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And the Glory of the Lord - G. F.

A period of music from 1600 1750.
A time of exploration.


Use of ornamentation in the melodic lines

Establishment of major/minor keys
Diatonic chords using mainly I, IV, V, II, VI
Basso Continuo
Using different textures (Homophonic,
Use of Baroque orchestra (String,
harpsichord, trumpets, horns, timpani drums
and possibly flute, oboe and bassoon)
Little variation in the mood/affection
throughout a piece
Only contrasting between loud and quiet
dynamics terraced dynamics


And the Glory of the Lord shall be revealed and all

flesh shall see it together, for the mouth of the Lord
hath spoken it.
The Chorus is the first main chorus in the Messiah and
simply sums up the positivity of the mood looking forward

A large scale musical work.

Set for chorus, soloists and
Based on words and stories
from the bible.
Messiah is one of the most
famous examples of an
oratorio that tells the story of

Tonality of A major (F, C, G sharps)

In the middle, modulates to
the dominant E major
Also, modulates to the
dominant of the dominant
B major

Four main themes

The whole pieces is built on 4 main themes, each line separating a line
of the text. Handel states the themes as a single line and then
throughout the rest of the piece, develops the themes in different ways.

You need to be able to recognise these

themes and be able to describe how
they have been developed

And the Glory of the Lord - G. F. Handel

The mood of the piece is joyful
because of the following;
Sprightly triple time signature (3/4)
Allegro tempo marking

Choral styles
Are you able to recognise the different singing styles and describe

Single line Monophonic Eg bars 11-13 (vocal)

Four part choir Homophonic Eg bars 34 - 38
Simple imitation Eg bars 17 - 20
2 main themes together Eg bars 111 - 113

Key Words
SATB Describing the choir (Soprano, Alto, Tenor, Bass)
Soprano High pitched female voice
Alto Low pitched female voice
Tenor High pitched male voice
Bass Low pitched male voice
Chorus A group of singers with several performers per part. The set work is a chorus.
Basso Continuo A bass instrument playing a solo bass line AND a chordal instrument
organ NOT piano) playing chords.
Triple metre 3 beats in a bar (often used for lively pieces)
Affection The overall mood of a piece, mainly stays the same in Baroque pieces.
Cadence 2 chords that mark the end of a phrase or section. Refer to cadence theory sheet for
more detail.
Hemiola Changing the rhythmic feel from 2 groups of 3 to 3 groups of 2. Often used when
approaching the end of a phrase.
Doubling When an instrument or instruments play the same thing as the voice.
Monophonic A single melodic line.
Homophonic All parts moving together singing in harmony. Melody and accompaniment.
Polyphonic A musical texture featuring 2 or more melodic lines.
Terraced dynamics Heard in Baroque music. Going from loud to soft with little variation between
Harmonic Rhythm How often the chords move per bar.
Imitation/imitative A musical device when an idea is presented and then immediately imitated/
copied in another part. It can be an exact copy or can be changed slightly.
Modulating - Moving from one key to another key. In this piece it moves to the dominant and the
dominant of the dominant.
Counterpoint The same as polyphonic, 2 or more different melodies being sung simultaneously.
Sequence An idea repeated but moved up or down in pitch.
Pedal A low pitched note that is sustained or continuously played beneath changing harmonies.
Inverted pedal The same as a pedal but played high in pitch.
Libretto The words/text of a musical work.
Aria A solo sung piece reflecting on a mood or emotion. Used in Oratorios.
Recitative The main idea is to narrate through singing the story. Used in Oratorios.
Tonic The first note of the key, for example, in the key of A, A is the tonic.
Dominant - The fifth note of the key, for example, in the key of A, E is the dominant.
Allegro A tempo marking that means lively or cheerful. It is a fast tempo.
Syllabic Singing one note per syllable, heardin the first main theme.