICHARD B. LANGLEY

NULL-STEERING ANTENNAS
Assessing the Performance of Multi-Antenna Interference-Rejection Techniques

FIGURE 1 Geometry of antenna array consisting of seven dual-frequency (L1, L2), dual polarized (RHCP, LHCP) elements arranged on a
circular ground plane.
BY James T. Curran, Michele Bavaro and

Joaquim Fortuny-Guasch

irectional antennas offer a powerful means


of achieving signal selectivity when various
signal sources observed by a receiver are
separated spatially. In the context of GNSS,
which must accommodate a mobile receiver observing
many moving transmitters, adaptive antennas
or controlled radiation pattern antennasare an
attractive option. The benefits of antenna arrays have
been demonstrated both for signal rejection, such as
interference and multipath mitigation or anti-spoofing;
and for the purposes of gain enhancement, angle-ofarrival, or attitude estimation.

62 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

A number of different factors can influence the


achievable levels of signal rejection using antenna
arrays. These factors include: the gain and phase
stability of the analog radio-frequency (RF) and
intermediate-frequency (IF) stages, the linearity
of the active analog stages, and the fidelity of the
signal-combining stages. Seeking to identify the
bound imposed by each of these limiting factors,
we have carefully examined the signal rejection
capability of an antenna array in our work. The study
considers a circular antenna array, consisting of
seven passive dual-polarized (right-hand circularly
polarized [RHCP] and left-hand circularly polarized
[LHCP]) L1-L2 elements. Although signal rejection

can be performed both in the analog and in the


digital domain, this article focuses only on the
analog combination of signals at RF, using a bank
of controllable phase shifters and attenuators.
We conducted broadcast experiments in a largediameter anechoic chamber, housing a rotatable
central pillar upon which the array is mounted, and
two broadcast antennas mounted on movable sleds.
The results presented here include a precise
three-dimensional phase and gain calibration of the
antenna array using a network analyzer to explore
the properties of antenna elements when placed in
close proximity on a common ground plane. Further
results include an investigation of the nulling depth
achievable by the array via the synchronous broadcast
of two GNSS-like code-division multiple access
(CDMA) signals from different broadcast antennas.
We then extrapolated these results to infer the relative
degradation in nulling capability when the receivers
estimate of the amplitude and phase of the signal to be
rejected is poor. Finally, a comparison of analog and
digital element combining is explored, with emphasis
on the rejection of strong jamming signals.
This experiment sought to illustrate and quantify
the unique benefits and limitations of each technique.
In particular, we note that analog combining
enjoys high linearity and can accommodate high
interference power, but is typically restricted to
the use of coarse phase and gain coefficients when
combining elements. In contrast, digital combining
can offer notably higher gain and phase resolution,
but is limited by the dynamic range of the digitizer.

ANTENNA CHARACTERIZATION
The work reported in this article has focused on
the use of a seven-element circular antenna array,
consisting of dual-polarized (RHCP and LHCP),
dual-frequency (L1 and L2) elements. The antenna
elements are mounted on a single circular aluminum
ground plane 2 millimeters thick and 50 centimeters
in diameter, and placed in a hexagonal arrangement
at a spacing of 12.5 centimeters, as depicted in
FIGURE 1. Because the antennas are passive, and can
be used both for transmission and for reception,
characterization tests were performed in broadcast
mode while the typical receive-mode operation of
the array is performed using an in-line low-noise
amplifier (LNA) after the antenna.
The experiments described here were conducted
in an anechoic chamber, hemispherical in shape

INNOVATION
INSIGHTS RICHARD B. LANGLEY
BY

ITS ALL PHYSICS. How things work, that is. Well, maybe a little chemistry
too in some cases. But I might be a little biased in my opinion given that Im an
applied physicist by training. Radio? Satellite navigation? Yes, the principles of
their operation are all governed by physics. Many physicists of my generation
started out as radio tinkerers. Ive recounted in this column before that I built
my first radio (from a kit) when I was 14 (not counting the crystal radio that my
father helped me to put together when I was 9). Built a few more during high
school, got into radio astronomy as an undergraduate, and did a Ph.D. in the
application of very long baseline (radio) interferometry to geodesy.
The great American physicist Richard Feynman was also a radio tinkerer
in his youth. He recounts in one of his autobiographical books how he used
to fix radios. And because he would approach the task of repairing each
non-functioning set by first contemplating why it wasnt working, he got the
reputation of fixing radios by thinking!
One of Feynmans special abilities was in explaining how things worked. In
fact, he has been called The Great Explainer. He authored what is arguably
the best physics textbooks ever produced: The Feynman Lectures on Physics.
The three-volume set, developed from his Caltech lectures to undergraduates
between 1961 and 1964, covers mechanics, radiation, electromagnetism,
matter and quantum mechanics. Many students and practicing physicists
have learned or re-learned aspects of physics from the famous red books.
Many more will now thanks to Caltech, which recently put the Lectures on line
for anyone to read (feynmanlectures.caltech.edu).
In this months column, we are going to learn about the development of a
microprocessor-controlled multi-element GNSS antenna array for interference rejection. While there are many textbooks that describe how multielement antennas work, Feynman explains their operation in his Lectures from
first principles from the principles of physics.
The phenomenon governing the behavior of antennas with multiple elements is called interference. If we combine two electromagnetic waves, they
will interfere with each other with a result that depends on the phase difference of the waves. The waves might reinforce each other leading to a larger
net amplitude, called constructive interference, or partially or fully null each
other out, called destructive interference. When we apply this concept to the
signals received by a pair of antennas making up an array, we find that the
array has directionality and we can have a null in the reception pattern in the
directions parallel to the antenna baseline and will be insensitive to signals arriving from those directions. And as Feynman describes in his Lectures, by adding more antennas to the array and some cleverness in spacing and phasing
our antennas, we can have a fairly narrow pattern null in a chosen direction.
In the case of a GNSS antenna array, that direction might be that of a jamming
signal and so we can null out the jammer and maintain a positioning capability.
Several factors affect the levels of signal rejection using antenna arrays. In
this article, our authors describe these factors and the experiments they conducted with their microprocessor-controlled array to assess the bounds the
factors impose on its signal rejection capability.

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G P S W O R L D 63

element. By performing the scan for each


antenna element, for a range of positions
of Sled A, and repeating this for different
rotations of the central pillar, a precise
frequency response could be calculated
for a large set of points across the entire
upper hemisphere of the antenna. The
scan was computed on signals received by
both the horizontal and vertical elements
on Sled A, such that both the RHCP and
LHCP response could be computed. The
vertical cuts of this gain pattern were
measured with resolution of 2, while
the horizontal cuts were measured with
a resolution of 5.
The average gain response, calculated
across the 20-MHz band, for each of the
seven elements is depicted in FIGURE 3. The
elevation cut of the peripheral element is
taken such that the -90 direction of the
cut aligns with a radial line pointing away
from the center of the array. The azimuth
FIGURE 2 Antenna array and digitizing front end in the anechoic chamber during broadcast
cuts are oriented such that the 0 direction
tests.
aligns with a radial line extending from
with a diameter of 20 meters, as depicted in FIGURE 2. The the center of element number 1 to the center of element
array was mounted on a surveyors tripod and placed at number 2.
a known position on a rotatable pillar at the center of the
It is interesting to note that the gain pattern exhibited
chamber. The chamber contains two sleds, Sled A and B, by each element is sensitive to its position on the ground
which can be precisely positioned along an arc through plane and its position relative to other elements. Because
the zenith at positions between 115 either side of the of the rotational symmetry of the array, the gain patterns
vertical. These antennas include 1.0 to 6.0 GHz vertically of all of the peripheral elements are similar, differing
and horizontally polarized standard-gain horn antennas. only in orientation, each one exhibiting a deflection of
Because the characteristics of the antenna array itself the maximum gain towards the center of the array. The
are central to the ultimate performance of beamforming central element is circularly symmetric with a single lobe
or null-steering techniques, a thorough characterization of in the direction of the zenith, while gain of the peripheral
the gain and phase properties of each of the seven antenna elements is deflected inwards, having lower gain away
elements was conducted. To do so, a network analyzer from the center of the array and an increased gain for
was used to observe the gain and phase response of the high elevation angles from the center of the array. The
antenna under test from a range of observation angles. difference in gain pattern across elements is stark and
The array was operated in transmit mode, broadcasting should, perhaps, influence the choice of elements to be
a signal sourced from Port A of the network analyzer, used when forming a beam or null in a given direction.
which was received by an antenna mounted on one of the One or other of the signals should be scaled to compensate
movable sleds, and fed to Port B of the network analyzer. for this gain difference.
The network analyzer was configured to broadcast a series
of 201 equally spaced tones spanning 20 MHz centered at MEASURING SIGNAL REJECTION
1575.42 MHz at a power of -7 dBm from the antenna array. Before exploring factors that influence signal rejection,
A mechanical RF multiplexer was used to implement a this section details the figure of merit, which might
time-division multiplexing of this broadcast measurement quantify the achievable performance of the array. We
signal across each of the seven elements, such that examined the nulling performance of the system in
the series of tones were transmitted once per antenna terms of its rejection capability: assessed as the relative

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(a)

received power of the signal of interest, b(t), that is to


be preserved, and an unwanted signal, a(t), which is to
be rejected, before and after the nulling combination. If
sj(t) denotes some signal as received at antenna j, then
the combination of signals received at antennas j and k
can be denoted by:

15

(b)

15

30
45
60
75

75

90

90
8

105

45
60

75

75

90

90
8

105

where and , respectively, represent a unitless scaling gain


and a phase rotation in radians applied in the combination.
When intending to form a beam in the direction of the
source of s(t), then this phase might be chosen to bring sk(t)
into alignment with sj(t), and the gain may be determined
as a function of the signal-to-noise ratio at each antenna,
or simply set to unity. In contrast, when it is intended to
reject s(t) then ei must be chosen to place sk(t) in antiphase
with sj(t) and must be chosen to scale the amplitude of sk(t)
to be exactly equal to that of sj(t).
In this case, we consider the problem of placing a null
in the direction of signal a(t) while preserving signal b(t).
If the relative received power of a(t) and b(t) at antenna
j is taken as a reference, then the rejection of a(t) with
respect to b(t), denoted Ra,b, can be assessed by examining
the change in relative power after the null has been placed:

105

120

120

120

120

(1)

30

60

60

135

15

45

45

105

15
30

30

4
135

2
150

135

135
2
150

150
165 0 180 165

150
165 0 180 165

FIGURE 3 The measured gain pattern of the central element, number 1,


(blue lines) and one of the peripheral elements, number 2, (red lines).
The gain of the peripheral element is deflected inwards toward the
center of the array because of the asymmetry of its positioning on the
ground plane. (a) Elevation angle cut at an azimuth of 0; (b) Azimuth
cut at an elevation angle of 40.

Phase shifter
and attenuator

Controller and interface


Combiner
Power detector

To antenna array

(2)

where x denotes the expected value of x. Note also that


this convention implies that a value of Ra,b greater than
unity corresponds to signal rejection.

ANALOG NULL STEERING AT RF


This section explores some of the receiver-side factors
that can limit nulling performance. The performance of
an analog RF-combining circuit is examined, wherein the
combining function was implemented using controllable
analog attenuators and phase shifters.
The received signal from each of two antennas, j
and k, was fed to a custom RF circuit board hosting a
controllable phase shifter and attenuator chips. The
output of two of these boards was then combined using
a passive power combiner, filtered by an analog RF
filter, limiting the band to the range 15301620 MHz,
and finally fed to a power detector, which produced a
signal voltage that was proportional to the total observed
power. The experimental setup is depicted in FIGURE 4. The
attenuators and phase shifters were controlled digitally via

FIGURE 4 A custom-built programmable analog phase shifter and


attenuator pair used for the analog null-steering configuration.

a microcontroller board, which also sampled the output


of the power detector. The attenuators accept a 6-bit
control, providing a dynamic range of 30 dB in steps of
approximately 0.5 dB, while the phase shifters accept a
4-bit control traversing the unit circle in steps of 22.5.
A simplified example of the finite resolution achievable
using such a phase and gain shifter is shown by the steering
constellation depicted in FIGURE 5, taking the case of 3-bit
gain and phase control and assuming a gain step size of 1
dB. Note that the gain is displayed on a logarithmic scale.
Each of the circular markers represents a possible gain
and phase coefficient for a received signal, which would
be used to steer one signal, a, to be approximately equal in
amplitude and in anti-phase with the second signal, b. The
residual misalignment between the signals stems from the
finite constellation of steering points and results in a reduced
nulling performance, whereby a portion of the interference

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G P S W O R L D 65

90

signal remains. The relative magnitude of the remaining


interference signal is maximum when the true relative phase
and amplitude of the signals a and b lies equidistant from
the four nearest steering vectors. This is depicted in Figure
5, where the cross marker lies equidistant from the four
vertices located at the corners of {0,45} and {7,8} dB. Note
that as the gain is depicted on a logarithmic scale, the relative
error is equal for points centered in any of the quadrants.
To investigate the performance of the system, we
broadcast a continuous-wave interference toward the
array, while the signal from one antenna was manipulated
by all possible gain and phase combinations, keeping the
signal from the second antenna at a fixed zero phase shift
and 15 dB attenuation. For each of the 1,024 possible gain
and phase combinations, the power detector was sampled
and logged. A trace of the measured signal rejection as
a function of the gain and phase is depicted in FIGURE 6,
wherein a sharp peak is observable at approximately
{15 dB, 210}, corresponding to the point at which the
unwanted signal is most rejected in this particular
case, to a level of approximately 29 dB.
Estimating the Achievable Rejection Level. In this particular
experiment, because all 1,024 possible gain and phase
combinations were examined in a brute-force search,
the signal rejection was not limited by inaccuracies in
the estimation of the steering variables and . Rather,
it was limited by how accurately the steering variables
can be applied. A residual error exists between the phase
and gain that would perfectly align and null the signal
and the nearest values of phase and gain that the circuit
can produce. This error is a function of the distribution
of the true steering parameter and the resolution with
which it is rendered. In this case, as the range and angle
to the unwanted signal source is arbitrary and the distance
between antenna elements is comparable to the carrier
wavelength, then it is reasonable, perhaps, to assume that
the residual error in the steering parameters is zero mean
and uniform over the discrete control steps. To model
this effect, similar to the previous section, the combining
function, inclusive of these errors, can be expressed as:

(3)

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135

45

12 3

4 5

8 dB

180

225

315

270

FIGURE 5 A simplified example of the steering constellation of an


analog gain and phase shifter, having 3-bit phase and gain control and
a gain step-size of ~1 dB.

where U denotes a uniform distribution, denotes the


step size of the phase shifter control and A denotes the
attenuator step size. Note that as is in units of amplitude
and A represents the discrete steps in power gain, which
in amplitude,
corresponds to discrete steps of
then the residual error will be distributed over a region
in either direction. In this case, if a B-bit
extending
phase shifter is used, then:
.

(4)

From this model, the minimum expected rejection level


can be estimated as a function of the phase and attenuator
resolution. Considering first the rejection expression
given by Equation (2), we note that the variation of the
power signal of interest, b(t), is a function only of the
relative angles between each of a(t) and b(t) and the
antenna array. When the signals are well separated, a
gain of 3 dB is observed on b(t), and when a(t) and
b(t) are located nearby or in exact opposite directions,
then the rejection of a(t) will also reject b(t). As this
power variation is a function of geometry and not of the
particular nulling technique, for simplicity it is assumed
that b(t) experiences no power variation. What remains
is the relative power variation of a(t) with respect to
and .
To find the minimum expected rejection level, we must
examine the following metric:

FEBRUARY 2016

Mean rejection level (dB)

60

Rejection (dB)

20

10
0

10
35

0
30

25

20
15
10
Attenuatio
n (dB)

50
40
30
20
10
0
0

100 )
es
200
gre
d
( e
e
300
s
a
Ph

FIGURE 6 The measured interference rejection for a broadcast jamming


scenario, where a brute-force search through all possible combinations
of phase shift and attenuation was conducted. In this case, the
maximum rejection happens to occur at an attenuation of 16.5 dB and a
phase shift of 225.

0.2
0.4
0.6
Gain
resolu
tion (d 0.8
B)

Phase

10
8
)
6
on (bits
i
t
u
l
o
s
re
-shifter

12

FIGURE 7 Minimum achievable rejection of analog nulling-combiner as


a function of phase-shifter resolution (bits) and attenuator step size
(dB).

.
(9)
(5)

(6)
where the two variables, e and e, respectively represent
the residual errors in amplitude and phase between the
perfect steering vector, and that which can be attained
by the combiner. Examining Equations (3) and (6), it is
clear that the minimum rejection will be achieved when
the residual phase error is equal to e = 1/2 and the
. Substituting
amplitude mismatch is given by e =
these values yields the minimum expected rejection, as
given in Equation (7):

(7)

Determination of the average expected rejection


level requires the averaging of Equation (6) over the
distributions of the two error variables, e and e. As these
errors are assumed to be uniform in this particular case,
this reduces to the following:

(8)

which, after some manipulation, admits the closed form


expression of Equation (9):

Inserting the specifications of the experimental setup


used here, we find that the minimum rejection that can
be expected is equal to approximately 14 dB with an
average value equal to 18.8 dB. Further exploring this
result, it is possible to predict the minimum performance
that can be achieved given some arbitrary, but finite,
resolution in gain and phase rotation. A portion of the
surface defined by Equation (9) is presented in FIGURE
7. One useful application of this result is that it may be
used by a designer to ensure that the resolution in gain
and in phase are commensurate. This can be inferred by
examining the gradient of the surface, noting that optimal
choices of gain and phase step size will lie along the line
of steepest gradient of this surface. A flattening of the
surface in one dimension indicates that the performance
is limited by the other dimension. For example, it can be
seen that an increase in phase resolution beyond 6 bits
yields no improvement in rejection when the gain step
size is greater than 0.5 dB.

CONCLUSION
Early results from this study suggest that the achievable
signal rejection using a controlled radiation pattern
GNSS antenna, under ideal conditions, is in excess of
70 dB, and is primarily limited by the accuracy with
which the angle of incidence of the interference can be
estimated. Accounting for typical estimation errors, the
nominal rejection levels of the order of 20 to 40 dB can
be expected. However, it is observed that other aspects
limit the signal rejection performance. In a practical
receiver, these factors stem from component selection

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G P S W O R L D 67

Antenna Arrays by A. Konovaltsev, D.S. De Lorenzo, A. Hornbostel


and P. Enge in Proceedings of ION GNSS 2008, the 21st International
Technical Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation,
Savannah, Ga., Sept. 1619, 2008, pp. 27862795.

for the signal-combining circuitry.


For analog combining schemes, this is the resolution
of the controlled attenuators and phase shifters used.
The results here attempt to characterize the relationship
between the minimum expected performance and the
component properties. Results suggest that the choice
of analog combining components should be chosen such
that the phase and gain resolution are commensurate and
such that resolution in one parameter is not rendered
useless by a lack of resolution in the other. These results
may form useful guidelines when designing analog RF
null-steering antennas.

Navigation Accuracy and Interference Rejection for an Adaptive GPS


Antenna Array by D.S. De Lorenzo, J. Rife, P. Enge and D.M. Akos in
Proceedings of ION GNSS 2006, the 19th International Technical Meeting
of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, Fort Worth, Texas,
Sept. 2629, 2006, pp. 763773.
A Novel Interference Suppression Scheme for Global Navigation
Satellite Systems Using Antenna Array by M.G. Amin and W. Sun in
IEEE Journal on Selected Areas in Communications, Vol. 23, No. 5, May
2005, pp. 9991012, doi: 10.1109/JSAC.2005.845404.

ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
This article is based, in part, on the paper Analog and
Digital Nulling Techniques for Multi-Element Antennas
in GNSS Receivers presented at ION GNSS+ 2015, the
28th International Technical Meeting of the Satellite
Division of The Institute of Navigation held in Tampa,
Fla., Sept. 1418, 2015.

MANUFACTURERS
The equipment used in our study included an Agilent,
now Keysight Technologies (www.keysight.com)
E8361A PNA network analyzer, Antcom Corporation
(www.antcom.com) 2DG1215A-MNS-4 GPS L1/L2
antennas, an Arduino LLC (www.arduino.cc) Arduino
Uno microcontroller, a MACOM (www.macom.com)
MAPS-010143 4-bit digital phase shifter, a Skyworks
Solutions, Inc. (www.skyworksinc.com ) SKY12347362LF 6-bit digital attenuator and a Tallysman Wireless
(www.tallysman.com) TW127 in-line amplifier.

FURTHER READING
Authors Conference Paper
Analog and Digital Nulling Techniques for Multi-Element Antennas
in GNSS receivers by J.T. Curran, M. Bavaro and J. Fortuny in
Proceedings of ION GNSS+ 2015, the 28th International Technical
Meeting of the Satellite Division of The Institute of Navigation, Tampa,
Fla., Sept. 1418, 2015, pp. 32493261.
Adaptive GNSS Antennas for Interference Suppression
Advances in the Theory and Implementation of GNSS Antenna Array
Receivers by P. Arribas, C. Closas, M. Fernndez-Prades, M. Cuntz, M.
Meurer and A. Konovaltsev, Chapter 9 in Microwave and Millimeter Wave
Circuits and Systems: Emerging Design, Technologies, and Applications,
edited by A. Georgiadis, H. Rogier, L. Roselli and P. Arcioni and published
by Wiley, 2012, pp. 227273.
Mitigation of Continuous and Pulsed Radio Interference with GNSS

68 G P S W O R L D

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Wideband Cancellation of Interference in a GPS Receive Array by R.L.


Fante and J. Vaccaro in IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic
Systems, Vol. 36, No. 2, April 2000, pp. 549564, doi: 10.1109/7.845241.
GNSS Antennas
GNSS Antennas: An Introduction to Bandwidth, Gain Pattern,
Polarization, and All That by G.J.K. Moernaut and D. Orban in GPS
World, Vol. 20, No. 2, February 2009, pp. 4248. Available on line:
http://gpsworld.com/gnss-systemreceiver-designinnovation-gnssantennas-8480/
A Primer on GPS Antennas by R.B. Langley in GPS World, Vol. 9, No.
7, July 1998, pp. 5054. Available on line: http://www2.unb.ca/gge/
Resources/gpsworld.july98.pdf

JAMES T. CURRAN received a B.E. in electrical and electronic engineering


in 2006 and a Ph.D. in telecommunications in 2010 from the Department
of Electrical Engineering, University College Cork, Ireland. He worked as
a senior research engineer with the Position, Location and Navigation
group at the University of Calgary between 2011 and 2013 and is
currently a grant holder at the Joint Research Center (JRC) of the
European Commission (EC), Ispra, Italy. His main research interests
are signal processing, information theory, cryptography and softwaredefined radios (SDRs) for GNSS.
MICHELE BAVARO received his masters degree in computer science
in 2003 from the University of Pisa, Italy. Shortly afterwards, he
started his work on SDR technologies applied to navigation. First in
Italy, then in The Netherlands and in the United Kingdom, he worked
on several projects directly involved with the design, manufacture,
integration, and test of GNSS equipment and supporting customers
in the development of their applications. Today he is appointed as a
grant holder at the EC JRC.
JOAQUIM FORTUNY-GUASCH received the engineering degree in
telecommunications from the Technical University of Catalonia,
Barcelona, Spain, in 1988, and the Dr.- Ing. degree in electrical engineering
from the Universitt Karlsruhe, Germany, in 2001. Since 1993, he has
been working for the EC JRC as a senior scientific officer. He is the head
of the European Microwave Signature Laboratory and leads the JRC
research group on GNSS and wireless communications systems.

FEBRUARY 2016

MULTI-SENSOR SLAM FOR TACTICAL SITUATIONAL AWARENESS

escue and military


applications require
rapid, accurate and
reliable information about
unknown environments.
Simultaneous Localization and Mapping (SLAM)
is a key technology for
providing an accurate and
reliable infrastructure-free
solution for indoor situational awareness.
The researchers approach
is to integrate a monocular
camera, multiple inertial
measurement units (IMUs),
a barometer and a ranging
sensor to obtain a solution

for SLAM, as well as tactical


motion information, such
as detecting whether a
rescue person or a soldier
is running or crawling.
In their paper, the authors discuss a particle
filter implementation for
integrating measurements
from visual perception, a
foot-mounted IMU, a barometer and sonar.
The method developed is
tested via experiments done
in an office environment.
Test setup and results are
discussed in the paper.
The results obtained

MINIATURE
ATOMIC CLOCKS
ENHANCED QUANTUM
MINIATURE ATOMIC CLOCK
(MAC) PERFORMANCE AND
APPLICATIONS, by Paul R. Gerry
III, Will Krzewick, John Malcolmson,
Microsemi.

using the developed method


are anticipated to show improvement on the accuracy
and reliability of monocular
SLAM compared to previous methods.
The proposed data fusion
approach is expected to yield
a vertical accuracy sufficient
for floor identification in the
test environment without
utilizing Wi-Fi or other local
infrastructure.
The method is anticipated
to advance the state of the
art in infrastructure-free
SLAM solutions based on a
monocular camera.

icrosemi has been


developing small form
factor atomic clocks for
several years. These products have
smaller size, lower power and higher
performance than traditional atomic
clocks.
The recently enhanced Quantum
Miniature Atomic Clock (MAC) is a
small-size high-performance atomic

Also, the research will


make significant progress
towards a functioning infrastructure-free situational
awareness system, which is
desperately needed in the
application areas in question.
By Laura Ruotsalainen,
Martti Kirkko-Jaakkola,
Liang Chen, Simo Grhn,
Robert Guinness, Heidi
Kuusniemi, Finnish
Geospatial Research Institute
(FGI), National Land Survey
of Finland.
Presented at ION
International Technical
Meeting 2016.

clock with low power and low weight


enabling a new range of applications
previously not possible. The paper
discusses the MAC performance, the
performance grades and some of the
applications that the MAC enables.
Presented at the PRECISE
TIME AND TIME INTERVAL (PTTI)
MEETING, CO-LOCATION WITH ION
ITM 2016.

ADVERTISER INDEX: COMPANIES FEATURED IN THIS ISSUE


ADVERTISER
AUVSI
CHC NAVIGATION
COMNAV TECHNOLOGY
EUROPEAN NAVIGATION CONFERENCE
HARXON
IFEN
INSTITUTE OF NAVIGATION (ION)
NOVATEL
NVS TECHNOLOGIES

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ADVERTISER

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ROHDE & SCHWARZ
SBG SYSTEMS
SEPTENTRIO
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TALLYSMAN
UNICORE COMMUNICATIONS
WANG ELECTRO-OPTICAL

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G P S W O R L D 69

SEEN HEARD
HATS OFF TO CORNELL
A Cornell University team has
created a top hat that uses
sound navigation along with
GPS. The hat guides a wearer
to their destination by using
current GPS coordinates,
destination GPS coordinates,
and the users head orientation to produce sound
through stereo headphones that can be perceived
as coming from the direction of the destination.
The walking-friendly hands-free navigation
solution allows a users attention to remain on their
surroundings.

GOOGLE KNOWS YOU


Google Maps has been updated with a
predictive navigation feature. Driving
Mode, in version 9.19, enables users to tap
into frequently accessed destinations and
search history, as well as home and work
locations, to predetermine where the driver
is heading so that it can provide traffic and
road closure updates.

MALFUNCTION OR SPOOFING?
The U.S. Navy said the two patrol craft seized at
gunpoint by Iran on Jan. 12 had deviated from their
assigned route because of a mechanical failure. Iran,
meanwhile, claimed that the riverine boats GPS
devices were working. A Christian Science Monitor
editorial speculates that the sailors were spoofed
into Iranian waters, in the same way Iran spoofed
GPS signals in 2011 to send a CIA drone off course.

BIRD PATROL
Peruvian environmental authorities have outfitted 10 vultures
with GPS trackers and mini video cameras, reports the Telegraph.
The birds are naturals at finding illegal rubbish dumps, where
runoff pollutes the rivers and Pacific coastline of the Peruvian
capital Lima. The vultures are also serving as the protagonists in a
social media campaign that encourages Lima residents to report
illegal dumps and throw away less waste.

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70 G P S W O R L D

WWW.GPSWORLD.COM

FEBRUARY 2016

Spirent Federal
GPS/GNSS Regional
Training Seminars

Come hear the latest in GNSS simulation at a Spirent Federal training seminar. Get hands on experience while discussing simulation developments, test fundamentals, interference testing, and more!
Choose from six locations:

Orlando Feb 9 Los Angeles Feb 11 Dallas/Ft Worth Mar 8


Denver Mar 10 Boston Apr 5 DC Apr 7
Contact us to learn more about these NO COST seminars at www.spirentfederal.com/GPS/Training.
Spirent Federal Systems Inc., 1402 W. State Rd., Pleasant Grove, UT 84062
801-785-1448
info@spirentfederal.com
www.spirentfederal.com

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