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M A L AY - I N D O N E S I A N S T U D I E S
(dedicated to the 80 th birthday of Vilen Sikorsky)

XIX Issue
2012 Moscow

811.621.25+ 371811.621.25+908(594)
81:26:89(5)
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319 . (. XIX).
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Complied and edited by Victor A. Pogadaev
Malay-Indonesian Studies (dedicated to the 80th birthday of Vilen Sikorsky). Moscow: Econ-inform, 2012/ - 319 p. (issue XIX).
The XIXth issue of Malay-Indonesian Studies is dedicated to the 80 birthday of Prof. Vilen
Sikorsky, a distinguished Russian Expert in Malay-Indonesian Philology. The book comprises
a number of investigating articles on the vast region of Nusantara aimed at depicting the wide
interest of Prof. Vilen Sikorsky as a Nusantarian scholar. The articles in Russian have English
summaries. Among the authors are Russian scholars (T. Dorofeeva, S. Chlenova, Ami Intoyo,
A. Fursova, L. Kartashova, E. Kutovaya, V. Lim, A. Ogloblin, V. Pogadaev, E. Romanova, V.
Tsiganov, V. Urlyapov), as well as foreign authors (Laurent Metzger from France, Annabel
Teh Gallop from GB, Agus Arimunandar, Ahmad Sujai, Diding Fachrudin from Indonesia,
Rahmah Bujang, Azlin Hamidon from Malaysia, Michael M. Coroza from Philippines).
th

ISBN 978-5-9506-0839-1

, 2012

80- ( . .).........................5

Rahmah Bujang, Azlin Hamidon


Content Design for E-learning in Malaysia: Visual & Performing Arts....................14
Laurent Metzger
Islam: Salvation through Women?...................................................................................27
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. ....................................50

Michael M. Coroza
The Role of Literary Translation in the Assertion of Filipino Identity and
Independence..................................................................................................................64
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..................................................................................................76
Victor Pogadaev
Some Aspects of Poetic Translation from Russian into Malay....................................91
. .
...........................................102
Annabel Teh Gallop
Three Malay letters from Sumenep, Banjarmasin and Brunei.................................117

. .
, : ...........................128

Agus Arimunandar, Ahmad Sujai, Diding Fachrudin
The Government Traditions and Ideal King Concepts According to Old Sundanese
Society Perspectives in 13th-16th Centuries...................................................................174
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(1936-2012).....214
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/ Photo Album............................................................................................306
Abstracts of Articles in Russian......................................................................................313
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Rahmah Bujang, Nor Azlin Hamidon


University of Malaya (Kuala Lumpur)
CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA:
VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

Introductory note

CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA: VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

E-learning for University Malaya was only properly activated in 2006 when
the module was included into the technological support system of the university. It is an ongoing stage of training for academicians of the University. Students
needed to be addressed and taught the mode as well. Therefore, there is the
initial process of familiarization of the E-learning mode for all concerned. But
being one of the first to attend its introductory course of familiarization, we
are happy to note how the research our team carried out on the digitisation of
Malay Arts somehow seem tailor made to fit into the mode of E-learning.
Digitisation of malay arts
Our paper therefore hopes to cover two areas of interest. The first is to inform
and highlight upon the project which is basically a digitisation effort aimed at
documenting all the Malay visual and performance arts forms to culminate
in a complete and comprehensive database on the two genres. This part of the
work is forever ongoing as a never ending one. The second is to emphasize
the importance of digitisation of knowledge for the E-learning mode.
The digitisation process culminates in constructing a database on Malay
arts knowledge. Compact discs on individual Malay art forms is another business of the research which is mainly aimed at facilitating a fast and efficient
retrieval of knowledge on the arts of the Malay world for everyone and sundry. The research would expedite the learning and teaching of Malay Arts be
it for the E-learning or normal mode of face-to-face contact thus paving the
way for a more structured and progressive study pragmatically, creatively and
technologically. Indeed, the study is very forward looking albeit an ambitious
one, but for the team, being in the forefront of the Malay Arts as a department,
it presents an opportunity to reconstruct and encapsulate the many variables
of Malay art forms in a foolproof yet exciting way by using textual and visual
means in a chosen module for multiple ways of the learning process.

Digitisation work on Malay arts at University Malaya was a research under


the name E-seni (E-arts) carried out by a team of academicians under the
Department of Malay Arts of the Academy of Malay Studies under the
auspices of the University. In 2007 the research was awarded the bronze
medal at a national exhibition of Malaysian Technology Exposition (MTE
2007) held over four days between March to April of that year at the Putera
World Trade Centre in Kuala Lumpur. Presently, although funding has not
been applied for or given, the work is in progress. It is the stated effort of
the writers to carry on the good work of documentation of the Malay arts in
Malaysia and mold it into the content design already set up.
This article is an examination of its potential for the E-learning mode. We
would like to highlight here that the mode of electronic learning is the main
thrust of universities in the country operating on the open university concept
of learning. The first is OUM (Open University Malaysia) which started in
2004. Another private university, Universiti Wawasan started 2007, presumably also following the open concept. For open universities its main business
is to offer degrees to working students who may have difficulty of scheduled
timetables for learning as well as the factor of geographical distance from the
institution concerned.

The team for the research project is based on certain prescribed follows objectives.

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Explanation of the project

RAHMAH BUJANG, NOR AZLIN HAMIDON

CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA: VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

To enable a concerted and focused research based on prescribed formats


and modules. Each member would be filling in the module according to their
expertise areas. Input of data are coordinated and counterchecked to ascertain originality and specificity as required in the module. The aim is to ensure
correct and conclusive input of data. The team leader of the project has provided a simple guide on the fulfillment of modules to allow a more efficient
work procedure.
To fulfill the need of providing an audio-visual treat as a teaching-learning provision in the study of Malay Arts visual arts genre and performance
arts genre. This would be an enhancement as well as an exciting alternative
to simple teacher to student lectures. With this end in mind, the research is
geared into two types of output: i) interactive CDs, and, ii) E-Seni, a compilation into database format on Malay Arts. The output would concern the
classification of Malay Arts into genre and forms as well as types. The result
is to maximise learning of knowledge in this one field and allows for a more
interact-based learning process.
To maximise expertise in the Department of Malay Arts and gear members toward a research that would fulfill their role and enable the sharing of
knowledge on Malay Arts via the latest technological platform.
To create a commercial website and market the product of the research to
students, institutions, and researchers of the arts. The website would be the
property of University Malaya, the financier of the project.
More so, the project aims to reach Malay Arts knowledge to the general
public. On the intellectual level, it offers an opportunity at internationalization of knowledge.
Finally, the project must be kept ongoing in order to enable supervision,
upgrading and updating of data, and generally maintaining the website. In
short, the project is not a one-stop project, rather this is a start to a concerted
effort at building and updating upon the database and improving upon it.
In summarizing what the team at the Department of Malay Arts, Academy
of Malay Studies aspires to achieve is to keep abreast with the technological
advancement of our times and use the mode of Information Communication
Technology (ICT) to empower the teaching and learning of Malay Arts for

The team has the added mileage of having good knowledge of Malay Arts,
they being academia in the given areas and this was what actually spawned
the research idea for the first named paper presenter who also acted as
the group leader. At a departmental meeting everyone was keen on the

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everyone. Given the teams limited knowledge with the world of computerization and programming this means attending courses relevant to fulfilling
leadership as well as work needs, but with the understanding that the main
job of programming and extensive editing would have to get the relevant expertise; because only then can the research culminate successfully.
Process of research
This research would involve phases of work in progress as follows:
Identifying the Information Tree Regarding Malay Arts (see charts
appendixed)
Considering the Modules and Guides
Preparing the Templates
Conducting Research
Composing the Text, Glossary and Biography Based On the Modules
Editing the Text
Inserting Text into the Templates
Editing Pictures, Video and Music
Inserting Pictures, Audio and Video Clips into the Templates
Completing the CD Cover
Translating the Text into Other Languages
Conducting the Voice Over
Preparing the Tutorials and Interactive Games
Inquiring the Copyright and Producing CDs
Marketing the Interactive CDs
Transferring the Data into a Database
Designing a Web Site for the Database
Work ongoing

RAHMAH BUJANG, NOR AZLIN HAMIDON

CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA: VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

idea simply because to mount one lecture usually involve much segmental
preparation of teaching aid usually bordering on audio involving cassettes
and CDs and players, and visual ascertions using various modes from television to computer or just pictures all of which is given over and above the
actual lecture.
As mentioned, executing the research work was done in various phases.
The first step was categorization and classification of the Malay Arts visual
and performance forms which was then named the sulur info or information
tree and this became the teams structural prototype (see Appendix II showing sample). From the information tree each member of the team chooses
one form at a time to create a databank pertaining to the form before processing it into a synthesized database using the set module already agreed upon
by the team. Understandably this part of the work, for all team members, is
the most challenging yet satisfying.

Factors of origin, evolution and current development is the focus for this
section1.
The third portion of the module is the technique and materials used in
the art form. Based upon its history the portion treating the technique and
materials used would encompass its phases of transformation and regeneration. From there the focus into aesthetics, ethics, functions, and symbols of
the art forms would systematically be the teams prescriptives. All content aspects of the four portions of the module need to be formatted in concise and
compact description and analysis. Sometimes this involve separating an art
form into various components based on its complexity. The keris as a Malay
weapon and a work of art is one such example. As an art form, keris for the
Malay world epitomizes artistry in craftsmanship. Each segment of the keris
from the blade to the handle and the scabbard is crafted separately and they
have to be projected as such (see picture). So also with many other art forms

Systematizing the module

1For example, in the case of the first writer of this paper, she had done research on the
Boria performance form for her doctor of philosophy between 1974 to 1977 and in the study
it was revealed that historically boria as an art form originates from the Muharram festivals
of the shii moslems of the Persian countries nowadays more known as Iran and Iraq. The
form was brought by Indians serving as British soldiers into the Straits Settlements which
was then under the rule of the British. The form was, however, found to be an adulturated
version, merging Islamic and Hinduistic influences of religious celebration. The performance
form of Shii celebration came with the spread of Islam to the western part of India, wherein
the form transformed somewhat with the influence from various forms of ritualistic performances already in existence there. It is this admixture of Shii and Hinduistic celebration that
was brought into Penang, where the form thrived and degenerated further into a gang warfare under the symbol of the white and red flag to denote rival factions within their groups.
The Straits Settlements of that time was also beset with Chinese gang warfare also operating under the symbol of white and red flag between groups and coincidentally the same
coloured flag of Indian Moslem and Chinese gangs operated in the same regions. They have
been ascribed to the Racial Riot of 1867 in the Straits Settlements. For the boria this meant
a turning point in its artistry, for as a result of the Racial Riots of 1867, the performance of
boria was legally confined to the performers own villages. As a result, the rivalry so easily
provoked during processions was curbed. The boria as performed at the present time was a
regeneration of the village performance of the art form, and has been ascribed to Penang as
the only state within the Straits Settlements that could carry out that performance tradition
under British rule. This means that in Singapore and Malacca the form is made illegal thus
eliminating any possibility at propagation of boria as an art form there.

Data about each form is identified into a systematic module or format as follows:
Definition
History
Technique and Materials Used
Aesthetics
Ethics
Function
Symbolism
By definition the team would have to adhere to compact and concise
statements that initiates understanding of an art form. The history part
would inculcate an exposition of its history and expansion or regeneration. For this aspect data given priority are those based on formal
research, usually at the Masters and Doctorate levels; in the absence of
which would offer new research openings for a prospective student.

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RAHMAH BUJANG, NOR AZLIN HAMIDON

CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA: VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

which by virtue of its vibrance must need be divided significantly into various
segments to fully realize the idea of digitisation and moduling.

style that is user-friendly. On the researchers end, using a workable design


would mean doing away with unwanted segments and lengthy descriptions
on Malay arts.
Conducting and realizing research

This portion of the research phase is perhaps the most challenging one.
Equipment, especially technological equipment, takes up a big portion of the
research costing. Research assistants is another cost incurring factor as the
research phases would require employing graphic designer, textual editor, visual and video editor and web caster for the research. Computers must be of
high-end capacity with high memory capabilities. The team have to find the
most suitable graphic software for their purpose.
Into its third active year the research has finalized on what template to
use, what design, and has even come out with 10 compact discs as tryout
result of the research. What needs doing is to design an interface for effortless data retrieval and for web casting. The idea is to come out with a

The actual work towards input to research is done individually by each of


the members in the team. In order to fill up the modules, members have to
conduct a research on their own regarding the topics chosen by them from
the information tree of Malay Arts. Some of the funding is applied separately
from other short term research fund. Alternatively, some of the materials or
data are collected from the existing findings of completed and ongoing doctoral researches.
After collecting data in the form of text, picture, music and streaming video,
the co-researchers will write according to the modules. The most challenging
time for us is writing on aspects in the module that are hardly written by other
academicians such as the section on symbolism, ethics, aesthetics and functions.
Upon completion of the individual work, it will be exchanged between
members to be edited before handing it to the research leader. The editing
phase involves the editing of language to be brief and accurate, and of facts
to be precise and referred. The research leader will finally verify the text and
instruct the edited softcopies of the text to be inserted in the template.
All the supporting materials will be edited using the related software. For
example pictures are edited using Adobe Illustrator, Adobe Photoshop, video
clips by U-lead Video Studio, Edius and music clips by Sony Sound Forge.
All the data are inserted into the templates on the pages that need these supportive elements.
The CD covers are designed with an identity of similar elements such as
the theme color of earth (which has been used extensively by Malay traditional artists), similar fonts and standard texts at the spine, front and back
cover of the CD, as well as on the CD itself. The Malay performance art is
added with another symbol, musical notes, and this notifies the difference
between the Malay visual art CDs and the Malay performance ones.

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One sample of the Malay Keris

The team is very aware of the fact that treating the four components of aesthetics, ethics, functions, and symbolism of an art form is summarily related
to metaphysical, magical, ritualistic and religious, and socio-cultural concerns.
They are in fact features that build upon the dynamics of Malay culture and
creativity.
Designing and preparing the template

RAHMAH BUJANG, NOR AZLIN HAMIDON

CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA: VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

Completing the above mentioned phases was an experience in itself.


Starting from a general knowledge of the computer and its usage, members have attained considerable knowhow pertaining software, to succeeding in producing ten CDs (an example of how the contents are structured
in the CDs is demonstrated in Appendix I), and undergoing courses on ICT.
However, the completion of the research is still far away. It has a few other
phases to be completed: translating the text into other languages, conducting
the voice over, preparing the tutorials and interactive games, inquiring the
copyright and producing more CDs, marketing the interactive CDs, and the
biggest challenge of all, in transferring the data into a prescribed data base
and designing a website for the output of the research.

spreadsheet-like table, the list of information will be arranged automatically


in alphabetical order. If the information is hidden for the limitation of space,
the column could be resized in order to view the full information by holding
the mouse at the subtopic and dragging it to the right side of the column.
For the time being, the database is only shared among the researchers
using the internal network. It can also be shared using the web publishing
capabilities, or using ODBC (Open Database Connectivity) and JDBC (Java
Database Connectivity) to share FileMaker Pro files with ODBC and JDBC
compliant applications. Even though the layouts could easily be published as
web pages, the researchers intended to postpone the sharing through internet
because presently the database is still in construction.

Realizing the database


The difficult part is designing a database, of which members finally agreed
on the construct of File Maker Pro. A database of Malay arts is a collection
of information, or data, that have been organized, updated, thoroughly researched, retrievable and printed as needed.
One of the outstanding features in designing the database is the way of sorting the data. Designed as a filing cabinet, it features the arrangement of files
according to the subtitles in the format of the interactive CDs. However, there
is a slight difference between CD interactive and the database, for the database
will not have games and tutorials. It adds other utilities and features such as the
easy retrieval of pictures and texts. It has also a segment on academic articles
inclusive of those published at the faculty of Academy of Malay Studies and
papers presented in seminars and conventions. The team of researchers also
came out with the idea to include glossaries related to each topic.
In order to organize the data, not only the filing system is applied in this
database, it also facilitates the researcher by allowing for reviewing a subset
of the data. The database does not just perform the work of holding the information, but also analyzing according to the selected topics and keywords.
To view the records, it can be done in individual record, in list record or a
spreadsheet-like table. When the user clicks on the topic of the list, as in the

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Conclusion
Short and concise explanation is the work principle adopted by the team. The information format is then fitted into a serviceable data computerization program.
We must admit that there are many constraints in culminating the research
and thus to fully realise the construct of each and every facet of Malay Arts
into the digital mode of choice. Budget amount per annum for the research

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RAHMAH BUJANG, NOR AZLIN HAMIDON

CONTENT DESIGN FOR E-LEARNING IN MALAYSIA: VISUAL & PERFORMING ARTS

is one. Concerted effort all round among partners of the research progress
is another. Plus factors about the research is the rich source on Malay Arts
that are available out there be it already streamlined into graduate exercises,
dissertations, and thesis or just as a proliferation of primary and secondary
knowledge. We should note here that this factor also proved the stumbling
block and main challenge in the process of selecting the mythic from the given
knowledge, and, formatting the data into the specified module of our research.
However, the research becomes promising when it opens new and neglected
areas which can help post-graduate students in seeking further studies, and
they are indeed encouraged to become a contributor to the research.
The research results when complete must of course be maintained and
updated occasionally. This means that the research is a never ending one.
But with the recent focusing on E-learning at University Malaya the research
that our team has embarked on is seen to be ready made for the module of
E-learning. Understanding that face-to-face contacts are still the main thrust
of study at our university the modules that the research has employed would
serve its purpose for E-learning foremost as an enrichment and double up as
an alternative necessity if need be.
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24

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RAHMAH BUJANG, NOR AZLIN HAMIDON

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27. Rahmah Hj.Bujang (2006), Wacana Budaya; Sejarah Boria:Warisan
Tradisi Seni Yang Anjal,Kuala Lumpur: Pengajian Melayu, Universiti Malaya, hlm.134-148.
28. Rahmah Hj. Bujang, Nor Azlin Hamidon, Rozita Ahmad dan Maizira
Abdul Majid (2006), E-Maklumat Kesenian Melayu, dalam Prosiding Seminar Antarabangsa Pengajian Melayu, Tema Warisan Melayu anjuran Akademi
Pengajian Melayu Kementerian Kebudayaan, Kesenian dan warisan dan Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka di Hotel Armada, Petaling Jaya, Selangor.
29. Rahmah Hj.Bujang & Nor Azlin Hamidon (2007), Research On Malay Arts at
University of Malaya; Digitisation, Preservation & Development Monograf Jabatan Kesenian Melayu, Kuala Lumpur: Akademi Pengajia Melayu, Universiti Malaya.
30. Sweeney, P.L. Amin (1972), The Ramayana and The Malay Shadow Play;
Bangi: Penerbit Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia.
31. Sweeney, P.L. Amin (1970), The Rama Tree in The Wayang Siam; (PhD. Thesis), University of London.
32. Syed Ahmad Jamal (1992), Rupa dan jiwa, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan
Bahasa dan Pustaka.
33. Venetia Porter, Heba Nayel Barakat and Cecile Brasc (2004), Mighter Than
The Sword Arabic Script: Beauty and Meaning, Kuala Lumpur: Muziurn
Kesenian Islam Malaysia.
34. Wan Hashim Wan Teh (1996), Malay, Handicraft Industries, Origins and Development, Kuala Lumpur: Dewan Bahasa dan Pustaka.
35. Zukifli Hanafi (1996), Pembinaan Bangunan Tradisional Melayu Kedah:
Amber Solana Publication.

Laurent Metzger
University of La Rochelle (France)
ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?
One womans work is worth much
more than the speech of a hundred men
Afghan proverb
Introduction
Muslims are often in the limelight at present in several parts of the world.
Many issues pertaining to Islam make the headlines of major newspapers
and magazines nowadays. Questions are raised. But no clear solutions seem
to appear. Yet a segment of society which had been quiet for a long time has
slowly become more visible, vocal and forthwith. As a matter of fact Muslim
women have started to stand up, to speak up and to appear where only
Muslim men used to be seen and heard. This phenomenon is not only worldwide as these women can be noticed in every corner of the world both in
Muslim countries as well as in other countries with a Muslim community, but
it is also made up of different types of women who are involved in all sorts
of activity ranging from politicians to educationists and managers to artists.
True, Muslim women have not always been as quiet as they have been
described or as only playing their part backstage. History reminds us that in
many parts of the world Muslim women have been in the forefront. Actually
the first Muslim has been a woman as scholars tell us that Khatijah, the
Prophets first wife can be considered to be the first Muslim in history. Another
point which can be said about Khatijah is the fact that she was not secluded

27

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at home but rather that she was running her business. Later on many Muslim
women emerged and played an important role in their respective societies
and at times even as leaders. For instance five sultanas ruled the state of Aceh,
in Northern Sumatra, between the 15th and the 17th century before the mufti
of Mecca decided that only sultans should reign in that state1. Close by, in the
state of Kelantan, on the Malacca peninsula, we can also find sultanas such as
Siti Wan Kembang who is said to have ruled that state at the end of the 14th
century and was visited by the North African traveller Ibn Batuta in 1345.
She was succeeded by one or her daughters, Puteri Saadong.2
Subsequently, in a completely different field, another Muslim woman
attained a certain pre-eminence. In Java, Raden Ajeng Kartini (1879-1904)3,
in spite of a short life managed to set up schools which had an important
impact on girls education in Indonesia and she is still revered as the most
famous Indonesian woman. Across the Straits of Malacca, another woman
played an interesting part in promoting education among her peers. She is
Ibu Zain who has been called the Kartini of Malaya4 for all she has done for
the education of young girls in her country.
Recently Muslim women have ventured into politics. We can mention
Benazir Bhutto who was twice Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1988 to 1990
and again from 1993 to 1996 she may have been appointed prime minster
again in her country had she not been assassinated on December 27th, 2007
in Rawalpindi, Tansu Ciller who was Prime Minister of Turkey between
1993-1996, Khaleda Zia, Prime Minister of Bangladesh 1991-1996 who was
succeeded by Sheikh Hasina Wajed in 1996, followed again by Khaleda Zia
and at present Sheikh Hasina is again prime minister of Bangladesh (since

January 6th, 2009), and Megawati Soekanoputri who became president of


Indonesia from 2001 to 2004. Of course we have to acknowledge that in most
cases female political prime ministers have been quite often either daughters
or spouses of previous prime ministers in their country. But this fact applies
to both many Muslim and non Muslim leaders.
If we consider the Muslim world on the whole we may observe three main
trends. First and this is very obvious as the media world wide immediately
report what is happening, there is radical Islam which appears through
bombs attacks. The second trend which is less talked about but may be even
more worrying as it involves a larger number of Muslims than the precedent
is the traditional wave which seems to be engulfing the whole Muslim world,
that is a strong desire to return to the so called golden age of Islam and forget
all what happened since, examples of such tend can be found everywhere,
for instance in Morocco5, and finally a third trend which appears somewhat
different from the first two that is the role taken up at present by Muslim
women. We are all aware that in most cases societies have been men driven
but of late the contribution of women have been more forthwith and apparent
so that this trend has to be considered.
Therefore what seems to be remarkable at present is the fact that Muslim
women dare to enter new fields of human activity where they were not seen
formerly. In other words Muslim women have started to challenge Muslim
men not to replace them in those fields but to be at par with them. So in
order to find solutions to problems which occur regularly on the Muslim
scene the part played by Muslim women may be interesting to consider in
order to evaluate what they are offering and how they propose to improve the
lot of Muslim men and women in our present world. In this article we have
selected a few living Muslim women in different countries and in different
occupations to show that now they are ready not only to speak up but also to
get involved in any field of activity as their male counterparts.
Therefore we would like to start with the suffering Muslim women
had to endure at the end of the 20th century and at the beginning of this

1The Jakarta Post, 14-12-2005.


2Wikipedia: www.wikipedia.org.
3She wrote interesting letters in Dutch to several correspondents in the Netherlands.
These letters have been translated into Indonesian under the title Dari Gelap menuju Cahaya, then in English Letters of a Javanese Princess, Raden Adjeng Kartini and published
by Heinemann Educational Books (Asia) LTD in Hong Kong 1964 and 1976 and in French Lettres de Raden Adjeng Kartini, Java en 1900, Mouton & Co in Paris in 1960.
4Her name is mentioned in Biografi Tokoh Wanita Malaysia published by Pelanduk Publications in Petaling Jaya in 2004.

5See the article by Catherine Simon, entitled Le hidjab stend sur le Maroc in Le Monde,
19-5-2006, p. 23.

28

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century, then we will consider how modern they are and finally how bold
they have been in religious matters. Actually these women do not confine
to express problems faced by women, they do not restrict themselves
to only relate to us the plight they had been for so long but they even
venture speaking up of all problems faced by Muslim men and women
alike around the world.
Womens enduring plight
Traditionally in most human societies women have been at a disadvantage
and most often they played second fiddle to men. Most often societies have
been men driven but finally equality is being accepted world-wide, although
at times rather slowly. The Islamic society is no different from the rest of the
world. So women did suffer under different forms. For instance they had to
wait a long time before they were allowed to vote. Yet at times some Muslim
countries were ahead of other countries. For instance women in Turkey could
vote before they could do it in some European countries such as France, Italy
and Spain6. So the first impact of Muslim women concern has been that now
they express openly their problems and suffering. This suffering has been duly
recorded by the UN as the term violence against women appears in the UN
Declaration of 19937. They were not afraid to come into the open and relate
the predicament they had been in for too long. So many Muslim women
stood witness of what they experienced. Hundreds of cases can be brought up
but we have only selected three of them8. Actually this phenomenon has been
noticed for quite some time. For instance it has been said that according to
6Actually women obtained right to vote at different times in different countries. In the
state of Wyoming they could vote from 1869 then, in 1930 for municipal elections in Turkey
and 4 years later in the same country for legislative elections. In France they obtained the
same right in 1945 and in 2006 in Kuwait.
7Le Livre Noir de la condition des femmes, p. 12.
8As we depend on our readings to retrieve information, we have found quite a few women
activists mentioned in newspapers and magazines worldwide. To name a few of these publications we can mention Le Monde ((Paris), The Times (London) The Straits Times (Singapore)
and magazines such as Newsweek, Courrier International.

30

a UN report that Bangladeshi women are among the most ill treated in the
world, half of them are victim of violence from their partner9.
In the 1990s Taslima Nasreen (her name is also spelt Taslima Nasrin
or Taslima Nasrina in American librairies) of Bangladesh was the symbol
of such stand. She stood up and related the suffering of Muslim girls and
women had to endure within their families in Bangladesh. Of course she was
immediately noticed, criticised and threatened by Bangladeshi men in her
country as well as by the authorities. Her first novel Lajja (Shame) shows
us how minorities can be mistreated by majorities. This has been the case
of Hindus living in Bangladesh after the formation of that new country in
1971. It is not so frequent to see a Muslim speaking out for non Muslims and
describing their plight. Usually it is the reverse, that is Muslim minorities in
other countries who may suffer some form of discrimination are often brought
up. Her approach reminds us of what did the most famous Indonesian writer,
Pramoedya Ananta Toer (1925-2006) who, when all his peers refused to take
side, wrote a book in the defence of the Indonesians of Chinese origins10.
Taslima Nasreen went further in her testimonial when she revealed to
her readers what did happen to young girls and women in some Muslim
families in her country. This appears in another novel11. The reaction was
swift at first her books were banned by the government, then fatwas were
issued against her and finally she was sent into exile. Her only crime was to
reveal the suffering of men and women in her own country.
More recently on the other side of the Indian sub-continent, in Pakistan,
another woman stood up to denounce the horror she had to go through.
Mukhtar Mai had to endure a collective rape in her village because her
younger brother had been seen with a girl of another tribe. If the case was
not tragic, we would say its Romeo and Juliets story all over again. We all
know that in the past Muslim and non Muslim women had to suffer as they
9Le Livre Noir de la condition des femmes p 38.
10The title of the book is Hoa Kiau di Indonesia and was first published by Penerbit Bintang Press in Jakarta in 1960 and subsequently republished by Graha Budaya in 1998 in Jakarta.
11That novel entitled in its French translation from Bengali is Rumeurs de haine and was
published by Philippe Rey in Paris in 2005.

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were dominated by men. But more recently some women have been bold
enough to speak out and tell their experience how painful it was. Mukhtar
Mai12 represents this new trend of women who dare to reveal what she had
to endure in her society. Her aim seems to be to inform outsiders about what
really happens in her country and therefore to avoid a repetition of such
an ordeal to her fellow women. In her memoirs Mukhtar Mai12 reminds us
that fat too many girls and women in her country are illiterate as they have
no access to education. She goes further when she declares that there is no
justice for them. She describes the different stages of her agony: the horror of
gang rape, then the humiliation following the act, and the solitude she was in
afterwards. A quote from the book is very explicit about that feeling I was
alone with my shame. Thus she used the same word as the title of a book
by her predecessor Taslima Nasreen, Lajja (Shame).Actually many crimes
of honour have taken place in Pakistan. Yet the UN adopted a resolution in
November 2000 in order to put an end to such heinous crimes13.
The following step was what to do next. The road is not smooth and she has
to consider how to react. Very quickly she renounced to seek revenge. It would
not help. So she went to the police to lodge a formal complaint. This was rather
rare in Pakistan. She did that as she reckoned that too many women had to suffer
the same ordeal in silence. It was too much the case had to be brought into the
open. Society had to be informed and realise the extent of the damage to women.
Such process was not easy as she had to tell her story to the magistrate. Then she
told us that she was offered a cheque in order to close the case. She immediately
refused such easy solution. Then a trial took place. She won her case but her
tormentors lodged an appeal. With the compensation money given to her by the
court as well as a donation extended to her by the government of Canada, she
decided to build two schools in her village one for boys and one for girls. She has
12Her autobiography in French entitled Dshonore has been published in Paris by Oh
Edtions, in 2006. The titles of the books written by these bold women are quite explicit. In
the case of Mukhkar Mai it is disgraced while in the case of the Saudi television presenter
it is disfigured. An article in the French newspaper Libration dated 18-3-2005 also explains what happened to her. In that article she is called Mukhtaran.
13Le Livre noir de la condition des femmes, p 86.

32

become a celebrity in her own country and around the world as well. Invitations
are extended to her. For instance she was invited for the launch of her memoirs
in French in Paris in January 2006. So Mukhtar Mai, like Kartini a century before
her, decided it was high time that girls be given a proper education in her country.
The third case we have selected under the topic of Muslim Womens sufferings
occurred in Saudi Arabia. It is the story of Rania Al-Baz14. Born into a middle class
family in Mecca, she had the opportunity of studying at a university although
she had not chosen the courses she wanted to do. Her father had decided and
she had to obey. He was also the one who asked her to get married when she
was sixteen. Actually she was nearly married before that. Very quickly a divorce
was pronounced as she was repudiated. That constituted an example of shame.
Actually the concept of shame, as we have seen earlier, is often apparent in Muslim
womens plight. Then she became widely known when she joined a television
channel as presenter. Later on she married again and her sufferings started. Her
husband became progressively very violent until a time when he wanted her to
be disfigured for life as he was jealous of her. She was left half dead at the door
of a hospital but she was saved. She had multiple fractures on the face and had
therefore to endure scores of operations for the doctors to give her an acceptable
new face. In her book, Dfigure (Disfigured), she explains in great detail all what
happened to her before the beating and especially after such ordeal. She informs
us that in spite of what he did to her. Rania was ready to forgive her husband so
that he would not stay too long in jail. When he ran away after her despicable act,
she was worried he would commit suicide. She was then relieved when she was
told that finally he had surrendered to the police. For Rania her husband was still
the father of their two children and they needed to see their father as well. Of
course she did not want to continue to live with him. As her story appeared every
where in Saudi Arabia she became very famous.
As the pressure can be very strong against them until they are threatened,
some of them had to flee and settle in the West where they are granted more
protection than back home. This is the case of Taslima Nasreen who had fatwas
14She wrote her story entitled Dfigure. Quand un crime passionnel devient affaire
dEtat (Disfigured. When a crime of passion becomes a state affair) published in Paris by
Michel Lafon, in 2005.

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issued against her. She therefore left for Europe15. But in the West they do not stop
their crusade against the situation they had to endure for ages. They continue to
speak up and actually increased their determination to achieve equality with their
male counterparts. In this respect Taslima Nasreen often takes part in seminars
and conferences to remind us that the situation of Muslim women has still to be
improved. For instance Taslima Nasreen took part in the first Womens Forum
which occurred in Deauville, France in October 2005. In that forum Taslima
Nasreen mentioned again the plight of women in Bangladesh16. At present
Taslima Nasreen is still a kind of fugitive, after leaving Bangladesh, her home
country, in 1994, staying some months in a country then moving to another one
which has accepted her. For instance she is now, in early 2010, living in New
Delhi where she has been interviewed by a journalist from Le Monde.17
We have just seen that the feeling of shame was often experienced by
women who had been brutalised. Another feeling often noticed as well is fear.
Many such activists lived in fear of what could happen to them and many
ordinary Muslim girls and women may also experienced such feeling, for
instance if they go out without wearing the veil. This point has been brought
up by Zainah Anwar. She indicates that women who were not wearing such
veil were told that they would go straight to hell according to some male self
appointed theologians18.
Yet if several Muslim women could not stand the pressure or if the threats
were too strong so that they had to flee to the West, several other Muslim
women chose to stay in their home country first to relate their ordeal and
secondly to try to help their fellow women who needed help.
Modern Women
After telling us their misfortune which, of course, had to be told, apart from
mentioning the suffering they had to endure for centuries, many Muslim
15She has been invited by the Paris Town Hall to be a Resident Writer in 2009.
16See the information about Deauville in Le Monde, 18-10-05 and in an interview of Taslima Nasreen in Valeurs Mutualistes, N 259, September/October 2005, pp 28-29.
17Le Monde, dated March 3rd, 2010, p 3.
18See her book Islamic Revivalism in Malaysia. Dakwah among the students, p 61-62.

34

women started to make suggestions and proposals in order for them to have
a better place in the world. It was a new trend. They became more open in
their approach and modern in what they started to propose.
So after relating to us their misfortune through television interviews,
articles in the media, books and so on, Muslim women began to organise
themselves in order to make sure that the suffering they had to endure was
not going to happen again to others. Thus they set up organisations to inform,
to protect and to help women in distress. This movement was very clear in
the last decade of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century.
Obviously dozens or hundreds of such organisations have been set up in that
period everywhere in the world. In order to have a broad picture of such
phenomenon we have selected a few which seem to be representative of what
is happening at present.
One of them is Ni Putes Ni Soumies (Neither prostitutes nor submissive)
was set up in France in 2003. Of course the name of the organisation is rather
shocking but it must have been chosen on purpose in order to be noticed by
the public at large. Actually such organisation came about after a horrible act
which took place in a Paris suburb in early 2003; a young girl was burnt to death
by a rejected lover. After that despicable incident, a march was organised and
the organisation was set up to prevent such barbaric act to happen again. The
first objective of the organisation is to defend womens rights. The president
of the organisation is Fadela Amara, a French lady born in France into a
family of Algerian origins. She is known in Europe and was given the award
Woman of the Year by Time Magazine in 2004. Several lines of action have
been drawn by that organisation. First that organisation intends to have the
public at large, and especially the youth aware of the importance of education
and respect for one a other. It also intends to provide temporary shelter to
women in distress. It has set up special spaces where women can come and
be listened to and it has succeeded in having special spaces in police stations
reserved to women. Ni Putes ni Soumises is quite well known in France and
is often featured in the media19. Later, on June 19th 2007 Fadela Amara was
19The organisation Ni Putes ni Soumises is often mentioned in the media. For instance

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LAURENT METZGER

ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?

appointed State Secretary for Town Policies in the French government and
has held such position since.
The next organisation we have decided to mention is Uan Sprge (the
Flying Broom). This organisation was set up in 1996 in Turkey. Its current
president is Halime Gner. Again the main emphasis of such organisation is
the defence of womens rights. For that purpose many seminars are organised
in the whole country to inform, explain and help women who need to receive
such attention. The president of the organisation finds the Turkish society
too much male driven so she has a hard time to try to change the situation.
She is also worried that all the progress Turkey has made especially in the
field of womens rights might disappear when younger women, who do not
seem to realise how important it is to address social issues, took over the
management of the organisation. In rural Turkey a lot of improvement needs
to be done according to her20.
In Saudi Arabia welfare organisations have also been set up which
provides assistance to women in need. For instance the wife of the governor
of Jeddah, Princess Sarah binti Abdul Moshen Al Anqan is the chairperson
of the Higher Womens Committee for Humanitarian and Social Services. Its
main activity is to provide assistance to the poor21.
Women can be active in organisations or as private individuals. For
instance Shirin Ebadi , the Iranian lawyer who was awarded the Peace Nobel
Prize in 2003 has been very concerned by women in her country. She was
appointed the first female judge in Iran but was somewhat demoted when
Imam Khomeini took over, in 1979 as he refused to have female judges in his
country She had to wait for some time before she could start her own practice
in 1992. As a matter of fact as a lawyer she has often defended Iranian women
who had suffered in the hands of men22. In 2008 one of her Tehran offices was

visited by the police who seized some computers. So it is not easy to do what
you think best in a strong male dominated society. Shirin Ebadi often speaks
her mind. For instance she opposed very strongly the wearing of the Niqab
which she says is not Muslim23.
In neighbouring Iraq women have also taken up solutions to end every
day fighting. Emily Flynn Vencat gave the following title to an article on
women in Iraq: Countries ravaged by war are turning to female leaders
as the key to healing. They are far more likely to build bridges that to tear
them down24. Countries at peace may also require female leaders to help
promote understanding and support. For instance in Malaysia, the former
Prime Minister Mahathir Mohamad appointed a young lawyer, Azalina
Othman Said to lead Puteri a component of the main party UMNO in order
to recruit more young women into the political party25. As a matter of fact
many Muslim women have been bold enough to enter the field of politics.
We can name a few within the Palestinian Authority such as Leila Shahid
who is the representative of the Palestinians in Brussels and Hind Khoury
who represents the Authority in France. In Indonesia the finance minister
(since 2005) is Sri Mulyani Indrawati. She is therefore the finance minister of
the first Islamic country in the world. She is considered very able although
she has been involved in the controversial bail-out the Century Bank in her
country in 2009.
Another field of activity in which women ventured in recently
has been diplomacy. This has been mentioned in Bahrain in April
2006 26:Women can thus become diplomats in Bahrain, while in Kuwait
they can be ministers. As a matter of fact, Massouma Al Moubarak
became minister of Planning and Administrative Development Affairs

in Le Monde, 21-5-05, Rforme 21-6-05. Its web site is: www.niputesnisoumises.com


20Halime Gner, sisyphe de la cause des femmes turques. 24 heures dans la vie
dune fministe in Le Monde 2, 20-11-2004 pp. 60-64. Flying Broom Web site is http://
en.ucansupurge.org
21The organisation is called Higher Womens Committee.
22Information about her can be retrieved from the Nobel Prize oragnisation (http://no-

belprizeorg/peace as well as from her book Iranienne et libre. Mon combat pour la justice.
23In an interview published in Le Monde (10/02/2010) assessed on the Internet on the
web site www.lemonde.fr
24Newsweek, 14-11-2005, pp. 48-49.
25Malaisie : Une fministe au secours de Mahathir in Courrier International; 13 September 2001, p 8.
26Bahrain Tribune, dated 21-4-2006, p. 3.

36

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LAURENT METZGER

ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?

in July 2005. She is not only a brand new face in the government but
she is also the representative of the Syiah Community as all the other
ministers are Sunni27.
In the field of economics women have been quite active recently. Muslim
women have had their share in it. For instance several French women of
North African origins have become successful businesswomen28.
Beyond law, politics and diplomacy, Muslim women have been noticed
recently in other fields such as the arts. In such a field, singers are helping in
promoting a new role for women away from the very traditional which they
have played for too long. Such occurrence has been observed in Cairo29.
Literature and essays have also been published on that topic and have
appeared recently. This indicates that Muslim women do not hesitate to
express themselves should the need arises. Many examples can be brought up.
For instance Razika Zitouni has decided to reveal how she managed to reach
the status of a normal writer in France. She first published her autobiography
and now she has embarked in writing a thesis on the representation of women
in advertising between 1950 and 198030.
Muslim women not only published literature but they also ventured into
theatre. For instance Rachida Khalil, born in Morocco, started a one woman
show in Paris. The play was successful and was noticed by the critics. And
once again such woman was bold enough to fight taboos and to perform on
stage31.
Finally in another field that is sports, Muslim women have also been
noticed. Of all Muslim countries we have chosen an example from Afghanistan.
In that country a famous female basket-ball player, Sabrina Sageh, apart from
27The official site of the government of Kuwait is www.kuwait-info.com
28Franaises du Maghreb. La russite silencieuse in Le Monde 2, 4-3-2006, pp. 16-24.
29See an article first published in Financial Times (London) and reproduced in Courrier
International under the title Monde arabe. Besoin de personne. Les nouvelles stars de la
chanson remettent en cause le rle traditionnel de la femme. Pour le grand bonheur dune
gnration qui inspire briser les carcans, 22-13-2005, p. 42.
30Issue de limmigration elle raconte son ascension sociale in Le Monde 2, 19 March
2005, p. 38-41.
31Racgida Khalil, le rire sans le voile in Le Monde 11-2-2005, p. 16.

38

being a member of parliament in Kabul, tries to set up basket-ball teams


among the youth of Afghanistan and seems to be quite successful32.
Female Ulamas?
After observing the suffering endured by Muslim women in several parts of the
world, after considering all the fields entered by modern Muslim women, we
should also pay attention to what they have done in the proper field of religion
as Muslim women have been bold enough to venture into that field which was
for a long period exclusively masculine. In history such phenomenon has been
recorded. For instance it has been said that apart from the traditional point
of view which stated that Islam was brought to Java by the famous nine saints
(Walisongo) another suggestion often considered as a legend has been
made which indicates that a princess from Champa was responsible for the
introduction of the new religion in that island. The king Kertawijaya embraced
Islam in Java on the advice of his wife Darawati in 144733.
Another famous example of Muslim womans active role in religion has
been when the scholar Amina Wadud led the Friday prayers in New York,
on March 18, 2005. True no mosque accepted her when she approached the
several mosque custodians. Yet she managed to be the Imam one Friday in
New York, in a church converted for the occasion into a mosque. It was so
unusual that the media all over the world reported that event34. As a matter
of fact it is never stated in the Quran that the person leading the Friday
prayers has to be a man. So it was more a question of tradition and habit.
And precisely several Muslim women are keen to challenge existing views
and habits in order to achieve a more balanced society35.
Probably the most interesting point raised by Muslim women as far as
Islam is concerned is the right they are claiming for debate. To them religious
32Une basketteuse candidate aux lgislatives in Le Monde 2, 10-9-2005, p 50-51.
33gimonca: www.gimonca.com/sejarah
34Pour la premire fois, New York, une femme conduit la prire musulmane in Le
Monde, 22-3-2005.
35Amina Wadud is Associate Professor in Islamic Studies at the Virginia Commonwealth
University in Richmond, Virginia, USA.

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matters should not be the exclusive domain of male ulamas. Any Muslim
man and woman could express his or her views and should be listened to.
This is a bold step forward. Yet the Prophets favourite wife, Aishah gave her
point of view in religious matters in her time. Muslim women at present
put forward the fact that in Islam debate and reforms are not unusual or at
least in the past such reforms did occur. For instance according to Irshad
Manji who had to flee Uganda to settle in Canada, changes took place in the
past so changes can happen at present. She gives the example of the Satanic
Verses which were included in the sacred text before the Prophet decided to
withdraw them according to a controversial hadis36. As a matter of fact other
changes occurred in the past such as the change of kiblat. Formerly it was
the direction of Baitul Muqaddis or Al Qods (or Jerusalem) before it was
changed to Mecca. The reasoning used by Irshad Manji in that respect is the
fact that Muslims do not seem to practice the ijtihad to seek the truth37.
Irshad Manji goes further when she says: Islam, Yes. Muzzled? No The
emphasis is that any Muslim can and actually should express himself or
herself. The truth is not the monopoly of the ulamas38. On her website, Irshad
Manji tells us that once she confronted an Arab ulama who insisted that the
Quran agreed to suicides in case of jihad. Yet Irshad Manji insisted and asked
which surah of the Quran mentioned precisely that. The ulama, in spite of
several phone calls to his colleagues, and browsing through the text, could
not pinpoint the verses because as a matter of fact, there is no such indication
in the holy book. Yet the ulama could not agree to make such a statement.
This anecdote proves that quite often wrong information is spread around
and some theologians are quite sure that such information is right.
Another point raised by Irshad Manji is that Muslim women could try
to interpret religious texts. An example she often gives concerns the seventy
virgins the martyrs is supposed to be surrounded with after his feat. Actually
the interpretation is wrong according to Irshad Manji as it is not 70 virgins
36Why dont we Muslims grow up in The Times, 20-5-2005, p. 25.
37The Times, 27-4-2004.
38Newsweek, 9-2-2004, p. 52. One of her websites is: www.refusenik.com

40

who are going to meet the martyr but rather 70 raisins39! As a matter of fact
most Islamic scholars knew all along that the second interpretation was the
correct one but the public at large were kept in the dark. Apart from writing
a book, The Trouble with Islam which became very popular40, Irshad Manji
made a documentary entitled Faith without Fear after her visit to Yemen41.
In Malaysia another group of women have also been very active in
promoting debate and expressing their views. Sisters in Islam have been bold
enough to suggest that new interpretation of the Quran could be brought up
by men and women alike42.
In the Netherlands another Muslim female activist often makes the
headlines of the media; Ayaan Hirsi Ali is a real rebel. Several issues have been
raised by Ayaan Hirsi Ali such as the excision of young girls43. All scholars of
Islam know that the practice is not mentioned in the Quran so that it should
not take place at all. Yet traditions are not easy to get rid of. Actually Ayaan
Hirsi Ali is often mentioned in the world media such as television channels,
newspapers and magazines44. The recent controversy about her raised the
question of integration of vocal exiles in the West. This issue was raised in
Le Monde45.
New regulations (actually ancient ones which are to be revived) are
brought up by conservative Muslims and these led to strong protests from
Muslim women. For instance the intention to impose hudud laws in Kelantan,
in Malaysia and in Iran after the 1979 Revolution met strong opposition
from several women activists. In the first case, Sisters in Islam took the stand
39For instance in her book The trouble with Islam, p. 59.
40Published by S-t Martins Prss in New York in 2004. According to Isrhad Manjis Web
site, the book has been translated and is therefore accessible in 30 countries. If such book
has been banned, it can also been downloaded from the Internet for four languages, Arabic,
Indonesian (and Malay), Persian, and Urdu.
41Released by PBS in the US.
42Muslim women who stand up to ulamas in The Straits Times, 2-12-2002.
43Le Monde 3-6-2006 as well as Financial Times (Singapore) 18-5-2006.
44To name a few : Tech Central Station, 1-12-2004 (www2.techcenetralstation.com), BBC
News,23-12-2003, The Independent, 30-5-2005, Lexpress 18-6-2005, Courrier International,
4-5-2005.
45See the article entitled Ayaan Hirsi Ali, un choc europen in Le Monde ; 2-6-2006, p. 2.

41

LAURENT METZGER

ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?

and sent a memorandum to the Prime Minister of Malaysia in which they


indicated that such laws were not Islamic in nature. Sisters in Islam became
very vocal when the State Assembly in Kota Bahru the state capital of
Kelantan in Malaysia voted the implementation of Hudud laws on November
25th, 1993. To them such new laws were not acceptable as times had changed.
Zainah Anwar is very clear when she wrote The universality of the Quran
overrides its own specific historical context46.
Implementation of Syariah law is not only proposed in Muslim countries
such as Pakistan or the state of Kelantan in Malaysia but some ulamas would
like such legislation to be implemented in Western countries as Muslim
communities can be found everywhere. Such proposal has been made for
Canada and a Muslim female activist firmly opposed such move. She is
Homa Arjomand, another activist who had to flee her native Iran to settle in
the West47.
In Indonesia women activists have also made themselves clear when they
asked for a revision of the Islamic Code48.
When Sisters in Islam sent its memorandum to the Prime Minister barely
a month after the vote in the local parliament, it stated that it was with deep
concern that such organisation had heard about the new regulation which
was to be imposed in that state. But before the implementation could happen
the federal government had to enact the bill and it refused to do it at that
time. The arguments put forward by Sisters in Islam against such new legal
framework was that Malaysia was a plural society and had practised all along
a culture or tolerance, that Muslim women enjoyed the same freedom of
movement, association and education as any women in that country and that
Malaysia experienced a culture of Islamic modernity with the government
programme of Vision 202049. Moreover Sisters in Islam declared that Hudud
laws as they were proposed by the local government of Kelantan were unfair
46Hudud in Malaysia. The Issues at stake, p. 2.
47Homa Arjomand, contre la charia au Canada in Le Monde, 22-10-3005, p 14.
48Indonesian women activists are seeking revised Islamic code in The Straits Times, 103-2005.
49Hudud in Malaysia, op. cit, p. 9.

42

as men and women were not treated equally. For instance the burden of the
proof had to be born by the woman50. According to the organisation Hudud
laws as they were proposed in that state of Malaysia could not be Gods
laws as they were unjust.51 Furthermore Rose Ismail gave a few examples
of implementation of such Hudud laws in Pakistan, Sudan and Bangladesh
which were all rather unfavourable to women in those countries52.
Once again the concept of evolution is mentioned concerning Islamic
matters. It is too often assumed that in Islam everything is fixed for ever. On
the contrary according to several Muslim thinkers evolution did take place in
that religion. Rose Ismail one of the eight founder members of Sisters in Islam
argues that there has been evolution in the interpretation of the Quran in the
past, so new interpretation are not to be dismissed too easily53. Regarding the
point of apostasy, according to Salbiah Ahmad the death sentence does not
appear in the Quran but only in several hadis54.
Another famous female Muslim activist, Shirin Ebadi, the Iranian judge
and lawyer who received the Peace Nobel Prize in 2003 is along the same
wavelength. She strongly opposed the new laws passed by the Khomeini
government. One example justifies her anger. With the new legislation she
states that the life of a woman is worth half of a mans (for instance if a car
hit a man and a woman in an accident, the mans family would receive twice
as much in compensation than what would be given to the womans family.55
Obviously after such bold statements these female activists receive serious
threats from some traditional quarters as they had received when they dared
to speak up after they had suffered mens violence as we have seen earlier.
Taslima Nasreen received death threats after the publication of her novel
Lajja in 1993 and had to flee to Europe56. Others experienced the same fate;
50See Salbiah Ahmad, in Hudud in Malaysia, p. 15-19.
51Hudud in Malaysia, p. 23.
52Hudud in Malaysia, pp. 13-21.
53Hudud in Malaysia, pp. 36-39.
54Hudud in Malaysia, p. 46.
55See her book Iranienne et libre, p. 70.
56See the editorial, The Times of India, 30-9-1993.

43

LAURENT METZGER

ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?

For instance the Member of Parliament in the Netherlands, Ayaan Hirsi Ali
also received death threats and had to be surrounded by bodyguards. The
threats appear after she wrote the scenario of the film Submission which
was produced by Theo van Gogh, before he was murdered. In her case she
seems to have been in perpetual exile. She left Somalia and landed in the
Netherlands and in a recent controversy about her true reasons for asking
political asylum in that country and now she has renounced her status as
Member of Parliament in order to leave again for exile in the US57. In Canada
Irshad Manji also experienced death threats and people surrounding her
became scared as well. For instance the person who was supposed to do the
translation of her famous book: Whats the trouble with Islam withdrew from
the task and a lecture she was supposed to give in a British university was
cancelled58. Other female activists had to choose to go into hiding to avoid
any misfortune. Such has been the case of Mimount Bousakla, a senator in
Anvers, Belgium.59
Conclusion
Our survey has only covered a few examples of Muslim women in different
parts of the world but we feel they are representative of a general trend which
can be noticed world wide. So Muslim women are standing up and have
shown that they are capable of entering any field of human activity not to
replace their male counterparts but rather to complement them and to make
the world a better one. At the same time another trend has to be reckoned
with, which we have mentioned earlier, that is the conservative trend in
Islamic approach. One obvious manifestation of such trend is the way Muslim
women dress. Round the world the Muslim veil is making inroads such
as in Turkey, Morocco and in Southeast Asia. So nowadays more Muslim
women are wearing jilbab, hijab, tudung, chador, khimar, purdah, burqa and
57A synopsis of that short documentary film can be found on the following web site: www.
ifilm.com/ifilmdetail. An article on that documentary has been published in ISIM Newsletter
September 2005, pp. 8-9 in Leyden.
58The Times, 21-5-2005.
59The Times, 18-11-2004, p 42.

44

so on. Yet on the other hand a famous scholar of Islam, Louis Massignon
speaks of the sublimation of women as, at times, women have risen above
their condition. A few cases are mentioned by Massigon before Islam such
as in the role of Srikandi in the Mahabharata and the wife of Eyano in the
Panji Cycle. Within Islam the same phenomenon is observed by Massignon
with the introduction of a special form of divorce to help women which is
called taliq of Ibn Surayi60. We can also mention the role played by women
in the Minangkabau province of Sumatra. Such province has maintained a
matriarchal society.
A real improvement of the lot of women has been through education. For
too long women have been marginalised because they could not go to school
or they had to leave school too early. Nowadays women have realised how
important education is as a better education is a key to opportunities. Muslim
women have therefore taken advantage of this new opening.
Now we should consider what is demanded by Muslim women at present.
First they seem to insist of respect they should be entitled to everywhere they
go and work. Then they ask for equality with men. They cannot accept the
differences and marginalisation they endured for so long. Finally they should
also be accepted as equal in religious matters. So interpretation of religious
texts should not be done only by male ulamas but by men and women alike.
The more so as in Islam there is no clergy at least in Sunni Islam so women
should have a right to express views even if they are different from previous
accepted traditions. Thus female theologians should appear in Islam even
if such a new trend will not be easily accepted by traditionalists with the
religion. One approach to such theology by Muslim women could be through
ijtihad61. This is suggested by Irshad Manji as we have seen her bold ideas
which she has put forward in a book, a film and regularly on the Web62. For
instance when she comments about the tragic events taking place in Gaza in
late December 2008 and early January 2009, she wrote on her blog its time
for all of us to embrace ijtihad.
60Lettres de Raden Adjeng Kartini, p. 4-5.
61Posted on her website on janaury 8th, 2009 at 2 44 AM EST.
62Her official website is: www.irshadmanji.com.

45

LAURENT METZGER

ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?

Of course many traditional Muslim theologians would not accept such


method as it has been said that the gates of ijtihad have been closed since
the 10th century. Yet they could be open again and why not by female ulamas.
Another way for Muslim women to express their ideas on religious matters
may be with the help of hermeneutics. An interesting article by Naeem
Jeenah from the University of Witwatersrand and published in a journal of
the University of Cape Town has shown this point63.
Another chance for Muslim women to be at par with Muslim men is the
trend of female venturing in most fields of human activity at present. So, if
women in general do play a bigger part Muslim women can benefit from such
trend and be more active as well. As their ideas, points of view, suggestions
have for too long been neglected, their new openness may bring a refreshing
approach to problem solving. For instance in economics, a field traditionally
reserved for men, has been entered by female experts. One such example is
the MIT professor Esther Duflo64.
Another interesting point worth mentioning is the fact that usually there
are no female Muslim suicide bombers. In recent events such as in New York
and Washington in September 2001, Bali in October 2002 and Mumbai in
November 2008, all suicide bombers were men. On the other hand Rajiv
Gandhi was assassinated by a female member of the Liberation Tigers of Tamil
Eelam (LTTE) on May 5th, 199165. True at times Muslim mothers have been
pleased that their sons became suicide bombers but on the whole Muslim
women have preferred another type of action instead of resorting to such plots.
Probably this new trend will be better received as women in general
are venturing all fields of human activity. We have noticed recently the

emergence of strong female political leaders, just to name a few, in Germany,


Liberia, Argentina and Chile66. Actually beyond politics women have gained
pre-eminence. Recently the American weekly magazine Newsweek ran an
article on famous women in the world. A dozen of women or so are featured
in that issue to show how successful women can be67. Newsweek is not the
only magazine to report such trend as it was also mentioned in an article in
Le Monde, a daily newspaper published in Paris68. Another example of the
interest of the press regarding the broader role played by women at present
in the world can be taken from Courrier International which published an
editorial entitled Place aux femmes (Give way to women)69.
Finally we have to be aware that such trends are interesting and should
continue and, at the same time we should also realise that such development
should take place in a broad context that is such development should not be
done exclusively for women. We should not repair the mistakes of the past in
creating a new female order where men would play second fiddle. As women
have suffered in the past, they should not seek vengeance but rather equality.
A few examples are rather disturbing. For instance there was a suggestion
in Germany to open a bank exclusively for women70. Is it right? As we have
mentioned earlier there are several cases of Muslim women speaking up
about the plight non Muslim are enduring. We can mention Taslima Nasreen
who wrote about the suffering of Hindus in Bangladesh after independence.
Actually she tries to promote, through her writings, more mixing and more
acceptance of one another in the pursuit of material and spiritual development.
From our survey we can state that there is a real improvement in the
condition of women world-wide and in particular in the Muslim world, yet

63Towards an Islamic Feminist Hermeneutics in Journal for Islamic Studies, Vol. 21, 2001,
pp. 36-70. In that article, the author tries to implement Paul Ricoeurs hermeutics theory for
Islamic texts.
64Who wrote several articles on her own as well as together with a colleague from MIT,
Abhijit V. Banerjee. For instance they wrote the article entitled Mandated Empowerment.
Handing Antipoverty Policy Back to the Poor?. Such article was published in New York Academy of Sciences Annals, Vol. 1136, in 2008, pp. 333-341.
65The suicide bomber was Thenmuli Rajaratnam and the vent occurred in Sriperumbudur,
near Chennai in Tamil Nadu while Rajiv Gandhi was campaigning.

66Such leaders are as follows: Angela Merkel, Chancellor of Germany since 2005, Ellen
Johnson-Sirleaf, President of Liberia, since 2006, Cristin Fernandez Kirchner, president of Argentina, since 2007 and Michelle Bachelet, president of Chile (2006-2010).
67Newsweek, 14-11-2005, pp. 38-54. Another female political head of state, Sgolne
Royal, might have been elected in France in 2007 if she has not been defeated in the presidential elections of 2007.
68See the supplement of that newspaper entitled Le Monde 2, 4-2006, pp. 16-24.
69Courrier International, 19-1-2006, p. 8.
70Courrier International, 16-2-2006, p. 54.

46

47

LAURENT METZGER

ISLAM: SALVATION THROUGH WOMEN?

at times some Muslim women are not satisfied with such development. They
believe it is too slow or not efficient enough. Such is the point of view of
Wassyla Tamzali who indicated that with Islamic reinforcement women may
suffer again. For her The harem culture has been taken over by the street and
as such modernity has left home71.
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23. Rintihan Ebiet G. Ade dalam Bahasa Langit. Suara Merdeka, 07.12.2001.
24. Ebiet G. Ade: Angkat Istri Sebagai Manager. Disctarra, 25.04.2002.
25. Ebiet G. Ade: Mogok Berkarya Sebagai Protes Terhadap Pembajakan.
Disctarra, 15.04.2003.
26. Apakah Ebiet G. Ade Seorang Penyair? (Polemik Seputar Penulisan Lirik
Lagu dan Kepenyairan). Oleh Titon Rahmawan. Cybersastra, Jakarta, 05.08.2003.
27. Puisi Bernyanyi. Bali Post, 20.09.2003.
28. Ebiet G. Ade Beri Tips Untuk SBY. Riau Mandiri & Kompas, 09.08.2004.
29. SBY Nyanyi Bareng Ebiet. Sriwijaya Post, 09.08.2004.
30. Ebiet G. Ade: Camelia Bukan Pacar Saya. Kompas, 16.10.2004.
31. Ebiet G. Ade: Manusia Tak Lepas dari Dosa. Suara Karya, 11.2004.
32. Ebiet G. Ade Manggung di Surabaya. Kapanlagi, 11.03.2005.
33. Kutip Lagu Ebiet, SBY Sebut Koruptor Dana Bencana Kebangetan. Detik, 20.04.2005.

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34. Ebiet G. Ade Ciptakan Lagu Untuk Menggugah Masyarakat. Kapanlagi,


15.08.2005.
35. Ebiet G. Ade: Tak Bisa Dipaksa Bikin Lagu Bencana. Suara Merdeka,
11.06.2006.
36. Ebiet Ingin Orang Lupakan Lagunya. Kompas, 19.07.2006.
37. Ebiet G. Ade: Kembali Mambaca Tanda Zaman Lewat Album Baru. Kabar
Indonesia, 28.04.2007.
38. Ebiet G. Ade eyeing younger fans. The Jakarta Post, 15.05.2007.
39. Ebiet G. Ade: Tidak Ingin Menjadikan Komersial. Suara Pembaruan,
28.10.2007.
40. Mozaik Jejak Langkah Ebiet G. Ade. Ebiet G. Ade Official Website.
02.02.2008.
41. Analisis Wacana Lagu Camelia Karya Ebiet G. Ade (Kajian Tekstual Dan
Konteks Situasi). Kurniawan, 07.2008.
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46. Tariganu. Menghadap Matahari. Sajak-sajak 1981. Jakarta: Yayasan Bengkel
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Komodo Books, 2011. 99 p.
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Syaiful Bahri, Zulkifli Songyanan. Pengantar: Wayan Sunarta. Bisnis2030, 2011. 130 p.

Michael M. Coroza
Ateneo de Manila University (Philippines)
THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION
OF FILIPINO IDENTITY AND INDEPENDENCE

THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION OF FILIPINO IDENTITY

cades of the 20th century. In so doing, I would be able to demonstrate how


political aspirations shape and direct the practice of (literary) translation,
as a function of language, in a particular critical period and setting in
history.
In the Name of Colonization
It was no mere accident that the first book published in the Philippines, the
Doctrina Cristiana en lengua tagala (1593), was a book of translation. The
missionary priests who worked hand in hand with Miguel Lopez de Legazpi
had realized instantly that preaching in the languages of the natives would
facilitate easy and effective control. The church council of Manila in 1582
passed a resolution that necessitated the translation of the teachings of la
iglesia catolica in the different languages of the varied groups of people in the
entire archipelago. It was such an important decision that the king of Spain
had to decree in 1603 that all missionaries who would come to the Philippines must be able to speak in the languages of its people1.
As poet and Nobel Prize laureate Octavio Paz emphasizes in his remarkable
essay about translation, each language is a view of the world, each civilization is a world.2 The worlds of the pre-colonial Filipinos had to be subjugated
through translation. For more than three centuries, hundreds of faith-related
original works in Latin and Spanish languages such as catechisms, lives of
saints, morals, good manners, collections of prayers, and meditations were
translated into Tagalog and other major Philippine languages and had been
published as manuals or books. Even the monumental Pasiong Mahal ni Jesu
Cristong Panginoon natin na Tola (1704), a long narrative poem by a Tagalog
named Gaspar Aquino de Belen, was actually a translation in verse form of
the passion, death, and resurrection of Jesus Christ as gathered from the Gospel readings and homilies during the celebration of the Holy Mass.

The first book printed in the Philippines, Doctrina cristiana en lengua tagala
(1593), was a book of translation. It was a collection of basic prayers and catechism of the Catholic faith. Early missionaries, who facilitated the conquest
of the whole archipelago, proselytized the natives by translating the Christian
doctrine into the local languages. It was indeed an effective move that until
now, the Philippines is the only dominantly Catholic Christian country in
Southeast Asia.
In a counteractive manner, towards the end of the nineteenth century and
at the beginning of the twentieth, enlightened Filipinos who had been inspired by the ideals of liberalism liberty, equality, fraternity saw literary
translation as a way to educate and move the people to believe and struggle
for independence and nationalism. Specifically, the literary translators like
Jose Rizal, Andres Bonifacio, Julian Cruz Balmaseda, Gerardo Chanco, and
the others who were highly regarded creative writers of the day, had three
main goals in translating works of world literature into Tagalog, namely: 1)
to foster moral national ideals among the readers; 2) to make Filipinos aware
of the cultures of other peoples around the world; and, 3) to align themselves
at par with the great writers of the world.
In this article, I intend to examine the significant role that literary
translation played in the assertion of Filipino identity and independence
from the last two decades of the 19th century towards the first two de-

1Rene B. Javellana, ed. Mahal na Passion ni Jesu Christong Panginoon natin na Tola (Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University Press, 1990), 11.
2Octavio Paz, Translation: Literature and Letters, in Rainer Schulte and John Biguenet,
eds. Theories of Translation: An Anthology of Essays from Dryden to Derrida (Chicago and
London: The University of Chicago Press, 1992), 153.

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MICHAEL M. COROZA

THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION OF FILIPINO IDENTITY

In his Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in


Tagalog Society under Early Spanish Rule (1988), Vicente L. Rafael emphasizes
that translation is not merely speaking in a language other than ones own but
rather a capacity to reshape ones thoughts and actions in accordance with
accepted forms.3 The Spaniards, in all their effort to control the native Filipinos, did not only preach in Tagalog and other local languages. They were able
to convert the natives to believe in the superiority of the Spanish masters and
in so doing cultivated a sense of inferiority among the natives. The Tagalog
language, which eventually became the basis of the national language of the
Philippines, was alienated from the Tagalogs by the missionary-translator,
who, after endowing it with a grammar and a lexicon in his arte, gave it back
to them in the form of prayers, sermons, and confessionals.4
In other words, as colonialism takes place in the mind, and as the mind operates through language, the Filipinos had been colonized through their own
language that was triumphantly transformed, by way of translation, into a language subservient to the grand desires and designs of the colonial master.
Translating Liberalism and Revolution
Three hundred years later, the so-called ilustrados or enlightened Filipinos who had been privileged to study in higher institutions of learning such
as the Ateneo de Manila and University of Santo Tomas in the Philippines
and the Universidad Central de Madrid in Spain would reverse the process
through which colonization succeeded. One of these Filipinos was Dr. Jose
Rizal whose genius encompassed varied disciplines in both the arts and the
sciences. He was a post-colonial Filipino intellectual who struggled for the
emancipation of his race from colonial bondage.
Interestingly, Rizal was the first Filipino translator whose liberalist
goal was to provide for his people knowledge that was not readily available for them. At the request of his brother Paciano, he translated Schil3Vicente L. Rafael, Contracting Colonialism: Translation and Christian Conversion in Tagalog
Society under Early Spanish Rule (Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 1988), 210.
4Ibid., 38.

66

lers William Tell into Tagalog in 1886. It was a story of a heroic man who
fought for the freedom of his country from despotic rule. It was the longest text in the Tagalog language that he ever wrote and he believed that
it was the kind of narrative drama that should be staged for his fellowmen
to see in the Philippines. In this particular text, Rizal used the Tagalog
word laya (free) in different forms (i.e. malaya and kalayaan) 55 times.
Kalayaan has since then become the Filipino equivalent of the Spanish
libertad and malaya is the adjective for somebody who has attained
freedom. In a story called Pahayag (Manifesto) by Emilio Jacinto, the
Brain of the Revolution, that came out in the one-issue newspaper of
the revolutionary movement called Katipunan in 1896, Kalayaan is a
luminous shadow that resembles a beautiful Tagalog maiden who appears
to a lad one tumultuous night while the latter is in deep contemplation
about his plight as a man without liberty.
Though a foreign text, William Tell speaks of experiences similar to that
of the Filipinos. In Jacintos story, the way Kalayaan persuades the Filipino
lad to fight for her cause calls to mind the following conviction that William
Tell utters as though he was a Filipino in Rizals translation:
apat baga tayong magkaganito, na magtagu-tago sa gubat ng ating sariling
tinubuang bayan, at gumapang-gapang sa dilim na anaki nangamatay; at sa
kalaliman ng gabi na ang kadimlan ay pinanganganlungan lamang ng mga
may sala at nangagtitiyapan sa masamang bagay, ay maglakbay tayo dito sa
paghanap ng santong katuwiran at pagtatanggol sa ating mga karapatan na
maliwanag pa sa sikat ng araw sa katanghalian?
[Should we be like this, hiding in the forests of our native land, crawling in the dark as if we were dead; and in the deep of the night whose
darkness is shelter to criminals and doers of evil things, let us go and
find the reason to defend our rights that are as bright as the sun at noon
time?]
This reference to darkness of the night and brightness of the sun was alluded to in a lot of instances in Rizals novels, Noli Me Tangere (1887) and El
Filibusterismo (1891). In the final chapter of the Noli Me Tangere, for instance,

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MICHAEL M. COROZA

THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION OF FILIPINO IDENTITY

the hero Elias who was about to die turned his face to the east and uttered, I
die without seeing the sun rise on my country. You who are to see the dawn,
welcome it, and do not forget those who fell during the night!5
Between November 1891 and June 1892, Rizal also translated into Tagalog the Declaration of Human Rights that was proclaimed during the French
Revolution. Rizal finished translating this document in Hong Kong in June
1892. Upon his return to Manila, he wanted to establish the La Liga Filipina,
a socio-political organization that would push for reforms in the way the colonial government was being run by the Spaniards. He did not succeed, however, and on 7 July 1892 Andres Bonifacio founded the secret society called
Katipunan (Assembly), which initiated the Philippine Revolution in 1896. In
his translation of the Declaration of Human Rights, Rizal repetitively used
the word katipunan to refer to the assembly that formulated the ideals of
the French Revolution.
Translation against Americanizatio
Towards the end of the nineteenth century and at the beginning of the
twentieth, social realism was a remarkable movement in Philippine literature.
It was an offshoot of the critical period of Philippine Nationalism that began
in 1872 with the Propaganda Movement and was at its peak during the Philippine Revolution of 1896 to 1898 and the establishment of the First Philippine Republic, which was also the first republic in Asia, in 1899.
Writers of the twentieth century capitalized on it especially during the
American period of colonization (1898-1946) when Filipinos were more
ardent in their effort to attain Philippine Independence. This was the beginning of what poet-critic and National Artist for Literature Bienvenido Lumbera calls nationalist literature that was created by and for the
people who were struggling to emancipate themselves from the chains of
colonialism6.

The novels of Dr. Jose Rizal, the Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo,
had been the foremost exemplar of this literature, which, in the language
of Frantz Fanon, could properly be identified as literature of combat as it
called upon the whole people to fight for their existence as a nation.7 As emphasized by leading Filipino literary scholar and critic Soledad S. Reyes, Rizal
was the first to successfully use materials from the history of the Philippines
and had been the source of inspiration by succeeding writers that employed
realistic point of view in analyzing objective social realities and social, political, and cultural issues confronting the people8.
Most aware of the political changes and challenges brought about by the
coming of the American colonizers at the turn of the century, in the words
of Bienvenido Lumbera, the young Filipino writer could look back to the
recent past and find a pathway to the future as heir to a tradition that would
link his art to the struggle of the nation for liberation from foreign rule.9
The young Filipino writers of the early twentieth century had even gone
to the extent of forming literary groups like Aklatang Bayan (Library of the
Nation) and Kapisanang Ilaw at Panitik (Society of Light and Letters) to
promote patriotic and nationalistic interests. Unlike their predecessors, the
writers of the propaganda movement, who wrote mainly in the language
of the colonizers, the Filipino nationalist writers of the American period
deliberately wrote in the common language most understood by the people.
This was of course their way to counter the impending Americanization of
the Filipinos. Likewise, it was their way of directly communicating with the
people, which was deemed necessary to empower them or, as Frantz Fanon
theorizes: While at the beginning the native intellectual used to produce
his work to be read exclusively by the oppressor, whether with the inten-

5Jose Rizal, Noli Me Tangere, trans. Leon Ma. Guerrero (Manila: Guerrero Publishing,
1995), 370.
6Bienvenido Lumbera, Revaluation 1997: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Pop-

ular Culture (Maynila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 1997), 16.
7Frantz Fanon, National Culture in Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, eds.
The Post-Colonial Studies Reader (London and New York: Routledge, 1995), 155.
8Soledad S. Reyes, Nobelang Tagalog, 1905-1975, Tradisyon at Modernismo (Quezon City:
Ateneo De Manila University Press, 1991), 37.
9Bienvenido Lumbera, Revaluation 1997: Essays on Philippine Literature, Cinema and Popular Culture (Maynila: University of Santo Tomas Publishing House, 1997), 95.

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MICHAEL M. COROZA

THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION OF FILIPINO IDENTITY

tion of charming him or of denouncing him through ethnic or subjectivist


means, now the native writer progressively takes on the habit of addressing
his own people.10
In line with this undertaking, the same group of nationalist writers engaged
themselves in the translation of significant works of world literature into the
national language of the Philippines. The Tagalog writers viewed translation
of world literature as a significant tool in making their fellow citizens knowledgeable of what was going on around the globe. Dionisio San Agustin, who
once served as president of Aklatang Bayan, commended Gerardo Chanco for
translating into Tagalog the work La Hija del Cardenal (The Daughter of the
Cardinal) by the Italian writer Felix Guzzoni. Given the title Dahil sa Pag-ibig
(Because of Love) in Tagalog, this novel is about the evils of the church leaders
in Rome and the consequent revolutionary action of the people. Velia is the
beautiful daughter of Cardinal Nelyanto. She falls for the hero of the revolution named Marcelo Santucci and eventually dies in the name of love that is
true and immortal. Her father, Cardinal Nelianto, is a villainous cardinal who
has raped many women including her and has killed a lot of people with the
help of his disciple, Diablo Negro. One remarkable character in this novel is
Sor Ernesta, sister of Marcelo, who is violently abused in the monastery. San
Agustin had this to say about Chancos translation:
Sa ginawa mong paghalaw at pagsasawika natin ng mga aklat na katulad
nito ay may malaki kang naitutulong, hindi lamang sa nasabi nang pagpapalaganap at paglinang ng wikang tagalog, kundi naipababatid mo sa lalong
marami, sa mga kababayan nating hindi bumabasa ng kastila, ang mga nilalaman ng aklat na sinulat ng mga tanyag na mangangatha sa ibang lupain,
naipaaabot mo maging sa malalaking tahanan at maging sa lalong kubo ang
isipan nila na sapilitang mayroon tayong pakikinabangan; ang hilig, ugali at
pamumuhay ng mga hindi tubo rito sa atin ay napagaaralan at nakikilala ng
ating mga kababayan; at gayon din, ang layon ng kumatha sa pagsulat ng kanyang aklat ay napalalaganap mo rito.

[In translating works like this, you are doing a great service not only in
promoting and propagating the Tagalog language but also in informing many
of our fellow citizens, who do not read Spanish, about the contents of the
books written by famous writers from other countries; and you are making
known to all households here, big or small, the ideas of these writers from
which we could benefit a lot; the customs, traditions, and ways of life of other
peoples are being known and studied by our own people; moreover, you are
able to make the purpose of such writers popular in our country.]11
This novel, of course, calls to mind the story and characters of Jose Rizals
Noli Me Tangere and El Filibusterismo. In the Noli, Maria Clara is the daughter of a power-hungry friar named Padre Damaso who caused the misery and
death of Don Rafael Ibarra, the father of her beloved Crisostomo. This Crisostomo, who was sent by his father to Europe to study, is not at all interested
to avenge his fathers death. He is rather concerned with the establishment
of a science school that would liberate the minds of his people from what he
calls fanatic religiosity. As one can expect, he is not bound to succeed as the
Spanish authorities deceitfully get in his way. In the El Filibusterismo, Crisostomo returns as Simoun who is determined to do everything to eliminate the
tyrannical colonial rulers of his country by whatever means. Maria Clara is
here shown as an abused nun who dies in the monastery before Simoun is
able to save her. Simoun eventually takes his own life out of despair as all his
plans are ruined.
Responsive to the teachings of the Propaganda Movement and the Philippine Revolution, the young nationalist Filipino writers of the early twentieth
century fostered the spirit of liberalism among the people. Liberty, equality,
and fraternity had become major themes in most outstanding works of literature be it poetry, prose, and drama. Numerous highly politicized periodicals
that promote anti-American sentiments came out and became the venue for
original literary works and translations as well. National Artist Virgilio S. Almario noted that at about 1916, there were more or less eighty newspapers

10Frantz Fanon, National Culture in Bill Ashcroft, Gareth Griffiths, and Helen Tiffin, eds.
The Post-Colonial Studies Reader (London and New York: Routledge, 1995), 155.

11Dionisio San Agustin, Pagkatapos Basahin sa Gerardo Chanco, Dahil sa Pag-ibig, Pangalawang Bahagi (Maynila: Imprenta y Libreria de P. Sayo Vda. de Soriano, 1916), 187-188.
(My translation)

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MICHAEL M. COROZA

THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION OF FILIPINO IDENTITY

and magazines throughout the archipelago and more than 70% of these were
in Tagalog. Some of the more popular titles were Bayang Filipinas (The Philippine Nation), Ang Kalayaan (Freedom), Ang Mithi (The Ideal), Ang Pagkakaisa (Unity), Kasarinlan (Independence), Patnubay ng Bayan (The Guide of
the Nation), Tambuli (Bugle), Timbulan (Life Saver), and Taliba (Vanguard)12.
Translation had become a significant tool for the promotion of nationalistic and liberalist ideals as reflected by the kind of literary works that preoccupied the translators. Jose Rizals novels only became accessible and really
popular among the people when they were translated into Tagalog. It was
Pascual Poblete who first translated the Noli Me Tangere in 1909. Patricio
Mariano translated the El Filibusterismo in 1914.
Most of the foreign works that were translated had revolution or struggle
against oppression and love for country as themes like Victor Hugos Les Miserables, which became Sakit ng Sangkatauhan (Illness of Humanity, 1921);
The Count of Monte Cristo of Alexander Dumas (Ang Konde ng Monte Cristo); Anthony Hopes Prisoner of Zenda (Ang Bilanggo ng Zenda, 1923), Leo
Tolstois Resurrection, which became Sa Kalbaryo ng Pag-ibig (In the Calvary
of Love, 1930). For the Filipino audience, these works did not only inform
them about the affairs of the world but also enlightened them about the importance of human liberty and political independence.
Cognizant of the capability of these works to enlighten and move the
people into action, translators like Julian Cruz Balmaseda had to point out
that most of what they did were actually halaw, or adaptations rather than
salin, or translations. He had to differentiate between the two processes:
Halaw, ang ibig sabihiy mga putaputaking dampot sa kasaysayang hinalawan at di isang lubusang salin ng akdang pinagkunan, at sa mga ganitong
gawain, at dito natin makikilala ang di karaniwang talino ng isang humahalaw,
kung sa kanyang paghalaw ay mapiga niya ang lahat ng katas na sukat bagang
pakinabangan, at maitapon ang lahat ng busal at bunot na di magkakahalaga
sa atin

[Adaptation, which means selective picking from the story and not a
full translation of the original, and it activities like this, we can identify the
genius of the one who does the adaptation, as he only retains all the juices
that we can benefit from, and disposes of the muzzles and husks that we do
not need.]13
From here, it can be gathered that the whole translation activity was centered on what the reader can benefit from the translated work. In praise of
Gerardo Chancos method, Dionisio San Agustin had this to say:
ang paraan ng ginawa mong pagkahalaw, sa ganang palagay ko, ay siyang lalong tugma. Magaang na maunawaan ng mga bumabasang tagalog, at
hanggat mangyayari ay nababatak mo ang pagsasalaysay na agpang sa panglasa ng ating bayan; anopat nabibigyan mo ng tatak-pilipino.
[the way you did your adaptations, in my opinion, is the most appropriate. It can be easily understood by Tagalog readers, and as much as possible,
you are able to stretch the narrative in such a way that it fits the taste of the
people; you are able to give the work a mark that is truly Filipino.]14
This is most evident in Chancos adaptation into a novel form of the play
La Tosca (1887) by the French Victor Sardou. The conflict between the
Church and the State was a common theme among most Sardous plays, a
sad reality that the Filipino reformers like Rizal and the revolutionaries like
Bonifacio had to contend with. In his adaptation of La Tosca, which was
given the title Halina sa Paris (Let us Go to Paris), the protagonists Mario Cavaradossi, a staunch supporter of Napoleon, and Floria Tosca, a singer,
who had to fight it out for their love in a middle of a war were given the semblance of the protagonists of Jose Rizals Noli Me Tangere. Anybody who has
read Rizals Noli Me Tangere would easily recognize Mario Cavaradossi who,
like Crisostomo Ibarra, would be incarcerated in Castel SantAngelo for his
ideals. Floria Tosca, on the other hand, is like Maria Clara in terms of beauty
and charm but unlike her, the latter is so timid and nave to defend her lover

12Virgilio S. Almario, Balagtasismo Versus Modernismo, Panulaang Tagalog sa Ika-20 Siglo


(Quezon City: Ateneo De Manila University Press, 1984), 39-46.

13Julian Cruz Balmaseda, Bago Magsimula, sa Gerardo Chanco, Sa Gitna ng Lusak


(Maynila: Limbagan at Aklatan ni P. Sayo balo ni Soriano, 1915), xii.
14Dionisio San Agustin, Pagkatapos Basahin sa Gerardo Chanco, Dahil sa Pag-ibig, Pangalawang Bahagi (Maynila: Imprenta y Libreria de P. Sayo Vda. de Soriano, 1916) 187.

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THE ROLE OF LITERARY TRANSLATION IN THE ASSERTION OF FILIPINO IDENTITY

Crisostomo Ibarra who was imprisoned in Fort Santiago allegedly for leading
a mutiny.
In Sardous tragic story, Floria Tosca sacrifices her honor and life for the
freedom of Mario Cavaradossi. However, they both die in the end. In Chancos adaptation, Mario Cavaradossi and Floria Tosca are able to escape the
wrath of Baron Scarpia. They are able to go to Paris after Napoleon triumphantly occupied Italy. In his translation, Chanco maintained Floria Toscas
bravery and ingenuity to imply that the lack of such traits made Rizals Maria
Clara a weak character who caused the downfall of her lover. He had to keep
both Mario Cavaradossi and Floria Tosca alive to send a message of hope to
his readers. The brave and determined to fight for the cause of freedom reaps
the fruits of its glory.
Translation as a Political Tool
Translation, like any other human endeavor, is never neutral. As Octavio Paz
remarkably puts it, each language is indeed a view of the world. It is through
language that humans are able to make sense of the world. It is through language that the world makes sense in humans. What one cannot word is probably non-existent in his/her world. Since time immemorial, there have been
wars of the wor(l)ds.
In the colonial Philippines, translation was an important tool for upholding and protecting the superiority of the colonial master and subjugating
the colonial subjects. In an imagined post-colonial Philippines, on the other
hand, translation is and must always be a liberating force. It is all a matter of
determining who is manipulating language for what or for whom.
Translation as a tool does not take sides. It works best for whoever is
able to manipulate it well. As Filipino Arts and Letters vanguard Julian Cruz
Balmaseda underscored, in the politics of translation, the genius among the
translators is the one who knows what to keep and what to discard.
Moreover, translating great works of world literature was a way for the
young nationalist Filipino writers of the first four decades of the twentieth
century to commune with the writers of the world. For Balmaseda, it was

74

their way of informing their counterparts in other nations that Filipinos actually read them. In doing so, he was hoping or should I say wishing that these
foreign writers would be interested as well to translate into their languages
the literary works by Filipinos:
sa gayong paraay maging sanhi namang makapagbunsod sa isipan ng
mga manunulat na estranghero upang ang ating mga aklat ditoy isalin nila sa
ibat ibang wika sa Sangsinukob.
[that way, we might be able to prod these foreign writers to translate our
books into the different languages of the world]15
More conscious of their dignity and pride as Filipinos, the writers of the
early twentieth century wanted to be acknowledged by the world. Yes, they
were writing for and conversing with their fellow citizens, but as writers of
their nation, they knew that they deserve to be recognized and appreciated
by the peoples of the world. It was indeed their resolute assertion of their
national identity and such an apparently ambitious interaction with the writers of the world, though it did not turn out to be that successful right away,
was tantamount to presenting themselves to the world as Filipinos worthy of
liberty and political independence.

15Julian Cruz Balmaseda, Bago Magsimula, sa Gerardo Chanco, Sa Gitna ng Lusak


(Maynila: Limbagan at Aklatan ni P. Sayo balo ni Soriano, 1915), x.

. .
. . .

, , .
.

(1836-1896) ,
.3

(LMS) . (1800-1875) 1871-
.4 1876- 42- , .5
( , . , . )6, , , , 7,
8, 9
( 1883 . )10.

1Flacourt E. de. LHistoire de la Grande le de Madagascar. Paris: J.Hnault, 1658. P. 46-63;


Callet R.P. Tantara ny Andriana eto Imerina. Antananarivo: no tontaina ny Presy Katolika, 1873.
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3. Rabezandrina. Tantara sy fomban-drazana / Nangonina sy nalahadRainandriamampandry. Antananarivo: LMS Press, 1896.


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77


.
,
,
.

,
, XII ,
. ,
(1823),
.

. . .1 . , . , . , . .2

. .

,
, (1843-1925),
. 1870 .
1887 . 1873-1887 .
, 1835 .
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, 13.

. 1992 . .14
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(1866-1925).16 ,
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(Angano malagasy)21.
c .
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, . .
22.

16Renel Ch. Contes de Madagascar. Vol. 1. Contes merveilleux. Vol. 2. Fables et fabliaux.
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18Fauble J. Recits Bara. Paris: Institut dEthnologie, 1947.


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11Dahle L. Specimens of Malagasy Folk-Lore. Antananarivo: A.Kingdon, 1877.


12FFMA Friends Foreign Mission Association.
13Anganonny Ntaolo...
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Institut des Langues et Civilisations Orientales, 1992.

15Ferrand G. Contes Populaires Malgaches. Paris: E.Leroux, 1893.

. .

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.
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25 . , // . : . .
. -, 1965 (: ). . 12.

80

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27 Ferrand G. Op. cit P. V.

28 .. . .: , . . . ., 1970. . 17.

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29Tsintsina (osticola madagascariensis).


30 .. . .: - . , 1958. . 117.
31Vorondolo , takatra (scopus umbret).

32Dahle L. Anganonny Ntaolo.., 1962. P. 196.


33Molet L. Origine chinoise possible de quelques animaux fantastiques de Madagascar //
Journal de la Socit des Africanistes. T. XLIV, fasc. 2. Paris, 1974. P. 123-138.
34Dahle L. Anganonny Ntaolo.., 1962. P. 196-197.
35 , Andriamanitra

84

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. : (), ,.., (), ,.., , ..., ,
, , . ,
Andriandanitra ( ) (. Hbert
J.-C. La cosmologie malgache // Taloha. N1. Antananarivo, 1965. P. 89).
36Zanahary, Andriamanitra Andriananahary, Ilay Mpahary ny Lanitra sy ny Tany no fototry
ny Fanjakani Madagasikara (, ,
).
37Loharanonandriana, olombelona: Ny andriana tsy nitsororoka avy tany an-danitra,
ary tsy nitrebona avy taminny tany, fa loharanonandriana, olombelona (
, ).

86

,... : , .
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38 ... . 231-232, 241. . .: Delarue P. Le Conte populaire
franais: Catalogue raisonn des versions de France et des pays de langue franaise doutremer. Paris: G.-P.Maisonneuve et Larose, 1957.

87

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,
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Andriamanitra)43.
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39Renel Ch. Preface // Op.cit.


40Ferrand G. Op. cit. P. IV.
41Delarue P. Op. cit.
42Dandouau A. Conte malgache. Rainipatsa et la fille des eaux // La Revue de Madagascar.
N 6. Paris, 1934. P. 63-67.
43Rajoharivelo J. Lorigine des devins-gurisseurs et des arts de gurison // Fiainana.
Tananarive, 1932. P. 213-217.

44Dandouau A. Contes populaires des Sakalava et des Tsimihety de la rgion dAnalalava.


Alger: Jules Carbonel, 1922. P.150, 302.
45Rakotomalala Malanjaona. Notes sur le mecanisme des traditions historiques
malgaches // tudes Ocan Indien. N 40-41. Paris, 2008. P. 11-22.
46Longchamps J. de. Contes malgaches. Paris: d. rasme, 1955; Leenhardt-Randriamitantsoa N.
Contes et histoire de lle-rouge. Paris: ditions des crivains, 2001; Fanony F. LOiseau GrandTison et autres
contes des Betsimisaraka du Nord (Madagascar). T. 1. Paris: LHarmattan, 2001; Claverie B., Claverie M.
Angano: contes et histoires de Madagascar // Lettres de lOcan Indien. Paris: LHarmattan, 2005.

88

89

. .

: . , . ,
. . , .
,
47, .
- (mpitantara), .
,
, . . .
.
(
) 1960-.
, .
. . 48
,
. . ,

47Blot B. Contes et lgendes malgaches. [Tananarive]: [Secrtariat dtat lInformation


et au Tourisme], 1960. P. 36.
48 . .: , 1962;
/ . ., . . .. / . ..
. .: , , 1965 ( . );
. . //
. ., 1967. 6. . 51.; [ ] //
. .: . , 1976 ( ). .: 3.
, . 35-36. 48. , . 117. 116. , .
276-282. 147. , . 362-365. 154. , . 385392.; . .:
, 1977; . . .:
, 1985. .: , . 508.
, . 508-510; , //
. 10 . . 6. .: , 1990; .:
, . 42-43; , . 314-317; . //
/ . . . -; . . . . , . .
. .: , 2010. . 441-457.

Victor A. Pogadaev
University of Malaya (Kuala Lumpur)
SOME ASPECTS OF POETIC TRANSLATION
FROM RUSSIAN INTO MALAY
In the theory of translation, many Russian linguists, translators, prominent
writers and poets were dealing with problems involving translation of
poetic works. Theoretical aspects of poetic translation were studied by L.S.
Barkhudarov, S.F. Goncharenko, Y.N. Karaulov, A.V. Fyodorov. All of them
note the specific nature of poetry, which has largely hindered the work of a
translator. Many debates are held about whether to retain the form of the
work or to reproduce music of verses and sentiments of the heroes. These
issues arise also when you translate poetry from Russian into Malay. Is it
necessary while translating from Russian into Malay to retain rhymes which
are a specific feature of most Russian poetry while Malaysian poetry mostly
is represented by verlibre because due to the structure of the Malay words the
number of rhymes in Malay language is limited? Or try to retain the original
form of Russian poetry with rhymes but be ready to lose some content of the
poetry? How to represent the words connected with Russian reality which is
not known to the Malaysian reader? And generally, should the translations
keep the flavor of the foreign culture or be considered as a part of the culture
to which language the poetry is translated? The author bases his paper on
the experience of compiling the first ever anthology of Russian literature in
Malay titled Mawar Emas (The Golden Rose, published in Kuala Lumpur in
2009 by Malaysian National Institute of Translation) for which he translated
quite a number of pieces of Russian classical and modern poetry.

91

VICTOR A. POGADAEV

SOME ASPECTS OF POETIC TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN INTO MALAY

***
I was always wondering why modern Malay poets prefer free verses (verlibre)
without rhymes. And even was asking many times some of the poets but
never received a satisfactory answer.
Maybe I would be wondering up till now if I didnt start myself to translate
Russian poems into Malay. And then I understood why. Due to the structure
of Malay language itself. Malay words dont change to that extend as in
Russian language. So the number of rhymes in Malay is very limited. Thus
the language itself dictates the preferable form of poetry. Most Malay poets
dont want to insert the words into certain frame which limits their intention
to express themselves freely. True, the traditional Malay poetry (pantun, syair
etc.) has rhymes maybe because this genre was oral at the beginning and was
performed by singing, and to remember it, especially syair was very difficult
without rhymes.
As I mentioned already, the number of rhymes in Malay language is
limited. Thats why if you look at pantun or syair you will see almost the
same repeating rhymes. Still it is helpful when you translate some poetry
from foreign language into Malay keeping the rhymes but having difficulty
to find proper rhymes. You can try to look for instance into syair. As I told
you, its helpful. In some countries, including Russia, there are special rhymes
dictionaries just to help to the beginners to create rhymed poetry. By the way
due to the fact that the Modern Malay poetry is free verses, very few poets
can recite their own poems without text.
The translation of the poetry due to its highly aesthetic value occupies
special place in translation theory. Many Russian linguists, translators,
prominent writers and poets were dealing with problems involving translation
of poetic works. Theoretical aspects of poetic translation were studied by L. S.
Barkhudarov, S. F. Goncharenko, Y. N. Karaulov, A. V. Fyodorov1.

All of them note the specific nature of poetry, which has largely hindered
the work of a translator. Many debates are held about whether to retain the
form of the work or to reproduce music of verses and sentiments of the heroes.
These issues arise also when you translate poetry from Russian into Malay. Is
it necessary while translating from Russian into Malay to retain rhymes which
are a specific feature of most Russian poetry while Malaysian poetry mostly
is represented by verlibre because due to the structure of the Malay words the
number of rhymes in Malay language is limited? Or try to retain the original
form of Russian poetry with rhymes but be ready to lose some content of the
poetry? How to represent the words connected with Russian reality which is
not known to the Malaysian reader? And generally, should the translations
keep the flavor of the foreign culture or be considered as a part of the culture
to which language the poetry is translated? The author bases his paper on
the experience of compiling the first ever anthology of Russian literature in
Malay titled Mawar Emas2 (The Golden Rose, published in Kuala Lumpur in
2009 by Malaysian National Institute of Translation) for which he translated
quite a number of pieces of Russian classical and modern poetry.
First of all the poetry has specific form and also specific content. The
form consists of rhymes and rhythm, and the content (text itself) has more
metaphors and similes than prose. Some think that the poetry, especially
while reciting is nearer to the music than to the literature. You can enjoy to
listen the poetry in some foreign language even if you dont understand what
it is about. Its really like music3.

1Barhudarov, L. S. Yazik i Perevod (Language and Translation). Moscow: Mezhdunarodnie Otnoshenia, 1975; Goncharenko, S. F. O Perevodimosti Poezii (About Translatability of
Poetry). Yazikovie Kontakti: Mezgdisziplinarny Analiz (Language Contacts: Interdisciplinary
Analysis). Patigorsk, 1998, 77-78.; Karaulov, Yu. N. O Sposobah Dostizhenia Funktsionalnoy
Ekvuvalentnosti v Perevode: Dva Perevoda Odnogo Soneta (About Means of Achieving the

Functional Equivalency in Translation: Two Translations of the Same Sonet) Yazik. Poetika.
Perevod (Language, Poetics, Translation), 426. Moscow: Moscow State Linguistics University Publishes, 1996, 76-91; Fedorov, A. V. Osnovi Obshey Teorii Perevoda (The Bases of
General Theory of Translation). St. Petersburg: Filologia Tri, 2002.
2Mawar Emas. Bunga Rampai Sastera Rusia. Penyelenggara dan Penterjemah Victor Pogadaev. Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia, 2009.
3The Wife of the Russian poet Osip Mandelshtam (1891-1938) Nadezhda Mandelshtam
used to say: The poetry begins like this: you hear in the ears a persistent, first not clear but
then very precise but still wordless musical phrase. I saw many times how Osip tries to get
rid of it, to shake it off like a drop of water entered into the ear during bathing: but nothing
could erase it: either the noise, or radio, or talks in the same room Sarnov, B. Zalozhnik
Vechnosti: Sluchay Mandelshtama (The Hostage of Eternity: The Mandelshtams Case) in

92

93

VICTOR A. POGADAEV

SOME ASPECTS OF POETIC TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN INTO MALAY

Before starting translation you should decide for yourself what is your
purpose. To give the accurate copy of the original poetry or free interpretation
which by its impression would be the same as impression of the original.
In reality these two kinds of translation go together. First you translate
trying to keep the content as close to the original as possible (so called
philological translation) and then try to interpret it by own words. Sometimes
it means even to make better than the original text. And if during the first
kind of translation a translator keeps to be just a mere translator, in the second
case he appears to be a coauthor. No wonder G. Garcia Markes used to say
that one translation of his work into English is better than the original text4.
Of course to have this or that desire is not enough. A lot depends of
the original text. Sometimes I see that I wouldnt be able to make a decent
translation and I give up idea. For instance I wanted to include into the
anthology the translation of some poetry by Marina Tsvetaeva (1892-1941)
and I looked through all three volumes of her poetry works but could find
only a few which could be translated decently. Marina Tsvetaeva is a so deep
Russian poetess. The images and words she was using are so difficult to be
understood by foreign readers5. You should completely rewrite her poems
or try to find some with specific forms. For instance I found that the poems
with repeated lines are more probable to be translated correctly because this
repetition gives a certain rhythm to the poetry like mantras.
The same is true about translations with rhymes or without rhymes. In
Russian tradition, poetry is mostly rhymed because Russian language is
extremely rich with it: words could have about six different endings due to
the grammar. And if you like to show how an original work sounds you will
try to translate it with rhymes too. In this case it will be almost impossible to
Ogonek. 110 Years. Selected Materials. Vol. 1. Moscow: Terra, 2009, 253.
4Markes, G. Garcia. Eti Bednyagi Perevodchiki (Those Poor Translators) Perevod Sredstvo Vzaimnogo Sblizheniya Narodov (Translation As a Mean of Rapprochement Between Nations). Moscow, 1987.
5Evtushenko, E. Stihi ne Mogut Bit Bezdomnimi. Statya o Tvorchestve Tsvetaevoy (Poetry Cant Be Homeless. One Article About Tsvetaeva Works) Marina Tsvetaeva. Stihotvorenia, Poemi, Dramaticheskie Proizvedenia (Poetry, Poems, Dramas). Moscow: Khudozhestvennyaya Literatura, 1990.

94

keep the content for 100 percent. Only the main ideas and general impression
could be the same.
I was trying to keep the style of Pushkin (1799-1837) and Lermontov
(1814-1841), for instance, to make it recognizable even while reading the
Malay translation. As I told earlier, it is not easy due to structure of Malay
language, where words are not changed and the number of rhymes is limited.
In spite of this I think I managed to keep the form and content. For example,
the Malay text of the Pushkins poem On hills of Georgia lies the covering of
night6 or Lermontovs I Go Out On The Road Alone7 which falls on the music
and can be performed as a romance even in Malay version.
Alexander Pushkin
Gunung-ganang di Gruziya diselubungi gelap
Gunung-ganang di Gruziya diselubungi gelap,
Sungai Aragwi di hadapan aku.
Sedih dan lapang hatiku: denyutan tidak kerap
Kekasihku, kurindu akan kau.
Kau sahaja, kau! Rasa pilu dan gundah
Tidak diganggu oleh kesal hati.
Kembali kalbuku bercinta dan demam
Sebab kalau tiada cinta aku mati.

Na holmah Gruzii lezhit nochnaya mgla;


Shumit Aragva predo mnou.
Mne grustno i legko; pechal moya svetla;
Pechal moya polna toboyu,
Toboy, odnoy toboy... Uninya moego
Nichto ne muchit, ne trevozhit,
I serdtse vnov gorit i lyubit ottogo,
Chto ne lyubit ono ne mozhet.

Mikhail Lermontov
Kujejaki jalan seorang diri
Kujejaki jalan sorang diri;
Jalan berkilau di depan;
Sunyilah. Alam junjungan Tuhan,
Dan bintang cakap sama bintang.

Vihozhu odin ya na dorogu;


Skvoz tuman kremnistiy put blestit;
Noch tiha. Pustinya vnemlet bogu,
I zvezda s zvezdoyu govorit.

Langit amat indah dan meriah!


Lelap bumi berkilau biru...
Tunggu apa, apa disesali?
Mengapa hati sakit rindu?

V nebesah torzhestvenno i chudno!


Spit zemlya v siyani golubom...
Chto zhe mne tak bolno i tak trudno?
Zhdu l chego? zhaleyu li o chyom?

6Mawar Emas, p. 28.


7Mawar Emas, p. 57.

95

VICTOR A. POGADAEV

SOME ASPECTS OF POETIC TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN INTO MALAY

Tidak tunggu apa pun ku lagi,


Tak sesali masa yang silam.
Kucari damai dan kebebasan!
Kuhendak terlena dan tenteram!

Uzh ne zhdu ot zhizni nichego ya,


I ne zhal mne proshlogo nichut;
Ya ichu svobodi i pokoya!
Ya b hotel zabitsja i zasnut!

Tapi tak bagai di kubur dingin,


Kuhendak terlena dan tenteram,
Agar dada lega bernafasan,
Agar daya ada terpendam;

No ne tem holodnim snom mogili


Ya b zhelal naveki tak zasnut,
Chtob v grudi dremali zhizni sili,
Chtob disha vzdimalas tiho grud;

Agar suara merdu menyanyi,


Sepanjang hari-malam bagiku,
Agar pokok yang hijau abadi,
Tunduk berbisik di atasku.

Chtob vsyu noch, ves den moy sluh leleya,


Pro lyubov mne sladkiy golos pel,
Nado mnoy chtob vechno zeleneya
Tyomnyj dub sklonyalsa i shumel.

Sometimes its easier to translate poetry which became a song. The melody
gives you the necessary limit. But its very important here to keep the certain
number of syllables. The editor of my anthology was trying to correct my
translation mostly from the point of view of standard Malay grammar. Thus
he replaced for instance tak for tidak, sorang for seorang etc. He added extra
syllables and the translation became misbalanced and didnt correspondent
to the music. When we met I explained to him my concept of translation and
he seemed to understand it and promised to restore original translation. But
after publication I found that he didnt correct them all.
Tingkap-tingkap Moscow8
Langit tinggi malam jadi gelap
Dan sinar di tingkap gemerlap.
Di sini (sini) tinggal kawanku,
Berdebarlah hatiku
Bila memandang (pandang) cahaya tingkap itu.
Aku suka datang ke mari,
Tingkap tu bak buku kukaji.

Dan penuh bercahaya,


Berdebar dan bercinta
Tingkap itu bagai manusia.
Seperti dahulu kala (kalanya)
Kusiap berdiri lama.(lamanya)
Sinar tingkap memikat
Temu janji mendekat,
Nak bertemu kekasihku cepat.
Kunikmati sinar tingkap itu,(tu)
Kuharap bahagia selalu.
Bukan rahsia lagi
Aku suka sekali
Cahaya tingkap Moscow abadi.
This episode shows that in the poetry and its translation you cant use the
approach of pure grammar. By the way the poets (and writers generally too)
made great contribution to the development of their native languages. Like
Vladimir Mayakovsky (1893-1930) in Russia who was using unusual form of
words which were in complete contradiction with the standard grammar but
later became the integral part of modern Russian language9.
Not less important is the problem how to translate the reality unknown
to foreign readers. There are several ways: you can make footnotes, put
explanations into the text of translation or just ignore some of the minor not
very important realities. I dont like too much footnotes because they make
the translation heavy. But sometimes you cant avoid it.
Just recently I was translating a poem by Siti Zainon Ismail Kasih Bonda. Kampung Paya Kami10 which is very specific because contents a lot of
information about kampong life. You cant translate some cultural words
9Aseev, N. N. Mayakovsky Nachinaetsa (Mayakovsky Begins). Moscow, 1940.
10Siti Zainon Ismail. Lubov Materi. Nasha Derevnya Kampung Paya (Kasih Bonda. Kampung Paya Kami). Kuala Lumpur: Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia, 2010.

8Mawar Emas, p. 172.

96

97

VICTOR A. POGADAEV

SOME ASPECTS OF POETIC TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN INTO MALAY

like songkok, sarong, azan, koci, batik, keris, rendang, bangsawan, congkak,
ketupat etc. and should also explain what is masjid Jame, Kampung Baru
and even UMNO. So I kept them all in the text and made more than 100
footnotes. This book is very important because of the content and not of the
form of the poetry. Its like a poetic encyclopedia of village life in Malaysia
in old times.
Sometimes I put explanation into the text of translation. For instance in
Bella Akhmadullinas poem September lagi11 (the editor changed the title for
September datang lagi) it is not mentioned the name of the great poet who
is looking at the author because every Russian would understand that its
Alexander Pushkin. But what about Malaysian readers? I decided in order not
to make a footnote, just to put the name of Pushkin into the text.
Aku duduk dengarkan bunyi taman,
Duduk di tingkap seperti terpaku.
Penyair Pushkin yang tetap sezaman
Seakan-akan menatapi aku.
The ability to find a proper word is a very important task of the translation
work. The translator should all the time improve the language knowledge12.
I myself used to face this problem while translating the Russian poetry
into Malay. For instance, in the translation of the poem Imitating the Koran of Pushkin (1799-1837) I used the word terompet (trumpet) in the
lines where the Judgment Day is described. My faculty colleague, the Arabic
lecturer advised me to replace the word terompet with sangkakala. In the
same translation, he advised to replace the word angkasa (sky) with langit
which is more correspondent to the meaning the power of God13.
But sometimes the exact translation isnt advisable because may not be
understandable for the readers with different cultures or even climates. For
11Mawar Emas, p. 157.
12Nabokov, V. V. The Art of Translation Lectures on Russian Literature. Edited with introduction, by Fredson Bowers. N.Y.: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1981.
13Pogadaev, Victor. Penyair Agung Rusia Pushkin dan Dunia Timur. Monograph Series.
Centre For Civilisational Dialogue. University Malaya. N 6, 2003, 15.

98

example, in the translation of the short story From the Life of Millionaires
by Victoria Tokareva which included in the anthology I purposely replaced
the word September with the word autumn14. The word September is
meaningless for Malaysians because it is not connected with any seasons here
while for Europeans it is connected with autumn not only in the nature but in
the human life too (the age after 50).
I think its quite productive to use the images of the culture of target
language which of cause may lessen the aroma of original work but make its
more understandable for readers of the target language.
Lets see together the translation of the Robert Rozhdestvenskys poem
Balada tentang warna15 which became a popular song.
Merah rambutnya bak cendawan ganjil
Merah bak limau oren di salji.
Bergurau mak, emak suka bergurau:
Puteraku lahir di musim kemarau.
The phrase I gave birth to son in the sun is translated into Malay as
Anakku lahir di musim kemarau (My son was born in the dry season) that
has been done for the sake of rhyme, but I think it is well chosen, for a long
dry season associated by Malays with sunny weather.
Putera lainnya berambut hitam-hitam
Bak burung gagak atau pun arang.
Bergurau emak, bergurau lagi:
Puteraku lahir malam, bukan pagi.
Pada tahun empat puluh satu tu
Gendang perang hebahkan bala di situ.
Dua putera, garam dan pasak bumi
Minta restu pada ibu dan pergi.
14Mawar Emas, p. 217.
15Mawar Emas, p.166.

99

VICTOR A. POGADAEV

SOME ASPECTS OF POETIC TRANSLATION FROM RUSSIAN INTO MALAY

The phrase the loudspeakers thundered trouble translated as Gendang perang hebahkan bala di situ (The drums of war thundered trouble):
Drums of War is a popular image of Malay poetry.
Dialaminya asam garam berperang,
Api gila merah dan asap hitam,
Kehijauan ladang yang terlantar,
Rumah sakit pernah mereka dihantar.
Dua putera, dua sayap duanya
Bertempur sampai menang. Mak tunggunya.
Tak pernah nasib dicabar oleh mak.
Pasal itu mak dan nasib sepihak.

As a conclusion. Really, the translation of poetry and literature as a whole


is very important for cultural interaction between different nations. Through
translation of literature, the culture becomes richer and the literary works
themselves become through translation more known in the scale of the
whole world. The people in the world are so different. We are not the same
and speak in different languages. So one of the purpose of translation is to
make people to be compassionate to each other.
The Russian poet Pushkin used to compare translators with the horses
whish are changed at the station of civilizations16. So high is the appreciation
of the role of translators without whom the dialog of civilizations is impossible.
Translation of poetry is a very challenging task but you feel so satisfied
when manage to fulfill it successfully.

Bertuahlah dia durian runtuh


Sementara ramai jiran mengeluh.
Bertuahlah ibu, ibu bertuah
Dua putera pulang kampung dengan gah.
The phrase She was lucky, she was lucky, lucky, is translated by a popular
Malay saying Durian runtuh, which means happiness has come.
Dua putera wira bongsu dan sulung
Bintang baktinya nak susah dihitung.
Dua putera duduk dan bertafakur,
Tangan ada, kaki ada, tak uzur.
Minum arak yang hijau bak tapai,
Warna rambutnya berubah bukan main.
Rambutnya beruban bak kain kafan
Banyak warna putih dipunyai perang!
The phrase The hair became white as death in original text, translated as
The hair became white as shroud. It makes a rhyme and has the same meaning.

100

16Pushkin, A. S. Sobranie Sochineniy (Collection of Works). Ed. P. V. Annenkov. Vol. 1. Moscow, 1855, 271.

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1Oemarjati Boen S. Bentuk lakon dalam sastra Indonesia. Djakarta, 1971. 246 h.; Rosidi
Ajip. Ichtisar sedjarah sastra Indonesia. Bandung, 1969, 244 h.

2 . : . . .,
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102

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O, harapan, beta perawan,


Pada Budjangga hati pahlawan.
Lepaskan beta, o kakanda.
Lepaskan beta, o kakanda.
Lepaskan, lepaskan, o, lepaskan,
Penuh duka derita badan!
Marilah mari, kakanda diri!

(Bujangga) , ,
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c. 475.

5Jassin H.B. Kesusasteraan Indonesia modern dalam kritik dan essay. Djakarta, 1955,
238 h.
6Alisjahbana S. T. Kebangkitan puisi baru Indonesia. Djakarta, 1969, c. 74.
7 .. . . ., 1965, c. 84.

104

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9Oemarjati Boen S. Bentuk lakon dalam sastra Indonesia. Djakarta, 1971, h. 98.

106

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Patut kami papar tanyakan,
Kan jadi obat perarai demam.

107

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Percuma.
Sebab inilah tanda bencana,
Ananda.
Kamu disambar penyakit lalu,
Anakku.
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10Oemarjati Boen S. Bentuk lakon dalam sastra Indonesia. Djakarta, 1971, h. 92.

11 .. . . ., 1965, c. 43.

Lupakan mimpimu yang datang menyamar,


Lemparkan khayal yang
sukar-sukar,
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Itulah jalan yang tiada bermara.

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108

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Tinggal beta seorang diri.
Besar dharma dikandung badan,
Kecil tenaga berat pikulan.
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Penuntut Sari di dalam puri,
Nasehat ayah melemah tenaga,
Merebut air pelepas dahaga.
Umanat menjadi racun di hati.

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110

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Sabari
Sukar dapatnya.
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Sabari
Johari pendekar.
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Beta mendengar.
Sabari
Bujangga baru sedang tersadar
Dakarati
Ini tandanya rumaja dating.
Sabari
Besar kasmaran ringan geretang.
Celaka Muda sebab berkeras!
Dakarati
Celaka Tua sebab pemalas!

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setan.

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Dalam hatinya,
Bebasari memohonkan bela.


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112

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14Oemarjati Boen S. Bentuk lakon dalam sastra Indonesia. Djakarta, 1971, h. 96.

113

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114

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Kakanda, dari zaman berganti zaman
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Susah payah tuan kemari
Menyeberangi darah
menempur duri.
O, kakanda, junjungan beta,
Tidak kemenangan dapat diminta.
Tiap pekerjaan meminta korban,
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Annabel Teh Gallop


The British Library
THREE MALAY LETTERS FROM SUMENEP,
BANJARMASIN AND BRUNEI
Malay letters are especially important primary source materials for the study
of the Malay language because, unlike most Malay manuscript texts, letters
are usually precisely dated and securely provenanced. As such, they are valuable witnesses to the use of the Malay language in a particular place and at
a certain time. In honour of Pak Sikorskys contributions to the study of the
Malay language, I would like to present three brief Malay letters now in the
collection of the British Library1. Like most Malay epistles held in western
libraries, all three are written by local rulers or officials and addressed to European officials. None concerns great matters of state, but each has enough
details of interest whether a fancy signature, a palaeographic flourish, an
orthographic nicety, or even an unknown historical fact to add small but
distinct nuggests to our knowledge of the world of Malay writing. One common factor is that each of these letters is signed, although signatures are rarely found on Malay letters; indeed they are alien to the Islamic letter-writing
tradition until well into the 19th century.
I. Sumenep
The earliest letter is from Pangeran Nata Negara of Sumenep, Madura, to
Captain James Clark, Resident of Sumenep, dated 19 Jumadilawal 1230 (Sat1All three are recent accessions, and hence are not listed in Ricklefs & Voorhoeve (1977,
1982).

117

ANNABEL TEH GALLOP

THREE MALAY LETTERS FROM SUMENEP, BANJARMASIN AND BRUNEI

urday 29 April 1815). The letter is swiftly written and is intimate in tone, and
the Pangeran states that he is sending as a present a Malay-style keris and a
brazier belonging to his late father, the Panembahan. Pangeran Nata Negara can be identified as the ruler of Sumenep later known as Panembahan
Nata Kusuma II and then as Sultan Paku Nata Ningrat, who ruled Sumenep
from 1812 to 1854. He was the son of Raden Temenggung Tirto Negoro, Nata
Kusuma I, who reigned from 1768 to 1812.
James Clark was an officer in the British administration of Java from 1811
to 1816. On 9 December 1811 he was appointed by Raffles to the temporary
command of Samanap. In April 1812 he was transferred to Banyuwangi but
in November of that year he was appointed Commandant of Madura and
civil administrator of Sumenep, where he remained until 1816 (Haan 1935:
516). Thus it is likely that Clark had known the Pangeran since 1811, when
the old Panembahan was still alive, and therefore a gift of precious heirlooms
(pusaka) belonging to the late Panembahan would have been particularly
meaningful.
The letter consists of a letter heading and nine lines of text, followed by a
signature. The heading is Qawluhu al-Haqq, His Word is the Truth, one of
the most common headings found on Malay letters from local dignitaries to
European officials. It is positioned towards the left side of the paper, which
is regarded as a sign of politeness and humility, and is written diagonally upside down. The letter is written in a swift, competent and cursive hand, and
as the signature is written in the same ductus and with the same brownish
ink, the letter was probably written by the Pangeran himself. In this letter, as
in all other written communications in Malay from Madura of this period,
the placename is always written as Sumeneb with a ba rather than Sumenep.
Another notable orthographic feature in this letter is the consistent medial ha
in sahudara.
There is no seal on this letter, but at the end there is a signature. The signature reads: Thalib al-dai al-Pangeran Nata Negara al-amir, Student of The
Summoner, the Pangeran Nata Negara, the prince. It is the presence of a
near-identical signature on a letter from Panembahan Nata Kusuma bidding

farewell to Raffles dated 1 May 1816 (BL Add.45273, ff.28v-29r, published


in Gallop 1991: 48) which allows the firm identification of Pangeran Nata
Negara with Panembahan Nata Kusuma II. On this later letter, the signature reads: Thalib al-dai Panembahan Nata Kusuma Sumeneb, Student of the
Summoner, Panembahan Nata Kusuma of Sumeneb.

118

119

Figures 1 & 2. Left: signature of Pangeran Nata Negara, 1815, BL Or.14858; right:
signature of Panembahan Nata Kusuma, 1816, BL Add.45273, ff.28v-29r

ANNABEL TEH GALLOP

THREE MALAY LETTERS FROM SUMENEP, BANJARMASIN AND BRUNEI

Or.14858. 2 ff.; Dutch paper, J Honig & Zoonen; rebacked with English
paper, C.Wilmott 1813; 24 x 19.0 cm (currently sealed in melinex as a single
bifolium, 24 x 38.5 cm). Malay in Jawi script, small neat cursive hand; brown
ink; 9 lines of text. Given by Lt.Col. J. de D. Yule, 1994.
Malay text

Qawluhu al-Haqq
Bahwa warkat al-ikhlas yang termaktub di dalamnya beberapa tabik dan hormat yang beserta selamat al-khair selama-lamanya datang mengadap ke hadapan majlis sahudara saya Tuan Kaptin Jims Klarq Residint di dalam negeri
Sumeneb adanya. Wa-baadahu maka adalah saya melayangkan nubdhah yang
sedharrah ini ke hadapan majlis sahudara akan seperti saya sendiri bertemu
dengan sahudara, lain tiada hanya saya hendak kasih kepada sahudara satu
pertanda daripada saya yang saya sudah dapat pusaka daripada sahudara
[sic] punya bapa Panembahan yang sudah meninggal, iaitu satu keris cara Melayu lagi satu tempat bara api, keduanya itu dahulu Panembahan punya pakaian, melainkan saya harab sahudara terima tiada dengan sepertinya hanya
cuma pertanda sahabat, demikian adanya.
Tersurat kepada 19 hari bulan Jumadilawal sanat 1230.
[signature] Thalib al-dai al-Pangeran Nata Negara al-amir
Translation

Fig.3. Or.14858, letter from Pangeran Nata Negara of Sumenep to James Clark, Resident of Sumenep, 29 April 1815

II. Banjarmasin

His Word is the Truth


This sincere epistle, containing greetings and respects together with eternal
best wishes, is sent into the presence of my brother Captain James Clark, Resident of Sumeneb. After that, the reason I am sending this fragment of a note
into my brothers presence, in lieu of our meeting, is that my only wish is to
give my brother a memento from me which I inherited from brothers [sic,
i.e. my] father the late Panembahan, namely a Malay-style keris and a brazier,
both of the Panembahans own using, and I hope my brother will accept these,
though they are not as they should be, but are merely a token of friendship.
Written on the 19th of Jumadilawal in the year 1230.
[signature] Student of The Summoner, the Pangeran Nata Negara, the prince

The second letter, of 1843, is from Haji Abdul Rahman, Penghulu of Banjarmasin, to two officials, Tuan Hendrik, posthouder (official) of Pantuil or
Senyur Karlos, posthouder of Muara Cerucuk, and is dated Saturday 8 Zulhijah 1259 (30 December 1843). In the letter the Penghulu asks for the urgent
return of beams from an old mosque for use in the mosque in Banjar, as these
are needed before the feast of Id al-Adha on Monday, just two days hence.
It may be presumed that Hendrik is a Dutch official, but the different usage of the titles tuan and sennyur suggests that Karlos may be of Portuguese or
Spanish origin. There is no letter heading, and the letter was not placed in an
envelope, but the single sheet of paper itself was folded and then sealed shut,

120

121

ANNABEL TEH GALLOP

THREE MALAY LETTERS FROM SUMENEP, BANJARMASIN AND BRUNEI

and the address written on the outside. As for Haji Abdul Rahman, we have no
biographical information on him, but he writes his signature in fluent roman
letters, suggesting he was literate in both Arabic and Latin script. The medial
ha of the initial word, bahwa, is written with a pronounced flourish. An almost
identical exaggerated medial ha of initial bahwa can be seen in a letter from the
Sultan of Banjar to the Raja Besar of Karang Asam, dated 3 April 18142. This
coincidence suggests that it might be worth investigating whether this style of
ha might be a characteristic feature of a Banjar epistolary hand3.
Or.14537. 1 f.; laid paper with chain lines, no watermark; 29.5 x 15 cm.
Malay in Jawi script; black ink; 11 lines of letter text and 5 lines of address;
the single sheet was originally folded and sealed shut with red wax. Found in
department in 1987, bound into a Malay printed book from Abb Favre collection; hence possibly originally from the H.C.Millies collection.
Malay text

Translation
This is a letter from me Haji Abdul Rahman, Penghulu of Banjarmasin, to
my friend Tuan Hendrik, Posthouder of Muara Pantuil, or to Senor Carlos,
Posthouder of Muara Cerucuk. My mosque congregation in Banjar has been
searching for the beams from the old mosque, and some people say that these
are in Pantuil with my friend; if this is true then we request that these be
returned for use in the mosque, my friend may give the beams to the bearer
of this letter, because we need them urgently as this coming Monday is the
feastday of the month of Hajj4. There is nothing more to add save my loving
wishes that my friend may remain in all safety.
Saturday 8th of the month of Hajj, the year 1259.
[signature] H. Abdolrahman
May this letter be conveyed to / the Posthouder in Pantuil or / the Posthouder
in Muara Cerucuk // finis.

Bahwa ini surat daripada saya Haji Abdul Rahman penghulu di Banjarmasin mendapatkan sahabat saya Tuan Hendrik postaur [p.w.s.t.w.r] di Muara
Pantuil atau Sennyur Karlus postaur di Muara Cerucuk. Ini kaum2 mesjid di
Banjar saya sudah mencari batang mesjid larut kabar2 orang ada di Pantuil
kepada sahabat kita, iaitu kalau betul ada kita minta kembali itu batang pakai
batang mesjid boleh sahabat kita kasih saja itu batang kepada yang membawa
surat kita ini mau dipakai lekas sebab hari isnin yang di muka ini ada hari
besar bulan Haj demikian adanya. Maka tiada apa2 lain hanya dicintakan
sahabat kita tetap di dalam segala selamat juga adanya.
Hari Sabtu 8 bulan Haj sanat 1259.
[signature in roman script] H. Abdolrahman
Alamat ini surat minta sampaikan kepada / tuan postaur di Pantuil atau / postaur di Muara Cerucuk / adanya / tamm.
2Bodleian Library, MS Malay e.1, reproduced in Gallop 1994: 97.
3This similarity was first noted and pointed out to me in 1987 by Haji Wan Ali Wan Mamat
(later Director-General of the National Library of Malaysia), who wrote his MA thesis on
Malay palaeography.

122

Fig.4. Or.14537, letter from Penghulu Abdul Rahman of Banjarmasin to two neighbouring European officials, 30 December 1843.
4Id al-Adha, 10 Zulhijah.

123

ANNABEL TEH GALLOP

THREE MALAY LETTERS FROM SUMENEP, BANJARMASIN AND BRUNEI

III. Brunei

Malay text

The third letter is very much later, dated 27 October 1983, and is from Paduka
Seri Begawan Sultan Haji Sir Muda Omar Ali Saifuddien of Brunei to Dato
Norman Bradbury in Bognor Regis, England, 27 October 1983. In contrast
to the other letters discussed here which are handwritten in Jawi, this letter is
typed on blue headed notepaper, and is presented in two copies, one in Malay
and one in English.
Sultan Omar Ali Saifuddien III of Brunei came to the throne in 1950 after
the death of his brother, Sultan Ahmad Tajuddin. In 1967 he abdicated in
favour of his eldest son, who ascended the throne as Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah
and is still reigning in Brunei today. Omar Ali Saifuddien then took the title
Duli Yang Teramat Mulia Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan until his death in 1986.
Norman Bradbury served as an Education Officer in Brunei from the 1950s
until he retired to England in 1972.
The letter recalls a friendship over a period of thirty years, and is remarkable for an anecdote by the Seri Begawan Sultan concerning his own age, in
which he stated that he turned 70 on 23 September 1983. This implies that his
date of birth was 23 September 1913, whereas in all known published sources
it is always given as 23 September 1914. The letter is signed in Latin script,
and the signature appears to read o[.]a[.]sufudin.
Or.15036. 4 ff.; blue paper watermarked conqueror; 33 x 21 cm. Typescript,
in Malay and English in roman script, with handwritten salutation and signature. Donated to the British Library by Dato Norman Bradbury in 1995.

Surat Dato bertarikh 19 haribulan September, 1983, telah Beta terima. Terima
kaseh di-atas tahniah dan ingatan Dato dan Datin.
Kalau mengikut tarikh persekolahan umor Beta sekarang ia-lah 67 tahun
di-sebabkan masa itu, dalam tahun 1932, Malay College di-Kuala Kangsar
tidak menerima penuntut yang berumor lebeh dari 17 tahun, jadi umor Beta
di-kurangkan oleh British Resident, Mr. Carey lebeh kurang 3 tahun. Umor
Beta dalam tulisan yang sebenar-nya ia-lah 70 tahun pada 23 haribulan September, 1983.
Beta masih ingat semasa lawatan Dato dan menginap di-Istana Darul
Hana5. Beta juga masih ingat di-masa Dato menjadi kaki-tangan kanan kepada mendiang Mr. Malcom McDonald6 dalam tahun / 1952 yang mana Dato
berkejar ka-Raflis Hotel7 dari kapal William Royce menchari kunchi Beta yang
tertinggal di-hotel.
Sekian.
BETA, [signature] Oasaifudin,
DULI YANG TERAMAT MULIA PADUKA SERI BEGAWAN SULTAN
HAJI SIR MUDA OMAR ALI SAIFUDDIEN

Fig.5. Or.15036, signature


of the former Sultan

124

English text
[written by hand] Dear Datu
I have received your letter of 19 September, 1983. Thank you for the congratulatory messages and the kind remembrance from you and Datin.
According to the date of my schooling, I am now 67 years old because at
that time, in 1932, the Malay College in Kuala Kangsar would not accept students above the age of 17 years, and for that reason the then British Resident,
Mr. Carey, reduced my age by about 3 years. My age according to documentary evidence was 70 years on 23 September, 1983.
5The residence of the Sultan of Brunei until the completion of the present palace, Istana
Nurul Iman, in 1984.
6Commissioner-General for the United Kingdom in South East Asia, 1948-1955.
7Raffles Hotel in Singapore.

125

ANNABEL TEH GALLOP

THREE MALAY LETTERS FROM SUMENEP, BANJARMASIN AND BRUNEI

I still remember your visit and your stay at Istana Darul Hana. I also still
remember the / time when you were a member of the staff of the late Mr.
Malcolm McDonald in 1952 when you had to make a dash to Raffles Hotel
from the ship William Royce to search for my key which was left behind in
the hotel.
[written by hand] Yours sincerely,
[signature] oasaifudin
DULI YANG TERAMAT MULIA PADUKA SERI BEGAWAN SULTAN
HAJI SIR MUDA OMAR ALI SAIFUDDIEN
References
1. Gallop, Annabel Teh and Arps, Bernard. 1991. Golden letters: writing traditions of Indonesia. Surat emas: budaya tulis di Indonesia. London: British Library.
2. Gallop, Annabel Teh. 1994. The legacy of the Malay letter. Warisan warkah
Melayu. With an essay by E. Ulrich Kratz. London: published by the British Library
for the National Archives of Malaysia.
3. Haan, F. de. 1935. Personalia der periode van het Engelsch bestuur over Java
1811-1816. Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde, 92 (1):477-681.
4. Ricklefs, M. C. and Voorhoeve, P. 1977. Indonesian manuscripts in Great
Britain. Oxford: Oxford University Press. (London Oriental Bibliographies; 5).
5. Ricklefs, M. C. and Voorhoeve, P. 1982. Indonesian manuscripts in Great
Britain. Addenda et corrigenda. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies, 45 (2):300-21.

Fig. 6. Or.15036, letter from Paduka Seri Begawan Sultan Omar


Ali Saifuddien to Dato Norman Bradbury, 27 October 1983

126

, :

. .
. ..
, :

,
.
( Marian Klamer and Michael
C. Ewing 2010).
( ),
, .
, 7 000 (1989 SIL),
. ( 30)
, ( . . ) ( . . ) (Collins1982: 113-114).
, , , , , , , , , .
70-
,
(Collins 1982:111). (

128

).1 XX ().
, , , ,
; , (), ;
, , , . , , .
, ( ,
) .
,
,
. :
,

, .
,
. ,
.
, (Wahai) (Wahinama),
, . . (1885-1926),
- 1911 . , 1 :
- ,
, . .. .
.

129

. .

, :

, 19281931 . .
1970- ,
, , .
, 517
36 , . 1964
, , .
, , (.
).
. : Kanikeh, Hatuolu, Maneo, South Manusela . , ,2 , , (1982:112),
,
( ,
*d/D *z/Z *R, *j *l *d/D *z/Z
, *l, *j, *R).

, , : /i, u, e, o, a/ /p, m, f,
w, t, , n, s, l, r , y, k, h /. /, ,
g, b, d/.
. /b/-/p/ /d/.
, /b/,
/p/, : bohi (T) pohi ; na-bale (T)pale ,
2 ( ,
, ,
(Holton 2006)). , (2009),
64%72% , ,
, ,
.

130

; tebi-(T)tepi (Proh); botu-a (T)ro-potu . ,


, , , : baca > pasa ; bawang > pawano kerbau>koropou
; tebang > tepa . /d/,
:
, sondo ; kuda, , anakoda
diona , .
. , : tikar
(<tikar) simbahyang (<sembahyang) .
- .
, , ( , )
(). : , aka-ku (+1sgPOS)
, : aku ei malohu (1sg + 1sgPOS +) .
, ,
.
.
,
, , hahu epuni ( + ) (28),
ulaai meleka ( + ) (23) botu hua ( + )
(T:121).3
3
- (Himmelmann
2005:175), ,
.

131

. .

, :

, , .
, , , epuni lusua (+)
, , . ,
, , tasilusu/ ( +) , aihuani (
+ + 3sgPOS) .
() () , Piter rahe luma (+
3sgPOS+) .
c ,
, (32): iana rahe wae-a ( + 3sgPOS + ) , , , (
), .

, ,
(+). , , lolou in
( 2010: 382), kola ill (Chlenova 2002: 172),
kolam sema ( 2008: 287). ,

(possessive-like attributive constructions),
(Ross 1998b).
,
, : -a, -e, :

tiam-a / tiam-e ; husu-a / husu-e /- (); telo-a / telo-e


/-. -a ,
, - : iba / iba-e -/-; luma
/ luma-e /-.
- . , , - -a
, , tiam-a husu-a , -
, , , telo ( telo-a / telo-e ).
: wasu-e -; iba-e -.
, ,
: , . , , .
(SVO) ,
. S / ,
O .

132

133

1.

1sg
2sg
3sg
1pi
1pe
2pl
3pl

(I)
(II)
ea/ a/ aku/ hataku aya
au /hatau
ahu, au
ia
eme
ita
ita
ami
ami
omi
omi
asia
asia

auiataamomai

-ya
-u
-i, eme
-ita
-ami
-omi
asia?

. .

, :


: (I) (), (II) (), , :

1sg hataku / aku 2sg hat-au /au hatau , hat-, (1):

1sg ea/ a/ aku/hataku () aya ()


2sg hatau () ahu ()
3sg ia () eme ()

Asae hatau louwa?


a-sae
hat-au
lo-uwa
he?-what ?-2sg
?-be ill
Are you ill?
Apa(kah) saudara sakit? (1)

1sg ea, a (20, 22), aku


(18, 19), hataku (2). , , ,
- , ,
:
a , (22).
Ia hatana potona dari a
ia
hata-na
potona
3sg
body3-POS big

dari
ABL

a
1sg

He is more stout than I am


Dia lebih gemuk dari saya (22)
hataku , (2)
Hataku louwa ohi-ohi
hat-aku lo-uwa ohi-ohi
?-1sg
?-be ill a little
Yes, I am a little sick
Yah, saya sakit sedikit (2)
aku , (19)
Piter rahe umur sama pohi aku i
Peter 3sgPOS age same SML 1sg1sgPOS
Peter and me are of the same age
Umur Piter sama dengan umur saya (19)

134

2.

1sg
2sg
3sg
1pi
1pe
2pl
3pl

(I)
(II)
aku ei
akurahe
au rahe
ahurahe, ahe
ia rahe
iarahe
ita rahe
itarahe
ami/ita rahe
amirahe
omi rahe
omirahe
ai rahe
airahe

akuahu-,auiaitaamiomiai-

-ku
-u
-nia,-i
-ita
-ami
-omi

,
. (I), (II).
, (I) (II) . 1sg . aku ei () akurahe () 1pe ita
rahe () amirahe ().
( ): esa,4 hua, tolu hate lima nome
hitu walu siwa hutu-sa, utuni 100 lalani5 1000. ,
4 essa.
5 lihuna. , lalani 1000,
, , ,
lalane (), lalairalo (), lalan-ne (), lalan (). .. (
) .

135

. .

, :

, , , , hutu - hua (102) , hutu - tolu (10-3) 30 . ,


, , , . 50 hutu lima (-) lima-puluh (-)
.
eha, , hutu
eha essa ( ) 11 lihuna-tolu eha hua ( )
3002(Tauern:116).

4. pulai

,
, ,
.
, , kae ,
2sg 3sg (a ka), : a. ,
/h/.
3. kae
1sg

a-a

2sg
3sg

au ka
ia ka

1pi
1pe
2pl
3pl

ita a
ami a
omi a
asia ai

, 2pl 3 pl6, () , , pulai: 2pl 3 pl hulai.

1sg

a-pulai

2sg
3sg

ahu-pulai
ia-pulai

ita-pulai
ami-pulai
omi-hulai
ai-hulai

1pi
1pe
2pl
3pl

,
, , ,
property concept words ,
. -
-a, : mete / mete-a
/ ; melek-e /melek-a / ; oho
/ oho-a / . property concept
words -a, , ,
( ). ,
,
- , , holu (325), ,
,
holu-a . (9)
holu,
hulu-a:7
Hulua lumama u?
hulu-a lu-mama
u
new
RED- house Det
Is this house new?
Barukah rumah itu? (9)

6
p / h : hete (391) pete
(21) 3pl ( ), 3sg.

7hulu, , holu ( o/u


).

136

137

. .

, :

, , property concept words


.

,
, , ,
. property
concept words . , , ( ),
, , : uka-ku , 8,
muka-i , 9, rua-ku (Tauern: 115).
( )
- , , ,
( )
, ,
, ( 2008).
- : , , ,
,

, .
, , , (Bolton 1990:
36-42). (
) , ,
8. uka-na (284).
9C. muka-e (453).

138

. : , , ,
.
- (A1),
(A2) (B) ():
U-sosa-i
1sg -rub-3sg
Im shining it. (A1)
Ina-ku i-hita-ku
mother-1sg.POS 3sg -hit-1sg
My mother hit me. (A2)
U-anamana
1sg-speak
Ill speak. (B)
U-ampeta-ku
1sg -wet-1sg
I am wet. ()
, (A1), (B) (), 1sg, (U-); -ku-1sg
() (2). () 1sg -ku 1sg (U-).

.
,
, . (Collins and Kaartinen 1998: 533).
, , -

139

. .

, :

.

( ). ,
,
, , ,
.

1. .. (1998). // . :
.
2. .. (2006). ( ): // - , VII, .: . . 3783.
3. .. (2007). ( )
// / . ..
4. .: . . 2761.
5. .. (2008). :
( , ) // - . .: . . XVIII. . 262288.
6. Bolton, Rosemary (1990). A preliminary description of Nuaulu phonology
and grammar. MA thesis, University of Texas at Arlington.
7. Chlenova, Svetlana (2002). Daweloor, a Southwest Moluccan language //
Malay-Indonesian studies XV / B.B. Parnickel (ed.). Moscow: Nusantara
Society, the Asia and Pacific Museum. P. 145175.
8. Collins, James T.(1982). Linguistic research in Maluku: A report of recent
field work // Oceanic Linguistics .21: 73-146.
9. Collins, Kaartinen (1998) . Preliminary Notes on Bandanese Language
Maintenance and Change in Kei // Bijdragen tot de Taal-, Land- en Volkenkunde. Leiden, 154, no 4. P. 521570.
10. Ethnologue: Languages of the World (2009). / Lewis, M. Paul (ed.). 16 edition.
11. Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. On line version: http://www.ethnologue.com/.

140

12. Himmelmann (2005). The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar:


Typological characteristics // The Austronesian languages of Asia and Madagascar / K.A. Adelaar and N.P. Himmelmann (eds). London: Routledge/
Curzon, 2005. P. 110181.
13. Holton, Gary (2006). Annotated Bibliography of Language and Language
Use in North and Central Maluku Marian Klamer and Michael C. Ewing.
2010. The languages of East Nusantara: an introduction / East Nusantara:
typological and areal analyses. Eds Michael C. Ewing and Marian Klamer.
Canberra: Pacific Linguistics.
14. Ross, Malcolm (1998). Possessive-like attribute constructions in the Oceanic languages of Northwest Melanesia // Oceanic Linguistics 37: 234-276.

1

: 1, 2, 3 first, second, third person; ABL ablative; AUG augmentative; DET determiner; DEM demonstrative; DM discourse marker; IPF imperfective; LOC
locative; NEG negation; pe plural exclusive; PERF
perfective; pl plural; pi plural inclusive; POS possessive;
PROH prohibitive; RED reduplication; SEQ sequential
marker; sg singular; SML simultaneous conjunction.
.
.
Asae hatau louwa?
a-sae
hat-au
lo-uwa1
?-what
?-2sg
?-be ill
Are you ill?
Apa(kah) saudara sakit? (1)
1lo-uwa , (1-4) 1sg, 2sg 3sg
, uwa-na (283),
-na.

141

. .

Hataku louwa ohi-ohi


hat-aku
lo-uwa
?-1sg
?-be ill
Yes, I am a little sick
Yah, saya sakit sedikit (2)

, :

Napai3 parikia?
napai pariki-a
DEM well-?
Where is the well
Dimana sumur? (7)

ohi-ohi
a little

Sei ripa wae hini pariki amau?


who scoope water LOC well Det
Who is scooping water out of the well?
Siapa yang timba air di sumur ini? (8)

Tuan hatau louwasae?


tuan hat-au
lo-uwa-sae
tuan ?-2sg
?- be ill-what
What hurts you?
Tuan sakit apa? (3)
Aka-ku louwa
aka-ku
head-1sgPOS
I have a headache
Saya sakit kepala (4)

Hulua4 lumama u?
hulu-a
lu-mama
new
RED- house
Is this house new?
Barukah rumah itu? (9)

louwa
?-be ill

Ia suka kinu susu?


ia suka
k-inu
3sg like
3sg-drink
Does he/she like to drink milk?
Dia suka minum susu? (5)

susu
milk

Kowa, ia suka ae kae hahu, pohi ayoku pohi aihuani


pohi ai-hua-ni
kowa, ia suka ae kae2 hahu, pohi ayoku
NEG 3sg like ?3sg-eat pig SML vegetables SML tree-fruits-POS
No, he likes to eat meat vegetables and fruits
Tidak, dia suka makan daging, sayur-sayuran dan buah-buahan (6)

2, 3sg

ae kae, kae. C. 3

ae , 2sg 3sg.

142

u
Det

U-raki homa halasa. Raki


u-raki homa
hala-sa
raki
2sg- go DM
come-Dem go
In vain you have come here. Go away
Sia-sia engkau datang kemari. Pergi! (10)
Ulipesae hini tesasi. Leumai
u-lipe-sae
hini te-sasi.
Leu-mai
2-look for-what LOC NEG come back-DM
What are you looking for is not available here. Go away!
Apa yang anak-anak cari disini tidak ada. Pergilah! (11)
Bae uli hua mai
bae
u-li hua
mai
good 2sg-(silent?) DM
Its better you shut up!
Baiklah engkau diam saja! (12)
3. napae (369)
4. holu (325)

143

. .

, :

The price of his hen is not the same as that of yours


Ayamnya tidak sama harganya dengan ayam saya (18)

Homa ita taki


homa ita
t-aki
let
1pi
1pi-go
Let us go!
Marilah kita perlgi! (13)

Peter rahe
umur sama pohi aku ei
Peter 3sg POS age same SML 1sg 1sgPOS
Peter and I are of the same age
Umur Piter sama dengan umur saya (19)

Tepi usa niiwe ani


PROH climb coconut DEM
Dont climb that coconut tree!
Jangan naik pohon kelapa ini! (14)

Piter te manisa pohi a asi


Peter Neg same SML 1sg NEG
Peter and I are not of the same age
Piter tidak setua saya (20)

Tepi tutu upu kua


tepi tutu
u-puku-a
PROH up
2sg-fall- (?)
Dont fall!
Awas, jangan sampai jatuh! (15)
Uraki hini pasar sahe tabakohe, pohi uraki hini sina sahe hahu ria
u-raki
hini pasar sahe tapako-he pohi u-raki hini sina
sahe hahu ria
2sg - Loc market buy tobacco-DM SML 2sg- LOC Chinese buy pig DEM

Go to the market, buy some tobacco, then go to the Chinese to buy some pork
Pergi ke pasar, beli tembakau dulu, lalu pergi kepada orang Cina dan beli
daging babi disana (16)
Keta ita sali pulau5 Kei ia repi hini utara tantu tupua ia puku
keta ita sali pulau Kei ia repi
hini utara tantu tupua ia puku
let s say island Kei 3sg be located LOC north (?) (?) 3sg fall
If Kei were located at the North Pole it would have heavy snowing
Andaikata pulau Kei terletak di kutub Utara, maka banyak salju turun (17)

Pipenua ia pete mia asi


maneaka6, ia pete mia
turtle 3sg run (?) (NEG?) deer
3sg run (?)
A turtle runs not as well as a deer
Kura-kura lari kurang cepat dari rusa (21)
Ia hatana potona dari a
ia
hata-na
potona
3sg body-3sg POS big
He is more stout than I am
Dia lebih gemuk dari saya (22)

dari
ABL

a
1sg

Binaya ulaai meleka hini pulau Seram


Binaya mountain high LOC island Seram
The mountain Binaya is the highest at the Seram island
Gunung Binaya adalah gunung yang tertinggi di pulau Seram (23)

Malohu te manisa pohi hetilina wahi akuesi


mailohu te manisa pohi hetilina wahi aku-esi
hen
NEG same SML (price?) as 1sgNEG

Aikihu oho-ohoa hini tuniaiani, iasamaia7 hini Irian


aikihu oho-oho-a
hini tuniai-ani ia-sama-ia
hini Irian
flower RED-beautiful LOC world DET 3pl-give-3sg LOC Irian
The most beautiful flower in the world was given to him in Irian
Bunga yg paling indah di dunia pernah diberikan kepadanya di Irian (24)

5. pulau, nusa (168)

6. maniaka (91) .
7ia-sama-[ie/ia] , ia 3sg.

144

145

. .

, :

1pe do good (bridge?) old-DET


We have already repaired the broken bridge
Kita telah memperkuat jambatan yang lama rusak itu (30)

Tepi umou tapakoa hini!


tepi
u-mou tapako-a hini
PROH 2sg -? tobacco
LOC
No smoking here!
Dilarang keras merokok disini! (25)
Kes amau-ni aieteia hini kebun binatang
kes amau-ni
ai-ete-ia
hini kebun binatang
monkey DET-3sgPOS 1sg-bring-3sg LOC garden animal
I brought monkey to the Zoo
Kera itu saya bawa ke kebun binatang (26)
Hahu mina-mina wasua ia ka
hahu mina-mina- wasu-a ia ka
pig RED-fat-(?)
dog
3sg-eat
The fat pig was eaten by the wild dog
Babi gemuk dimakan anjing liar (27)
Wasu ia kae hahu epuni
dog 3sg eat pig forest
Dogs eat wild pigs
Anjing dimakan babi hutan (28)8
Ani bukan koropou ani kuda
DEM NEG buffalo DEM horse
It is not a buffalo, it is a horse
Ini bukan kerbau - ini kuda (29)
Ami una oho apuleta mutuani
ami9 una10 oho11 apuleta mutu-ani

Inai ia masa wa hasa-hasa


ina-i
ia masa waya-12 hasa-hasa
mother-3sgPOS 3sg heat water-(e?) RED-warm
Mother is still heating water
Ibu masih memanasi air (31)
Hini umalani ala ami kapunia lohoki ami una oho iana rahe waea
hini umala-ni
ala ami k-apuni-a lohoki ami una oho iana rahe wae-a
LOC month-DET go 3pe ?-villige-? together 3pe do good fish POS water-?
Next month our village will clean the fish pond by way of mutual cooperation
Dalam bulan depan seluruh kampung akan membersihkan dasar kolam ikan
secara gotong-royong (32)
Haleani manaai taka ai urusiia
hale-ani manaai taka ai urusi-ia
hal-DET IPF DM 3pl settle-3sg
The matter is still being settled
Hal ini sedang diurus (33)
Salae tutuia rahe potoa potona kaini ihua itaoie ohowe
salae tutu ia rahe poto-a potona kaini i-hua ita-oi-e oho-we
SEQ (?-3sg) POS photo-? big
(?) ?-two ? 1pi see-? good-AUG?
After the photo was enlarged, two men were very clearly visible
Setelah foto diperbesar, maka dua orang di dalamnya kelihatan kentara sekali (34)
Potopotoa pohi kita iapuna oho humai
potopotoa pohi kita
ia-puna oho (hu-mai)
elder sibling SML younger sibling 3sg-do good (each other?)

8 - .
9Ami-1pe ( 1. . ) kita-1pi
( 1. . ) -.
10. upuna (286) una
ono .
11C. oho una

(30,32 35) ohoa (24) (253).


12. waya (239) wa (waya-) (8) (31)
waea (32). , - ,
.

146

147

. .

, :

Your elder sibling and his/her younger sibling love each other
Kakakmu dan adiknya berkasih-kasihan (35)
Lumamau hini epuni lusua
lu-mama u
hini epuni lusu-a
RED-house-DET LOC forest edge-?
Those houses are at the edge of the forest
Rumah-rumah itu terletak di pinggir hutan (36)


,
- .

, : 000.
,
,
, .
000 ,

.

. ,
tj => c, dj=>j, j=>y .
,
,
(. 1).

( 3).

148

NN

ea/a (20,22,)
aku (18, 19)
ataku(2)

aku, saya

au/ hatau (1, 3)

engkau

you (sing.)

(.)

ia

3a

ita(13)/

3b

ami (30)

kami

we (exc.)

()

asia

mereka

they

4a

omi

kamu

you (pl.)

(5,6,21, 22)

dia

he/she

kita

we (incl.)

()

esa

satu

one

hua

dua

two

tolu

tiga

three

hate

empat

four

lima

lima

five

10

nome

enam

six

11

hitu

tujuh

seven

12

walu

delapan

eight

13

siwa

sembilan

nine

14

hutusa

sepuluh

ten

15

aka

16

hala

(4)

kepala

head

tangan

hand

17

wai

kaki

foot / leg

18

uluhe

rambut

hair

19

mata

mata

eye

20

ua

muka

face

21

apu

perut

stomach

22

nawa

dada

breast

23

nesi

gigi

tooth

24

ima

jari

finger / toe

25

hulikata

tulang

bone

26

huru

mulut

mouth

27

tina

telinga

ear

149

. .

28

xxx

, :

bibir

lip

61

hatu

batu

stone

29

solo

leher

neck

62

upaha

pasir

sand

30

nita

hidung

nose

63

ulaai

bukit

hill

31

hata(22)

badan

body

64

matani

muara

estuary

32

ataleke

tanduk

horn

33

eleka

kulit

skin

34

etu

ekor

tail

35

luma(9, 36)

rumah

house

36

tikar

tikar

mat

37

epahuru

pintu

door

38

late

lantai

floor

39

rari

tenunan

cloth

40

meya

meja

table

41

aku

daun

leaf

42

sondo

sendok

spoon

43

koloka

pisau

knife

44

kaitahu

tanah

soil, land

45

laliaa

langit

sky

46

kopia/ulaai(23)

gunung

mountain

65

akani

hulu

riverhead

()

66

talou

teluk

bay

67

tanjong

tanjung

cape

68

pemhiti

selat

strait

69

arus

arus

stream

70

maisia

manusia
orang

person

71

binatang (26)

binatang

animal

72

aihutu

tumbuh-tumbuhan

plants

73

wakana (26)

kebun

garden

74

wasu (27, 28)

anjing

dog

75

sika

kucing

cat

76

sapi

sapi

cow

77

hahu (27, 28)

babi

pig

78

ume

kambing

goat

79

maeyaha

tikus

mouse, rat

80

kerbau
koropou(29)

kerbau

carboa

kuda

horse

47

fahani

angin

wind

48

lea

matahari

sun

49

umala

bulan

moon

50

tasia

laut

sea

81

kuda(29)

51

roa

hujan

rain

82

mailohu

ayam

chicken

52

ombak

ombak

wave

83

bebe

bebek

duck

53

tasilusu

pantai

beach

84

gansa

angsa

goose

(18

54

aia

pohon

tree

85

isakoi

burung nuri

nuri bird

55

epuni

hutan

forest

86

manu

burung

bird

56

waepoto

kali, sungai

river

87

liputola

ular

snake

57

kihuni (24)

bunga

flower

88

tapalasusu

cecak

lizard

58

xxx

rumput

grass

89

tuina

kutu

flea

59

sanahata

dahan

branch

90

umusi

nyamuk

mosquito

60

tamuni

akar

root

91

maniaka(21)

rusa

deer

150

151

. .

92

, :

iana(32)

ikan

fish

124

pakua

paku, pasak

nail

93

moloka

udang

shrimp

125

husua

panah

bow

()

94

kiroru

kepiting

crab

126

pawano

bawang

onion

95

nuwe(14)

kelapa

coconut

127

tuta

parang

machete

96

ipia

sagu

sago

128

tuta

pedang

sword

97

paikala

kasbi

yam

129

laisana

tombak, lembing

spear

98

fala

jagung

maize

130

wanasa

bambu

bamboo

99

hala

padi

rice(plant)

()

131

aiya

kayu

wood

()

100

kantani

kentang

potatoe

131a

tiha

tifa

drum

101

pualawino

cengkih

spices

132

welia

kusu-kusu

savannah grass

-
( )

102

pala

pala

nutmeg

103

kalatupa

cabe

chilli

104

tunelo

durian

durian

105
106

une

duri

thorn

maninu

mangga

mango

107

telo

pisang

banana

108

sulaka

nanas

pineapple

109

xxx

cumi-cumi

squid

110

toluni

telor

egg

111

useni

daging

meat

112

ayoku

sayur-mayur

vegetable

113

aihuani (6)

buah-buahan

fruit

114

palitu

perahu

cano, proa

115

semang

semang

outrigger

116

kawahu

dayung

oar

117

letia

jaring

net

118

fali

mancing

fishing rod

119

sakolu

cangkul

hoe

120

skopu

skop

spade

121

kapaki

martelu

martil

122

000

bajak

plow

123

tiama

kapak

axe

(6)

152

133

ulita

guruta

octopus

133a

fufea

buaya

crocodile

000

gada

club

134

katipa

timba

bucket

135

laka

kakaktua

cockatoo

135a

000

logam

metal

136

besi

besi

iron

137

masi

emas

gold

138

pera

perak

silver

139

taupaka

kuningan

copper

140

tima

timah

tin

141

itani

intan

diamond

142

mutiara

mutiara

pearle

143

houwa

bia

shell

144

uwenu

manik=manik

beads

145

xxx

anting=antjng

earrings

146

waluhata

kubur

grave

147

uhitani

kehidupan

life

148

iamata

kematian

death

149

ama

ayah, bapak

father

150

ina(31)

ibu

mother

151

manawa

laki-laki

man

153

. .

, :

152

hihina

perempan, wanita

woman

153

uhuna (11)

anak

child

tatani

cucu

grandchild

154

hotani

saudara

relative

155

kita(35)

adik

younger sibling

155a

potoa /(35)
potopotoa

kakak

older sibling

156

momo

oom

uncle

157

owai

tanta

aunt

158

manawa

suami

husband

159

hihina

isteri

wife

160

upu-upu

nenek-moyang

ancestor

161

latu

raja

king

162

kapala

penghulu

leader

163

xxx

keluarga

family

164

xxx

turunan

descent

165

sanani

damai

peace

166

lisa

perang

war

167

nusa

pulau

island

168

tuniai(24)

dunia

world

169

nusapotoa

benua

continent

170

000

sahabat

friend

171

epa

teman

comrade

172

epa

kawan

mate

173

bangsa

suku

clan

174

bangsa

bangsa

people

175

lioloa

bahasa

language

176

lela

lidah

tounge

()

177

pako-pako

pagi

morning

178

kihai

siang

forenoon

179

leatotu

tenga hari

midday

180

leapuku

sore

evening

154

181

ropotu

malam

night

182a

lakahata

tebu

sugar cane

183

talewa

tahun

year

184

umala(32)

bulan

moon

185

ranihata

hari

day

186

yamu

jam

hour

187

kiwai

terang

clear

188

ropotu

gelap

dark

189

iahalikata

kebencian

hate

190

sayani

cinta

love

191

lalinaputu

kemarahan, murka

anger

192

temani

mula

begin

193

sehu

habis, abis

end

194

ituhu

tengah

half

195

haliku

hati

heart / liver

196

lihau

kupu-kupu

butterfly

197

hala

jalan

road

198

lahito

baju

shirt

199

taulosu

kain

cloth

200

papuwai

celana

trousers

201

tulei

burung kasuari

kasuarus

202

hakarawe

cawat

loin cloth

203

panaai

benang

thread

204

kalusu

sarong

sarong

205

kapasi

kapas

cotton

206a

sanafa

dewa

god

207

hawai

banjir

flood

208

hehi

kilat

flash

209

kukuwa

guntur

thunder

210

mataa

korban

victim

211

nafsu

roh

spirit

212

jiwa

jiwa

soul

155

. .

213

latutasi

, :

batu karang

coral

244

manara

alat

tool

214

niapa

kalong, marsegu

flying fox

245

kapalu

kapal

ship

215

waluwa

mayat

corpse

246

pelabuhan

pelabuhan

harbour

216

kurwa

guru

teacher

247

sauh

jangkar, sauh, labuh

anchor

217

kitapu

buku

book

248

layari

layar

sail

pakayani

pakaian

clothing

xxx

ukiran

carving,
sculpture

218

maisini

tarian

dance

249

219

maniai

nyanian, lagu

chant

220

akasele

teka-teki

riddle

250

221

akasele

sajak

poem

221a

xxx

mantera

magic formula

222

tune

cerita

story

251

lasi

darah

blood

252

patoni

patung

statue

253

ohoa(24,32, 34)

baik, bagus

good

254

ohoasahu

indah, elok, permai

beautiful
excellent

255

ohowasi

jelek,buruk

bad, decayed

223

romu-romu

dongeng

fairy tale

224

upalateuseisa

asal-usul

origin

225

masyarakat

masyarakat

sosiety

226

lofue

rapat

meeting

227

aisaka

penjaga

guard

228

pariki(7,8)

perigi

well

229

ayaka alalei

perkelahian

fight

230

mosani

jantan

male

231

inani

betina

female

232

usawane

perkawinan

marriage

233

kue

biawak, soa-soa

iguana

234

lapua

lampu

lamp

235

lilini

lilin

candle

236

kauwa

jengkrik

cricket

237

batubara

batu bara, arang

coal

238

wouwa

api

fire

239

waya/wae(8, 31)/
waea (32)

air

water

240

pakitan

lumpur

mud

241

luka

udara

air

242

totuni

puncak

(hill)top

243

kepeni

kepeng

money

156

256

sasala

cepat

fast

257

malu-malu

perlahan-lahan

slow

258

makata

keras

hard

259

diona

suara

voice

260

lahana

bunyi

sound

261

popeta

basah

wet

262

kisila

kering

dry

263

mutuwa

tua

old

264

ora-ora

muda

young

265

meli

kecil

small

266

potona

besar

big , large

267

meleka
hoto(23)

tinggi

high

268

ketua

rendah

low

269

meleka

panjang

long

(22)

270

ketua

pendek

short

271

tabalea

tebal

thick

272

matirara

tipis

thin

273

mina(27)

gemuk

fat, stout

157

. .

274

kili huwa

, :

kurus

meagre

304

makata

kokoh

firm

275

moisia

manis

sweet, nice

305

osona

berani, gagah

brave

276

kata

pahit

bitter

306

leulelua

pengecut

scared

277

makininu

asam

sour

307

hulina

kuat

strong

278

kafa

asin, garam

salty, salt

308

mulisia

lemah

weak

279

ohowasahu

cantik

pretty

309

halikata

kejam

strict

280

pitare

pandai, pintar

capable

310

rofui

capai, lelah

tired

281

boro

bodoh, tolol

stupid

311

puti

putih

white

282

ohoohoa

sehat

healthy

312

musunua

merah

red

283

uwana
louwa (1, 2, 3, 4)

sakit

ill, sick

313

metea

hitam

black

314

manitu

biru

blue

284

ukana

kenyang

satisfied

285

naani

ada

exist

315

laulau

hijau

green

uni

kuning

yellow

286

upuna
una(30,32)
puna(35)

316

bikin

make

317

kapa-kapa,
hulue

abu-abu

grey

287

sehunika

lenyap

vanished

288

mainiku

mulai

start

289

sehu

selesai

finished

290

kisila

haus

thirsty

291

monua

berat

heavy

292

ruasi

sukar, sulit

difficult, hard

293

rokani

ringan

light

294

amau, ahowa

gampang, mudah

easy

295

kotoro

kotor

filthy

296

putia

bersih

clean

297

hasana (31)

panas

hot

298

hasana ohi

hangat

warm

299

morina

dingin

cold

300

moia

tajam

sharp

301

moia

runcing

pointed

302

moiasi

tumpul

blunt

303

waisea

halus, lunak

fine

158

318

sokola

coklat

brown

319

putimusunu

ungu

purple

320

manasa

malas

lazy

321

maula

rajin

diligent

322

xxx

bosan, pastiu

bored

323

mahali

mahal

expensive

324

mura

murah

cheap

325

holu/hulua

326

mutuan(30)i

(9)

baru

new

lama

long

327

otowele

lebar

wide

328

kenea

sempit

narrow

329

lolana

longgar

loose

330

kokoa

bangga

proud

331

nafae

sombong

arrogant

332

mulula

layuh

withered

333

mapa

masak

cooked

334

humata

mateng

ripe

335

nana

anyam

weave

159

. .

336

agung

, :

agung

mighty

367

napae(7)

dimana

where

337

tepotonasi

sederhana

plain

368

weipai

darimana

from where

338

biasa

biasa

normal

369

punasae

kenapa

why

339

tuluea

lain

different

370

sae(3, 11)

apa

what

340

manesa
manias (18,20)

sama

same

371

sei(8)

siapa

who

341

ani(14, 29, 33)

ini

this

372

xxx

bahwa

that

342

amau(8,26)

itu

that

373

xxx

karena

because

pitare

373a

hilani

kapan

when

343

cerdik

clever

374

wahiapa

bagaimana

how

344

halikata

marah

angry

375

ohomae

terima kasih

thanks

345

makata

rapat, padat

close, compact

346

holuholu

dulu

olden times

347

tona

cuma, hanya

only

348

sehu

sudah

already

349

taka

masih

still, yet

350

leku

lagi

again

351

lihu

sunyi, sepi

silent

352

meleke

jauh

far

353

hapi-hapi

dekat

nearby

354

lusu

didepan

in front

355

kalu

belakang

back

356

mere

lurus

straight

357

ma

dimuka

in front

358

apali

kiri

left

359

hita-hita

kanan

right

360

itamaite

barangkali

perhaps

361

laite

banyak

much

362

ohi-ohi (2)

sedikit

few

363

naroe

dalam

inside

364

wele

luar

outside

365

hoto

atas

on/at

366

pale

bawah

under

160

376

homamae

silahkan

please

377

mae

juga

also, too

378

tonaesa

sangat, sekali

very

379

maine

tetapi

but

380

yah

yes

381

kowa(6, 29, 18, 21)

tidak, bukan

no, not

382

kae (6, 27, 28)

makan

eat

383

kinu

minum

drink

384

tapoko(25)

rokok

smoke

(5)

385

puna

kerja

work

386

kina

tidur

sleep

387

hanu

bangun

wake up

388

koho

berdiri

stand

389

kino

berbaring

lie

390

hala

berjalan, pergi

walk, go

391

hete(21)

lari

run

(10,11,13,16)

392

tue

duduk

sit

393

alate

bicara, omong

talk

394

iapalate

mengucapkan

pronounce

395

palate

bilang

say

396

mane

mengarti

understand

397

rinia

tanya

ask

398

xxx

jawab

answer

161

. .

399

oi

, :

lihat

see

430

malilu

lupa

forget

400

pulai

dengar

hear

431

sopa

coba

try

401

oi

tonton

watch

432

bisa

bisa, dapat

can

402

pasa

baca

read

433

mumali

tertawa

laugh

403

tulis

tulis

write

434

xxx

senang, gembira

glad

404

ayare

ajar

teach

435

mata

mati

die

405

rana

ambil

take

436

panua

hidup

live

406

tarima

terima

receive

437

xxx

suka

like

407

tarima

beri, kasih

give

438

hesei

kena

struck

408

kori

409

hepi

(26)

bawa

carry

439

wailime

hilang

disappear

buka

open

440

xxx

rusak

damaged

410

tutu

tutup

close

441

mania

hancur, hanyut

destroyed

411

pakarapu

istirahat

rest

442

xxx

runtuh

broken

412

mane

tahu

know

443

hita

potong

cut

413

nihoki

teriak, ribut

scream

444

tepa

tebang

cut

414

putani

tanggis

cry

445

fele

pukul

hit

415

lipe(11)

cari

search

446

lofue

kumpul

collect

416

supu

ketemu, menemukan

meet

447

xxx

tarik

pull

417

rahe

punya

have

418

palaheli

jual

sell

448

[hetilina](18)

harga

price

419

sahe(16)

beli

buy

448a

iliapa

luka

wound

420

basu

cuci

wash

421

lapu

mandi

bathe

422

napa

tunggu

wait

423

kelekui

bergerak

move

424

hitu

angkat

lift

424a

sipu

pindah

move

425

leu

kembali, pulang

go back

426

hotu

keluar

go out

427

raki

berangkat

leave,go

428

puku(15, 17)

jatuh

fall

naik

climb

ingat

remember

428a
429

pisi nai

162

449

haku

tangkap

catch

450

pusawa

kawin

married, marry

451

kasei

panggil

call

452

mutau

takut

afraid

453

mukae

malu

shy

454

mata

padam

extinduish

455

tukari

tukar

exchange

456

selu

ganti

change

457

000

bagi

share, part

458

xxx

ancam

threaten

459

patuhu

tunjuk

point

460

sinanaka

goreng

bake

163

. .

, :

461

kia

rebus

cook

493

tepi(14)

jangan

dont

()

462

hapu

mendidih

boil

494

amani

desa, kampung

village

463

raki(10 )

datang

come

495

sapakuku

cincin

ring

464

rapulili

putar

turn

496

kilaki

buru

hunt

(32)

465

kori

pegang

grasp

497

hohu

cabut

pull out

466

taha

lempar

throw

498

gergaji

gergaji

saw

499

simbahyang

doa, sembahyang

pray

sail

467

xxx

angkut

transport

468

poko

bakar

fry

469

kali

gali

dig

500

balayar

berlayar

470

runu

tembak

fire

501

utuni

ratus

hundred

471

mau

mau

want

502

lalani

ribu

thousand

472

xxx

lahir

be born

()

503

xxx

juta

million

473

xxx

raba

touch, grope

504

kina

pemali, pantang

taboo

474

salalai

menyapu

sweep

505

aima[h]a

pohon enau

enau palm

()

475

xxx

letus

explode

506

pulau

pohon pinang

areca nut

476

patahoki

sembunyi

hide

507

susu(5)

susu

milk

508

ipia

papeda

papeda

477

harus

harus

must

478

perlu

perlu

needed

479

saka

menggembala

herd

480

pamata

bunuh

kill

481

nanu

berenang

swim

482

amai

negeri

village community

483

pareta

kuasa

484

hilasi

485
486

509

fala

beras, nasi

rice

510

barati

barat

west

511

timuru

timur

east

512

selatan

selatan

south

513

utara(17)

utara

north

power

514

xxx

kutub

pole

berapa

how many

514

kuli

tuli

deaf

hilahilasi

beberapa

some

515

putai

buta

blind

000

lawan, musuh

enemy

516

xxx

bisu

dumb

lusua(36)

pinggir

edge

disini, di, ke

here, in, to

487

anakoda

nakoda

skipper

517

488

rakani

pedagang

trader

489

xxx

tabib

physician

518

490

tawar-taware

tawar-menawar

bargain

491

xxx

usul

proposal

492

homa(10,13)

mari

lets

()

164

hini(8, 11, 16, 17, 23,


24, 25,26,32,36)

165

. .

, :

advance
afraid
again
air
already
also
ancestor
anchor
anger
angry
animal
areca nut
arrogant
ask
aunt
axe
back
bad
bake
bamboo
banana
bargain
bathe
bay
beach
beads
beautiful

NN
357
452
350
241
348
377
160
247
191
344
71
506
331
397
157
123
355
255
460
130
107
490
421
66
53
144
254

begin
belly
big
can
candle
canoe
capable
cape
carboa
carry
cat
catch
change
chant
cheap
chicken
child
chilli
clan
clean
clear
clever
climb
close
cloth
clothing
coal

166

NN
192
21
266
432
235
114
280
67
80
408
75
449
456
219
324
82
153
103
173
296
187
343
428a
410
199
249
237

cockatoo
coconut
cold
collect
come
compact
comrade
continent
cook
cooked
copper
coral
corpse
cotton
cow
crab
cricket
crocodile
cry
cut (slice)
cut
dance
dark
day
deaf
death
deer
destroyed
diamond
die
different

NN
135
95
299
446
463
345
171
169
461
333
139
213
215
205
76
94
236
133a
414
443
444
218
188
185
514
148
91
441
141
435
339

difficult
dig
diligent
disappear
dog
dont
door
drink
drum
dry
duck
durian
ear
east
easy
eat
edge
egg
eight
enau palm
end
estuary
evening
exchange
exist
expensive
extinduish
eye
fabric
face
fairy tale

167

NN
292
469
321
439
74
493
37
383
131a
262
83
104
27
511
294
382
519
110
12
505
193
64
180
455
285
323
454
19
39
20
223

. .

fall
far
fast
fat
father
female
few
fight
filthy
fine
finger / toe
finished
fire
fire (shoot)
firm
fish
fishing rod
five
flash
flea
flood
floor
flower
flying fox
foot/leg
forenoon
forest
forget
four
from where
fruit

, :

NN
428
352
256
273
149
231
362
229
295
303
24
289
238
470
304
92
118
9
208
89
207
38
57
214
17
178
55
430
8
368
113

fry
garden
give
go back
go out
goat
god
gold
good
goose
grandchild
grasp
grave
green
grey
guard
hair
half
hand
harbour
hard
hate
have
he/she
head
healthy
hear
heart / liver
heavy
herd
here, in, to

168

NN
468
73
407
425
426
78
206a
137
253
84
154
465
146
315
317
227
18
194
16
246
258
189
417
3
15
282
400
195
291
479
518

hide
high
hill
hit
hoe
horn
horse
hot
hour
house
how
how many
hundred
hunt
husband
I
iguana
ill, sick
in front
inside
iron
island
kasuarus
kill
king
knife
know
language
lamp
laugh
lazy

NN
476
267
63
445
119
32
81
297
186
35
374
484
501
496
158
1
233
283
354
363
136
167
201
480
161
43
412
175
234
433
320

leader
leaf
leave
left
lets
lie
life
lift
light
live
lizard
loin cloth
long
long-time
loose
love
low
machete
maize
make
male
man
mango
marriage
married, marry
martil
mat
mate
meagre
meat
meet

169

NN
162
41
427
358
492
389
147
424
293
436
88
202
269
326
329
190
268
127
98
286
230
151
106
232
450
121
36
172
274
111
416

. .

meeting
midday
mighty
milk
money
month
moon
morning
mosquito
mother
mountain
mouse, rat
mouth
move
move (away)
much
mud
must
nail
narrow
nearby
neck
needed
net
new
night
nine
no
normal
north
nose

, :

NN
226
179
336
507
243
184
49
177
90
150
46
79
26
423
423a
361
240
477
124
328
353
29
478
117
325
181
13
381
338
513
30

nuri bird
nutmeg
oar
octopus
old
olden times
older sibling
on/at
one
onion
only
open
origin
outrigger
outside
papeda
peace
peak
pearle
people
perhaps
person
pig
pineapple
plain
plants
please
poem
point
pointed
potatoe

170

NN
85
102
116
133
263
346
155a
365
5
126
347
409
224
115
364
508
165
242
142
174
360
70
77
108
337
72
376
221
459
301
100

power
pray
pretty
pronounce
proud
pull out
purple
rain
read
receive
red
relative
remember
rest
rice
rice (plant)
riddle
right
ring
ripe
river
road
root
run
sago
sail
sail
salty, salt
same
sand
sarong

NN
483
499
279
394
330
497
319
51
402
406
312
154
429
411
509
99
220
359
495
334
56
197
60
391
96
248
500
278
340
62
204

satisfied
savannah grass
saw
say
scared
scream
sea
search
see
sell
seven
sharp
shell
ship
shirt
short
shrimp
shy
silent
silver
sit
six
skin
skipper
sky
sleep
slow
small
smoke
snake
soil, land

171

NN
284
132
498
395
306
413
50
415
399
418
11
300
143
245
198
270
93
453
351
138
392
10
33
487
45
386
257
265
384
87
44

. .

some
sosiety
soul
sound
sour
south
spade
spear
spices
spirit
spoon
stand
start
statue
still, yet
stomach
stone
story
straight
strait
stream
strict
strong
struck
stupid
sugar cane
sun
sweep
sweet, nice
swim
sword

, :

NN
485
225
212
260
277
513
120
129
101
211
42
388
288
252
349
21
61
222
356
68
69
309
307
438
281
182a
48
474
275
481
128

table
taboo
tail
take
talk
teach
teacher
ten
thanks
that
they
thick
thin
this
thorn
thousand
thread
three
throw
thunder
tin
tired
tool
tooth
tounge
trader
tree
trousers
try
turn
two

172

NN

NN

40
504
34
405
393
404
216
14
375
342
4
271
272
341
105
502
203
7
466
209
140
310
244
23
176
488
54
200
431
464
6

uncle
under
understand
upper course of a river
vanished
vegetable
very
victim
village
village community
voice
wait
wake up
walk, go
want
war
warm
wash
watch
water
wave
we (exc.)
we (incl.)
weak
weave
well

156
366
396
65
287
112
378
210
494
482
259
422
387
390
471
166
298
420
401
239
52
3b
3a
308
335
228

west
wet
what
when
where
white
who
why
wide
wife
wind
withered
woman
wood
work
world
wound
write
yam
year
yellow
yes
you (pl.)
you (sing.)
young
younger sibling

NN
511
261
370
373a
367
311
371
369
327
159
47
332
152
131
385
168
448
403
97
183
316
380
4a
2
264
155

THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS

Research Problems
Data

The old Sundanese kingdom presented in this research is one of the typical Hindu-Buddha kingdoms located in the western part of Java. This
Sundanese kingdom developed from the 7th to 12th centuries, in line with
the time Tarumanegara kingdom fell apart. Carita Parahyangan composed in the middle of the 16th century has been the only book available
as a relevant written source since the early old Sundanese Kingdom. Regarding the fact that tere are not many data on old Sundanese kingdom
prior to the 13th century, this research limits itself into the old Sundanese
kingdom from 13th to 16th centuries, when dayeuh (village) of PakwanPajajaran located in Bogor was defeated by Muslim troopers from Banten.
The relevant sources on old Sundanese societies from 13th to 16th centuries are relatively availabe, inspite of a fragmentary way. The examples of
relevant sites are Karangkamulyan, Astana Gede, and Gunung Padang.
The written examples are stone inscriptions of Prasasti Kawali I-V, Kebantenan, Batu Tulis, and other short ones in Ciamis and manuscripts are
Sanghyang Siksakanda ng Karesyan, Serat Dewabuda, Jatiraga, Jatiniskala,
Kawih Paningkes, and Bujangga Manik.

In this research, two transliterated and then translated written texts with
high historical values Carita Parahyangan (story of Parahyangan) and
Bujangga Manik (a famous old Sundanese poem) were used as the main
sources. The reasons why these two texts are used for this research are as
follows:
1. These texts can be considered as an important point to discuss political
history (Carita Parahyangan book), and to share the development of culture
in 15th-16th centuries (Bujangga Manik book).
2. Despite its composition in the middle of 16th century, Carita Parahyangan widely discuses the origin of Tatar Sunda (Sunda Area) and the illustration of the next kings in this area; meanwhile Bujangga Manik metaphorically
exposes Tatar Sunda and Jawa island at the end of Hindu-Budha cultural
types in general.
3. Carita Parahyangan was clearly composed by the priests living
in the area far away from the king center which is called patapan or
kabuyutan (hermitage); whereas Bujangga Manik was composed by a
royal family member of Pakuan Padjadjaran originally named Rakeyan
Jaya Pakuan who dedicated himself to be a priest. To sum up, these two
texts represent two different community groups: priests and royal family members.
Carita Parahyangan owns its peculiarity which is not possessed by other
old Sundanese or Javanese manuscripts. This peculiarity is that Carita Parahyangan is the only one which widely names a famous personality Sanjaya
as the founding father of old Mataram kingdom in old Java (Rakai Mataram
sang Ratu Sanjaya).
In addition, there are some other manuscripts:
1. Sanghyang Siksakandang Karesian (Kropak 630)
2. Amanat Galunggung (Kropak 632)
3. Kawih Paningkes (Kropak 419)
4. Serat Dewabuda (SDB)

174

175

Agus Arimunandar, Diding Fachrudin, Ahmad Sujai


University of Indonesia
THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS
ACCORDING TO OLD SUNDANESE SOCIETY PERSPECTIVES
IN 13TH-16 TH CENTURIES

Introduction: old Sundanese period

AGUS ARIMUNANDAR, DIDING FACHRUDIN, AHMAD SUJAI

Religion and society in Sundanese kingdom period


Sundanese Religion and Religion Concept in Serat Dewabuda
Prior to the further analysis of The Government Traditions and Ideal King
Concept according to Old Sundanese Society Perspectives in 13th-16th centuries, the overview of religious activities of old Sundanese kingdoms were
done for two reasons as follows: religious doctrines deal with hidden policies on government systems and for the kings to develop his kingdom accordingly. Moreover, a religion usually represents a culture with ideas, and
concepts which are difficult to change. For such reasons, the life of present
Sundanese society hypothetically still owns the local wisdom inherited from
old Sundanese society.
Serat Dewabuda (SDB) text, sometimes called Serat Sewakadarma, was
transliterated by and translated into Indonesian by Ayatrohaedi in 1988. This
text is preserved in Manuscript division of Jakarta National Museum, as a
part of the old manuscript collection given by J.L.A. Brandes to Koninklijk
Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen, at present commonly called Jakarta National Museum. According to Ayatrohaedi, the community probably appreciated Sewakadarma due to some reasons:
1. Its content deal with society activities;
2. Manuscripts were considered very important by the kings;
3. Its writers believed that the manuscript contents had to be disseminated to the people (Ayatrohaedi 1988: 3).
Geographical mapping and officers duties of old Sundanese kingdoms
Geographical Mapping
According to written sources, Sundanese kingdom had some local territories
which recognized Sundanese king as their Lord. Certain local areas had their
own lords, but accepted the Sundanese kings located in the country capital as
the only head of all kingdom areas.
H. Ten Dam (1957) states that the remote areas of the Sundanese kingdom
were united by the roads connecting the kingdom capital city to other cities
up to the outer areas of the kingdom: from Pakwan Pajajaran capital city to

176

THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS

Karangsambung located by the Cimanuk river bank, the eastern border of


Sundanese kingdom. There was a road leading to the eastern part through
Cileungsi and Cibarusa, then the road turned left to the north reaching Karawang, by Citarum river at Tanjungpura village. The road led through Cikao
and Purwakarta up to the end at Karangsambung.
Kingdom Officials
The official positions in old Sundanese kingdom varied but not all are still
identified. According to Sang Hyang Siksa Kanda ng Karesian book (1440
S/1518 M), there was a list of official positions with good leveling systems,
from the lowest position up to the highest one, the king. The following is
what the book states:
wang tani bakti di wado, wado bakti di mantri, mantri bakti di nu nangganan, nu nangganan bakti di mangkubumi, mangkubumi bakti di ratu, ratu
bakti di dewata, dewata bakti di hyang (Siksa II: 1719).
[Farmers were responsible to Wado, Wado to Mantri (counselor of the
sovereign subordinate to the patih - chief minister to a king), councellor to Nu
Nangganan, Nu Nangganan to Mangkubumi (local vassal), Mangkubumi to
Ratu (queen) or Raja (king), Raja to Dewata (gods), Dewata to Hyang (deity) ].
The same book describes the duties of the king and certain royal officers, for
example mangkubumi (local vassal) and fleet admiral or harbour master. The
main duties of the king mentioned in Siksa Kanda ng Karesian are as follows:
Maka nguni kasorgaan di sakala kaprabuan, kamulyaan, kautamaan, kapremanaan, kawisesan, ratu tanya (Siksa XIX: 7-8).
[The prosperity in the whole kingdom, glory, excellence, protection, loving, maintaining the glory of the kingdom, (please) ask the king for these].
This leads us to conclude that the main tasks of the king are:
1. Working hard to make the society prosperous in the whole kingdom;
2. Maintaining glory and excellence;
3. Making the king as the main one;
4. Having the attitude of loving and caring the people;
5. Building up excellence.

177

AGUS ARIMUNANDAR, DIDING FACHRUDIN, AHMAD SUJAI

THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS

All of the duties had to be performed by a Sundanese king when he wanted


to govern the king with prosperity and glory. When the king did not perform all
these duties the king would fail and be cursed by his own people. Carita Parahyangan describes some Sundanese kings who ruled the kingdom in short periods
of time due to the fact that they did not do darma (what they had to do) well.
On the basis of the data available, the geographical mapping of old Sundanese kingdom in 14th16th with the capital city in Pakwan Pajajaran (now
called Bogor city) is outlined as follows:
DAYEUH (Capital City)
King stayed in Sri Bima Punta Narayana Suradipati palace
NAGARA

NAGARA

NAGARA/BANDAR

MANDALA

(Local area)

(Country)

(harbormaster)

Mahapandita

Lurah

Desa Nelayan

Kabuyutan

Mangkubumi/
Tohaan (Local
Vassal)
Lurah

(Villages Head) (Village head) (Fisherman Village)

(hermitage)

Wado

Rsi, Janggalan

?
Sundanese Kingdom Society

Ideal king concept of Sundanese kings according to written texts


Sanjaya as the Founding Father of the Sundanese Kingdom

the rich people with good names reach their happiness, advantages and good
things sufficiently. At the moment sang Kali is supposed to be just crying,
because of not having anything (Poerbatjaraka 1952: 55, literally translated).
There is an interesting thing, regarding 6 kings respects (mana nem).
Ramayana book, old Javanese sargga XXIV, 5360 presents Astabrata doctrine, teaching 8 characters and behaviours of 8 wind direction gods (8 dewa
penjaga mata angin) (Astadikpalaka) which actually could be followed by a
king. Carita Parahyangan describes not 8 but 6 respects which were closely
followed by old Javanese kings up to Islamic period. Therefore, it doesnt
mention these elements, because the readers are believed to be familiar with
them. But we can presuppose that they are the same as in the old Indian book
Brhadaranyaka-Upanishad, namely:
1. Taking care of royal reputation;
2. Owing good deed;
3. Owing the characters of protecting others, the weak and wounded;
4. Acting like the sun giving grace;
5. Destroying things with its heat;
6. Protecting the life of hermits.
All human beings feel happy when they are protected by the king as children taken care by their parents (Gonda 1969: 3). These must have been performed by Sanjaya as a king. Thats why CP mentions 6 respects, and it tends
to be right that these respects were well recognized when CP was composed.
Ideal King Concept in Old Sundanese Culture

Originally the origin of the Sundanese kingdom is connected with the name
of Sanjaya, a ruler of Mataram. In Carita Parahyangan (CP) he is mentioned
as a person who could develop his power in the western and central parts
of Java. CP describes the early life and struggle of Sanjaya to be focused to
expand the kingdom and bring the prosperity. This is confirmed by the Canggal inscription, the only inscription issued by Sanjaya in 732. This inscription
gives the following information:
As long as the king rules his kingdom those sleeping by the road will
not feel afraid of criminals and other dangerous things. Due to the fact that

The doctrine and behavior of the king are presented in different books. Siksa
Kanda ng Karesian states that a good king has to have five main duties. Carita
Parahyangan however states 6 elements of the royal duties taken from an old
Indian book Brhadaranyaka-Upanishad. According to his role in the royal
government the king stays at the peak of the triangle while the two angles are
placed by rama (local vassals) and resi (priests).
The connection between resi and raja was religious-powerful, meaning
that resi were teaching religion which had to be implemented by the all soci-

178

179

AGUS ARIMUNANDAR, DIDING FACHRUDIN, AHMAD SUJAI

THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS

ety of the kingdom. Religious doctrines belonged to resi groups and tied the
people and the king, and had to be reflected in the governmental system. The
king power could reach resi, and the king could use the priest for the sake of
kingdoms interest to strengthen the role of the king.
The relationship between the king and rama from the king perspective
was powerful-primordial, meaning that the king relied on the vassal in ruling the kingdom. From rama perspective, the relationship was primordial to
maintain the local identity led by the vassal in connection with the kingdom
ruled by the king.
The relationship between resi and rama was religious-primordial, meaning that the religious doctrines from the priest had to be implemented by
lurah (village heads) with their people under their supervision. Rama considered resi groups to be responsible for adjusting the religion doctrines in
accordance with the local peoples needs in villages. Therefore, the religion
doctrines of resi were different, for example when they were conducting a
ceremony of each lurah.
Raja (or prebu) stayed in the center of the kingdom, he was in the palace
owning the power to direct rama and resi. This leads to the fact that rama ruling an area, village, or settlement under his supervision certainly obeyed the
kings order. Rama followed the kings order in managing the governments
administrative matters to manage the kingdom. According to bureaucracy
system they were under the royal officials, but close to the society. Siksakanda
ng Karesian book dealing with rama states that sabda kita pinaka rama,
[our words like ramas]. It seems that expression is dayly ramas duties in his
environment, and he always delivered his messages for the good deeds of the
community. Rama is a public figure who always kept in touch with the community and delivered the king orders.
Raja, rama, and resi are mentioned in various old Sundanese books as
the three groups which were keeping the community from wrongdoing, and
developed the community each in its field. Sang rama, sang resi, sang prebu
mangka pahi iyatnayatna diduuman siya [rama, resi, and the king have to do
their job according to their job description] - so is written in Carita Parahy-

angan. For old Sundanese society, Tri Tantu (in the triangle format) consisting of prebu rama - resi was a part of their daily activities commonly called
as Tri Warga (three figures). These three figures mentioned in Siksa Kanda ng
Karesian originally represent Tri Murti: Wisnu ibarat prabu, Brahma ibarat
rama, and Isora (Iswara) ibarat resi [Wisnu like a king, Brahma like vassal,
Isora like priest] (Siksa.XXVI: 3). Raja, rama, resi represent also Sang Hyang Manon (One Who Can See Without Any Distraction) like it is described
in Dewabuda book ; Sang Manon berkuasa terhadap wibawa, ucapan, dan
niat. Sang Manon berkuasa terhadap yang berwujud demikian. Sang Manon
berkuasa terhadap ada dan tiada [Sang Manon who has power on charisma, words, and the intention. Sang Manon has power on such beings, Sang
Manon has power on what can be seen and cannot be seen] (Ayatrohaedi
1988: 253-254).

180

181

Sustainable ideal leader concept in traditional Sundanese society


The present Sundanese community has some traditional groups and culture villages which can maintain their own culture. The Sundanese culture is a heritage of
leluhur (ancients) which appears to be with a little change. Some groups are influenced by external factors, but some others strongly maintain the originality. The
most influential factor to measure the cultural changes in traditional community
is the religious one. There are some groups which maintain the religion of their
ancestors which is not Islam, these groups maintain all aspects of life according
to their original religion. The case is different if the community accepted Islam as
their religion and was open to foreign influence. But even in this case they still keep
some traditions, either in values, norms, behavior, or other cultural aspects.
This research doesnt deal with all cultures of Tatar Sunda in depth, but
just focuses on some cultures to be found in traditional villages which still
keep the rules or norms about leadership. The research emphazises 4 cultures:
1. Badui (Kanekes in Leuwi Damar, Rangkasbitung, Banten)
2. Kampung Naga (Tasikmalaya district)
3. Kasepuhan Community in Ciptagelar Village (Gunung Halimun, Sukabumi)
4. Kampung Sindangbarang (Kecamatan Taman Sari, Bogor).

AGUS ARIMUNANDAR, DIDING FACHRUDIN, AHMAD SUJAI

Badui community
The concept of three main figures in the old Sundanese society has still been
practiced in Badui community in Kanekes (Banten Province). In Tangtu (Badui
Dalam) there are three groups (Cikeusik, Cikartawana, and Cibeo) where Puun
(tribal chief) of Cikeusik is named Puun Rama (vassal), Puun of Cikartawana
called Puun Resi (priest), and Puun of Cibeo called Puun Ponggawa (Prebu/
king) (Danasasmita & Anis Djatisunda 1986: 17). This division has been well
recognized as the heritage (karuhun), but people cannot explain such division.
They just call this triumvirate as kaum Tangtu Tilu (or Tri Tangtu).
Kanekes village is located in Leuwi Damar sub-district, Lebak district,
Banten province (formerly a part of West Java) in the upper part of Ci Ujung
river, on the north of Kendeng mountains in South Banten. The name of
Kanekes was taken from Ci Ka Nekes river flowing in this area and the people
call themselves as Urang Kanekes (Kanekes people), but the people from outside call them orang Badui (Badui people). It is connected with the existence
of Badui mountains with Ci Badui river next to it. The name of Badui became
popular for the outsiders because Badui is the main gate to enter Kanekes
region.
Tangtu Tilu is the typical characteristics of old Sundanese society with
the triumvirate system. Each Tangtu is led by Puun (tribal chief) who rules
kapuunan (territory) and is in charge of together with his colleagues of
Kanekes unity. The concept of Tangtu Tilu is based on the concept of rama
(vassal), resi (priest) and prabhu (king).
Their main functions are as follows:
1. Ngareksakeun Sasaka Pusaka Buwana to take care of the most sacred
area at Pada Ageung (inside the protected jungles in Badui Dalam). Pada
Ageung is considered to be a sacred Pusaka Alam Semesta.
2. Ngareksakeun Sasaka Domas to take care of praying areas for Hyang.
Sasaka Domas is a sacred area which should be respected by everyone.
3. Ngasuh Ratu ngajayak menak to bring up the royal officers and be
employees for the rich. This duty is closely related to old Sundanese system
which needs to be explained further.

182

THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS

4. Ngabaratapakeun nusa telu-puluh-telu, bangawan sawidak lima, pancer


salawe nagara to live as hermits for 33 islands, 65 river, and 25 government
centers. The meaning of this statement is not clear yet. Puun and kokolot (senior citizens) of Kanekes dont want to explain the meaning implied. It might
be a concept with deep purposes and based on original Sundanese religion
mixed with Hindu-Buddha concepts.
5. Kalanjakan kapundayan to hunt and to catch fish for the necessity of
Kawalu ceremony after harvest as a sign of thanking God.
6. Ngukus Ngawalu Muja Ngalaksa to burn incense while praying during Kawalu ceremony and Laksa noodle-making ceremony signifying the
end of the Badui calender.
Kampung Naga
Kampung Naga is a traditional village with the area of 10,5 ha. It is administratively is a part of Neglasari village, Salawu subdistrict, Tasikmalaya regency. Kampung Naga situates near the road connecting TasikmalayaBandung
through Garut, at about 30th km leading to the western part of Tasikmalaya.
Sundanese community in Sindangbarang, Bogor
According to local oral tradition and old poems in Bogor, the old Sindangbarang people were the ones of old Sundanese community with PakuanPajajaran as the capital city of the kingdom in Bogor at the present time.
The archeological studies conducted in 2007 found many archeological
sites in this traditional culture village, most of which are revered terraced
gravesites.
Conclusion: tri tantu government system
Sang Hyang Siksakandang Karesian book clearly states that Brahma is equal to
rama, Wisnu - to raja, and Iswara to resi. Carita Parahyangan reveals that raja
(prebhu) is symbolized with charisma, rama - with expressions or words, and
resi - with intention or willingness. These three qualities have to be owned by

183

AGUS ARIMUNANDAR, DIDING FACHRUDIN, AHMAD SUJAI

THE GOVERNMENT TRADITIONS AND IDEAL KING CONCEPTS

someone who wants to be close to Sang Hyang Manon. Serat Dewabuda, accordingly clarifies the relationship between Sang Manon with his leaders in
old Sundanese soieties in a much better way:
Sang Manon berkuasa terhadap wibawa, ucapan, dan niat. Sang Manon
berkuasa terhadap yang berwujud demikian. Sang Manon berkuasa terhadap
ada dan tiada [Sang Manon has the power with charisma, expressions,
and intentions. Sang Manon has power over what exists and what does not
exist].
For that reason, raja (=wibawa, charisma), rama (=ucapan, expressions),
and resi (=tekad, intention) are the representations of Sang Hyang Manon
himself.
All of these concepts are clarified in a book titeled Amanat Galunggung
with the following statement:
Jagat daranan di sang rama, jagat kreta di sang resi, jagat palangka di sang
prabhu, hawya paala-ala palungguhan, hawya paala-ala pameunang, hawya
paala-ala demakan, apan pada pawitanya, pada mulianya, maka pada mulia,
ku ulah, ku sabda, (ku) ambek (Amanat 6:4, Danasasmita dkk.1987: 121).
[The prosperity is the responsibility of rama, spiritual life is the responsibility of sang resi, the government system is the responsibility of sang prabhu.
These three persons are not allowed to compete to get power, earnings gifts
because they have the same origin and are equally good. The cooperation
among them should bring achievements and prosperity through charisma,
expressions and one intention].
It is then clear that raja (king), rama (vassal), and resi (priest) in old Sundanese society are immortalized and implemented in the government and
social activities. These three elements cannot be disintegrated because each
needs others to make the people of the old Sundanese kingdom prosperous.
In addition, these three pillars are not allowed to be self-centered, to compete
themselves to get influences because if these two ideas take place, they will
destroy the achieved prosperity.
The concept of triumvirate called as Tri Tangtu still exists in Kanekes community (Badui people) up to the present time. It is clear that present Kanekes people

is a Sundanese community which still practices old Sundanese traditions in the


governmental sector. Other Sundanese cultural villages practices the old Sundanese culture superficially because were influenced by modern cultural elements
including Islam. There is still an element prioritized by present Sundanese in Tatar Sunda, namely worshiping rice as their basic food. Among the ceremonies
concerning that worship is Serentaun (a yearly ceremony to respect rice). The
rice goddess Nhay Pwah Aci Sang Hyang Sri is always respected by conducting
series of rituals at the end of the rice harvesting season. This ceremony has been
actually held since the old Sundanese period when it was called as Serentaun Gurubumi (done yearly) and Serentaun Kuwerabakti (conducted eight times annually) to thank Dewa Kuwera as the god of prosperity. In this ceremony the three
parts of Tri Tangtu (Tangtu Tilu) work together for prosperity.
Karang Kamulyan (Kamulyaan) in Ciamis with various religious monument sites, terraced graves, megaliths, altar stones, petirthaan (bathing pools),
stone statues can be interpreted as mandala (shrines) for resi. In the past, a
number of resi lived in Karang Kamulyan which at that time was very far
away from Galuh (the capital of Sundanese kingdom). Karang Kamulyan was
a very special place because of its location in the meeting point of two rivers,
i.e. Cimuntur in the north and Citanduy in the south. People believed that
in this area hyang (gods) lived and because of this resi built there mandala
Karang Kamulyan.
We have two old Sundanese villages led by rama , i.e. Kampung Naga in Garut and Kasepuhan Cipta Gelar in Sukabumi. These two villages are of intense
agricultural activities and they are not the villages for the priests. Such villages in
tatar Sunda, like Pasir Ayu village at Majalengka, Cikupa at Ciamis, and Sindangbarang at Bogor have sacred graves called kabuyutan (holy sites). These sacred
graves are to believed to be the graves of the public figures who had established
these villages and this fact is considered to be an archeological proof of the existence of rama, the village heads who were always close to the villages people.
To sum up, this research has revealed some existing problems. Further
studies are still necessary to conduct to find out the rolee of each element of
Tri Tantu in old Sundanese society.

184

185

AGUS ARIMUNANDAR, DIDING FACHRUDIN, AHMAD SUJAI

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Ini behar2 teks asli dari suatu iklan lowongan kerja di dalam sebuah koran
tahun 1889 yang masih tersimpan Perpustakaan Nasional Jakarta sekarang.
Iklan Lowongan Kerja Jaman doeloe, thn. 1889. Diambil dari Perpusnas. (Bayangin Kakek-Nenek kita jaman dulu mungkin ada yg. pernah dicoba direkrut dgn cara seperti ini.)
PENGOEMOEMAN!!!
DAG INLANDER, HAJOO URANG MELAJOE, KOWE MAHU
KERDJA??? GOVERNEMENT NEDERLANDSCH INDIE PERLU1 KOWE
OENTOEK DJADI BOEDAK ATAOE TJENTENK PERKEBOENAN
PERKEBOENAN ONDERNEMING KEPOENJAAN GOVERNEMENT
NEDERLANDSCH INDIE DJIKA KOWE POENYA SJARAT DAN NJALI
BERIKOET:
1. Kowe poenja tangan koeat dan beroerat.
2. Kowe poenja njali gede.
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. .

4. Kowe poenja tinggal di wilajah Nederlandsch Indie.


5. Kowe boekan kerabat dekat pemberontak pemberontak ataoepoen
maling ataoepoen mereka jang soedah diberantas liwat actie politioneel.
6. Kowe beloem djadi boedak Nederlander ataoepoen ondernemer
ataoe toean tanah ataoe baron Eropah.
7. Kowe maoe bekerdja radjin dan netjes
KOWE INLANDER PERLOE DATANG KE RAWA SENAJAN.
DISANA KOWE HAROES DIPILIH LIWAT DJOERI-DJOERI JANG BERTOEGAS:
1. Keliling Rawa Senajan 3 kali.
2. Angkat badan liwat 30 kali.
3. Angkat peroet liwat 30 kali.
Kowe mesti ketemoe Mevrouw Shanti, Meneer Tomo en Meneer Atmadjaja. Kowe nanti akan didjadikan tjentenk oentoek di Toba, Buleleng, Borneo, Tanamera, Batam, Soerabaja, Batavia en Riaoe eiland. Governement
Nederlandsch Indie memberi oepah:
1. Malcan 3 kali perhari dengan beras poetih dari Bangil.
2. Istirahat siang 1 uur.
3. Oepah dipotong padjak Governement 40 percent oentoek wang djago. Haastig kalaoe kowe mahoe...
Pertanggal 31 Maart 1889, Niet Laat te Zijn Hoor. Batavia, 1889. Onder
de naam van Nederlandsch Indie Governor Generaal H.M.S Van den Bergh
S.J.J. de Gooij. (Wida Newton: newtoncw@cbn.net.id. 25.09.2008. 09: 01).
III.
, .

, 1889 ,
, .

204

( , , ,
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!!!
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.
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buruh ().
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.), 30- . XIX ., ,
(.). -, buruh
XX ; budak. , ,
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205

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Borneo, Kalimantan ,
.

206

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207

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31 1889 ., Niet Laat te Zijn Hoor.

40% . ,

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208

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210

211

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(1873-1913 .), 20
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, .
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, () , ,
. , Kowe punja tinggal di
wilajah NI, djika kowe punja sjarat dan njali, mendjadikan tjentenk oentoek di Toba, . (orang) urang.
keliling Rawa Senajan 3 kali ,
. berantas (.
) -
, . 16 (. )

oepah (= upah) ( ).
, , .

212

213


1. . ., . ., . ., . .
, , . I. ., - , 1992, . 259266; 276-277.
2. Boeijinga, K. J. Arbeidswetgeving in Nederlandsch Indie. Leiden, 1926,
biz. 31-46.
3. Burger, E. J. Landverhuizing bij de inheemsche bevolking in N 1. Den Hel-

. .

der, 1928, biz. 155-171.


4. Burger, D. H. Sedjarah Ekonomis Sosiologis Indonesia, djil. I. Djakarta,
N.V. van Dorp, 1957, hal. 226-259.
5. Furnivall, J. S. Colonial Policy and Practice. Cambridge, 1957, p. 221 230;
236-245.
6. Vandenbosch, A. The Dutch East Indies. Berkeley and Los Angeles, 1942,
p. 244-258; 259-293.
7. Vlekke, B. H. M. Nusantara. A History of Indonesia. s-Gravenhage, 1959,
p. 309-330.
8. Wertheim, W. F. Indonesian Society in Transition, II Ed., Bandung, 1956,
pp. 10-13; 34-37; 77-82.

(1936-2012)

,
6 2012 .
1936 . . 1952
. , ,
1959 . ( ).
. 1965

1967-1971 1973-1976,
,
.
1986-1989 ..
. 1995 .
, ,
.. (1992/93;
) .
( .. ).

.
(1965)
(1981; Fabrik).
.. ,
- .
.

. .

:

1998 . - ,
. 1998 .
250 .
,
, - , . 2-
, .
. , ,
. ,
,
.

1998 . -

215

. .

- ( ), . , ,


-,
. ,
,
.
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,
.

.
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, ,
,
. ,

.

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,

. , , ,
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(),
,
.

1998 . , ,
.
, .
.

.

. ,
, .

,
- .
1997 .

, , , , , ,
.
, ,
, .
1998 .,
,
-

216

217

. .


.

,
.

,
.

-,
1998 . ,
.
- ,

.
, ,
,
.


1.
.


,
1998 .
.

,


-.
, - , , ,
. , ,
, ,
. , , ,

2.
,
, .
, ,
, .
,
.
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,

, , , .
.
,
.
2020
. ( 2020).
2020
, ,
,

1Massa. Kuala Lumpur. 19. 08. 2000, c. 44.

2Utusan Malaysia. Kuala Lumpur. 30. 09. 1998.

218

219

. .

(), . ,
,
.
,
,
,
,

,
.
,
,
.
,

,
.
,
, ,
.
1999 .
.
, ,
,
.

,
() .

, 3.
3BBC World Service Broadcast. 05. 03. 1999.

220

2000 .
, 1999 .
, . .

, . ,
-

.
,
-

,
.
,
,
,
.
, , ,
.
1999 .
,
,
.
,
. 2000 .

-
4.
4Dari Entikong Sampai Nunukan. Dinamika Daerah Perbatasan Kalimantan-Malaysia
Timur (Sarawak dan Sabah). Penyunting Riwanto Tirtosudarmo dan John Haba. Pustaka Sinar
Harapan. 2005, c. 109-110.

221

. .

. 31 2000 .,
,
,
.
- ,
,
.

.
,
, ,
- ,
5. -
,

,
. , ,
- ,
, 6.

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, -
.

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,
,

.

.
,
,
.7

, ,
. ,
, ,
, .
,
. ,
,
, ,
.8
- 2001 .,


-,
.

5Utusan Malaysia. 02. 09. 2000.


6New Straits Times. 04. 09. 2000.

7Harakah. Kuala Lumpur. 15-31. 08. 2000.


8Karim Raslan. Dismemberment: The Indonesian Future. The Sun. Kuala Lumpur. 09. 07.
2000.

222

223

. .

- , .
,
,
.9

, ,
2000 .
.
, , ,
. , , ,
. , ,
.10
-
, , , ,


.
, 2001 .
. -
,
, -

-. -
,
.
9 The Straits Times. Singapore. 28. 02. 2001.
10The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 20. 05. 2000.

224

,
.11

, ,
2001 . - ,


- .

, ,
,

- ,
.12
:
, ,
-.

,
2001 .
(),

.
,
,

- .13
11The Star. Kuala Lumpur. 24. 07. 2001.
12Utusan Malaysia. 28. 08. 2001.
13 80- , , -
,

225

. .

.

. ,

, .14
,
,
.
,
, . . ,
.
, 2001 .
, .

200 . .
, ,
,

:
, ,
. , ,
, .
,
,
, .
,
. -, ,
, ,
- . .. // - . . XVI, .,
2004, .256-259.
14Business Times. Kuala Lumpur. 28. 08 .2001.

226

, .
,
,
. , ,
, -
.15

. 2001 .


. ,

,
, ,

.
:
- ,
.

() , ,
, 1,5 2 . ,
.
,
. ,

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, .
, 2001 .
40 . . ,
-
15Massa. 09. 09. 2001, c. 41.

227

. .

90 . . .,
.16


, , ,
.
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.
, .
,

,
.
,

.

, ,
,
.
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, .
,

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. ,
,

. ,
.
16Kompas. Jakarta. 28. 01. 2002.

228

,
,
.
,
.17
2002 ., ,
-
-
,
450 . .
,
, .

.
,
, .18
,


. 2002 .
,
, .19
,
2003-2004 .
.
,
, .
17Sun. Kuala Lumpur. 18. 08. 2000.
18Kompas. 28. 01. 2002.
19Ibid. 08. 08. 2002.

229

. .

,
:
, :
,
,
. ,
.20
, 2005 .
1963-1999 .,
. - , . 2005 .



.
. ,
, 2008-2010 .

.
,

. , ,
. ,
,
.
, .

20The Jakarta Post. 23. 11. 2003.

230

.
.

.
,

.
,
.
, , , .
-
, ,
.21

.
, , ,

.

.
,

() . , -
.


,
21 .. - .
. - 2004 . // . .: ,
2005, . 248.

231

. .

.
,

().22

,
.
, , ,

. , ,
.

.

.23
,
,
.
,

.

, ,
, .

.24
2005 . -
.

,
22Kompas. 15. 03. 2005.
23Ibid. 09. 03. 2005.
24Sulawesi Sea Row Dredges up Defenses. www. atimes. com. 09. 03. 2005.

232

. ,
-.
.
1200
-
. 2005 . 30 ,
.


. 2005 .

.
-

.25

. 2005 .

,
-.
.
, ,
.
- ,
, .
. ,
,
:
, ,
, ,
. ,
25Ibid.17. 03. 2005.

233

. .


.26
.
2007 . ,
.

,
,
-
.

.
.
,
(Suaram), -
3-D dangerous, discriminatory and degrading
(, ).27
2009 .
.


.

,
.
,

26 .. - .
, . 255.
27Malaysia/Indonesia : Ethnic Ties Wont Paper Over Class Differences. http:// www.
ipsnews. net. 04. 09. 2007.

234

.

Malingsia .
, , , ,

.


, .
1963-1966 .

.

.


.

( ).
,
,
-
,
,
.28
,
2009 .
, , -
. -
28Its Difficult to Separate Malaysia and Indonesia: PM Najib Razak. http:// www.
thejakartapost.com. 04. 08. 2009.

235

. .

-
. . ,
, ,
, , -
.

2009 .
,
.

.

,
,
.
.
,
.29
,
,
.

.
,
,
.30
,

29Farish A. Noor. The Dalang Behind the Wayang: Identifying the Actors and Agents Behind
the Anti-Malaysian Demos in Indonesia. www.othermalaysia.rg. 11. 09. 2009.
30 ( ) 2004 .

236

. 2008 . , -

(eminent persons group EPG),
.
-
, - . ,
2008 .


.31
2009 .

.
,
,
. , 2008-2009 . 1008

.32
, 2009 .

,
.
1955 .
.
,
, .33
31Malaysia and Indonesia on Common Ground. www.nst.my. 12 .01. 2008.
32http://www.kbrikualalumpur.org. 2008-2009.
33The Southeast Asian Times. 05. 09. 2009.

237

. .


,
-.
.

.
,
. ,,
.
2004
.,
.
- .
2009 .
. ,

.
.

.
.

,
-
,
,
.
, ,
,
,

, .
,
,
.
, .

.
2009 .

.

.

.

- .
,
-.
-
,
1982 .
, ,
. , ,
. ,
-
25 .34

238

239

34A Review of Maritime Issues in 2009. www. thejakartapost.om. 06. 01. 2010.

. .


2009 .
.
-, -
,
,
.
,
,
. ,
,
.
, ,

,
.
2010-2011 .
,
, ,
. ,
,

2011 . .

. .


! , ,
, , ,
. , ,
!




,
.
,
, , .
,
.
, ,
.

241

. .

,
.
, , ,
.
,
.
,
.

-
, , ,
, .
, ,
, .
, ,
, ,
,
, .
, ,
,
, ,
.
, ,
,

242

,
.

,
,
, !
,
.
,
, - .
, ,

.
, ,
, ,
.
,
, .
, :

,
.

,
,
,

243

. .


.

, ,
,
.
, .
,
, , .


, ,
, .
, ,
, .
, , ,
, .
, ,
, .



.
, , ,
, .

244

,
?
, - ,
.

WHISPER IN AGONY
! , ,
, , ,
, ,
,
. .
? , .
, .
, .
. , .
, . ,
.
.
. , ?
?
, . , ,
. , .
:
. , , .
, . .
.
. . ,
. , ?
, ,

245

. .

. .
! , ,
, , .

/ Sitor Situmorang (1924 . .)
LAGU GADIS ITALI
Buat Silvana Maccari
Kerling danau di pagi hari
Lonceng gereja bukit Itali
Jika musimmu tiba nanti
Jemputlah abang di teluk Napoli.
Kerling danau di pagi hari
Lonceng gereja bukit Itali
Sedari abang lalu pergi
Adik rindu setiap hari
Kerling danau di pagi hari
Lonceng gereja bukit Itali
Andai abang tak kembali
Adik menunggu sampai mati
Batu tandus di kebun anggur
Pasir teduh di bawah nyiur
Abang lenyap hatiku hancur
Mengejar bayang di salju gugur

.
(eeuw A. Modern Indonesian Literature. I. The Hague,
1979. P. 187). ,
, .

/ Toto Sudarto Bachtiar (19292007)


GADIS PEMINTA-MINTA
Setiap kita bertemu, gadis kecil berkaleng kecil
Senyummu terlalu kekal untuk kenal duka
Tengadah padaku, pada bulan merah jambu
Tapi kotaku jadi hilang, tanpa jiwa
Ingin aku ikut, gadis kecil berkaleng kecil
Pulang ke bawah jembatan yang melulur sosok
Hidup dari kehidupan angan-angan yang gemerlapan
Gembira dari kemayaan riang
Duniamu yang lebih tinggi dari menara katedral
Melintas-lintas di atas air kotor, tapi yang begitu kauhafal
Jiwa begitu murni, terlalu murni
Untuk bisa membagi dukaku
Kalau kau mati, gadis kecil berkaleng kecil
Bulan di atas itu, tak ada yang punya
Dan kotaku, ah kotaku
Hidupnya tak lagi punya tanda.
Jassin H. B. (ed.). Gema tanah air. II. Djakarta, 1969, h. 139.

Sitor Situmorang. Bunga di atas batu


(Si anak hilang). Jakarta, 1989, h. 62.

246

247

. .

1950-
. -
,
. , ,
,
(senyum duka
, air kotor jiwa <> murni .)
,
(tanpa jiwa ) Hidupnya tak lagi punya tanda
. .
.

IBUKOTA SENJA

Penghidupan sehari-hari, kehidupan sehari-hari

Antara kuli-kuli berdaki dan perempuan telanjang mandi


Di sungai kesayangan, o, kota kekasih
Klakson oto dan lonceng trem saing-menyaingi
Udara menekan berat di atas jalan panjang berkelokan
Gedung-gedung dan kepala mengabur dalam senja
Mengurai dan layung-layung membara di langit barat daya
O, kota kekasih
Tekankan aku pada pusat hatimu
Di tengah-tengah kesibukanmu dan penderitaanmu
Aku seperti mimpi, bulan putih di lautan awan belia
Sumber-sumber yang murni terpendam
Senantiasa diselaputi bumi keabuan
Dan tangan serta kata menahan napas lepas bebas
Menunggu waktu mengangkut maut

248

Aku tiada tahu apa-apa, di luar yang sederhana


Nyanyian-nyanyian kesenduan yang bercanda kesedihan
Menunggu waktu keteduhan terlanggar di pintu dinihari
Serta di keabadian mimpi-mimpi manusia
Klakson dan lonceng bunyi bergiliran
Dalam penghidupan sehari-hari, kehidupan sehari-hari
Antara kuli-kuli yang kembali
Dan perempuan mendaki tepi sungai kesayangan
Serta anak-anak berenangan tertawa tak berdosa
Di bawah bayangan samar istana kejang
Layung-layung senja melambung hilang
Dalam hitam malam menjulur tergesa
Sumber-sumber murni menetap terpendam
Senantiasa diselaputi bumi keabuan
Serta senjata dan tangan menahan napas lepas bebas
O, kota kekasih setelah senja
Kota kediamanku, kota kerinduanku
Jassin H. B. (ed.). Gema tanah air. II. Djakarta, 1969, h. 144.
,
. , , .
,
, , , .
, ,
.
, , , (
). 5-5-5-4-4-6-7, ,
,
i. . .
. (Dini, Nh. Keberangkatan. Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya,
1977). . . . . . .
(., ., .) . .: - . -,
1963. . 253254 , 257. .

249

. .

/ Subagio Sastrowardojo (19241995)


DOA DI MEDAN LAGA
Berilah kekuatan sekeras baja
Untuk menghadapi dunia ini, untuk melayani zaman ini
Berilah kesabaran seluas angkasa
Untuk mengatasi siksaan ini, untuk melayani zaman ini
Berilah kemauan sekuat garuda
Untuk melawan kekejaman ini, untuk menolak penindasan ini
Berilah perasaan selembut sutera
Untuk menjaga peradaban ini, untuk mempertahankan
kemanusiaan ini.
Sastra. 1961, No 1.
, ,
, , ,
.
se+ +
. . . .
/ . . , . . .: . , 1985. . 117.

/ Gunawan Mohamad, 1941 . .)


KWATRIN TENTANG SEBUAH POCI
Pada keramik tanpa nama itu
Kulihat kembali wajahmu
Mataku belum tolol, ternyata
untuk sesuatu yang tak ada
Apa yang berharga pada tanah liat ini

250

selain separuh ilusi?


Sesuatu yang kelak retak
dan kita membikinnya abadi
Rosidi A. (ed.). Laut biru langit biru. 1977, h. 530.
,
( ternyata )
, . , ,
, . keramik, ilusi, abadi,
membikin . aabb ccdc. ,
, ilusi abadi ;
.
.
. ,
- ? . :
, homo significans,

. ,
, ,
. -
, , ,
, (Teeuw A.
Modern Indonesian Literature. II. The Hague. 1979. P. 124). . . .
( . 2011, 22.
. 38-40).

/Wing Kardjo (19372002)


WHISPER IN AGONY
Kekasih: repot benar kucari sekitar mimpi, beredar
di ruang-ruang kuliah, di perpustakaan, di kantin
di tangga-tangga bioskop, di pantai
di halaman-halaman kenangan, di antara
surat-surat tua. Aku tidak bisa beranjak.

251

. .

Pertemuan ini, pertemuan apa? Sesaat, lalu cerai lagi.


Yang ini punya kendaraan, yang itu hanya bisa jalan.
Jarak memisah kita, kesempatan cair jadi keringat waktu.
Teringat aku padamu. Bibir, mata serta buah dada. Kuhisap
dan kau melenguh. Lalu pinggang, bulatan pantat dan paha.
Kakimu juga indah. Tetapi dari semua itu, senyum begitu
saja berlalu. Aku tilpun kau, yang ngangkat adikmu?
Bising benar di sana siapakah di situ selain kau?
Barangkali saat pesta. Mabuk tentunya sebab kau lupa siapa
aku. Nafasmu bau alkohol tercium dari sini.
Yakin kini sudah, hidup hanya dari
hari ke hari. Tidak ada nilai yang tidak terkulai.
Juga kenikmatan bukan kenangan, hanya hasrat saat membelai.
Besok terpaksa saling lupakan. Naik ranjang lagi entah
dengan siapa. Aku setia, katamu, waktu itu. Aku tahu
aku juga begitu. Apakah kau siuman waktu kucium?
Ingat padang ilalang serta rumput sekitar kolam, air terjun
dan batu kali. Hutan kenari kanan kiri.
Kekasih: repot benar kucari sekitar mimpi.
Beredar di ruang-ruang ingatan, remang dan lembab.
Rosidi A. (ed.). Laut biru langit biru. 1977, h. 369.
: kesempatan cair jadi keringat waktu .
() , . . -
Tak ada nilai yang tak terkulai . ,
( ) , :
. dari () () hari , , , . C
siuman , + cium .

. .

: 8-12
( )

(12931527)
.
,
(
, 1350-1389),
. ,
1365 .
. , 18
1894 . . ,
- . .
, . , , [Pigeaud, 1960,
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.
11 , .. , ,
iwartrikalpa Kujarakarna.
1659 1662 . (1737-1740 . ..).

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. .

: 8-12

, ,
1740 . -
.

, .
. . [Hinzler H.I.R.,
Schoterman J.A., 1979, No.4], . [S. Robson,
1995, p.12]. ,
. , . . .

Codex Orientalis 5023 ,
,
. ,

1,
. -
(Ida I Dewa
Gde Gatra) . . ,

. .
-
,
. , , . .
.
.
(Ngarakertgama),
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. 94-
Deawarnana,
.
,

1356 .
, ,
2. 98 ,
17 ,
.
(41 ), .

,



.
,
. . [Pige
aud, 1960, Vol. 1-V].
60- . XX .
,
,
- . ,

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). Jakarta: Kompas, 2009.

2 ,
.
(), ().
( ) .
, ,
.

254

255

. .

: 8-12

,
. .

[Robson, 1995].

.. ,
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[, 1971; , 1980; , 1992].
.


3
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( 8-12),

. .
[Pigeaud, 1960, Vol.1] .
,
[Robson, 1995].

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3 .. ,

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.
4I Ketut Riana. Kakawin Da Warnana uthawi Ngara Kertgama. Masa keemasaan
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5patani , (. bale).
6Brhmsthna : .
Morus alba (. . bsaran); budi (buddhi) , bodhi,
Ficus religiosa [Robson 1995:101; Pigeaud 1960: 19].

7purasabh ,
( . pura , sabh ). .
wanguntur [Pigeaud 1960: 19].
8gopura .
9aitra . , 12 11 .
10wataan (, ),
.
11witna , , , .
12wema patakilan , ,
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13: .

256

257

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. ., , , 8.2: pahmani bala samha
, 3.3: pahman i balagaa
.
16: .
17taju Mimusops elengi c .
18bale , , .
19maapa , . . , , , bale

(idran), maapa
,
[Pigeaud 1960: 23].

258

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wake ni wre tatan lwir .
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24tanda ; gusti ; wadw (wado) haji
. / (wadw) (haji).

259

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3. , - ( )25
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32: .
33katriya , bhujaga - , ri , wipra - .
34aokha Jonesia asoka Roxb.,
[Zoetmulder 1995: 69].
35
() : drmmadyaka Buda drmmadyaka Siwa (:
dharmadhyaksa ring kasogatan dharmadhyaka ring kasaiwan).
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260

261

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40 .
41Tiktawilwa ( Wilwatikta) . (wilwa
maja (Aegle Marmelos), ; tikta
[Zoetmulder 2004, p. 693, 1438]).
42cakrawarti , .
43: .

262

263

. .

:
1. ..
//
. ., 1971.
2. .. IX-XIX
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3. .. (12931365). ., 1992.
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25 2011
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1Mawar Emas. Bunga Rampai Sastera Rusia. Penyelenggara dan Penterjemah Victor Pogadaev. Penyunting Rahimidin Zahari. Kata Alu-Aluan Sasterawan Negara A. Samad Said. Kuala
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266

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8 , 11-12.
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KL, 2009: Institut Terjemahan Negara Malaysia, 281 ms.)

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-


1956
1. [] , .., 1955 // , 2, . 175-176.
1958
2. [] .., : , .,
// , 1, . 129-131
1959
3. //
, 6, . 45-64.
1961
4. // : 1945-1960.
, .: , . 324-247.
1962
5. // , 2, . 130-134.
6. // , 9, . 102-108.
7. .
. .: . ., 18 .
8. [ , ,
] ; ; ; , ; , ; , ;

295

; ; ; ; ; ,
; ; ; , // , . I. .: . .
29-31, 87-88, 156, 157, 182-184, 289, 305, 341, 343-344, 425, 435-438, 589, 606.
1963
9. . . [,
]. .: , .
5-14, 309-113.
1964
10. [] // , . . .
. . . .: , . 5-14.
11. [ ] // , . 5, .: , . 935-945.
12. [ ] ; // , . 2.
.: , . 501, 826.
1965
13. . // ., , 167 .
14. [ ] .:
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15. [ ] ; ; , ; ; , ; , ;
. ; ( ..
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1966
16. . ().
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1967
17. [ ] ; , ; ; ; ;
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1968
18. [ ] , 50- // , . 5. .: , . 579, 833.
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19. [] . , :

. (Westerly. A Quarterly Review. Special Issue: Indonesia. October 1966)


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// . .: ,
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21. , // .: , . 150-161.
22. 1020- . . // , 5, . 107-113.
1972
23. [ ] ; ; // , . 7. .: , .. 258, 409, 856.
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24. :
XIX XX . // . .: , . 203-225.
1974
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80. , 1-30 1-10. .: ,
1961-1962, 464 . [ 3-7 . ]

81. 2 . .: , 1964, 168 .


82. . .:
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268 .
63. Pembentukan kesusastraan modern Indonesia. ( ). . .: , 1970, 83 . -
.
84. . . : , 1967, 158 .
[ . ]
85. , . 1. .: , 1968, 92 .

1. . . .,
, 1963, 320 . .
2. . ., , 1965, 134 . .
3. . ., , 1966, 288 . .
4. (,
), . 7-9. .: .
5. . . .: , 1977,
61 . .
6. . . .: ., 1977, 67
. .
7. .. , IX-XIX .
.: , 1980, 244 . .
8. . . .:
, 1982, 86 . .
9-14. - . VIII (1997, 68 .),
IX (1997, 407 .), XIII (2000, 324 .), XVI (2004, 355 .), XVII (2006, 192 .),
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15-17. .15 (240 .). .: , 1998. : 2003, 16 (336 .). : 2008,
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304

, (Pikirannya orang baik); ,


(Bebasapi); ,
(Dibawa gelombang), (Candi Mendut), (Nasib); ,
(PadaMu jua); , (Fantasi); , (Aku buruh); , - (Krawang-Bekasi); , (Hari raya) // . , . .
.: , 1965, . 37; 85; 88-91; 101; 105; 116; 120 .
, ; , ; , // . .: , 1965. .
28, 61, 110 .
. ; () //
. . .: , 1970, . 118-126. [
. ]
, ; , ,
, , , . // : . .: , 1985, . 109, 117 .
, -. // . 70- . . , 1988, . 403-448.
. [ 31 ] // . , , , . . .: ,
2000, . 13-78.
, , , // . - , . 3.
: , 2002, . 99-103.

PHOTO ALBUM

(, 1991)

(-, 1995)


-
(1987)

306

(, 2008)

307

(1991)

1991 2008

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308

309

.
(, 1991)



(1991)


(, 2008)

. (-, 1987)

310

311

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN RUSSIAN

The President of Nusantara Society Professor Vilen V. Sikorsky is 80

(-, 1987)

..

The article is devoted to the biography of Vilen Vladimirovich Sikorsky. During


55 years of creative activity, which coincided with the beginning of the period of
formation of the Soviet Malay-Indonesian Studies, he became one of its prominent members, occupying a niche in the Malay-Indonesian Studies as the founder of research on modern Indonesian literature. Being a gifted translator and one
of the leading teachers of the Indonesian and Malay languages, he also proved to
be a talented organizer in the framework of the Nusantara society, and beyond it.
Vilen Vladimirovich was born in March 27, 1932 in the city of Odessa but
since the age of one year he has permanently lived in Moscow. In 1951 he entered the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies (MIV). Among his teaches were
Lyudmila Mervart, the legendary founder of the Communist Party of Indonesia Semaun, future diplomat Yuri Sholmov, and historian Alexander Guber.
His interest in the Indonesian literature was awoken because... there was no
such subject in the curriculum of the Indonesian department unlike at the
China, Persian and so on departments. Then he started to study this unknown
literature himself which the material found in Russian libraries among witch there
were also books in the so called Law Malay language ignored by the literary critics.
In 1954 the Moscow Institute of Oriental Studies was closed and most of the
students were transferred to the Moscow Institute of International Relations (MGIMO). Vilen Vladimirovich graduated from it in 1957. But he rejected the diplomatic career and started to teach the Indonesian language in a Military Academy.
The real beginning of his scientific activity started with the publishing of
the article The formation of the modern Indonesian literature in the sixth
issue of the academic bimonthly Bulletin of the history of World Culture,
1959. In this article for the first time the works in the low Malay language
(late XIX early XX century) were analyzed and incorporated into the body of
the new Indonesian literature. This new concept was developed and specified

313

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN RUSSIAN

in the doctoral thesis On the history of the development of modern Indonesian literature (1962) and the monograph Indonesian Literature (1965).
He also introduced this new approach to lectures on Indonesian literature
given in the Institute of Oriental Languages at Moscow State University in
the years 1960-1964 and lately in the Military Institute of Foreign Languages.
Precisely this discovery of literary works in low Malay which has been
ignored before, V. V. Sikorsky considers to be his major scientific achievement,
though later he wrote many other works about various aspects of Indonesian
literature and a number of writers. (Among the latest ones the essay of 1977
about Utuy Tatang Sontani takes special place. V. V. Sikorsky patronized and
encourage this outstanding writer to continue his creative activity during his
stay in Moscow, were the he died in 1979.)
The break in the teaching took place in 1964-1966 in connection with the
work in Indonesia as the director of the House of Soviet Culture in Jakarta
where the connoisseur of the Indonesian literature enjoyed broad contacts with
Indonesian writers an cinema men.
After retuning to Russia Vilen V. Sikorsky continued teaching the Indonesian language at the Military Institute of Foreign Languages and in 1968 1972
part-timed at the Literary Encyclopedia as an editor of the Eastern literatures.
Finally, in 1981 Vilen Vladimirovich became the Head of the Department of
Oriental Languages of Higher Courses of Foreign Languages of the Russian
Foreign Ministry.
Vilen Vladimirovich published about 100 works in Russian, Indonesian, Malay
and English. An important aspect of his work was also the promotion of Indonesian poetry, represented in anthologies compiled by him: Voices of the Three
Thousand Islands (1963), Indonesias young poets (1965), Flowers of Distant
Shores (1966) with brief biographies of seventy-five poets. Later, he translated and
published a book of poems of his recently deceased friend Rendra (2000). He wrote
the prefaces to the novels by Armain Pane Fetters (1964) and by Pramoedya Ananta Toeur This Earth of Mankind (1986) which were published in Russian. His
prefaces in Indonesian preceded the translations of Leo Tolstoys novels Resurrection (2005) and Anna Karenina (2007) by Koesalah Soebagio Toer.

Another important activity of Vilen Vladimirovich is preparation of materials for encyclopedias and reference books. The majority of articles in 19501990-s Soviet encyclopedias on the Indonesian, Malay, Malaysian, Javanese,
Sundanese and other literatures of the Malay Archipelago, as well as biographies of writers, were written by him. He contributed not only to the study
of literature, but to the study of Nusantara culture as a whole which is shown
by his articles on Indonesian theater (1982) and cinema (1983). His authentic
translations of a number of poems by A. Pushkin, Blok and Anna Akhmatova
(with transfer not only of the meaning but also the rhythm and rhyme of the
originals) into Malay and Indonesian were published in magazines Dewan
Sastra (Kuala Lumpur; 1988) and Horison( Jakarta; 1991).
Vilhen V. Sikorsky activities as an organizer of various events is one of the
initiator of the regular seminar Malay-Indonesian Readings at the Institute of
Oriental Languages at Moscow State University (1967) which in January 1990
was transformed into Nusantara Society. Since 2004 had been becomes the
President of it. The international recognition of the Society is much to his credit. For two terms (from 1998 to 2004) he represented Russia in the European
Association for South East Asian Studies (EuroSEAS). He also participated in
many international forums and organized two of them in Moscow. In addition
to chairing Nusantara Society Vilen Vladimirovich is active in the Society of
Cooperation and Friendship with Indonesia where he is the first vice-president.
(See also the list of his publications.)
ByVictor Pogadaev

314

315

Vladislav Lim. The life and works of Indonesian Bard Ebit G. Ade
Ebiet G. Ade is one of the most prominent Indonesian singers and songwriters.
His career that spans over three decades made him popular among young
and old alike, yet he remains not very known in the Western world. This
article, for the first time in the Russian language, covers his early life and his
professional career from the 1970s to the present days and also gives some
analysis of his songs as a fine example of modern Indonesian poetry.

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN RUSSIAN

Lyudmila A. Kartashova. Malagasy folk tales


In view of the historical isolation of Madagascar it keeps original heritage of
folk tales. The systematic collectiing of tales started with the publication of
Lars Nilsen Dahle Anganonny Ntaolo (1908).
Tales of Madagascar can be divided into mythological, magic and fairy
tales, the tales about animals, but the genres are not always clear-cut. Many
of the motifs are similar to those prevalent in other nations, including the
etiological: about the creation and the emergence of man, the origin of
natural phenomena, ancient customs and taboos.
Despite of significant role of fantasy in the tales of Malagasy they reflect
elements of real life. The action takes place not in the shadowy far away
kingdom, but in the land of Madagascar. We can see animals and birds,
known only in Madagascar (fosa, takatra, tsintsina), there are mentioning of
historical figures names, the various features of the landscape, the names of
different regions. There are also traces of the avital history: heroes fight with
marine and terrestrial monsters. There are other reflections of the history
of the society: the image of kalanoro is associated with the ethnic group of
dwarfs vazimba; a heavenly ancestor (Zanahary/Zanaharibe, Andriamanitra Andriananahary) is considered as progenitor of caste andriana and creator
of the Malagasy monarchy; andriambahoaka are ancestors of the kings and
founders of the ancient Malagasy kingdoms. The special feature of tales about
andriambahoaka is their inherent democracy: no fluffy, colorful descriptions
of royal life; heroes and heroines do not live in palaces but in poor huts, go to
the field together with its employees and marry poor girls.
The narrative style of Malagasy tales is characterized by emotionality and
poetry: prose text includes numerous poems and songs.
Some Malagasy tales have common motifs with the Malay-Indonesian,
Arab and African tales. Certain motifs are similar to the European tales. It is
clear also the impact of literature (Jean de La Fontaine, Charles Perrault, The
Brothers Grimm, Aesop). Some moral maxims are regarded as the influence of
biblical legends: of Adam and Eva and their sons Cain and Abel, the creation of
man and the first sin, the origin of the woman from the rib, of the Noahs Flood.

316

Malagasy tales continue to develop. They are performed by professional


singers, storytellers (mpitantara), shawn on Radio, TV. There are also films
and theatrical plays based on fairy tales.
Eugenia V. Romanova. Images of the heroes in Rustam Effendis drama Bebasari
The article is dedicated to the symbolic significance of the names of the heroes in the drama Bebasari by a famous Indonesian writer Rustam Effendi.
It contains the possible interpretations of the names and examines the
relationship between them and the plot in historical context.
Svetlana F. Chlenova. Manusela, a language of Sentral Seram: materials and notes
The article deals with one of the poorly researched languages in Eastern Indonesia, Manusela language. The author bases her research on the result of the
filed expedition in 1964 in Ambon Island and compares it with the data collected by the Dutch scholar Odo Deodatus von Tauern in 1910-1911. There
are three appendix to the article: the samples of the sentences in Manusela
language; the vocabulary consists of 518 words; English alphabetic key.
Elena A. Kutovaya. Russia and APEC: some aspects of the interaction
The article deals with the development of regional cooperation in Asia-Pacific and Russian participation in APEC, its achievements, problems and perspectives.
Vladilen A. Tsyganov. The problem of the origin of the Indonesian working class
The article is based on the advertisement about the recruitment of
workers published in 1889 to work in plantation in Netherlands India
(Indonesia). The text of advertisement gives the opportunity to reflect
about the situation with the human resources that time and the colonial
policy in that sphere.
Vyacheslav F. Urlyapov. Malaysia and Indonesia: Strained Neighborliness
While Malaysia and Indonesia share similar history and culture, their longrunning unresolved problems have led to a prickly relationship. The two
countries have a long account of squabbles as a result of ill-defined land

317

ABSTRACTS OF ARTICLES IN RUSSIAN

and maritime borders and there was still no solution. While some two million Indonesians become migrant workers in Malaysia, there are frequent
allegations and proven cases of their abuse. Indonesia also alleged that its
neighbor was trying to appropriate Indonesian batik, dances and songs
portraying them Malaysian heritage while at the same time looking down
on the neighbor as poor cousins. The constant exchange of the two countries leaders visits and consultations have failed to iron out differences and
mend strained ties.
Anna A. Fursova. Ngarakatgama by Prapanca: cantes describing the capital of the Majapahit
The Ngarakatgama, an Old Javanese court poem, is the most important
and unique historical source describing the Majapahit Empire (1293-ca.1527)
during its golden age and hegemony in Java and the Malay archipelago. Its
author Prapanca was the supreme Buddhist superintendent at Hayam Wuruks (1350-1389) court. This article presents the translation from the original
(Old Javanese) language into Russian of five stanzas of the Ngarakatgama,
containing detailed description of the capital city of Majapahit. Short source
study of the poem is given in the foreword to the translation.
Alexander K.Ogloblin. The Translation of Some Indonesian Poems
There are Russian translations of some poems written by prominent Indonesian poets Sitor Situmorang, Toto Sudarto Bachtiar, Subagio Sastrowardojo,
Gunawan Mohamad, and Wing Kardjo made by Alexander K.Ogloblin with
his comments and analysis.

Victor A. Pogadaev.On Wings of Joy to Malaysia
The article describes the life and literary works by Russian poetess Elena Taneva ( 1946-2011) who successfully participated in the Kuala Lumpur World
Poetry Readings in 2002. Her book The Wind of Bunga Raya dedicated to
her Malaysian friends got very high appraisal in Malaysia, a number of her
poems were translated into Malay and were included into the Anthology of
Russian Literature The Golden Rose (Mawar Emas) published by the Malaysian National Institute of Translation in 2008.

318

Ami Intoyo. My Parents Intoyo, Me and Others


This is a sort of memoirs devoted to Intoyo and his wife Mbah Putri Suwarti
Intoyo by their daughter, now the Indonesian lecturer at the Moscow Institute (University) of International Relations. Intoyo was a prominent Indonesian poet and politician who came to Moscow in 1956 as a professor of the
Indonesian language and literature and stayed there as an emigrant after the
events of 30 September 1965 in Indonesia. He and his wife who shared the
nationalistic ideas of her husband and always helped him were descendants
of noted aristocratic families from the ruling Javanese houses. Both of them
died and buried in Moscow.
The List of Publication by Professor V. V. Sykorsky
Photo lbum
* * *
69-
(08.06.1943
05.08.2011).
. (1989),
, . ..
, ,
.


, ,
, 15 2011 .
.
(1975),
, (2008).
.
2012, 8.

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. (www.milovidov.narod.ru)

16.03.2012 . 6090 1/16.


. .
. . . 20,0. 1945. 300 .
_______________________________________________
-
129329, , . 2. . (499) 180-9305
www.ekon-inform.ru; e-mail: eep@yandex.ru