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.Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior?

2.What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences?


3.How does cultural diversity affect people at work?
4.What is a global view on organizational learning?
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1: Why is globalization significant for organizational behavior?
BECAUSE
*Most organizations must achieve high performance within a complex and competitive global
environment.
*Globalization refers to the complex economic networks of international competition, resource
suppliers, and product markets.
1A: Forces of globalization affecting organization.
**Rapid growth in information technology and electronic communication.
**Movement of valuable skills and investments.
**Increasing cultural diversity.
**Implications of immigration.
**Increasing job migration among nations.
**Impact of multicultural workforces.
1B: Globalization is contributing to the emergence of regional economic alliances.
**Important regional alliances.
**European Union (EU).
**North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
**Asia-Pacific Economic Co-operation Forum (APEC).
1C: Globalization is accelerating Outsourcing.
**Contracting out of work rather than accomplishing it with a full-time permanent workforce.
**Off shoring.
**Contracting out work to persons in other countries.
**Job migration.
**Movement of jobs from one location or country to another.
1D: Globalization is creating Global managers.
**Know how to conduct business in multiple countries.
**Are culturally adaptable and often multilingual.
**Think with a worldview and are able to map strategy in the global context.
**Have a global attitude.
**Have a global mindset.
1E. globalization and Culture.
**The learned, shared way of doing things in a particular society.
**The software of the mind.
**Helps define boundaries between different groups and affects how their members relate to one
another.
**Cultural intelligence is the ability to identify, understand, and act with sensitivity and effectiveness
in cross-cultural situations.
====================
2: What is culture and how can we understand cultural differences?
BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Language.

**Perhaps the most visible aspect of culture.


**Whorfian hypothesis considers language as a major determinant of thinking.
**Low-context cultures the message is conveyed by the words used.
**High-context cultures words convey only a limited part of the message.
2A: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Time orientation.
**Polychronic cultures.
**Circular view of time.
**No pressure for immediate action or performance.
**Emphasis on the present.
**Monochronic cultures.
**Linear view of time.
**Create pressure for action and performance.
**Long-range goals and planning are important.
2B: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Use of space.
**Proxemics.
**The study of how people use space to communicate.
**Reveals important cultural differences.
**Concept of personal space varies across cultures.
**Space is arranged differently in different cultures.
2C: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Religion.
**A major element of culture.
**Can be a very visible aspect of culture.
**Influences codes of ethics and moral behavior.
**Influences conduct of economic matters.
2D: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Values and national culture.
**Cultures vary in underlying patterns of values and attitudes.
**Hofstedes five dimensions of national culture:
**Power distance.
**Uncertainty avoidance.
**Individualism-collectivism.
**Masculinity-femininity.
**Long-term/short-term orientation.
2E: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Power distance.
**The willingness of a culture to accept status and power differences among members.
**Respect for hierarchy and rank in organizations.
**Example of a high power distance culture Indonesia.
**Example of a low power distance culture Sweden.
2F:BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Uncertainty avoidance.
**The cultural tendency toward discomfort with risk and ambiguity.
**Preference for structured versus unstructured organizational situations.
**Example of a high uncertainty avoidance culture France.
**Example of a low uncertainty avoidance culture Hong Kong.
2G: BY UNDERSTANDING

AND MANAGING

WITH

*Individualism-collectivism.
**The cultural tendency to emphasize individual or group interests.
**Preferences for working individually or in groups.
**Example of an individualistic culture United States.
**Example of a collectivist culture Mexico.
2H: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Masculinity-femininity.
**The tendency of a culture to value stereotypical masculine or feminine traits.
**Emphasizes competition/assertiveness versus interpersonal sensitivity/relationships.
**Example of a masculine culture Japan.
**Example of a feminine culture Thailand.
2I: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Long-term/short-term orientation.
**The tendency of a culture to emphasize future-oriented values versus present-oriented values.
**Adoption of long-term or short-term performance horizons.
**Example of a long-term orientation culture South Korea.
**Example of a short-term orientation culture United States.
2J: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*cultural differences helps in dealing with parochialism and ethnocentrism.
**Parochialism assuming that the ways of ones own culture are the only ways of doing things.
**Ethnocentrism assuming that the ways of ones culture are the best ways of doing things.
2K: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people.
**Universalism versus particularism.
-Relative emphasis on rules and consistency, or on relationships and flexibility.
**Individualism versus collectivism.
-Relative emphasis on individual freedom and responsibility, or on group interests and consensus.
2L: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people .
**Neutral versus affective.
-Relative emphasis on objectivity and detachment, or on emotion and expressed feelings.
**Specific versus diffuse.
-Relative emphasis on focused and narrow involvement, or on involvement with the whole person.
2M: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Cultural differences in handling relationships with other people .
**Achievement versus prescription.
**Relative emphasis on performance-based and earned status, or on ascribed status.
2N: BY UNDERSTANDING AND MANAGING WITH
*Cultural differences in attitudes toward time.
**Sequential view of time.
-Time is a passing series of events.
**Synchronic view of time.
-Time consists of an interrelated past, present, and future.
2O: BY UNDERSTANDING

AND MANAGING

WITH

*Cultural differences in attitudes toward the environment.


**Inner-directed cultures.
-Members view themselves as separate from nature and believe they can control it.
**Outer-directed cultures.
-Members view themselves as part of nature and believe they must go along with it.
========================================================
3: How does cultural diversity affect people at work?
THROUGH ---Multinational corporation (MNC).
**A business firm that has extensive international operations in more than one foreign country.
**Have a total world view without allegiance to any one national home.
**Have enormous economic power and impact.
**Bring benefits and controversies to host countries.
3A: THROUGH ---Multicultural workforces and expatriates.
**Styles of leadership, motivation, decision making, planning, organizing, and controlling vary from
country to country.
**Expatriates.
-People who live and work abroad for extended periods of time.
-Can be very costly for employers.
-Progressive employers take supportive measures to maximize potential for expatriate success.
3B: THROUGH ---Ethical behavior across cultures.
**Ethical challenges result from:
-Cultural diversity.
-Variations in governments and legal systems.
**Prominent current issues.
-Corruption and bribery.
-Poor working conditions.
-Child and prison labor.
-Business support of repressive governments.
-Sweatshops.

3C: THROUGH --- Advice regarding cultural relativism and ethical absolutism.
**Multinational businesses should adopt core or threshold values that respect and protect
fundamental human rights.
**Beyond the threshold, businesses should adapt and tailor actions to respect the traditions,
foundations, and needs of different cultures.
================================================
4: What is a global view on organizational learning?
THE IMPORTANCE OF
*Organizational learning.
-The process of acquiring the knowledge necessary to adapt to a changing environment.
*Global organizational learning.
-The ability to gather from the world at large the knowledge required for long-term organizational
adaptation.
4A
*Are management theories universal?
**Answer is no.
**Cultural influences should be carefully considered in transferring theories and their applications
across cultures.

4B:
*Best practices around the world.
**Global organizational learning should identify best practices around the world.
**Potential high-performance benchmarks exist throughout the world.
**Cultural diversity enriches global organization learning.
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HERE ARE SOME USEFUL SITES.
Impact of Globalization on organizational behavior
www.prasena.com/public/virtual_u/lectures/OB%20270402%20Globalization.ppt
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Human Resources: IMPACT OF GLOBALISATION ON HR,
en.allexperts.com/q/Human-Resources-2866/IMPACT-GLOBALISATION-HR.htm
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------Impact Globalization Free Term Papers, Free Research Papers, and ...
www.oppapers.com/topics/Impact-Globalization/180 - 44k
--------------------------------------------------------------------------------ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR term papers, research papers on ...
www.academon.com/lib/essay/organizational-behavior.html
----------------------------------------------------------------------------Organizational Behavior, 9/E Schermerhorn, Hunt, and Osborn
www.csupomona.edu/~jcbassett/mhr31804-05/powerpoints/ch03.ppt
----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Sample Chapter for Guilln, M.F.: The Limits of Convergence ...
press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7087.html --------------------------------------------------------------The Impact of Globalization on Cultural Industries in United Arab
...www.hicbusiness.org/biz2003proceedings/Mohammad%20Naim%20Chaker.pdf
---------------------------------------------------------------Does Globalization Matter : The Change of Power Distance and Its ...
www.psy.ntu.edu.tw/glob/event01/day1_4_01.ppt
-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------Societal effect, organizational effect and globalization - Special ...
www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m4339/is_n3_v15/ai_15687867/pg_12
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