You are on page 1of 24

TOTAL PIPELINE

INTEGRITY
Solutions for keeping your
pipeline safe, productive
and profitable

Integrity
Services
A comprehensive suite

SPECIALISED SERVICES FOR MAINTAINING PIPELINE INTEGRITY

of services designed to
contribute to the safe and

Integrity Management Planning

profitable operation of a

The review or establishment of plans to ensure the long-term integrity of a pipeline or pipeline network.

pipeline. Services are

Integrity Program Planning

available individually,

The establishment of plans prior to undertaking an inspection or survey program.

or as part of full-service

In-line Inspection

integrity packages.

Collection of data concerning the pipeline and its intimate environment, using in-line inspection, to allow condition assessment
and mitigation planning.

PEOPLE

Pipeline Surveys
Collection of data about the pipeline and its environment, using techniques other than in-line inspection, to allow condition
assessment and mitigation planning.

TECHNOLOGY

Integrity Assessments
Assessment of defects identified during in-line inspection, external surveys, or after a damage event against relevant code
standards and industry best practices.

Field Services and Repair


Activities carried out in the field to bring a pipeline or pipeline network up to a defined level of economic use, thereby extending
its safe and economic life.

SERVICES

Risk Assessments
Data collection and analysis to rank pipeline segments, identify potential threats and prioritise mitigation activities.

Project Management
Delivery of professional, no surprises pipeline integrity project management on behalf of owners and operators.

PACKAGES

Compliance Services
Comprehensive technical support for oil or gas pipeline network operators during their discussions with regulatory bodies.

Integrated Data Management


Planning, collection and analysis of all available pipeline data to assess risk and to establish comprehensive plans for long-term
pipeline integrity and risk mitigation.

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Training
Education and training designed to establish in-house integrity management expertise for owners and operators.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Integrity
Management
Planning
This service is applicable at

DEVELOPMENT OF PLANS TO ENSURE THE LONG-TERM INTEGRITY OF A PIPELINE OR

the design stage of a new

PIPELINE SYSTEM

line, and at any time in the


life of an existing pipeline,

OBJECTIVE

whether an integrity

Establish a long-term, proactive approach to pipeline integrity planning that includes maintenance,
inspection, repair and rehabilitation activities.

management plan already


exists or not.

SCOPE OF SERVICE

Planning a new pipeline

PEOPLE

At the design stage, PII can help by ensuring that the proposed system meets relevant design codes, and
that specifications will satisfy the specified design criteria. A long-term plan provides the basis for sound
long-term integrity management practices.

Managing an existing pipeline

TECHNOLOGY

If a plan already exists, PII can help by reviewing it in relation to the pipeline system, identifying any
deficiencies or opportunities for improvement, and developing prioritised activity lists as a basis for future
integrity management. If no integrity management plan exists, PII will gather and analyse all available
data as a basis for a similar prioritised activity list.

SERVICES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

PACKAGES

Working from existing records, and drawing on


the experience of similar pipeline systems, PII
engineers will list and prioritise maintenance
and repair activities for future guidance

Improves the ability to manage risk

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

The pipeline under study will be compared


with industry norms and industry best practices
as a basis for critical evaluation
Relevant codes and regulations will be
reviewed in order to ensure that the system is
in full compliance
Integrity Management Planning can help
prepare a pipeline for repair, rehabilation or
inspection

A planned approach to integrity management


will optimise operational and capital
expenditures
Establishes the highest industry standards for
operation and maintenance
Builds confidence senior management,
shareholders, regulators, employees, and the
community at large
Provides evidence of due diligence

Integrity Management Planning

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Integrity Management
Plan Development or Evaluation

Gathering and analysis of all available data relating to the


condition of a pipeline. Assessment of existing, or proposed,
programs and processes to ensure that they meet regulatory
requirements and optimise asset value.

Delivery of new Integrity Management Plan,


or evaluation of existing Integrity Management
Plan and recommendations for improvement if
deficiencies are found.

Benchmarking

A structured comparison of pipeline processes and procedures.


Includes a critical evaluation of the integrity of the pipeline asset
against industry best practice (best in class), industry norms,
and comparisons with similar operators.

A benchmarking report highlighting the


owner/operators position within the benchmark
rankings. This may include a gap analysis of key
issues that require bringing up to standard, and
a process map of how this could be achieved.

Code Review & Comparisons

Review of existing Integrity Management Programs against


governing regulations.

Report detailing any deficiencies noted, with


recommendations (including detail of projected
costs) for process optimisation.

Design & Pre-Inspection


Reviews

Design and specification of defect mitigation measures and


recommendations for the conversion of existing pipelines to
accommodate in-line inspection.

Review of pipeline designs, specifications,


calculations and facilities, with recommendations
for modification.

Case History

PII helps pipeline operators meet


disclosure deadline

LIQUID INTEGRITY ELEMENTS FRAMEWORK OUTLINE

HCA Impact

ELEMENT 2

The PII Pipeline Integrity Evaluation (PIE) package offers pipeline


operators a single-source solution to the requirements of US DOT
Regulation 49CFR Part 195 and Part 192.
The regulations require that, within 180 days of the detection of a
pipeline anomaly that could adversely impact a High Consequence
Area (HCA), the operator should prepare an Integrity Management
Plan. Specific directions are given for the structure of the plan.

Risk Assessment
- Identify Threats
- Appropriate Assessment
- Priortize by Risk
- (Baseline) Assessment
Plan
ELEMENT 3

ELEMENT 54

Analyze Maintenance
Surveillance, Testing,
Failure Replacement and
Response Data

Following the establishment of the central database, a calculation of


risks for each HCA is undertaken. This analysis takes into account the
type of defects identified, historical experience, the physical character
of the pipeline at that point, and the surrounding population.
The final Integrity Management Plan which includes individual
plans for each of the HCA-related pipeline segments sets intervals
for future reassessment and guidelines for monitoring the effectiveness
of the plan.

Pipeline Maps

ELEMENT 4

Risk Assessment
- Verify Threats
- Establish Intervals
- Priortize Assessment Plan
- Revise Assessment Plan
- Risk Reduction

Excute Assessments

ELEMENT 6

Pipeline Attributes

A major task in the early stages is the integration of all available


integrity data, gathered from multiple sources and installed in a
central Integrity Management database.

ELEMENT 1

Central Integrity
Database

Analyze/Verify Results

Remediate by:
- Condition
- Risk
Maintenance, Testing,
Surveillance, Failure, an
Response Data

ELEMENT 7

PROGRAM EFFECTIVENESS/MANAGEMENT OF CHANGE

ELEMENT 8

PROCESS AND QUALIFICATIONS FOR REVIEW AND ANALYSIS

Services in the PIE package are provided from within GE Oil &
Gas. The result is a single-source solution which can considerably
shorten the process, compared with an in-house approach.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Integrity
Program
Planning
PRE-PLANNING FOR AN INSPECTION PROGRAM

This service is designed to


plan an optimised field
activity program that delivers

OBJECTIVE

cost-effective data on

To recommend the most appropriate inspection, survey and assessment techniques, to identify accessibility
issues, and to plan any necessary modifications to the system to allow in-line inspection or survey activities.

current line condition.

SCOPE OF SERVICE

PEOPLE

The PII team will carry out a comprehensive review of the pipeline and its immediate environment, in
order to recommend the most appropriate inspection, survey or assessment techniques in the light of
known integrity issues.
If the pipeline requires modification to enable the inspection to take place, a program of work detailing
what needs to be done will be proposed, and a management plan for the project will be prepared.
An overriding consideration in all planning will be the need to hold operational disruptions to a minimum.

TECHNOLOGY
SERVICES
PACKAGES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Segment-by-segment inspection plans

Establishes best practice guidelines for costeffective inspection, surveying and assessment

Preparations for direct assessment, in-line


inspection, and/or hydrotesting

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Activities will focus on techniques to reveal


known integrity issues
Pipeline history, and any existing Integrity
Management Program, will be used for guidance

Forward planning minimises system downtime


Single-source approach provides focused
responsibility, simplified contractual arrangements, and clear communications
Identifies the need for external expertise and
resources

Integrity Program Planning

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Segment-by-Segment Execution
Planning

Development of individual plans for each pipeline segment.


Inspection and assessment techniques will be selected in
response to known integrity issues.

Assessment plans for individual pipeline segments.

Direct Assessment:
Stage 1 Pre-assessment

Review of right-of-way conditions, pipeline physical attributes


and operating parameters to determine the optimum execution
plan for Indirect Examinations.

Stage 1 Pre-assessment execution plan.

Pre-Inspection Assessment

Assessment of the pipeline to ensure that in-line tools can be


deployed. Includes review of: the cleaning history of the line;
pipeline geometry; and review of valves, launchers, receivers
and other installed equipment.

Description of modifications required to allow


in-line inspection.

In-Line Inspection Tool


Selection

Assessment of known or anticipated conditions within the


Recommendation of the most appropriate in-line
pipeline in order to select the most appropriate in-line inspection inspection technology.
technology.

Hydrotest Strategy

Development of hydrostatic testing plan, including details of


test pressure, test procedure and a review of elevation profiles
and their effects.

Detailed hydrostatic testing procedures and


execution plans.

Case History

Dual-diameter inspection tool saves $1.5 M


The Enbridge Inc. hydrocarbon transmission
system is one of the world's largest, with many
different sizes of pipeline in operation. At a major
expansion project, initiated in 1998, a decision
was made to simplify the process of inspection.

The development of a dualdiameter MagneScan tool


substantially reduced the
costs of in-line inspection.

There were two options: either to add an intricate


network of crossover piping and mainline valves
to facilitate the launching and receiving of 36-in
and 48-in inspection tools; or to develop an MFL
tool capable of inspecting both sizes of pipe in
a single run. The dual-size inspection capability,
if it could be achieved, would substantially reduce
the costs of the expansion project.
PII carried out studies on the feasibility of
developing a dual-diameter tool early in 1998.
The most promising design concept employed
an array of magnet assemblies capable of moving
outwards to fit the larger size and collapsing
inwards for the smaller size.
Many components had already been proven in
use, but new solutions had to be developed for
the support and drive mechanisms. In the 36-in
configuration, the tool operates in a similar

manner to a standard MagneScan tool, with


the magnet assemblies clustered around the
center section of the tool, and drive cups front
and rear. As the tool passes through the taper
from 36-in to 48-in the magnet assemblies move
outwards on hinged support mechanisms. At
the same time secondary drive elements, front
and rear, open up, with an umbrella action.
The first prototype tool was pulled through
pipe spools with machined defects, in order to
create the defect sizing database, and through a
mechanical proving line with worst-case features
such as large unbarred take-offs, minimum bores,
and dents. Pump tests, in water, were also carried
out to fully evaluate the tool's ability to pass from
one size of pipe to the other, and back again.
All field inspections were successfully carried
out in the Enbridge system. By selecting the
multi-diameter tool alternative Enbridge saved
an estimated $1.5 million on construction.
There were further savings of time, and increased
security since no additional above-ground facilities
were required.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

In-line
Inspection
PII Pipeline Solutions has

COLLECTION OF DATA CONCERNING THE PIPELINE AND ITS IMMEDIATE ENVIRONMENT

developed multiple
technologies for identifying,

OBJECTIVE

locating and monitoring the

To make an accurate record of pipeline condition, using appropriate inspection tools and survey techniques,
as a basis for mitigation and monitoring programs.

many types of metal loss,


cracking and geometric

SCOPE OF SERVICE

defects that can compromise


pipeline integrity.

PEOPLE

PII has developed a full range of in-line inspection tools for the detection of corrosion, cracking, and other
anomalies in pipelines. Whatever the pipe diameter, type of service or nature of the damage to be detected,
PII has a tool capable of carrying out a successful inspection.

Metal Loss Detection


Three tool ranges are recommended for pipelines in which internal or external corrosion is an issue. They
will also detect mechanical defects such as gouges, dents and faulty welds.

TECHNOLOGY

MagneScan locates general corrosion in gas and liquid lines


UltraScan WM locates and measures corrosion in liquid lines
TranScan locates axial defects and grooves in both gas and liquid lines

Crack Detection
Four tools are recommended for the detection of critical and subcritical cracking and similar narrow axial defects.
UltraScan CD locates and measures fine cracks in liquid lines

SERVICES

EmatScan locates and measures fine cracks in gas lines


TranScan locates flaws in the seam weld and axial defects
Elastic Wave locates and measures cracks in gas lines

Inspection Reports

PACKAGES

Teams of analysts prepare customer reports on inspection results, using proprietary software and calling on
the worlds largest archive of defects and defect sizing models. Data is presented using PipeImage 3D
visualisation software.

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

With three core technologies to choose from,


PII can develop optimum inspection solutions
for any pipeline

Accurate data about condition

Inspection teams are supported by 30 years


experience of pigging and cleaning pipelines
in preparation for inspection
Caliper tools are available to establish the
suitability of a pipeline for inspection
Mapping of pipelines can be carried out,
individually or in conjunction with a metal loss
survey, using specialised tools

Ahead-of-the-curve results are ensured by


PIIs advanced technology initiatives, all of
which are supported by the GE Global
Research Centre
Inspections run smoothly because PII has
inspected over 500, 000 km of pipeline, in all
corners of the world

In-line Inspection

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Metal Loss Detection

MagneScan
Locates general corrosion in gas or liquid lines
UltraScan WM
Locates and measures corrosion in liquid lines
TranScan
Locates axial defects in gas or liquid lines
Our sister company, Positive Projects, adds to our capability by
reporting the major defect per spool in 3-in to 16-in lines.

Report detailing corrosion or other pipe wall metal


loss that might affect pipeline safety and productivity,
or reduce operating life.

Crack Detection

UltraScan CD
TranScan
Elastic Wave
EmatScan

Report detailing critical and subcritical cracks that


might affect pipeline safety and productivity, or
reduce operating life.

Pre-inspection Cleaning

To ensure accurate results from an in-line inspection, PII offers a


comprehensive range of pipeline cleaning solutions.

Locates and measures fine cracks in liquid lines


Locates seamweld and axial flaws
Locates and measures cracks in gas lines
Locates and measures fine cracks in gas lines

Pipelines cleaned to improve inspection accuracy.

Other In-line Inspection Services Mapping; Caliper; Baseline inspection of new lines.

Reports detailing specific aspects of pipeline condition


or of the immediate environment.

Inspection Project Management

Accurate data with minimised disruption to pipeline


operations.

PII will manage all aspects of an inspection project to minimise


disruption to pipeline operations and ensure high accuracy data.

CHOOSING THE RIGHT TOOL FOR THE JOB

CHOOSING THE RIGHT TOOL

M ETA L L O SS

UltraS can WM

NO
YES

YES

Small pittings

YES

YES

High speed

YES

YES

High pressure

YES

YES

Multiphase

YES

YES

Very difficult cleaning

Gas Line

Gas or Liquid Line

UltraScan CD

EmatScan CD

E la s tic Wa v e

UNLESS YOU NEED...

UNLESS YOU NEED...

UNLESS YOU NEED...

Elastic Wave

Very thin wall

UltraScan CD

Liquid Line
YES

(NAEC)
NO

Internal Axial Grooving

Pre-1970 ERW
Seam Weld Faults
Dents with Cracking

Tool

UNLESS YOU HAVE...

NO

Narrow Axial Corrosion

Fatigue Cracks
Hairline Cracks
Stress Corrosion Cracks (SCC) and Colonies

TranScan

YES

TranScan

UNLESS YOU HAVE...

MagneScan

UltraScan WM

Ma g n e Scan

Very thick wall

Liquid Line

Tool

EmatScan CD

Gas Line

Tra n Sc a n
UNLESS YOU NEED...

NO

NO

Detection of Shallow Cracks

NO

Detection of Short Cracks


Stainless pipe
NO

Lamination & HIC

Sizing of Critical /
Subcritical Cracks

Detection but not sizing of large SCC Colonies*

NO

NO

Critical FFP

Inspection of
High Pressure Line

NO

NO

Baseline Survey

Detection of Narrow Cracks

NO

YES

YES

Cracks in girthwelds
NO

YES

Cracks in seamweld

Detection of Surface
Breaking Laminations

For the detection of HIC we recommend using UltraScan WM

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Pipeline
Surveys
The collection of data,

COLLECTION OF PIPELINE DATA USING TECHNIQUES OTHER THAN IN-LINE INSPECTION

using techniques other than


in-line inspection, to provide

OBJECTIVE

information about the

To complete the understanding of pipeline condition by using a number of specialised investigation techniques
to complement in-line inspection.

pipeline and its immediate


environment as a precurser

SCOPE OF SERVICE

to condition assessment
and mitigation planning.

PEOPLE

PII uses a wide range of survey and measuring techniques which can be called upon to add to the
understanding of physical degradation of materials in a pipeline. Whatever the scope of the survey, it
will be managed by PII to minimise disruption to pipeline operation, and to provide the client with
accurate and relevant findings, in report form.
PII offers a comprehensive range of direct and indirect survey techniques:

TECHNOLOGY
SERVICES

Close interval survey


Direct current voltage gradient survey
EMS surveys (coating and soil resistivity)
Soil studies
In-ditch direct examination services
Corrosion mapping
Direct volumetric examination ultrasonic (b-scan and shear wave)
Guided wave long range ultrasonic (GWUT) examination
Above ground surveying
Sub-sea ROV surveys
Aerial and satellite surveys
Route surveys
Fittings and plant assessment

PACKAGES
EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Direct and indirect surveys to improve understanding of phenomena affecting pipeline


integrity

More complete understanding of corrosion


mechanisms

Experienced teams carry out surveys under


PII Project Management
On-staff specialists plan surveys and interpret
results
Advanced survey technology is supported by
the GE Global Research Centre

Surveys run smoothly with minimum system


downtime, thanks to PIIs extensive experience
PII operations personnel are respected
throughout the industry for their knowledge
and integrity

Integrity
Assessments
Assessment of defects

ANALYSIS OF INSPECTION AND SURVEY DATA TO ESTABLISH AN IN-DEPTH

identified during an in-line

UNDERSTANDING OF PIPELINE CONDITION

inspection, external survey,


or after a damage event

OBJECTIVE

against relevant code

To rate the criticality of defects identified by inspections and surveys as a basis for developing mitigation
or management strategies and programs.

standards and industry


best practices.

SCOPE OF SERVICE

Data Analysis

PEOPLE

There are differences between the way data gathered by MFL, Ultrasound and EmatScan tools is analysed,
but the general approach is the same for all a combination of powerful computer programs to process the
data, and experienced analysts capable of judging the nature and significance of each defect identified.

TECHNOLOGY

First, search programs create two important sets of information: a pipe tally, listing all pipe joints and girth
welds encountered during the run; and a features list that records all changes in the pipe wall.
Analysts study the features list in the light of experience, and by comparison with an archive of known
anomalies. Known features such as valves and tees are separated from defects. Defects are categorised
according to size and severity.
This defect list enables the client to give immediate attention to the most urgent integrity issues, and provides
a basis for further assessment and future planning.

SERVICES

Multiple Inputs
To fully understand the pipeline integrity picture, it is necessary to move beyond in-line inspection. For
example, the performance of CP systems is directly related to issues of external corrosion. The many types
of integrity assessment listed on the reverse of this sheet call on many alternative sources of integrity
information, among them Close Interval and Direct Current Voltage Gradient Surveys, aerial and satellite
surveys, mapping surveys, and soil studies.

PACKAGES
EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Multiple inputs provide more complete understanding of corrosion development and growth

More complete understanding of corrosion


mechanisms

Reports that provide a basis for long-term


integrity management strategies

Optimisation of maintenance and repair


schedules

Assessments take into account all relevant


codes and industry best practices

A basis for forecasting future maintenance


costs
Quantification of risk assessments
A clearer picture of future integrity issues

Integrity Assessments

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Corrosion Assessment

Assessment of metal-loss defects identified during inspections to


determine impact on long-term pipeline integrity. Includes evaluation
of: inspection data; pipeline protection systems; and corrosion mitigation
measures (CP, inhibitors, etc).

Report of likely causes of corrosion and recommended


mitigation measures.

Corrosion Growth Analysis

Assessment of the effects of corrosion on the long-term integrity of


the pipeline. For first-time inspections this would be a simple linear
corrosion rate assessment; for repeat inspections this would be a
defect-by-defect corrosion growth assessment using RUNCOM.

Report identifying corrosion growth rates and recommended re-inspection intervals.

Crack Severity Assessment

Assessment of cracks and crack-like features identified during in-line


inspection using techniques such as materials testing, fracture
assessment, and finite element analysis.

Report ranking cracks and crack-like defects by their


likely effect on pipeline integrity.

Crack Growth Analysis

Assessment of crack growth using fracture mechanics techniques based


on an understanding of the line's cyclic duty (pressure, temperature,
external loading) to establish the safe life of the pipeline for given
operating scenarios.

Report detailing potential starter defects, and defects


that could cause the pipe to fail, in order to determine
a minimum fatigue life.

Dents and Third Party Damage


Assessment

Assessment of geometric anomalies identified during in-line inspection


using techniques such as code check, a critical fitness-for-purpose
assessment and finite element analysis.

Report of criticality of identified damage with recommendations for monitoring, repair or replacement.

Ground Movement Assessment

An assessment of data from the deployment of an in-line mapping


unit to calculate the strain resulting from localised curvature.

A report detailing curvature events and their associated


strain on the pipeline.

Material Mechanical Testing

Testing of the pipeline material properties to evaluate the strength,


grade, or resistance of a pipeline to damage.

Report detailing the yield, UTS, toughness, grade and


chemical composition of the pipe material.

Lamination Assessment

Further assessment of data to classify manufacturing defects.


Fracture and collapse FFP methods can be used to assess criticality
with reference to published Failure Assessment Diagrams or fatigue
limits.

A report detailing the criticality of all laminations.


Laminations are graded as insignificant, further
assessment required, or repair.

Direct Assessment Stage 4:


Analysis Stage

Analysis of indirect examination results, GIS data, results of previous


assessments and maintenance, and the results from direct examinations
to assess the current and future integrity of a pipeline.

Analysis log and grading report from Indirect


Examinations with validation dig list. Report assessing
current integrity and advising next inspection interval
based on the analysis of the Direct Examination data.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Field Services
and Repair
Field activities to bring a

ACTIVITIES CARRIED OUT IN THE FIELD BY PII, OR UNDER PII SUPERVISION

pipeline back to its design


standard or to a defined

OBJECTIVE

level of economic use in

To restore a pipeline to safe operating condition, or to extend its service life.

order to extend its safe and


economic life.

SCOPE OF SERVICE

Specialist Assistance
Operators may not necessarily have the in-house resources to carry out certain specialised activities on
their pipeline.

PEOPLE

PII offers a comprehensive range of specialised in-field and repair services, including:

TECHNOLOGY

Repair
In-situ material property determination
Above-ground surveys
Route surveys
Pipeline modifications and equipment procurement
Coating and CP system evaluation and optimisation
On-site NDT/NDE
In-field project management

SERVICES

PII Field Teams will take full responsibility for such projects, supervising and co-ordinating work carried
out by others, on behalf of the operator. There is assurance that the job is done to the highest standards,
with minimum disruption to the operation of the system.

PACKAGES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Experienced teams carry out the work on your


behalf, in compliance with relevant codes and
following best industry practices

Expert attention adds value to assets

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Services are available anywhere in the world,


through regional PII offices
Information-gathering for newly-acquired
systems, and for old-established systems

Operators are free to focus on their core


business activities
Timely repairs avoid costly future replacements
All work will comply with relevant regulations
To ensure minimum downtime and long-term
satisfaction, all work is carried out in
consultation with operators

Field Services and Repair


Components

Activities

Deliverables

Repair

Selection of a technique that delivers a long-term pipeline repair, in


accordance with the operator's needs and preferences

Pipeline repaired and ready for long-term use.

In-situ Material Property


Determination

Determination of pipe material characteristics as a basis for integrity


planning. Principally offered for purchased systems, or for older systems
where material data is unknown.

Report detailing pipe material properties, or reports


utilizing this data for other calculations, determinations
and integrity plans.

Above-ground Surveys

Range of surveys available to suit the specific needs of a program.


Includes evaluation of coating condition; soil conditions and types;
CP systems.

Report(s) detailing and analysing the survey results.

Route Surveys

Ground based or aerial surveying of a pipeline to look for third party


activities in or near the pipeline corridor; to identify possible leak
conditions; to ensure the ROW is free of excess growth; and to
record pipeline location (for old or acquired systems).

Right-of-way report.

Pipeline Modifications and


Equipment Procurement

Management of temporary or permanent pipeline modifications to


ensure full bore capacity for the running of in-line inspection tools.

Inspectable line, with detailed reports of all pipeline


hardware left on the pipeline or used to complete the
project.

Coating & CP System Evaluation


and Optimization

Evaluation of a pipeline's external coating and its impact on CP


system performance.

Report on pipeline coating and CP system with


recommendations for necessary remedial actions.

On-site NDT / NDE

Management of pipeline excavation and direct assessment of critical


pipeline anomalies.
Our sister company, GE Inspection Services, adds to our capabilities by
offering a wide range of direct inspection and assessment capabilities.

A detailed inspection or maintenance plan.

In-field Project Management

Supervision and co-ordination of field activities on behalf of clients.

Program execution to pre-defined time, cost and


quality standards. Includes: reports detailing field
operations; justification of in-field decisions; cost
accounting summaries.

Case History

Epoxy Sleeve Repair delivers immediate $5 million savings


As part of its Main Oil Line System Petroleum
Development Oman (PDO) operates an onshore
sour crude line commissioned in 1987. A PII
inspection revealed internal corrosion along the
full length of the pipeline. Pitting was as deep
as 80 percent wall thickness.
The ESR technique is fast
and safe, allowing the
pipeline to remain in
production throughout the
application procedure, and
returns the repaired
section to full strength.

To establish how seriously this limited the life


of the pipeline, PII carried out a probabilistic
FFP assessment. Future corrosion growth rates
were estimated, and the probability of failure of
the pipeline was determined in relation to the
number of repairs required to deal with the most
severe corrosion. For example, it was determined
that repairing the 24 deepest pits would extend
the life of the pipeline by two years.

would outpace the ability to carry out repairs,


and confirmed the practicality of controlling
corrosion by a strategy of re-inspection and repair.
PDO made epoxy-shell repairs at the sites of
the most severe corrosion, postponing the need
for replacement of sections of the pipeline, and
creating an immediate saving of $5 million.

Epoxy Sleeve
Repair

The assessment also considered and rejected


the possibility that the growth rate for corrosion

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Risk
Assessment
The quantification of

STUDIES WHICH QUANTIFY, RANK AND FORECAST THE RISKS TO WHICH A PIPELINE

pipeline risk, at a case-

SYSTEM IS EXPOSED

specific level, to further the


development of detailed

OBJECTIVE

mitigation plans.

Create a basis for cost-effective, long-term risk management.


SCOPE OF SERVICE

PEOPLE

Risk analysis and assessment are disciplines which are used to better understand the future performance of
any structure or any enterprise. PII has used these disciplines since 1994 to assist clients in finding better
solutions to the challenges posed by pipeline integrity issues.
Effective risk management enables operators to make better decisions on how maintenance resources should
be applied. The ultimate aim is to increase safety and reliability, at the lowest possible cost.

TECHNOLOGY

Over the years, PII Risk Assessors have identified a number of ways in which their skills can contribute to
sound and profitable pipeline operation. The services PII offers range from small case-specific enquiries to
broad, long-term programs.

SERVICES

HAZOP
Case-Specific QRA
Consequence Analysis
Limit State Analysis
Reliability-Centred Maintenance (RCM)
Risk-Based Inspection
Risk Ranking
Semi-Quantitative Risk Assessment (AIM, PRIMA)
Direct Assessment Stage 4: Analysis Stage

PACKAGES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Experienced risk engineers apply their skills to


analysis of the whole pipeline system, or to
selected aspects of it

Ensures compliance with regulations

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Reports identify, rank and describe the consequences of potential pipeline failures
Services are available anywhere in the world,
through regional PII offices

Replaces guesswork with a quantified


approach to risk exposure
Confirmation that safety factors are realistic
and achievable
Identifies areas of non-compliance, and recommends appropriate next steps
Better decisions regarding maintenance and
capital expenditure budgets, through a more
complete understanding of risk exposure

Risk Assessment

Components

Activities

Deliverables

HAZOP

A facilitated review of all potential risks and measures required to


prevent or reduce them.

A HAZOP report stating all risks and control measures.

Case-Specific QRA

An in-depth assessment of the probability and consequence of a


particular infringement on a pipeline.

QRA report detailing risk calculations and measures


to reduce the risk to a tolerable level.

Consequence Analysis

Assessment of the likely impact on people, the environment, property


and pipeline assets as a result of a gas release or liquid spill.

A report stating the absolute consequence of failure


and potential control measures.

Limit-State Analysis

The application of deterministic equations to development of a limit


state design premise. This might involve the risk limit state for design,
operation, or an emergency event.

Reported limit state and its sensitivity to input


parameters. Generally this would feed into a QRA
project.

Reliability-Centred
Maintenance (RCM)

System Reliability theory applied to equipment to assess operability,


availability, and maintainability. This is a risk-based approach to
planned maintenance.

Reliability-Centred Maintenance based schedule for


planned maintenance.

Risk-Based Inspection

The application of pipeline limit state to the control of degradation


processes that can be monitored though inspection (e.g. in-line inspection
for corrosion, RoV surveys for external damage to offshore pipelines).

An inspection plan, based on risk and not on calendar


based periods. This can be in the form of software
used for planning inspections.

Risk Ranking

A simple scoring approach to risks using H, M, L type approach to


risk ranking.

A report ranking pipelines for inspection or maintenance


by the risk they represent.

Semi-Quantitative Risk
Assessment

The use of a deterministic limit state combined with a frequentist


approach to failure. This is a middle ground between fully QRA and
a scoring approach. Most commonly applied to single inspected
pipelines with damage.

A detailed inspection or maintenance plan.

Direct Assessment Stage 4:


Analysis Stage

Analysis of indirect examination results, GIS data, results of previous


assessments and maintenance, and the results from direct examinations
to assess the current and future integrity of a pipeline.

Analysis log and grading report from Indirect


Examinations with validation dig list. Report assessing
current integrity and advising next inspection interval
based on the analysis of the Direct Examination data.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Project
Management
Delivery of professional no

EXPERIENCED PROFESSIONALS TAKE RESPONSIBILITY FOR THE SUCCESS OF PIPELINE

surprises pipeline integrity

INTEGRITY PROJECTS

project management.
OBJECTIVE

Deliver high-quality turnkey pipeline integrity results on behalf of owners and operators.
NO SURPRISES

PEOPLE

Many pipeline integrity projects require resources, personnel and experience which are simply not available
on a day-to-day basis. A cost-effective and reliable solution is to entrust the management of such projects
to PII. Experienced professionals, who have spent many years working on and around pipelines, and who
are fully aware of operators priorities, will ensure that the program meets its time, cost and quality
objectives. If necessary, specialist subcontractors will be brought in to carry out aspects of the work, under
the direction of the PII Project Manager.

TECHNOLOGY

Services range from a full turnkey approach for the most complex projects, to specific reviews, studies or
assessments, including:

SERVICES

Project, Construction and Contract Management


Certification/Regulatory Approval
Benchmarking
Financial Risk Assessment
Due Diligence
Uprating

PACKAGES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

All aspects of the project will be under


professional control

Pipeline management is free to concentrate on


core responsibilities

Single point of management contact: no bucks


passed

Limitless resources available

All work carried out to the highest standards

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

On-time delivery of all project goals

Client satisfaction is number one objective


with all PII managers
Get the results you need for future operational
and financial planning

Project Management
Components

Activities

Deliverables

Project, Construction and


Contract Management

Overall contract management responsibility for any civil, mechanical,


electrical, or process modifications to a pipeline to allow inspection,
rehabilitation or uprating.

Full turnkey project management. This might involve


procurement, site management, the management of
specialist sub-contractors and final hand-over of the
completed project.

Certification / Regulatory
Approval

Independent review, validation or technical evaluation of pipeline


engineering activities to obtain a regulator's approval.

Report giving a detailed, independent technical review.

Benchmarking

A structured comparison of a pipeline owner/operators process and


procedures, plus a critical evaluation of the integrity of their pipeline
asset against industry best practice (best in class), industry norms
and comparisons with similar operators.

A benchmarking report highlighting the owner/operators


position within the benchmark rankings. This might
include a gap analysis of key issues that require
bringing up to standard and process map of how this
might be achieved.

Financial Risk Assessment

Assessment of all risks, identification of cost base and conclusions


of cost and benefit (possibly through value ratios).

Development of pipeline financial model and scenario


analysis to determine the value of risk reduction over
an NPV period.

Due Diligence

An assessment of the financial impact of pipeline integrity on an SPA


(Sale and Purchase Agreement).

A statement of a pipeline's value, longevity, throughput


and projection of long-term maintenance costs to
determine financial risk and potential payback.

Uprating

In-depth desk evaluation of the potential for uprating a pipeline. This


involves data gathering, an integrity audit and a probability/consequence
evaluation to assess the quantitative risks associated with an upgrade.

A report detailing a line's current condition, the current risks, the future safe uprating pressure and the
impact on failure probability, consequence and risk.

Case History

Upgrading 154 km of mixed pipeline


The 829 km Baku-Supsa pipeline of the Georgian
Pipeline Co. carries crude oil from the western
shore of the Caspian Sea to the eastern shore
of the Black Sea. On completion in 1998 the
20-in (530 mm) line was hydro-tested and
certified to run at 60 percent of the hydrotest
pressure. Already the operator is preparing to
raise MAOP to 72 percent of hydrotest. But
the upgrade is not as simple as it normally would
be with such a recently built system. A central
154 km (95 mi) section consists of an older,
rehabilitated pipeline constructed from a mix of
seam welded and seamless pipe, in a variety of
wall thicknesses.
By combining a MagneScan
high resolution metal loss
inspection with a TranScan
inspection to identify axial
flaws and longitudinal
defects, with a detailed
fitness-for-purpose analysis,
the operator was able to
confirm the safety of their
pipeline at the increased
operating pressure.

PII Pipeline Solutions was contracted to reaffirm


the integrity of the central section under current
operating conditions, and to define a maintenance
strategy for future operation at the higher MAOP.
In addition to normal cleaning, a caliper run and
a metal-loss inspection with a high resolution
MagneScan (MFL) tool, it was decided to run
a TranScan (Transverse Field Inspection) tool in
order to check for longitudinal groove-like defects.
The combined results of the two inspections
revealed 5,874 external and 2,866 internal metal
loss defects, as well as a number of dents, girth
weld and seam weld anomalies. It was found that

19 external metal loss features required immediate


repair if the pipeline was to continue in operation.
Seam weld anomalies and features were investigated and found to be manufacturing defects
which had survived the hydrotest and therefore
offered no threat to integrity. Most of the dents
were plain and small enough to be harmless, but
three were associated with metal loss or seam
welds and immediate repair was required. The
FFP assessment for operation at the 72 percent
level assumed that the reported weld defects were
crack-like, and took into account the effect of
cyclic loading.
The client was given a repair and maintenance
schedule which would enable the operating
pressure to be raised to the desired level. In
summary, to continue operating at 60 percent,
76 external metal loss defects would require repair
before the end of 2003: to enable an increase to
72 percent 173 repairs would be required in the
same time period. Their repairs will be carried
out as appropriate. The company was advised
to re-inspect the line as soon as economically
possible, since a second set of data would make
possible an accurate calculation of the rate of
corrosion growth and a possible reduction in
the number of repairs required.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Compliance
Services
Technical support for an

COMPREHENSIVE TECHNICAL SUPPORT DURING DISCUSSIONS WITH REGULATORY BODIES

oil or gas pipeline network


operator during their

OBJECTIVE

discussions with local /

Enable pipeline operators and owners to solve integrity issues while maintaining positive relationships
with regulators.

national regulators.

SCOPE OF SERVICE

Front-line Support

PEOPLE

From time to time specific integrity issues require special documentation or meetings with regulators. PII
has extensive experience with regulatory matters acquired in jurisdictions around the world. Not only can
we assist operators in assembling and preparing necessary information and reports, our front-line presence
in meetings and PIIs international reputation, can be of great assistance in resolving integrity issues and
establishing credibility.

TECHNOLOGY

Our services include the preparation of technical plans or reports, assistance in the preparation of documents,
and acting as expert witnesses at special regulatory meetings or hearings.

SERVICES
PACKAGES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Professional, experienced representation on


your behalf with local and national regulatory
bodies

Sound technical rationale for problem solving

Local access to best international practices


and supporting data

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Site-specific advice on regulatory matters


Customised plans based on local and national
regulations

Quick resolution of integrity issues


PIIs expert reputation will work on your behalf
Accurate completion of necessary documentation for compliance

Compliance Services

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Integrity Management
Framework Documentation

An initial, pipeline specific framework describing the processes


involved in the determination and maintenance of pipeline integrity.
A complete Integrity Management Program can be developed
to manage the execution of the 49 CFR Part 192 or 195 elements
prescribed by the US DOT.

Pipeline Integrity plans structured and populated


with data to comply with US DOT requirements.

Regulatory Meetings

Technical and expert witnesses to assist and support an operator


during discussions with local and national regulators.

Local access to global best practices.

Code Review and Comparisons

Writing of case-specific technical reports or undertaking of


research projects to assist during discussions with local and
national regulators.

Case-specific report.

Case History

Explaining SCC Detection and Management

Field verification and repair.

Stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC) is complex


pipeline integrity issue. A number of US
transmission pipelines have experienced failures
due to SCC. Following these failures, many
operators have conducted in-line inspections
using a high-resolution crack detection tool,
such as UltraScan CD, to better quantify the
extent of the problem. The UltraScan CD uses
shear wave ultrasonics to detect and measure
subcritical cracking. Applying fracture
mechanics and material science principles to
the data collected by the tool and NDE field
verification, allows the development of a sound
crack mitigation strategy. By applying codes
such as API 579, Level 3 Assessments can be
conducted and long term Failure Assessment

Diagrams (FAD) can be developed. This


information, with the appropriate safety factor,
is then applied in order to effect repairs and
determine appropriate re-inspection intervals
to further quantify the extent of the problem.
The complex nature of integrity assessments
such as these often needs to be fully explained
and demonstrated to local and national pipeline
regulatory bodies, especially when a case must be
made that the approach is superior to a hydrostatic pressure test. PII frequently accompanies
pipeline operators to state and/or DOT regulatory meetings to serve as a technical resource for
the engineering and scientific rationale of SCC
detection, measurement and mitigation.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Integrated
Data
Management
The collection, integration

EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT OF DATA FOR BETTER INFORMED DECISION MAKING, REDUCED

and alignment of all

COSTS AND LONGER ASSET LIFE

integrity-critical data into


comprehensive and scalable

OBJECTIVE

data management software

Extract full value from integrity related data by establishing a single, controlled database environment.

in order to provide operators


with the tools to streamline

SCOPE OF SERVICE

their integrity processes.

PEOPLE

Knowledge of pipeline condition and of the risks to which it is exposed is the only sound basis for integrity
management. Much of that knowledge is already available in the form of design, construction, operating
and inspection data.

TECHNOLOGY

An integrated approach to data management can help to realise the full value of that data by making it
fully accessible to all decision makers in the enterprise. By integrating and aligning multiple data sources
into a common software environment, PIIs Integrated Data Management services deliver significant
process improvements and increased efficiency. Using a range of dedicated applications for risk assessment,
remediation/maintenance management and response planning we can help turn raw data into productive
information.
Timely access to data, coupled with user-friendly interfaces and flexible report-generators, can deliver
substantial benefits to pipeline operators and their managers.

SERVICES

Integrated data management services provided by PII and our sister company, GE Network Solutions, take
the strain out of integrity management by making a single source of data available to the organisation and
freeing up valuable time to focus on core business activities.

PACKAGES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Practical advice from specialists in pipeline


data management

Easy access to data by all managers and


operators

Site-specific installations and programs to


support decision making

Allows fast, accurate decision making

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Data alignment tools to simplify cause and effect


analysis
Customised solutions to fit operators business
processes
Based on worldwide experience of pipeline
operations
State-of-the-art solutions to data handling needs
Comprehensive tools for data entry and upkeep

Improves the ability to manage risk


Cost savings through readily available data and
automation of processes
Up-to-date view of integrity threats and asset
status
Integration of data improves productivity
Unified view of multi-source data
Business-wide access exploits full potential
of data

Integrated Data Management

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Data Audit, Collection and


Integration

Initial audit and collection of all relevant asset, geographical,


survey/monitoring and integrity data about a pipeline.
Conversion and alignment of all data into a common, scalable
database standard such as PODS or ISAT.

Database of standardised current, legacy and


real-time data.

Database Management

Management of all relevant data in a GIS-enabled environment


with web-based distributed access.

Centralised source of all pipeline integrity


information.

Application Modules

A range of software applications designed specifically for


transmission pipelines. Linked to the common database, standard
and customiseable tools are available for risk assessment,
regulatory compliance reporting, pipeline feature management,
maintenance and repair activity planning and management.

Integrated software applications that improve


integrity management processes.

DATA FLOW THROUGH THE INTEGRITY CYCLE

Financial Controls
and Budgeting

REQUEST
BUDGET

Asset, Geographic,
Operational &
Integrity Data

PLAN & BUDGET APPROVAL

CL. PIZ, identified sites


Risk analysis
Prioritize assessments
ELEMENTS 6

UPDATE WITH NEW DATA

Perform Baseline &


Re-Assessment
Obtain asssessment
Additional integrity data

DATA

DATA
UPDATE

Integrity Evaluation
Remediation criteria
Assessment analysis
Data integration
Evaluate & review

ELEMENTS 7
Maintenance
Preventative, mitigative
Remediation-Repair Training

IMPROVE

PLAN & BUDGET APPROVAL

ANALYZE

ELEMENTS 5 & 6

UPDATE WITH MAINTENANCE


PLAN & REQUEST BUDGET

Continual Process of Assessment & Evaluation

Total Pipeline
Data Management

ELEMENTS 1-4 &14


Identify HCAs & Integrity Threats

DEFINE

DATA
UPDATE WITH INTEGRITY
MANAGEMENT PLAN & REQUEST
BUDGET

MEASURE

REQUEST
BUDGET

Operations and
Emergency Response

Monitor
Metrics, Records, MOC, QA
and communication

CONTROL

ELEMENTS 8-13

UPDATE

EVENT/
FAILURE DATA

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

Training

Education and training

KEEP YOUR STAFF UP-TO-DATE WITH CURRENT INTEGRITY MANAGEMENT PROCEDURES

focused on at pipeline
inspection and the latest

OBJECTIVE

development in pipeline

Establish in-house integrity management competence for operators, owners and regulatory agencies.

integrity theory and


SCOPE OF SERVICE

techniques.

Pipeline integrity management is an an on-going task. Day-to-day operations will benefit if all employees
have a good understanding of the issues at stake, and the skills necessary to carry out required procedures.

PEOPLE

Regulators, too, can benefit from hands-on experience of the pipeline environment. Communications
will benefit when agency personnel are familiar with the terminology and procedures associated with
pipeline integrity engineering.

TECHNOLOGY

Among our training services are courses which focus directly on customers of PII Pipeline Solutions. They
offer transfer of appropriate technologies to operators who are about to adopt PII programs, procedures
or software, and provide an introduction to Six Sigma, the quality assurance program that sets standards of
performance for all companies in the GE family.

SERVICES

FEATURES OF THE SERVICE

PACKAGES

Courses and programs are delivered by


experienced trainers, and are tailored to
meet the special needs of the customer

EXECUTION EXCELLENCE

Where required, certification services are


available to trainees
Training is available on-site or off-site, as
required

BENEFITS OF THE SERVICE

Well-trained staff is more effective and more


highly motivated
Training ensures the success of newly-instituted
programs
Training from an outside source adds greater
depth to understanding of procedures
The entire enterprise benefits from the wider
range of skills available in-house

Training

Components

Activities

Deliverables

Client Training

Training specific to a clients need. Courses are specifically


tailored to the needs, conditions and skills of a client and their
staff.

Trained (and where applicable, certified) staff.

Technology Transfer

Training to support the transfer of PII techniques and software.

Trained (and where applicable, certified) staff.

Regulator Training

Education of regulator staff to help them better understand the


language, techniques, and limitations of in-line inspection and
pipeline integrity engineering.

Appreciation of the capabilities and limitations


of in-line inspection and pipeline integrity
management.

GE Six Sigma Training

GE's "At the Customer, For the Customer (ACFC)" suite of training
courses.

Staff trained in GE's process optimisation and


on-going process improvement techniques.

www.gepower.com/PII
2003 General Electric Company. All Rights Reserved.

TOTAL PIPELINE
INTEGRITY
Solutions for keeping your
pipeline safe, productive
and profitable