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Transformer Short Circuit

Performance
Tutorial of Cigre Working Group A2.19
Convener: Jim Fyvie, Scotland, 2002
Updated by: Jos Veens, Netherlands, 2009

Develop the WG Philosophy


How do we deal with different cultures.
Small, Medium, Large (Power Transformers)

How do we allow for manufacturing differentials.


Coreform: Disc, Spiral, Layer; Shellform: Pancake.

How do we deal with different safety margins.


Green-Orange-Red
Add a percentage

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Structure of WG12.19
Task Force #1

Service Conditions Field Survey

Task Force #2

Design Calculation

Task Force #3

Design Review

Task Force #4

Diagnostic & Monitoring

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Results TF#1
Service Conditions Field Survey
S/C Tests = 23 % failures in 3934 Tests

905 failures on new units

Field Failures = 0.0123 % failures in 121460


Transformer years

1 failure every 8000 transformer years

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Data from Test Stations - TF#1

Transformers,
> 25 MVA
1996: 8 tested
1997: 6 tested
1998: 12 tested
1999: 15 tested

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Results of Round Robin TF#2


Design Calculation
Made the design data of a large transformer
(400 MVA, 220 kV) available for comparision.
Good agreement on Radial forces
The axial fields were very similar

Poor agreement on Axial forces.


The radial fields were different due to different assumptions made
on the outer boundaries.

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Short-Circuit Calculations: steps


Fault Currents
Field Distribution
Force Distribution
Mechanical Stresses
Mechanical Strength

LV

2Drotational
symmetric

HV

(magneti
c
circuit on
left side)

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Fault Currents
I_fault_rms = V1 / Z ;
(Z = Z_grid + Z_transformer)
I_fault _rms = 100 / Z% x In
I_fault_peak = I_fault_rms x peak factor (2.55/2.69/2.77)

Forces :: (I fault peak)^2


Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Typical Magnetic Field Plots

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

Components of Force
(axial and radial)

Radial
Forces
LV
(inward)

Radial
Forces
HV
Axial Forces (outward)

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Radial forces
(due to the axial field)

LV

HV

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Radial Forces
Frad D

2a

F Frad D

(pressure, forces on winding lead-out)

Frad l 2

2bt2
(Forces translated
Into pressure on copper)

crit
crit

E h2

4 R2

E ( ) (t r N ) 2

12 D 2

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Examples of deformation
- LV- Radial Buckling

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Axial Forces
(due to the radial field)

LV

HV

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Axial forces; deformation effects


Continuously Transposed Conductor
Rectangular Copper Conductor

Wcrit

c t 2 starea 2 E b CSA

30 LMT
b

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Clamping Arrangement

(A-leg)

(B-leg)

(C-leg)

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If the winding clamping fails..

(Winding
support
structure
had
collapsed
)

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Strength ?

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Results of TF#3
Design Review
Relational equations were agreed
This allows for different manufacturers constants to be used.

Equations for Critical Stress were agreed


With the basic material strength and shape factors dependant on
construction and conductor type.

Design Review to be Interrogative rather than


Comparative.
Allows manufacturers to explain their philosophy.

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Copper Proof Stress

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Conductor Profiles

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Effect of bonding CTC

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Compilation of Maximum Stresses


Windings

LV
Stress

Strength

HV + Tap
Stress

Strength

Tap
Stress

Strength

Compressive Stress on Stampings(MPa)


Axial Bending Stress(MPa)
Compressive Stress on Sticks(Mpa)
Radial Buckling Stress(Mpa)
Radial Bending Stress(MPa)
Hoop Stress(MPa)
Tilting Force(Tonnes)
Winding End Axial Force Top/Bottom
(Tonnes)
Force on Lead Exits (Tonnes)
Force on Lead Runs

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Manufacturing Ability
Winding Techniques
Processing
Dimensioning
Support Structures

Internal to winding
External to winding

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Winding Techniques
Vertical winding
Normally used for HV windings with all round
access for winders. Interleaved windings and
shielded windings. Continuous disc windings may
be wound out and spun back to keep tight.

Horizontal winding
Used for large LV windings with parallel CTCs
winding supplied from a hanging catenary to keep
tension and prevent caging, or under tension if
strip. Windings must be free from gaps.

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Processing
Insulation must be consolidated, ie
fully dried and shrunk.
No gaps within the windings and all
major insulation fully oil impregnated
with hot de-gassed oil.
No locked oil pockets and Cooling
ducts the correct size.

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Dimensioning
The leakage field plots are carried out
by using the design dimensions with
some building tolerance.
The units must be manufactured within
this tolerance or the calculations are
meaningless.
A, d and Diameters must be correct
and the windings must be balanced
axially.
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Supporting Structures
The inner winding must have round radial
support, else we cannot claim the higher buckling
mode criteria.

Core

The Copper must have the correct hardness.


The lead ends must be supported or the
windings will twist and move all the supporting
blocks.
The Clamps must tolerate the end forces and
any pre-load on the windings, and allow for any
lifting required.

LV

Short-Circuit Performance of Power Transformers Cigre Tutorial of WG A2.19

HV

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Check List of TF #3
(by no means complete)

Are the fault currents correct


Is the field model suitable
Is the force program suitable
Is the construction suitable
Are the materials suitable
Are the strength values traceable
Is the failure risk acceptable
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Results from TF#4


Diagnostic & Monitoring
Techniques Reviewed

Winding Capacitances
Magnetising currents
Leakage reactance
Low Voltage Impulse
Frequency Response Analysis

Most Popular Development is FRA

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Need for Detection Means


Visual inspection (in the field) is
impractical (access to inner windings).
Significant winding shrinkage can occur
with age.
Winding displacement may take place
leading to reduction of mechanical
strength against future short circuits.
Detection of those displacements
provides early warning of impeding failures
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Winding Capacitance(s)
Requires standard test equipment .
Sensitivity depends on the type of fault
More effective when it is possible to make
separate measurements for each phase
HV
LV

C between LV and HV
Core

C between LV and core

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Magnetising current

Require only very simple


equipment
Easiest way of detecting
any shorted turns
Limited sensitivity for other
types of faults

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Impedance
Probably the most widely accepted method of
detecting winding movement
technique is simple and requires relatively
standard equipment
Impedance often differ significantly between
phases
most winding mechanical failures can be
diagnosed by impedance measurements
Provides a numerical criterion for test conclusion
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Impedance change example


(from actual tests in short circuit testing station)

IEC : < 1 % change (coreform transformer)


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Frequency response analysis (FRA)


Detection of change in a global quantity:
May be Winding capacitance.
or Magnetising current
or Impedance.

Shows in local change in signal


propagation in:
Low Voltage Impulse (LVI, not so repeatable)
Frequency Response Analysis (FRA)
range: 10 kHz-2 MHz; interpretation always together
with results of the previous measurement types

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WG 12.19 members:
Convenor; Jim Fyvie U.K.
Task Force Leaders;
TF #1 Anders Lindroth Sweden TF #2 Kees Spoorenberg Netherlands
TF #3 Jim Fyvie U.K.
TF #4 John Lapworth U.K.
Members;
Serge Therry Switzerland
Anatoly Panibratetz Russia
Endre Matthe Hungary Rafael Gonzalez Spain
Masami Ikeda Japan
Wolfgang Knorr Germany
Wladislaw Pewca Poland
Horoshi Murakami Japan
Eric Chemin France
Hasse Nordman Finland
Volodimir Zaitsev Ukraine
Victor Lazarev Ukraine
Joe Foldi Canada
Willi Felber Austria
Benedikt Damm Austria Bob Del Vecchio USA
Gerard Robert France Luis Cheim Brasil
Chen Kui China
V Pitsuriya Thailand
Tim Noonan Ireland
Walter Wasinger Australia

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Cigr
Technical
Brochure
N 209 2002
(for core-type and
shell-type transformers)

http://www.e-cigre.org

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IEC Standard: 60076-5 Ed. 3.0 (2006-02)


Title: Ability to withstand short circuit
Annex A (informative)
Theoretical evaluation of the ability
to withstand the dynamic effects of short circuit

Thank you ; Questions ?

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