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BROADCASTING

Engr. Raymond J. Pidor, PECE

BROADCASTING
It

refers to the airborne transmission


of electromagnetic audio signals
(radio) or audio-visual signals
(television) that are readily
accessible to a wide population via
standard receivers.

AM BROADCAST STANDARDS
Parameters

Philippine
Standards

International
Standards

Freq. Band

535-1605 kHz

535-1605 kHz

No. of Channels

118

107

BW per Channel

9kHz

10kHz

Permitted BW

30kHz

30kHz

Channel Spacing

36kHz (4 channels
apart)

30kHz (3 channels
apart)

Center Freq Stability

20Hz

20Hz

Baseband Freq

50-15000kHz

50-15000kHz

Type of Modulation

AM

AM

Type of Emission

A3E

A3E

Guardband

36kHz

30kHz

Antenna Polarization

Vertical

Vertical

Type of Receiver

Superheterodyne

Superheterodyne

Intermediate Freq

455kHz

455kHz

MAXIMUM POWER ALLOCATION IN KW


Area

Low Band
(529-918kHz)

Mid Band
(919-1312 kHz)

High Band
(1313-1705kHz)

Metro Manila

10

20

30

Metro Cebu

10

20

30

Other Areas

10

15

AM ANTENNA SYSTEM
Antenna

Site Considerations

Location in relation to the population to


be served and to other installations and
airports.
Conductivity of the soil at and
immediately adjacent to the site.
Conductivity of the path between the
site and the target area.

AM ANTENNA SYSTEM
Antenna

Design Considerations

The transmitting antenna system shall


be vertically polarized and shall radiate
an effective field of not less than that of
a 60-degree vertical radiator.
The antenna, antenna lead-in, and
counterpoise shall be installed so as not
to present hazard.

AM TRANSMITTER
Transmitter

Location and Layout


Considerations
Adequate space
Adequate ventilation and
airconditioning
Adequate lighting

AM TRANSMITTER

Transmitter Design
Parameters

Phil. Standards

Carrier Power Limits

10% of Full Power

Max. Modulation for Satisfactory


Operation

85%

Operating Frequency Limits

10Hz of Assigned Freq.

Carrier Shift

5%

Carrier Hum and Extraneous


Noise Level

45dB below 400Hz tone

Total Audio Frequency Distortion

<5% Harmonics @ 0-84% mod


<7.5% Harmonics @ 85-95% mod

AM TRANSMITTER
Alternate

Main Transmitter
Consideration
The regular and alternate main
transmitter to be co-located in a single
place.
Both transmitters shall maintain the
same parameters especially with
regards to authorized operating power,
frequency stability, and etc.

AM TRANSMITTER
Auxiliary

Transmitter Consideration

May be installed either in the same


location as the regular main
transmitter or in another location.
Its operating power may be less but
never greater than the authorized
power of the regular main transmitter.

AM BROADCAST OPERATING
REQUIREMENTS
Operating

Schedule

2/3 of the total hours that it is


authorized to operate between 6AM to
6PM local standard time.
2/3 of the total hours that it is
authorized to operate between 6PM to
midnight local standard time.

AM BROADCAST OPERATING
REQUIREMENTS
Program

Log Entries

An entry of the time each station identification


announcement is made.
An entry briefly describing each program
broadcast.
An entry showing that each sponsored
program broadcast has been announced as
sponsored.
An entry showing, for each program of
network origin, the name of the network
originating the program.

AM BROADCAST OPERATING
REQUIREMENTS
Operating

Log Entries

An entry of the time the station begins t


supply power to the antenna an the
time it stops.
An entry of the time the program begins
and ends.
An entry of each interruptions.
An entry of the following every 30
minutes: Operating constants and
antenna current.

AM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGIES
Authorized

The carrier frequency authorized by the


National Telecommunications Commission
(NTC).

Carrier

wave

A sinusoidal voltage or current generated in a


transmitter and subsequently modulated by a
modulating wave.

Carrier

frequency

frequency

The frequency of the carrier wave.

AM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGIES
Daytime

Refers to that period of time between 2100


GMT 1000 GMT (5:00AM 6:00PM local
standard time).

Experimental

Refers to that period of time between 1600


GMT -2100 GMT (12 midnight -5:00 AM local
standard time).

Intermittent

period

service area

The area receiving service from the ground


wave but beyond the primary service area and
subject to some interference and fading.

AM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGIES
Maximum

The greatest percentage of modulation that may


be obtained by a transmitter without producing
in its output harmonics of the modulating
frequency in excess of those permitted by these
regulations.

Maximum

percentage of modulation

rated carrier power

The maximum power at which the transmitter


can be operated satisfactorily and is determined
by the design of the transmitter.

Nighttime

Refers to that period of time between 1000-2100


GMT (6:00PM 5:00AM local standard time).

AM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGIES
Operating

power

The power that is actually supplied to the radio


station.

Percentage

The ratio of half the difference between the


maximum and minimum amplitudes of the
amplitude wave to the average amplitude
expressed in percentage.

Primary

modulation (AM)

service area

The area in which the ground wave field of


3.16mV/m (70dBu) is not subject to objectionable
interference or objectionable fading.

AM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGIES
Secondary

The area served by the skywave and not


subject to objectionable interference. The
signal is subject to intermittent variations in
intensity.

Secondary

service area

station

A station operating on any one channel and is


designed to render service over a primary
service area which is limited by the subject to
such interference as may be received from a
clear-channel station.

AM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGIES
Spurious

The emission of any frequency outside of the


assigned channel or authorized band of
frequency and tolerances allowed by these
regulations.

Total

emission

harmonic distortion (THD)

The effective value of the harmonic voltages


present in the audio frequency output of the
equipment under test.

FM BROADCASTING STANDARDS
Parameters

Philippine Standards

Freq. Band

88-108 MHz

No. of Channels

25

BW per Channel

200 kHz

Permitted BW

240 kHz (monophone)

Channel Spacing

800 kHz

Center Freq Stability

2 kHz

Baseband Freq

50-15000 Hz

Type of Modulation

FM

Type of Emission

F3E

Guardband

25 kHz above USB and


below LSB

Antenna Polarization

Horizontal or circular

Type of Receiver

Superheterodyne

Intermediate Freq

10.7 MHz

Freq Deviation

75 kHz (for 100% mod)

Pre-Emphasis

75s time constant

Pilot Subcarrier

19 kHz

CLASSES OF STATIONS
Station

Authorized Power

Class A

Not xceeding 15 kW

Class B

Not xceeding 10 kW

Class C

Not xceeding 1 kW

Class D

Not xceeding 10 W

FM FREQUENCY ALLOCATION

= 1 + 1

()

Where:
FM = Channel Freq in MHz
FM1 = Freq of the 1st FM Channel (88.1 MHz)
n = Channel Number
BW = Channel Bandwidth (200 kHz)

Channel No.

FREQ ASSIGNMENTS

Freq. (MHz)

FM2

88.3

FM6

89.1

FM10

89.9

FM14

90.7

FM18

91.5

FM22

92.3

FM26

93.1

FM30

93.9

FM34

94.7

FM38

95.5

FM42

96.3

FM46

97.1

FM50

97.9

FM54

98.7

FM58

99.5

FM62

100.3

FM66

101.1

FM70

101.9

FM74

102.7

FM78

103.5

FM82

104.3

FM86

105.1

FM90

105.9

FM94

106.7

FM98

107.5

RADIO-FREQ PROTECTION RATIO (IN DECIBEL)


Freq
Spacing
(kHz)

Monophonic

Stereophonic

Steady
Interference

Tropospheric
Interference

Steady
Interference

Tropospheric
Interference

36

28

45

37

25

31

27

51

43

50

24

22

51

43

75

16

16

45

37

100

12

12

33

25

150

18

14

200

250

300

-7

-7

-7

-7

350

-15

-15

-15

-15

400

-12

-20

-20

-20

FM TRANSMITTER CONSIDERATIONS
Construction

The transmitter shall be constructed


either on racks and panels or in totally
enclosed frames protected as required
by the Philippine Electronics Code and
the Philippine Electrical Code.

FM TRANSMITTER CONSIDERATIONS
Enclosure

The transmitter shall be enclosed in a


metal frame or grille separated from the
operating space by a barrier or other
equivalent means.

FM TRANSMITTER CONSIDERATIONS
Grounding

of Controls

All external metallic handles and


controls accessible to the operating
personnel shall be effectively grounded.
No circuit in excess of 150V shall have
any part exposed to direct contact.

FM TRANSMITTER CONSIDERATIONS
Interlocks

All access doors shall be provided with


interlocks which will disconnect all
voltages in excess of 350V when any
access door is opened.

FM TRANSMITTER CONSIDERATIONS
Bleeder

Resistors

Proper bleeder resistors or other


automatic means shall be installed
across all capacitor banks to lower any
voltage which may remain accessible
with access door open, to less than 350V
within 2 seconds after the access door is
opened.

FM TRANSMITTER CONSIDERATIONS
Wiring

and Shielding

Wiring between units of the


transmitter, with the exception of
circuits carrying radio frequency
energy, shall be installed in conduits of
fiber or metal raceways for protection
from mechanical injury.
All instruments having more than
1000V potential to ground shall be
protected by a cage or cover.

FM STEREO BROADCASTING
Two audio channels (L & R) are mixed to provide
two new signals.
The first is the sum of the two input channels
(L+R), and the second is the difference of the two
(L-R).
The sum channel is modulated directly in the
Baseband assignment between 50 and 15kHz.
The difference signal is DSBSC modulated in the
23 to 53kHz slot about a stereophonic Subcarrier
of 38kHz.

FM STEREO BROADCASTING

FM STEREO BROADCASTING
Parameters

Philippine Standards

Pilot Subcarrier

19 kHz 2 Hz

Stereophonic Subcarrier

38 kHz (2nd harmonic of Pilot


Subcarrier)

Stereophonic Subcarrier
suppression level

<1% modulation of the main


carrier

BROADCAST TRANSMISSION SERVICES

Studio-to-Transmitter Link (STL)

Remote Pickup Broadcast Stations

Stations in this service are to be used for relay of


aural programming materials from studio to
transmitter and between fixed facilities in other
locations.
Stations in this service are to be used for the
transmission of aural programming materials and
associated cues and data.

Communications, coordination, and control links

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Antenna

It is the height of the radiation center of the


antenna above the terrain 3 to 16 km from the
antenna.

Antenna

Height Above Terrain (HAAT)

field gain

It is the ratio of the effective free space field


intensity produced at 1.6 km in the horizontal
plane expressed in mV/m for 1 kW antenna
input power to 137.6 mV/m.

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Antenna

It means the square of the ratio of the rms free


space field strength produced at 1.6 km in the
horizontal plane, in mV/m.

Center

power gain

frequency

It is the average frequency of the emitted wave


when modulated by a sinusoidal signal.

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Crosstalk

An undesired signal occurring in one channel


caused by an electrical signal in another
channel.

Effective

Radiated Power

It is the product of the transmitter power and


the antenna power gain of the antenna field
gain squared.

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Field

It is the electric field intensity in the


horizontal direction.

FM

Intensity

stereophonic broadcast

The transmission of a stereophonic program by


a single FM broadcast station utilizing the
main channel and stereophonic subchannel.

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Free

space field intensity

It is the field intensity that would exist a


point, in the absence of waves reflected from
the earth or other reflecting objects.

Frequency

swing

It means the instantaneous departure of the


frequency of the emitted wave from the center
frequency resulting from modulation.

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Main

channel

The band of frequencies from 50-15kHz which


frequency modulate the main carrier.

Multiplex

transmission

It means the simultaneous transmission of two


or more signals within a single channel.

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY
Pilot

subcarrier

It serves as a control signal for use in


reception of FM stereophonic broadcast.

Service

area

It refers to the area bounded by a field


intensity that is equal or greater than the
minimum value necessary to permit a desired
reception quality in the presence of noise and
interference, and from which the RF
Protection Ratio is extended

FM BROADCAST TERMINOLOGY

Stereophonic separation

It is the ratio of the electrical signal caused in the


right or left stereophonic channel, to the electrical
signal caused in the left or right stereophonic
channel, by the transmission of only a right or left
signal.
Stereophonic subcarrier