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Unit Code
Unit Title

: UEEA2333
: Analogue Electronics

Engineering and Science

Bachelor of Engineering (Hons)
Electronic Engineering
Year 3


: Mr. Ng Choon Boon



Tutorial No:4

For the circuit shown on the right with V = 15 V, R1 = 30 k ,

Rf = 60 k , R2=R5= 9 k , and R3=R4= 3 k , find the limiting
levels and the value of vI at which the limiting levels are
reached. Also determine the limiter gain and the slope of the
transfer characteristic in the positive and negative limiting
regions. Assume that VD = 0.7V
Ans. 5.93 V; 2.97 V; -2; -0.095


Consider a sinusoidal oscillator consisting of an amplifier

having a frequency independent gain +A and a 2nd order
bandpass filter with pole frequency o, a pole Q denoted Q,
and a center frequency gain K.
a) Find the frequency of oscillation, and the condition that A and K must satisfy for
sustained oscillation
b) Derive an expression for d/d, evaluated at = o
c) Use the result to find an expression for the per-unit change in frequency of oscillation
resulting from a phase angle change of , in the amplifier transfer function.
d) Show that the poles lie at a radial distance o
1 dy
(tan 1 y ) =
1 + y 2 dx
Ans. = o; AK=1; -2Q/o; - /2Q


For the circuit of figure shown on

the right
(a) Disregarding the limiter
circuit, find the location of the
closed-loop poles.
(b) Find the frequency of
(c) With the limiter in place, find
the amplitude of the output sine
wave (assume that the diode drop
is 0.7 V).
(d) If R3 and R6 are increased to
reduce the output voltage, what
values are required for a 10 Vpp
Ans. (105/16)(0.015j); 1 kHz;
21.36 V (peak to peak); 6.5 k



For the Wien bridge oscillator, show that the transfer function of the feedback network is
that of a bandpass filter. Find o and Q of the poles, and find the center frequency gain.
Ans. o=1/RC, Q = 1/3; 1/3


Show that for the Hartley oscillator, the frequency of oscillation is given by
0 =
and that for oscillations to start gmR > L1 /L2.
( L1 + L2 )C


A 2-MHz quartz crystal is specified to have L = 0.52 H, CS = 0.012 pF, Cp = 4 pF, and r =
120 . Find fs, fp, and Q.
Ans. 2.015 MHz; 2.018 MHz; 55,000
The crystal is used for a Pierce crystal oscillator. Let C1 be variable from 1 pF -10 pF, and
let C2 be fixed at 10 pF. Find the tuning range of the oscillation frequency.
Ans: 2.0162 2.0172 MHz


Consider the bistable circuit shown with the op

amps positive input terminal connected to a
positive voltage source V through a resistor R3.
(a) Derive an expression for the threshold
voltages VTH and VTL in terms of op amps
saturation levels L+ and L-, R1, R2, R3 and V
(b) Let L+ = -L- = 13 V and R1 = 10 k. Find the
values of R2 and R3 that results in VTL = +4.9
V and VTH = +5.1 V

V L+
+ )( R1 R2 R3 ) , VTL = ( + )( R1 R2 R3 )
R3 R2
R3 R2
R2 = 856.8 k , R3 = 19.8 k
Ans: VTH = (


Consider a bistable circuit having a noninverting transfer characteristic with L+ = -L- = 12

V, VTL = -1 V, and VTH = +1 V..
a) For a 0.5 V amplitude sine-wave input having zero average, what is the output?
b) Describe the output if a sinusoid of frequency f and amplitude of 1.1 V is applied at the
input. By how much can the average of this sinusoidal input shift before the output
becomes a constant value?
Ans: 0.1 V



Consider a modification of the circuit shown (below left) in which R1 is replaced by a pair
of diodes connected in parallel in opposite directions. For L+ = -L- = 12 V, R2 = R = 10 k ,
C = 0.01 F, and the diode voltage a constant denoted VD, find an expression for frequency
as a function of VD. If VD = 0.70 V at 25oC with a TC of -2 mV/oC, find the frequency at
0oC, 50oC, and 100oC. (*Note that the output of this circuit can be sent to a remotely
connected frequency meter to provide a digital readout of temperature.)
Ans. f=5000/ln[(12+VD)/12-VD)] Hz; 3995 Hz, 4281 Hz, 4611 Hz, 5451 Hz


Using the circuit shown (above right), with a nearly ideal op amp for which the saturation
levels are 13 V, design a monostable multivibrator to provide a negative output pulse of
100-s duration. Use capacitors of 0.1 nF and 1 nF. Wherever possible, choose resistors of
100 k . Diodes have a drop of 0.7 V. What is the minimum input step size that will ensure
triggering? How long does the circuit take to recover to a state in which retriggering is
possible with a normal output?


Using a 10 nF capacitor, find the value of R that yields an output pulse of 100 s in a
monostable circuit using 555 timer.
Ans. 9.1 k


For an astable multivibrator using 555 timer, with a 1000 pF capacitor, find the values of
RA and RB that result in a oscillation frequency of 100 kHz and a duty cycle of 75%.
Ans. 7.2 k , 3.6 k