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Chapter 1: Chemistry and Measurement

Problems:

2, 4-5, 7-10, 14, 16, 17, 24-26, 27a, 28-44, 47-52, 55-56, 59-77, 79-88, 93-96,
105-112, 115-132

science:

methodical study of nature followed by a logical explanation of the


observations

Chemistry:

1.1

study of matter and its properties, the changes that matter


undergoes, and the energy associated with those changes

MODERN CHEMISTRY
In what fields is chemistry used today? And how is it used?

1.2

EXPERIMENT AND EXPLANATION

Consider the following:


On the first day of school, you get in your car and turn the key on the ignition,
but nothing happens. What could be the problem?

The Scientific Method


1. Perform experiments and record observations on system
2. Analyze the data, and propose a hypothesis to explain observations
3. Conduct additional experiments to test hypothesis. If initial hypothesis holds
up to extensive testing, the hypothesis becomes a theory.
theory: a tested qualitative explanation of basic natural phenomena
If all or part of the hypothesis does not hold up to testing, then it is adjusted or
a new hypothesis is proposed to explain the observations.
law: a simple statement or mathematical equation about a fundamental
relationship

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 1

1.5 MEASUREMENT AND SIGNIFICANT FIGURES


measurement: a number with attached units
When a measurement is recorded, all the numbers known with certainty are
given along with the last number, which is estimated. All the digits are significant
because removing any of the digits changes the measurement's uncertainty.

Ruler A
0

Ruler B

Ruler C
4.1

Ruler

4.2

4.3

Measurement/quantity

4.4

# of sig figs

____________

____

____________

____

____________

____

Which ruler gives the most exact measurement? _______________


Guidelines for Sig Figs (if measurement is given):
Count the number of digits in a measurement from left to right:
1. When there is a decimal point:
For measurements greater than 1, count all the digits (even zeros).
62.4 cm has 3 sig figs, 5.0 m has 2 sig figs, 186.000 g has 6 s.f.
For measurements less than 1, start with the first nonzero digit and
count all digits (even zeros) after it.
0.011 mL and 0.00022 kg each have 2 sig figs
2. When there is no decimal point:
Count all non-zero digits and zeros between non-zero digits
125 g has 3 sig figs, 107 mL has 3 sig figs
CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 2

How many significant digits do the following numbers have?


# of sig figs

of sig figs

# of sig figs

a. 165.3

_____

c.

90.40

_____

e.

0.19600 _____

b. 105

_____

d.

100.00

_____

f.

0.0050 _____

SCIENTIFIC NOTATION
Some numbers are very large or very small difficult to express.
For example,
Avogadros number = 602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000
an electrons mass = 0.000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 91 kg
Also, it's not clear how many sig figs there are in some measurements.
For example,
Express 100.0 g to 3 sig figs:

___________

Express 100.0 g to 2 sig figs:

___________

Express 100.0 g to 1 sig fig:

___________

To handle such numbers, we use a system called scientific notation.


All numbers can be expressed in the form:
where

N 10n

N =digit term= a number between 1 and 10, so there can only


be one number to the left of the decimal point: #.####
n = an exponent = a positive or a negative integer (whole #).

To express a number in scientific notation:


Count the number of places you must move the decimal point to get N
between 1 and 10.
Moving decimal point to the right (if # < 1) negative exponent.
Moving decimal point to the left (if # > 1) positive exponent.
CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 3

Express the following numbers in scientific notation (each with 3 sig figs):
555,000

__________________

0.000888

__________________

602,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 ______________________

ROUNDING OFF NONSIGNIFICANT DIGITS


How do we eliminate nonsignificant digits?
If first nonsignificant digit < 5, just drop ALL nonsignificant digits
If first nonsignificant digit 5, raise the last sig digit by 1 then
drop ALL nonsignificant digits
For example, express 72.58643 with 3 sig figs:
last significant digit

72.58643 g
first nonsignificant digit

72.58643

to 3 sig figs

_______________________

Express each of the following with the number of sig figs indicated:
a.

376.276

to 3 sig figs

_______________________

b.

500.072

to 4 sig figs

_______________________

c.

0.00654321

d.

1,234,567

e.

2975

to 3 sig figs

to 5 sig figs

to 2 sig figs

_______________________
_______________________
_______________________

Express measurements in scientific notation when necessary to make it clear


how many sig figs there are in the measurement.

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 4

ADDING/SUBTRACTING MEASUREMENTS
When adding and subtracting measurements, your final value is limited by
measurement with the largest uncertaintyi.e. the number with the fewest
decimal places.
Ex 1: 106.61 + 0.25 + 0.195 = 107.055
107.055 to the correct number of sig figs: _______________
Ex 2:

725.50 103 = 622.50


622.50 to the correct # of sig figs: ____________________

MULTIPLYING/DIVIDING MEASUREMENTS
When multiplying or dividing measurements, the final value is limited by the
measurement with the least number of significant figures.
Ex 1: 106.61 0.25 0.195 = 5.1972375
5.1972375 to the correct # of sig figs: ________________
Ex 2: 106.61 91.5 = 9754.815

w/ correct sig figs: _______________

MULTIPLYING/DIVIDING WITH EXPONENTIAL NUMBERS:


When multiplying or dividing measurements with exponents, use the digit term (N
in N 10n) to determine number of sig figs.
1033
Ex. 1: (6.02 1023)(4.155 109) = 2.50131
How do you calculate this using your scientific calculator?
Step 1.

Enter 6.02 1023 by pressing:


6.02 then

EE or EXP (which corresponds to 10)

then 23

Your calculator should read or something similar.


Step 2.

Multiply by pressing:

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 5

Step 3.

Enter 4.155 109 by pressing:


4.155 then

EE or EXP (which corresponds to 10)

then 9

Your calculator should now read


Step 4.

Get the answer by pressing:


Your calculator should now read:
or something similar indicating

2.50131 33 or 2.50131 E 33
10 33
2.50131

Thus, the answer with the correct sig figs = ________________________


Be sure you can do exponential calculations with your calculator. Many of
the calculations we do in chemistry involve very large and very small
numbers with exponential terms.
Ex. 2:(3.75 1015)(8.6 104) = 3.225 1020
with the correct sig figs: ___________________
Ex. 3: (3.75 1015) (8.605 104) = 4.357931435 1010
with the correct sig figs: ___________________

EXACT NUMBERS
Although measurements can never be exact, we can count an exact number of
items. For example, we can count exactly how many students are present in a
classroom, how many M&Ms are in a bowl, how many apples in a barrel.

1.8 UNITS AND DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS (FACTOR-LABEL METHOD)


UNIT EQUATIONS AND UNIT FACTORS
Unit equation: Simple statement of two equivalent values
Unit conversion factor = unit factor = equivalents:
- Ratio of two equivalent quantities
Unit equation
1 dollar = 10 dimes
CHM 151: Chapter 1

Unit factor

10 dimes
1 dollar
or
1 dollar
10 dimes
page 6

Equivalents are exact if we can count the number of units equal to another
or the units are in the same system (metric or English). For example, the
following unit factors and unit equations are exact:

365 days
1 year

7 days
1 week

12 inches
1 foot

and

1 yard 3 feet

Exact equivalents have an infinite number of sig figs


never limit number of sig figs!
Note: When the relationship between two units or items is exact, the
(meaning equals exactly) is used instead of the basic = sign.

Other equivalents are inexact or approximate because they are


measurements or approximate relationships, such as

1.61 km
1 mile

65 mi
hour

speed of light =

3.00 108 m
s

Approximate equivalents do limit the sig figs for the final answer.

UNIT (DIMENSIONAL) ANALYSIS PROBLEM SOLVING


1. Write the units for the answer.
2. Determine what information to start with.
3. Arrange all other unit factorsshowing them as fractionswith correct
units in the numerator and denominator, so all units cancel except for
the units needed for the final answer.
4. Check for correct units and number of sig figs in the final answer.

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 7

Example 1:

If a marathon is 26.2 miles, how many inches are in the marathon?


(1 mile 5280 feet)

Example 2:

The speed of light is about 3.00 x 108 meters per second. Express
this speed in miles per hour. (1.609 km = 1 mile, 1000 m 1km)

1.6

SI Units (from French "le Systme International dUnits")


standard units for measurement

Metric system: A unified decimal system of measurement with a basic unit for
each type of measurement

CHM 151: Chapter 1

quantity

basic unit

symbol

length

meter

mass

gram

volume

liter

time

second

page 8

Metric Prefixes
Multiples or fractions of a basic unit are expressed as a prefix
Each prefix = power of 10
The prefix increases or decreases the base unit by a power of 10.
Prefix

Symbol

Multiple/Fraction

mega

106

kilo

103

deci

0.1 = 10-1

centi

0.01 = 10-2

milli

0.001 = 10-3

micro

(Greek mu)

106

nano

109

pico

1012

KNOW these metric units above (highlighted in Table 1.3)!

Metric Conversion Factors


Ex. 1

Ex. 2

Complete the following unit equations:


a.

1 kg = __________ g

c.

1 cm = __________ m

b.

1 s = __________ ns

d.

1 L = __________ mL

Write 2 unit factors for each of the unit equations above.

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 9

3.3

Metric-Metric Conversions: Solve the following using dimensional analysis.


Ex. 1 Convert 75 miles per hour into units of meters per second.

Ex. 2 Convert 12.0 kilograms into milligrams.

Metric-English Conversions
English system: Our general system of measurement.
Scientific measurements are exclusively metric. However, most Americans are
more familiar with inches, pounds, quarts, and other English units.
A method of conversion between the two systems is necessary.
Know these conversions!
Quantity

English unit

Metric unit

EnglishMetric conversion

length

1 inch (in)

1 cm

1 in. = 2.54 cm (exact)

mass

1 pound (lb)

1g

1 lb = 453.6 g (approximate)

volume

1 quart (qt)

1 mL

1 qt = 946.4 mL (approximate)

All other metric-English conversions will be provided on quizzes and exams.


Ex. 1

What is the mass in kilograms of a person weighing 215 lbs?

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 10

Ex. 2

What is the volume in cups for a 2.0-L bottle?

Ex. 3

A light-year (~5.88x1012 miles) is the distance light travels in one


year. Calculate the speed of light in meters per second.
(1 mile=1.61 km approx.)

Temperature:
A measure of the average energy of a single particle in a system.
The instrument for measuring temperature is a thermometer.
Temperature is generally measured with these units:
Fahrenheit degree (F) Celsius degree (C)
References

English system

Metric system

freezing pt for water

32F

0C

boiling pt for water

212F

100C

Phoenix Summer day

113F

45C

Conversion between Fahrenheit and Celsius scales:

C =
CHM 151: Chapter 1

(F - 32)
1.8

F = (C 1.8) + 32
page 11

Ex. 1

In Europe, temperature is generally reported in the Celsius scale. A


European tourist asks you how hot it is. What is the equivalent Celsius
temperature if on that cool Summer day its only 95F?

Kelvin Temperature Scale


There is a third scale for measuring temperature: the Kelvin scale.
The unit for temperature in the Kelvin scale is Kelvin (K, NOT K!).
The Kelvin scale assigns a value of zero kelvins (0 K) to the lowest possible
temperature, which we call absolute zero and corresponds to 273.15C.
(The term absolute zero is used because this is the theoretical lowest limit.)
Conversion between C and K:
K = C + 273.15

C = K 273.15

Ex. 1

The average temperature in Reykjavik, Iceland during the summer is


about 15C. What is the equivalent Kelvin temperature? What is the
equivalent Fahrenheit temperature?

Ex. 2

In the movie Terminator 2, a tanker crashes and pours out liquid nitrogen.
This freezes the T-1000 because liquid nitrogen has a temperature of 77 K.
What is the equivalent temperature in degrees Celsius?

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 12

1.7

DERIVED UNITS

Volume: Amount of space occupied by a solid, gas, or liquid.


measured using graduated cylinder, a buret, a pipet, a volumetric flask, etc.
generally in units of liters (L), milliliters (mL), or cubic centimeters (cm3)
Know the following:
1 L 1 dm3

1 mL 1 cm3

These are both exact!

DETERMINING VOLUME
Volume is determined in three principal ways:
1. Volume of any liquid can be measured directly using calibrated glassware
(graduated cylinder, pipets, burets, etc.)
2. Volume of a solid with a regular shape (rectangular, cylindrical,
uniformly spherical or cubic, etc.) can be determined by calculation.
e.g. volume of rectangular solid = length x width x thickness
3. Volume of an irregular solid is found indirectly by the amount of liquid it
displaces. This technique is called volume by displacement.

Volume By Displacement
a. Fill a graduated cylinder halfway with water, and record the initial volume.
b. Carefully place the object into the graduated cylinder so as not to splash
or lose water.
c. Record the final volume.
d. Volume of object = final volume initial volume

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 13

density: The amount of mass in a unit volume of matter


density =

mass
volume

or

m
V

generally in units of g/cm3 or g/mL

For water: 1.00 g of water occupies a volume of 1.00 cm3


d=

m
1.00 g
=
= 1 . 00 g /cm 3
3
V 1.00 cm

Applying Density as a Unit Factor


Given the density for any matter, you can always write two unit factors. For
example, the density of ice is 0.917 g/cm3.
Two unit factors would be:

0.917 g
cm 3

or

cm 3
0.917 g

Ex. 1 Aluminum has a density of 2.70 g/cm3. What is the mass of a piece of
aluminum with a volume of 0.525 cm3?

Ex. 2 Ethanol is used in alcoholic beverages and has a density of 0.789 g/mL. What
volume of ethanol (in liters) would have a mass of 500.0 mg?

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 14

Ex. 3 A piece of silver metal weighing 194.3 g is placed in a graduated cylinder


containing 242.0 mL of water. The volume of water now reads 260.5 mL.
Calculate the density of silver.

1.3

CONSERVATION OF MASS

matter: anything that has mass and volume


mass: A measure of the amount of matter an object possesses.
measured with a balance and NOT AFFECTED by gravity
MASS WEIGHT = MASS x Acceleration due to gravity
Mass is not affected by gravity!
EARTH
mass = 68 kg
weight = 150 lbs

MOON
mass = 68 kg
weight = 25 lbs

SPACE
mass = 68 kg
weight = 0 lbs

law of conservation of mass: Matter is neither created nor destroyed


reaction (rxn):

REACTANTS (starting materials)


(substances before rxn)

PRODUCTS
(substances after rxn)

Mass of the product(s) in a reaction must = mass of the reactant(s)!

For example:
Example:

CHM 151: Chapter 1

11 g hydrogen + 89 g oxygen = 100 g water


A 95-g sample of sodium chloride, NaCl, contains 58 g
of chlorine. Determine the mass of sodium in the sample.

page 15

1.4

MATTER: PHYSICAL STATE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

Matter exists in one of three physical states: solid, liquid, gas (See Fig. 1.11)
solid:

Has definite shape, fixed volume


At molecular level, particles are packed closely, in a fixed position

liquid: Fixed volume, but shape can changetakes shape of container


Particles are packed closely together but can move past each other
gas (or vapor):

Volume is variable, particles are widely spaced


If volume expands, particles move apart
If volume decreases, particles, move closer together
Takes shape of container

ELEMENTS, COMPOUNDS, AND MIXTURES


PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL PROPERTIES
Physical Properties:
physical state (solid, liquid, gas)
color
density
melting and boiling points

electrical & heat conductivity


solubility
hardness
odor

Chemical Properties: how a substance reacts with other substances

PHYSICAL & CHEMICAL CHANGES


physical change:
a process that does not alter the chemical composition of a substance
eg. changing shape, changing physical state, dissolving
eg. boiling water, melting ice, hammering gold into foil
chemical change or reaction:
a process that changes the chemical composition (and thus the chemical
formula) of starting materials (reactants)
eg. oxidation of matter (burning or rusting)
release of gas bubbles (fizzing)
formation of insoluble solid (precipitation)
release of heat or light
CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 16

pure substances:
Matter having constant composition, definite and consistent properties
Two types of pure substances:
elements:
consist of only one type of atom
cannot be broken down by chemical reaction
eg. carbon (C), hydrogen (H2), sulfur (S8), copper wire (Cu)
compounds:
consist of more than one type of atom and has a specific formula
can be broken down by chemical reaction
eg. ethanol (C2H5OH)can be broken down to C, H, & O
Two or more pure substances can combine to form mixtures:
mixtures:
consist of various compounds and/or elements, with no specific formula
Matter having variable composition with either definite or varying
properties depending on the sample
can be broken down into individual components
eg. Any alloy like brass, steel, 10-K to 18-K gold;
course mixtures like sea water, carbonated soda, salt and iron
fillings; air consists mostly of nitrogen and oxygen gases

Also, be able to identify elements, compounds, and mixtures given images at the
atomic/molecular level. (See Concept Check 1.1 on p. 14)

CHM 151: Chapter 1

page 17

Chapter 2: Atoms, Molecules, and Ions


Problems:

2.1

2.1, 2.5-2.6, 2.8,2.11-2.14, 2.17-2.19, 2.21, 2.26, 2.29-2.32, 2.35-2.40, 2.43-2.54,


2.57-2.94, 2.99-2.118

ATOMIC THEORY OF MATTER

Postulate from John Daltons Model of the Atom


1. All matter is composed of indivisible atoms.
2. An element is composed of only one type of atom
All atoms of one type of element always behave the same way.
Atoms of different elements do not behave the same way.
3. Two or more elements combine to form compounds.
law of constant composition: A compound always has the same
elements in the same proportion by mass
i.e. a compound always has the same formula
law of multiple proportions: Two elements can combine to form different
compounds (e.g. C and O can combine to form CO and CO2), and the
masses of each element for each compound are always in a fixed ratio
(because always whole #s of atoms of each element)
4. A chemical reaction involves only the separation, combination, or
rearrangement of atomsNEVER their creation or destruction.
This is also called the law of conservation of mass.
Ex. 1:

If 2.50 g of iron powder react with 1.44 g of yellow sulfur powder,


what is the mass of the iron sulfide product?

Ex. 2:

If 10.11 g of limestone (calcium carbonate) decomposes with heat to


8.51 g of calcium oxide and CO2 gas, what mass of CO2 is produced?

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 1

2.2

THE STRUCTURE OF THE ATOM

Discovery of the Electron


J. J. Thomson (1897)
demonstrated that cathode rays are composed of tiny, negatively
charged subatomic particles electrons (e)
Eugen Goldstein (late 1880s)
canal rays are composed of positively charged subatomic particle
protons (p+)
And decades later:
James Chadwick (1935), Nobel Prize winner for his discovery
neutron (n) = neutral subatomic particle
Nuclear Model of the Atom
Ernest Rutherford's Alpha-Scattering Experiment (Figure 2.8)
Alpha () particles shot at a thin gold foil
A detector set up around the foil to determine what happens to the particles
Most of a particles went straight through, some deflected, a few bounced back
Rutherfords interpretation of the scattering experiment results
Most alpha () particles pass through foil
Atom is mostly empty space with electrons moving around the space
Some particles deflected or bounce back
Atom must also contain a dense region, and particles colliding with this
region are deflected or bounce back towards source
region = atomic nucleus (contains atoms protons and neutrons)
Why this is called the Nuclear Model of the Atom
Rutherford also estimated the size of the atom and its nucleus:
nucleus (d~10-15 m)
atom (diameter ~10-10 m)

If nucleus = size of a small marble, then atom BankOne Ballpark!


CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 2

Properties of Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons


Subatomic Particle

Charge

Location

Mass (amu)

proton

+1

inside nucleus

1.00728

neutron

inside nucleus

1.00866

electron

-1

outside nucleus

0.00055

2.3

NUCLEAR STRUCTURE; ISOTOPES

Nuclide Symbol (also called Atomic Notation):


shorthand for keeping track of protons and neutrons in the nucleus
atomic number (Z): whole number of p+ = number of e in neutral atom
mass number (A): whole number sum of protons and neutrons in an atom
Note electrons contribute almost no mass to an atom

mass number=A
atomic number=Z

E element symbol

Ex. 1:

Write the atomic notation for carbon-14. How many neutrons are in
each neutral carbon-14 atom?

Ex. 2:

Write the atomic notation for uranium-235 (Z=92). How many neutrons
are in each neutral uranium-235 atom?

Isotopes
Each element always has the same number of protons, but the number of
neutrons may vary. Atoms with different numbers of neutrons are called
isotopes.
e.g. Carbon exists as carbon-12, carbon-13, and carbon-14 where each
carbon atom has 6 protons but 6, 7, or 8 neutrons
Isotopes are identified with an element name followed by the mass number
eg. uranium-235 (U-235), carbon-12 (C-12), cobalt-60 (Co-60), etc.
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 3

2.4

ATOMIC WEIGHTS

Atoms are too small to weigh directly


eg. one carbon atom has a mass of 1.99 x 10-23 gtoo inconvenient!
need more convenient unit for mass
atomic mass unit (amu)
Carbon-12 was chosen and given a mass value of 12 amu
1 amu = 1/12 the mass of carbon-12
Mass of all other atoms measured relative to mass of carbon-12
Average Atomic Mass of an Element
The mass of carbon on the Per. Table is 12.01 amu, NOT 12.00 amuWHY?!
Atomic masses reported on the Periodic Table are weighted averages of all
naturally occurring isotopes for each element.
Ex. 1 If 98.89% of carbon exists as carbon-12, which has a mass of
12.00000, while 1.11% exists as carbon-13, which has a mass of
13.00335, calculate the average atomic mass for carbon.
average atomic mass = (0.9889)(12.00000 amu) + (0.0111)(13.00335 amu)
= ____________________
Ex. 2 The atomic masses of the two stable isotopes for boron, B-10
(19.78%) and B-11 (80.22%), are 10.0129 amu and 11.0093 amu,
respectively. Calculate the average atomic mass for boron.

2.5

PERIODIC TABLE OF THE ELEMENTS

A vertical column is called a group or family.


Elements belonging to the same group exhibit similar chemical properties
e.g. Li, Na, and K all react vigorously with water; He, Ne, and Ar do not
react with any other substances
A horizontal row is called a period or series.
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 4

Main-Group (Representative or A Group) Elements


Those elements in groups 1, 2, 13, 14, 15, 16, 17, 18 (or IA to VIIIA)
Group 1 or IA: alkali metals
Group 2 or IIA: alkaline earth metals
Group 17 or VIIA: halogens
Group 18 or VIIIA: noble gases (because they are all unreactive gases)
Transition Metals (or B Group Elements)
Elements in Groups 3 to 12 (middle of the Periodic Table)
Dimitri Mendeleev proposed that elements display recurring properties
according to increasing atomic mass
first Periodic Table arranged elements according to increasing atomic mass
H.G.J. Moseleys high-energy X-ray radiation experiments of atomic nuclei
Repeating properties of elements more clearly reflected by the
arrangement of elements according to increasing atomic number
Periodic Tables arrangement today
Trends for increasing atomic mass are identical with those for increasing
atomic number, except for Ni & Co, Ar & K, Te & I.

NAMES & SYMBOLS OF THE ELEMENTS


Every element has an individual name, symbol, and number.
Convention for writing chemical symbols
Use first letter (capitalized) of element name: hydrogen H, carbon C
If symbol already used, include second letter (in lower case) of name:
helium He, calcium Ca, cobalt Co
Some symbols come from Latin names
lead=plumbum Pb
gold= shining dawn=aurum Au

Know the first 56 elements of the periodic table, as well as lead (Pb) and
uranium (U) for Exam #1. You will be given a periodic table with only the
symbols written. Spelling counts!

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 5

SOLIDS, LIQUIDS, AND GASES


KNOW the physical state of each element!
In their natural state under room temperature conditions:
Only mercury (Hg) and bromine (Br) are liquid
H, N, O, F, Cl, and all Noble gases (group VIIIA) are gases
All other elements are solids

METALS, NONMETALS, & METALLOIDS (or SEMIMETALS)


metals
shiny appearance
malleable, ductile
conduct heat & electricity
react with nonmetals
e.g. aluminum, copper, gold

nonmetals
dull appearance
brittle
nonconductor
react with metals and nonmetals
e.g. carbon, oxygen, sulfur

metalloids (or semimetals): Have properties of metals and nonmetals


Organization of the nonmetals, semimetals, metals on the Periodic Table
Nonmetals (except H) are concentrated on the top-right of the Periodic Table
Semimetals are along the stair-step
All remaining elements are metals

Diatomic Molecules: consist of two atoms


Recognize that some elements exist as diatomic molecules
H2, O2, N2, Cl2, F2, I2, Br2
These are often called the magic seven since there are seven of them, and
six of them form a 7 on the periodic table

2.6

CHEMICAL FORMULAS: MOLECULAR AND IONIC SUBSTANCES

molecule: a compound of two or more nonmetal atoms, which are held together
by covalent bond
A molecular formula indicates how many atoms are actually present
e.g. in water, H2O, there are 2 H atoms and 1 O atom
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 6

chemical formulas:
Symbolically express the number of atoms of each element in a compound
Number of atoms is indicated by a subscript following the elements symbol
(If there is no subscript, only one atom of that element is in the compound.)
Some chemical formulas use parentheses
more than one of that subunit present in the compound
e.g. C2H4(OH)2 has 2 C, 6 H, and 2 O
Example: How many atoms of each element are in TNT: C7H5(NO2)3?
___ C atoms, ___ H atoms, ___ N atom, ___ O atoms

IONIC SUBSTANCES
When atoms lose or gain electrons, they form charged particles called ions.
Metals lose es
positively charged ions = cations
Nonmetals gain es,
negatively charged ions = anions
Main-group elements generally form ions--i.e. gain or lose electrons--to get the
same number of electrons as a noble gas
Ions from representative metals are usually isoelectronic withi.e. have the
same number of electrons asone of the noble gases!
Charges shown as superscripts
Group IA elements +1 charge: Li+, Na+, K+, etc. (+ = +1)
Group IIA elements +2 charge: Mg+2, Ca+2, Sr+2, Ba+2,etc.
Group IIIA elements +3 charge: Al+3
Group IVA elements +4 charge: Sn+4, Pb+4
Group VA elements 3 charge: N3, P3
Group VIA elements 2 charge: O2, S2, Se2
Group VIIA elements 1 charge: F, Cl, Br, I,etc.
monoatomic ions: from a single atom (eg Na+, Cl, O2)
polyatomic ions: from 2 or more atoms (eg. OH, MnO4, SO42)

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 7

ionic compound: a compound composed of a metal + nonmetal(s), which


are held together by an ionic bond (electrostatic attraction)
An ionic compound is actually a network of ions, with each cation surrounded
by anions, and vice versa. A 2-dimensional slice would look like this:

Why ionic compounds have the highest melting points compared to


other substances
to melt the crystal solid, all the bonds between ions have to be broken
formula unit: simplest unit of an ionic compound--e.g. NaCl, Fe2O3, Fe2(SO4)3
represent the ratio of ions present in the compound, not the
actual number of ions

NAMING IONIC COMPOUNDS


CATIONS: positively charged ions
Metal atoms lose valence electrons to form cations.
I. Groups IA, IIA, IIIA elements, silver (Ag), zinc (Zn) and cadmium (Cd) form
only one type of ion each:
Group IA elements +1 charge always (e.g. Li+=lithium ion)
Group IIA elements +2 charge always (e.g. Mg+2=magnesium ion)
Group IIIA elements +3 charge always (e.g. Al+3=aluminum ion)
+
2+
2+
silver ion = Ag ; zinc ion = Zn ; cadmium ion = Cd

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 8

II. The Stock system is used to name most transition metals, Sn, Pb, and other
metals that form more than one ion:
+2
+3
e.g. iron (Fe), a transition metal, forms 2 different ions: Fe and Fe ,
+2
+4
e.g. lead (Pb), in Group IVA, forms 2 different ions: Pb and Pb
When a metal can form more than one ion, each ion is named:
element name (charge in Roman numerals) + ion
Cu + = copper (I) ion
Cu 2+= copper (II) ion

Pb 2+= lead (II) ion


Pb 4+= lead (IV) ion

Na = ________________________

3+

Co = ________________________

2+

= ________________________

Ba = ________________________

3+

= ________________________

Cd = ________________________

Ni
Al

Fe 2+= iron (II) ion


Fe 3+= iron (III) ion

2+

2+

ANIONS: formed only by nonmetals


When a nonmetal forms an ion, it is named:
element stem name + -ide suffix + ion
e.g.

O2 = oxide ion
N = nitrogen atom N3 = nitride ion
O = oxygen atom

= ________________________

F = ________________________

Br = ________________________

Cl = ________________________

POLYATOMIC IONS
Know the formulas and names of the following polyatomic ions:
NH4+ = ammonium ion
Hg22+ = mercury (I) ion
MnO4 = permanganate ion
C2H3O2 = acetate ion
PO43 = phosphate ion
CN = cyanide ion
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

CrO42 = chromate ion


Cr2O72 = dichromate ion
SO42 = sulfate ion
SO32 = sulfite ion
NO3 = nitrate ion
NO2 = nitrite ion
OH = hydroxide ion

CO32 = carbonate ion


HCO3 = hydrogen
carbonate ion

ClO = hypochlorite ion


ClO2 = chlorite ion
ClO3 = chlorate ion
ClO4 = perchlorate ion
page 9

WRITING CHEMICAL FORMULAS


formulas of compounds:

Cation + anion symbols and number of each

Compounds should be neutral +ve charges = -ve charge


Simple techniques for writing chemical formulas:
1. If both ions have charges that are exactly opposite (+1 & -1, 2+ & -2, etc.),
formula contains one of each (This also applies for polyatomic ions.)
Na+ + Cl NaCl

and

Na+ + CN NaCN

K+ + Cl ___________

K+ + NO3 ___________

Mg2+ + O2 ___________

Mg2+ + SO42 ___________

Al3+ + N3 ___________

Al3+ + PO43 ___________

2. For monatomic ions with different charges, use the crossover rule:
Make the negative charge the subscript of cation, and make positive charge
Ba
Al

2+

3+

+ Cl
2

+ O

3. For polyatomic ions, where ions have different charges, also use the crossover rule
Express more than one polyatomic ion with subscripts and parentheses.
Ba
Al

2+

3+

+ NO3
+ CO3

EXCEPTION FOR CROSSOVER RULE: Ions with +4 and 2 charges!


Pb

+4

+ O

Ionic compound formulas must reflect lowest ratio of elements


Instead of Pb2O4, it should be PbO2 !
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 10

Also applies to polyatomic ions!


Pb

+4

+ SO4

NAMING COMPOUNDS
Given known charges for some elements get charge on transition metals!
I. If one of each (cation & anion) present same but opposite signs
(a)CuCl: Cl ion has what charge? ______
Cu ion must have what charge? ______ and what formula? ______
What is the name for the Cu ion in this compound? _______________
What is the name of this compound? _______________
(b)FeS: S ion has what charge? ______
Fe ion must have what charge? ______ and what formula? ______
What is the name for the Fe ion in this compound? _______________
What is the name of this compound? _______________
Also applies to polyatomic ions:
(a)CuSO4: SO4 ion has what charge? ______
Cu ion must have what charge? ______ and what formula? ______
What is the name for the Cu ion in this compound? _______________
What is the name of this compound? _______________

(b)FePO4: PO4 ion has what charge? ______


Fe ion must have what charge? ______ and what formula? ______
What is the name for the Fe ion in this compound? _______________
What is the name of this compound? _______________

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 11

II. If ions have different charges reverse crossover, making subscripts the
charges with positive sign on cation and negative sign on anion.
(Also applies to polyatomic ions.)
Get the individual ions for each compound below:

Co2O3

Fe2(CO3)3
EXCEPTION FOR CROSSOVER RULE: Ions with +4 and 2 charges

PbS2

Sulfide ion must have -2 charge, so 2 sulfide ions total charge = 4


To get overall charge of zero on compound, Pb must have +4 charge!

Naming Ionic Compounds:


1. Get the individual ions for each compound
2. CATION NAME + ANION NAME, minus ion Name of compound
Ex.

CaCl2 =

______________ ______________________
individual ions

name of compound

Fe2S3 =

______________ ______________________

BaSO4 =

______________ ______________________

Co(NO3)3 =

______________ ______________________

Na3P =

______________ ______________________

Cu2CO3 =

______________ ______________________

TiO2 =

______________ ______________________

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 12

Given the name of a compound, predict the formula:


KNOWING charges on ions formed by representative elements!
KNOWING how to use polyatomic ions and their charges when given to you!
cesium bromide:

____________________

_____________
individual ions

formula of compound

copper (I) sulfide: _____________

_______________________

barium chloride:

_______________________

_____________

lead (IV) phosphide:

_____________ _______________________

iron (III) nitrite:

_____________

_______________________

silver hydroxide:

_____________

_______________________

tin (II) permanganate: _____________ _______________________


calcium phosphate:

_____________ _______________________

Binary Molecular Compounds:

composed of 2 or more nonmetals

NAMING:
# of atoms of element indicated by Greek prefix before element name
1. For first element, Greek prefix + element name
2. For second element, Greek prefix + element name stem + "ide"
If only one atom present, mono- is generally omitted,
except in a few cases (eg. CO=carbon monoxide)
# of atoms

Greek prefix

# of atoms

Greek prefix

mono

hexa

di

hepta

tri

octa

tetra

nona

penta

10

deca

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 13

Examples: CO2= carbon dioxide


P4O10=

_________________________________

CCl4=

_________________________________

SF6=

_________________________________

Cl2O5=

_________________________________

Some binary molecular compounds also have common names


e.g. everyone knows (or should know) H2O is water
Common compounds and names you need to know:
NH3 = ammonia

CH4 = methane

H2O2 = hydrogen peroxide

ACIDS: Aqueous solutions of a compound that releases H+ ions


usually have H in front, in water indicated by aqueous (aq)
naming depends on the ion from which the acid forms
add # of H's equal
to negative charge

HF (aq) = hydrofluoric acid


F = fluoride ion
add # of H's equal
to negative charge

HNO2 (aq) = nitrous acid


NO2 = nitrite ion

add # of H's equal


to negative charge

HNO3 (aq) = nitric acid


NO3 = nitrate ion
For some acids, the stem name changes:
2

add # of H's equal


to negative charge

add # of H's equal


to negative charge

H2SO3 (aq) = sulfurous acid


SO3 = sulfite ion
H2SO4 (aq) = sulfuric acid
SO4 = sulfate ion
Exercises:
add # of H's equal
to negative charge

________ (aq) = __________________


Cl = ___________
add # of H's equal
to negative charge

________ (aq) = _________________


CrO4 = ___________
-

add # of H's equal


to negative charge

_______ (aq) = _______________


C2H3O2 = ___________
3

add # of H's equal


to negative charge

________ (aq) = ________________


PO4 = ___________
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 14

Hydrates: Has a specific # of water molecules bonded per formula unit.

CuSO45 H2O (s)


hydrate
(contains 5 "waters of hydration")

Naming a hydrate:
name of anhydrous salt

CuSO4 (s)

5 H2O (l)

anhydrous salt
(has no waters)

+ Greek prefix indicating


number of waters

"hydrate"

CuSO45 H2O: ____________________________


CaCl26 H2O: ____________________________
2.9

WRITING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS (EQNS)

chemical equation: formulas and symbols describing a chemical rxn


A + B
reactants

starting
materials

C + D
products
substance(s) resulting
from chemical rxn

Physical state of all reactants and products are indicated using subscripts:
(s) = solid
(l) = liquid
(g)= gas
(aq) = aqueous (ions or compounds in solution)
Example:

HCl (aq) + NaHCO3 (s)

NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (g)

2.10 BALANCING CHEMICAL EQUATIONS


coefficient: Whole #s in front of each reactant or product, indicating how
many of each is present
subscript: Whole # following each element in a compound, indicating the # of each
element present
CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

page 15

Balancing by Inspection GUIDELINES


1. Count the # of elements on both sides of the equation
2. Change the coefficients (NEVER the subscripts) to get the same # of elements on
both sides of the equation
Balance the equation using the following order:
Metals
Polyatomic ions Balance as a whole!
Hydrogen
Carbon
Oxygen
All other atoms
Examples:
______ H2 (g)

______ Cl2 (g)

______ Al (s)

______ O2 (g)

______ C5H12 (l)

______ O2 (g)

______ HCl (g)

______ Al2O3 (s)

______ H2O (g) + ______ CO2 (g)

Treat polyatomic ions as ONE UNITDo not break them up into atoms!
______ Ca(C2H3O2) 2 (aq)

______ K3PO4 (aq)

______ Ca3(PO4) 2 (s) +


______ Al2(SO4) 3 (aq)

CHM 151: Ebbing Chapter 2 Notes

______ KC2H3O2 (aq)

______ Ba(NO3) 2 (aq)

______ BaSO4 (s) +

______ Al(NO3) 3 (aq)

page 16

Chapter 3: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Equations


Problems: 3.2-3.3, 3.6-3.7, 3.10, 3.13, 3.17-3.94, 3.97-3.106

3.2 The Mole Concept


Avogadros Number (NA) = 6.02 x 1023 (to 3 sig figs)
1 mole (abbreviated mol) = 6.02 x 1023 entities
Similar to: 1 dozen = 12 entities:
1 dozen doughnuts = 12 doughnuts
1 mole of doughnuts = 6.02 x 1023 doughnuts
How many eggs are in 3 dozen eggs? ___________________
How many eggs are in 3 moles of eggs?

How many C atoms are in 3 mol of C atoms?

Atomic weights and molar masses:


The mass of 1 C atom (on average) is 12.01 amu
The mass of 1 mole of C atoms is 12.01 g (or 12.01 g/mol)
1 mole (6.02 x 1023) is the amount of atoms of any element
that has a mass in grams equal to the mass of ONE atom in amu.
The atomic masses reported for each element in the Periodic Table gives
the atomic weight (or molecular/formula weight for compounds)
in amu and the molar mass in g/mol.
Ex.

What is the molar mass for each of the following?


(Use the atomic masses reported for each in the Periodic Table.)
a. Mg

c. Ar

b. Si

d. Sn

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 1 of 14

Molar mass (MM): Mass in grams of 1 mole of any element/compound


To obtain, multiply the molar mass of each element by the number of each
present, then add up all the constituent parts.
Ex. Determine the molar mass of each of the following compounds:
a. O 2:

2 (molar mass of O) = 2 (16.00 g/mol) = 32.00 g/mol

b. H3PO4:

c. Al2(SO4)3:

Mole Calculations
Ex. 1 How many moles of Ne are in 0.500 g Ne?

Ex. 2 How many Ne atoms are in 0.500 g of Ne?

Ex. 3 How many moles of CO2 are in 0.500 g of CO2?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 2 of 14

Ex. 4 How many CO2 molecules are in 0.500 g of CO2?

Ex. 5 How many oxygen atoms are in 0.500 g of CO2?

Molar Volume: Volume occupied by 1 mole of any gas


Avogadro's Law:

At the same temperature and pressure, equal volumes


of gases contain the same number of molecules

Standard temperature and pressure (STP): T=0C and P=1.00 atm


At STP, 1 mole of gas occupies 22.4L!
(3 sig figs)

Molar Volume Calculations


Ex. 1 How many moles of He occupy a volume of 3.36L at STP?

Ex.

2 What mass of SO3 occupies a volume of 2.05 L at STP?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 3 of 14

Ex. 3

What is the volume occupied by 5.000 g of NH3 at STP?

Ex. 4

How many Ne atoms are present in 0.124 L of Ne gas at STP?

3.3

Mass Percentages from the Formula

mass percentage:

The mass of one element in a compound divided by


the mass of the entire compound

Steps to determine percentage composition:


1. Calculate the mass of each individual element in the compound
2. Add up all the masses of each element to get the total mass of compound
3. Divide the mass of each individual element with the total mass of
compound
Ex. 1 What is the percent composition of C and O in CO2?

Ex. 2 What is the percent composition of Fe and O in rust, Fe2O3?

Ex. 3 What is the mass of iron in 5.00 g of rust?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 4 of 14

3.4

Elemental Analysis; Percentages of Carbon, Hydrogen, &


Oxygen

When a hydrocarbon (i.e. a compound containing only carbon and hydrogen)


or a hydrocarbon derivative (containing carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen) is
burned, the products are carbon dioxide and steam:
CxHyOz (g) +

O2 (g)

CO2 (g) + H2O (g)

Thus, if you have an unknown hydrocarbon is burned, we can use the amount
of carbon dioxide and steam formed to determine the mass percentage of
carbon and hydrogen in the original hydrocarbon.
What to keep in mind:
1. All the C in the CO2 came from original compound
mass of C in the CO2 equals mass of C present in the original compound
2. All the H in the H2O came from original compound
mass of H in the H2O equals mass of H present in the original compound
3. If there is O in the original compound:
mass of O in original = mass of original mass of C mass of H
4. Divide the mass of each component by the mass of the compound to get the
mass percentage
Ex. 1 Combustion of an 11.5-mg sample of ethanol produces 22.0 mg of CO2
and 13.5 mg of H2O. What is the mass percentage of carbon, hydrogen,
and oxygen in ethanol?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 5 of 14

Ex. 2 Cumene is a hydrocarboni.e., it contains only carbon and hydrogen,


and it is used in the production of acetone and phenol. Combustion of
47.6 mg of cumene produces 156.8 mg of CO2 and 42.8 mg of water.
Calculate the mass percentage of carbon and hydrogen in cumene.

3.5

Determining Formulas

Empirical Formula: Simplest whole-number ratio of atoms in a compound


Molecular Formula: Chemical formula of a compound that expresses the
actual number of atoms present in one molecule.
The molecular formula will either be exactly the
same as or some multiple of the empirical formula!
What is the empirical formula of benzene, C6H6? __________
What is the molecular formula of benzene, C6H6? __________
What is the empirical formula of ascorbic acid, C6H8O6? _____________
What is the molecular formula of ascorbic acid, C6H8O6? ____________
Guidelines for Determining the Empirical Formula of a Compound
1. Find the # mols of each element in the compound
2. Divide each # mols of each element by smallest # mols to get ratio of
atoms
3. Get a whole number ratio for all atoms in the compound:
If within 0.1 of a whole number, round to that whole number
If any ratio ends close to .5 multiply ALL subscripts by 2
If any ratio ends close to .33 or .66 multiply ALL subscripts by 3
CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 6 of 14

Empirical Formula from Composition


Ex. 1: Determine the empirical formula for iron oxide if a sample of iron oxide
consists of 3.497 g of Fe and 1.503 g of O?

Determining Molecular Formula


1. Follow the same steps for determining empirical formula.
2. For the Molecular Formula, you need to be given the molar mass of the
compound. Find the molar mass of the empirical formula.
3. Divide the molar mass of the compound by the molar mass of the
empirical formula to get the factor with which to multiply each subscript in
the empirical formula.
Ex. 2: Acetylene is a hydrocarbon, a compound that consists only of carbon
and hydrogen. A 4.500-g sample of acetylene was analzyed and found
to contain 4.151 g of carbon. If acetylene has a molar mass of
26.0 g/mol, determine both the empirical formula and the molecular
formula for acetylene.

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 7 of 14

Empirical and Molecular Formulas from Percent Composition:


1. Assume 100.0 g of the compound change percentages to grams!
2. Follow the same steps for determining empirical formula.
3. Divide the molar mass of the compound by the molar mass of the
empirical formula to get the factor with which to multiply each subscript in
the empirical formula.
Ex. 3: Quinine is used as an antimalarial drug. An analysis of quinine
Indicates the compound consists of 74.03% carbon, 7.47% hydrogen,
8.64% nitrogen, and 9.86% oxygen. If quinine's molar mass is
325 g/mol, determine the empirical and molecular formulas for quinine.

3.4

Molar Interpretation of a Chemical Equation


A + B

products

starting
materials

substance(s) resulting
from chemical reaction

Interpreting a Chemical Equation


H2 (g) +
Cl2 (g)
1 molecule

1 molecule

2 H2 (g)

____ molecule(s)
CHEM 151 Chapter 3

C + D

reactants

2 HCl (g)
2 molecules

O2 (g)

____ molecule(s)
page 8 of 14

2 H2O (g)
____ molecules

It follows that any multiples of these coefficients will be in same ratio!

2 H2 (g)
+
O2 (g)
2 H2O(g)
1000

_____ molecule(s)

_____ molecule(s)

_____ molecule(s)

_____ molecule(s)

_____ molecule(s)

_____ molecule(s)

Since N = Avogadros # = 6.021023 molecules = 1 mole


2 H2 (g)
___ mole(s)

O2 (g)

___ mole(s)

2 H2O(g)
___ mole(s)

Thus, the coefficients in a chemical equation give the mole ratios of reactants
and products in a chemical equation.
Stoichiometry (STOY-key-OM-e-tree): calculation of the quantities of
reactants and products involved in a chemical reaction
3.7

Amounts of Substances in a Chemical Reaction

Consider the following:

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g)

2 H2O (g)

1. Use unit factors to determine how many moles of O2 are needed to


completely react with 2.25 moles of CH4.

2. How many moles of CO2 form when 5.25 moles of O2 completely react?

3. How many moles of H2O form when 7.50 moles of CO2 form?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 9 of 14

Mass-Mass Stoichiometry Problems


MASS OF
KNOWN

Ex. 1:

Molar
Mass

MOLES OF MOLE-MOLE
Ratio
KNOWN

MOLES OF
UNKNOWN

Molar
Mass

MASS OF
UNKNOWN

Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) have a negative impact on the


environment. One of the most common CFCs is CFC-12 or freon-12,
which has the formula CCl2F2 and can be prepared from the reaction
between hydrogen fluoride gas, HF, and carbon tetrachloride, CCl4.
2 HF (g) + CCl4 (l) CCl2F2 (g) + 2 HCl (g)

1. Calculate the mass of CCl4 necessary to react completely with 50.0 g of HF.

2. Calculate the mass of CCl2F2 produced when 50.0 g of HF reacts completely.

Mass-Volume Stoichiometry Problems


MASS OF
KNOWN

Molar
Mass

MOLES OF MOLE-MOLE
Ratio
KNOWN

Molar Volume

MOLES OF
of a GAS =
UNKNOWN 22.4 L/mol

VOLUME OF
UNKNOWN

MOLES OF
UNKNOWN

MASS OF
UNKNOWN

OR
Molar Volume

VOLUME OF
of a GAS =
22.4 L/mol
KNOWN

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

MOLES OF
KNOWN

MOLE-MOLE
Ratio

page 10 of 14

Molar
Mass

Ex. 1:

Calculate the volume (in liters) of hydrogen gas produced when


0.165 g of aluminum metal reacts completely with dilute HCl at STP,
2 Al (s) + 6 HCl (aq)
2 AlCl3 (aq) + 3 H2 (g)

Ex. 2:

An automobile airbag inflates when N2 gas results from the explosive


decomposition of sodium azide (NaN3),
2 NaN3 (s)

spark

2 Na (s) + 3 N2 (g)

Calculate the mass of NaN3 needed to produce 50.0 L of N2 gas at STP.

3.8 LIMITING REACTANT (LIMITING REAGENT)


In practice, reactants will not always be present in the exact amounts necessary
for all reactants to be converted completely into products.
Only in a limited supply of the some reactants (usually the more expensive) are
present, so these are completely used up
limiting reagent(s) since they limit the amount of product that can be
made
Some reactants (usually the least expensive) are present in larger amounts and
are never complete used up
reactant(s) in excess

GUIDELINES FOR SOLVING LIMITING REAGENT PROBLEMS:


1. Calculate the mass of any product that can be made from each reactant
Use mass-mass or mass-volume conversions
2. Whichever reactant produces the smaller amount of product
limiting reagent
3. All other reactant(s) reactant in excess
CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 11 of 14

PANCAKES
MAKING BISQUICK
2 cups Bisqui ck
1 cup milk
2 eggs

14 pancakes

2 cups of Bisquick + 1 cup milk + 2 eggs 14 pancakes


Ex. 1 If you have 10 cups of Bisquick, 10 cups of milk, and 14 eggs, how many
pancakes can you make? Indicate the limiting reagent(s) and the
reagent(s) in excess.

Consider:

1 lb Bisquick= 6 cups of Bisquick


1 gallon of milk = 16 cups milk

If you have 3.0 lbs of Bisquick, 2.0 gallon of milk, and a dozen eggs,
a. How many dozen pancakes can you make?
b. What is the limiting reagent?
c. What are the reagents in excess?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 12 of 14

Consider the reaction to produce ammonia:


N2 (g)

3 H2 (g)

2 NH3 (g)

Ex. 1

How many moles of ammonia form if 10.0 moles of N2 reacts with


20.0 moles of H2? (Indicate the limiting reagent and reagent in excess.)

Ex. 2.

If 50.0 g of N2 reacts with 10.0 g of H2,


a. What mass of ammonia is produced?
b. Indicate the limiting reagent and the reactant in excess.
c. What mass of the reactant in excess remains after the reaction?

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 13 of 14

Experimental yield; Percent Yield


Percent yield =

actual yield
100%
theoretical yield

theoretical yield: Amount of product one should get based on the chemical
equation and the amount of reactants present
One generally calculates this in grams from info given
actual yield: Amount of product one actually obtains
Generally smaller than the theoretical yield because of
impurities and other adverse conditions in the lab
This value is generally given for a problem

Example: For the reaction of 50.0 g of N2 with 10.0 g of H2, we determined the
theoretical yield of anmmonia to be what? (See Ex. 2 on p. 13)
theoretical yield = ________________________
If 49.6 g of ammonia was actually produced, calculate the percent
yield for the reaction.
percent yield =

CHEM 151 Chapter 3

page 14 of 14

Chapter 4: Chemical Reactions


Problems: 1-3, 5-6, 11, 18, 20-40, 43b, 44a, 46, 47-56, 59-72, 79-92, 95-98, 101-104

solution: composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent


solute: component present in smaller amount
solvent: component present in greater amount
aqueous solution: solution where water is the dissolving medium (the solvent)
Evidence for Chemical Reactions
1. A gas is producedindicated by bubbles
2. A precipitate (ppt) is formed when 2 solutions are combined
3. Heat energy change is noted
exothermic reaction: releases heat (reaction vessel feels hot)
endothermic reaction: absorbs heat (reaction vessel feels cold)
Types of Chemical Reactions
Precipitation Reactions (also called double-replacement reactions)
Acid-Base Neutralization Reaction
Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Reactions (also called combination,
decomposition, and single-replacement reactions)
4.3

PRECIPITATION REACTIONS
soluble
= ions stay in solution (no solid/precipitate)
insoluble = solid/precipitate forms

Solubility Rules: Indicate if an ionic compound is soluble/insoluble in water.


Solubility Rules for Ionic Compounds in Water
Soluble if the ionic compound contains:

Insoluble if the ionic compound contains:

1. Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+ (ALWAYS!)

6. Carbonate ion (CO32-), but Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+

2. Nitrate ion (NO3)

7. Chromate ion (CrO42-), but Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+

3. Acetate ion (C2H3O2)

8. Phosphate ion (PO43-), but Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+

4. Halide ions (X): chloride (Cl), bromide


(Br), or iodide ion (I), but AgX, PbX2,
and Hg2X2 are insoluble

9. Sulfide ion (S2), but compounds with Li+, Na+,


K+, NH4+, and CaS, SrS, and BaS are soluble.

(SO42-),

but CaSO4, BaSO4,


5. Sulfate ion
and PbSO4 are insoluble.

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

10. Hydroxide ion (OH), but compounds with


Li+, Na+, K+, NH4+, Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, and
Ba(OH)2 are soluble.

page 1 of 18

Ex. 1 Use the Solubility Rules to predict whether the following ionic compounds
are soluble or insoluble. Indicate the physical state as (aq) for soluble
compounds and (s) for insoluble compounds.
a. NaCl

e. CaS

i. K2CO3

b. CuS

f. Li2CrO4

j. Ag3PO4

c. Na2SO4

g. Mg(OH)2

k. Li2S

d. KOH

h. BaSO 4

l. (NH4)2S

In a precipitation reaction, two solutions react to form a precipitate:


AX (aq) + BZ (aq)

AZ (s) + BX (aq)

To balance and complete the following reactions:


1. Exchange the anions, writing the formulas for the products based on
the charges of the ions!
2. Use the Solubility Rules to determine if each product is soluble or insoluble
If one (or more) is/are insoluble, a precipitate reaction has occurred,
so write the formulas for the products, indicating the precipitate as (s), then
balance the equation.
If both products are solubleboth (aq)then write NR=no reaction.
1.

MgSO4 (aq)

2.

CaCl2 (aq)

3.

KC2H3O2 (aq)

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

NaOH (aq)

AgNO3 (aq)

LiNO3 (aq)

page 2 of 18

4.4

ACID-BASE (NEUTRALIZATION) REACTIONS:

Arrhenius Definitions:
acid: A substance that releases hydrogen ions (H+) when dissolved in water
Some acids are monoprotic (release only H+ per molecule)
e.g. HCl, HBr, HI, HNO3, HClO4
Some acids are polyprotic (release more than on H+ per molecule)
e.g. H2SO4 and H2CO3 are both diprotic, H3PO4 is triprotic
base: A substance that releases hydroxide ions (OH) when dissolved in water
In an acid-base reaction,
Hydrogen ions (H+) from acid react with the hydroxide ions (OH) from base
water, H2O
The cation (M+) from the base combines with the anion from the acid (X)
the salt.
A general equation for an acid-base neutralization reaction is shown below:
HX (aq) + MOH (aq)
acid

H2O (l) + MX (aq)

base

water

salt

Because water is always produced, an acid always reacts with a base!


Ex. 1 Complete and balance each of the equations below:
NaOH (aq)

a.

HCl (aq) +

b.

H2SO4 (aq) +

KOH (aq)

c.

H3PO4 (aq) +

Ca(OH)2 (aq)

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 3 of 18

Brnsted-Lowry Definitions:
acid: A substance that donates a proton (H+)
base: A substance that accepts a proton (H+)
It need not contain hydroxide ion (OH).
According to Brnsted-Lowry, an acid-base reaction simply involves a
proton transfer, not necessarily the formation of water and a salt.
Consider the following acid-base reaction:
HCl (aq)

NH3 (aq) NH4+ (aq)

B-L acid

Cl (aq)

B-L base

Ex. 1 Indicate the Brnsted-Lowry acid and base in each of the following:
a.

NH3 (aq)

b.

NH3 (aq)

H2O (l)

NH4+ (aq)

HNO3 (l) NH4+ (aq)

OH (aq)

NO3 (aq)

Acid-Base Reactions with Gas Formation


Some acid-base reactions involve the formation of carbon dioxide gas, CO2
(g), in addition to water and a salt.
When the base contain carbonate ion (CO32) or hydrogen carbonate ion
(HCO3), then the products of the acid-base reaction are water, carbon
dioxide gas, and a salt.
The general equations for the unbalanced acid-base reactions are below:
HX (aq) + MCO3 (aq)
acid

base

HX (aq) + MHCO3 (aq)


acid

base

H2O (l) + CO2 (g) + MX (aq)


water

carbon dioxide

salt

H2O (l) + CO2 (g) + MX (aq)


water

carbon dioxide

salt

Because water is always produced, an acid always reacts with a base!

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 4 of 18

Ex. 1 Complete and balance each of the equations below:


Na2CO3 (aq)

a.

HCl (aq) +

b.

HNO3 (aq) +

CaCO3 (aq)

c.

H2SO4 (aq) +

KHCO3 (aq)

4.1 Ionic Theory of Solutions and Solubility Rules


Strong Acids

Strong Bases

HCl, HBr , HI,


HNO3, HClO4, H2SO4

LiOH, NaOH, KOH,


Ca(OH)2, Sr(OH)2, Ba(OH)2

strong electrolytes: substances that are strong/good conductors of


electricity
strong acids, strong bases, all soluble salts
These substances dissociate to produce many ions in water
many ions present to move electrons/conduct electricity
strong electrolyte
weak electrolytes: substances that are weak/poor conductors of electricity
weak acids, weak bases, insoluble salts
These substances barely dissociate to produce only a few ions in water
few ions to move electrons/conduct electricity
weak electrolyte
nonelectrolytes: substances that cannot conduct electricity
sugar (e.g. sucrose), ethanol (C2H5OH), and other molecules that are not
acids
These molecules do not break down into ions.
these compounds remain intact as neutral molecules that have no charge
no ions to move electrons/conduct electricity.

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 5 of 18

4.2 MOLECULAR AND IONIC EQUATIONS


molecular equation:

chemical equation showing reactants and products


are compounds

total/complete ionic equation:


shows strong electrolytes as individual ions while all solids, liquids, gases,
and weak electrolytes remain intact as compounds
spectator ions: ions that do not form solids, liquids, gases, or weak
electrolytes
appear on both sides of total ionic equation as ions
net ionic equations: shows only solids, liquids, gases, weak electrolytes
(weak acids and weak bases), and ions undergoing
reaction
excludes spectator ions

Guidelines for Writing Net Ionic Equations


1. Balance the chemical equation.
2. Convert the molecular equation to total ionic equation
Leave solids, liquids, gases, and weak acids and bases as compounds
Break down strong acids, strong bases, all aqueous saltsshow as (aq)
3. Cancel spectator ions to get net ionic equation
If canceling spectator ions eliminates all ions NO REACTION (NR)
If coefficients can be simplified, do so to get the lowest ratio.
4. Make sure total charges (+ve and ve) are equal on both sides of equation.

Write the net ionic equation for each of the following:


a.

H2SO4 (aq) +

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

NaOH (aq)

H2O (l) +

Na2SO4 (aq)

page 6 of 18

b.

H3PO4 (aq) +

c.

Na2SO4 (aq) +

d.

KBr (aq) +

KOH (aq)

H2O (l) +

K3PO4 (aq)

NaNO3 (aq) +

Ba(NO3)2 (aq)

Cu(C2H3O2)2 (aq)

CuBr2 (aq) +

BaSO4 (s)

KC2H3O2 (aq)

4.10 OXIDATION-REDUCTION (REDOX) REACTIONS


Combination Reactions: A + Z AZ
Usually, a metal and a nonmetal react to form a solid ionic compound:
metal + nonmetal
where

ionic compound (s)

indicates the reactants are also heated.

Ex. 1 Complete and balance each of the equations below:

a.

Na (s) +

Cl2 (g)

b.

Al (s) +

O2 (g)

c.

Zn (s) +

S8 (s)

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 7 of 18

Decomposition Reactions:

AZ A + Z

Balance the following decomposition reactions:


a. _____ Ca(HCO3)2 (s) _____ CaCO3 (s) + _____ H2O (l) + _____ CO2 (g)
b. _____ KClO3 (s)

MnO 2
,

_____ KCl (s) + _____ O2 (g)

ACTIVITY SERIES: Relative order of elements arranged by their


Li > K > Ba > Sr > Ca > Na > Mg > Al > Mn > Zn >
Fe > Cd > Co > Ni > Sn > Pb > (H) > Cu > Ag > Au
Note: The Activity Series will be given to you on quizzes and exams.
Displacement Reactions: A + BZ
metal A + aqueous soln B

AZ + B
aqueous soln A + metal B

To balance and complete the following rxns:


Check the Activity Series to see which metal is more active.
The more active metal will prefer to be in solution (aq).
1.

Mg (s) +

CdSO4 (aq)

2.

Cd (s) +

CuSO4 (aq)

3.

Cu (s) +

ZnSO4 (aq)

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 8 of 18

To balance and complete the following rxns:


Check the Activity Series to see which metal is more active, the metal or H.
The more active metal will prefer to be in solution (aq).
metal A + aqueous acid solution
1.

Zn (s) +

2.

Cu (s) +

aqueous solution A + H2 (g)

HCl (aq)

HCl (aq)

ACTIVE METALS: Li > K > Ba > Sr > Ca > Na


React directly with water
active metal + H2O (l) metal hydroxide + H2 (g)
1.

Na +

H2O (l)

2.

Fe +

H2O (l)

COMBUSTION RXNS:

1.

C3H8 (g) +

2.

C6H6O (l) +

3.

C2H2 (g) +

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

CxHy + O2 (g)
H2O (g) + CO2 (g)

CxHyOz + O2 (g)
H2O (g) + CO2 (g)

O2 (g)

O2 (g)

O2 (g)

page 9 of 18

OXIDATION NUMBERS: actual or hypothetical charge of an atom in a


compound if it existed as a monatomic ion
Guidelines for Assigning Oxidation Numbers
1. The oxidation number of an element in its natural form is 0.
e.g. the oxidation number is zero for each element in H2, O2, Cl2, P4, Na, etc.
2. The oxidation number of a monatomic ion is the charge on the ion.
e.g. the oxidation number of Na in Na+ is +1; the oxidation number of N in
N3 is -3; the oxidation numbers for Al2O3 are +3 for Al and 2 in O.
3. In a compound or polyatomic ion,
Group I elements are always +1.
Group II elements are always +2.
Fluorine is always 1.
Oxygen is usually 2 (except in the peroxide ion, O22, when O is 1)
Hydrogen is usually +1
(except when it is with a metal, like NaH or CaH2, then it is 1)
4. In a compound, the sum of all oxidation numbers must equal 0.
In a polyatomic ion, the sum of all oxidation numbers must equal charge.
Example: Determine the oxidation number for each element in the following:
a. H2SO4: H: _____, S: _____, O: _____
b. KClO3: K: _____, Cl: _____, O: _____
c. CaCr2O7: Ca: _____, Cr: _____, O: _____
d. C2O42: C: _____, O: _____
e. Ni(OH)2: Ni: _____, O: _____, H: _____
Oxidation: lose electrons (oxidation number goes up)
Reduction: gain electrons (oxidation number goes down)
In a redox reaction
One reactant Loses Electrons/is Oxidized (LEO)
Another reactant Gains Electrons/is Reduced (GER)
An easy way to remember is LEO the lion goes GER!
The element or reactant that is oxidized is the reducing agent.
The element or reactant that is reduced is the oxidizing agent.
CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 10 of 18

For each of the following reactions,


1. Balance the equation.
2. Identify the reactant that is oxidized and the reactant that is reduced.
3. Identify the oxidizing agent and the reducing agent.
a.

Zn (s) +

b.

Mn (s) +

O2 (g)

c.

Ca (s) +

H2O (l)

d.

C2H2 (g) +

e.

KClO3 (s)

f.

H2O2 (aq)

AgNO3 (aq)

O2 (g)

Zn(NO3)2 (aq) +

MnO2 (s)

KCl (s) +

Ag (s)

H2O (l) +

Ca(OH)2 (aq) +

CO2 (g) +

H2 (g)

H2O (g)

O2 (g)

O2 (g)

Example f is a disproportionation reaction, where an element in one


oxidation state is simultaneously oxidized and reduced.

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 11 of 18

WORKING WITH SOLUTIONS


4.7

Molar Concentration = Molarity


Molarity =

moles of solute
(reported in units of M=molar)
liters (L) of solution

Ex. 1

Find the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 0.100 mol of


NaCl in 250.0 mL of solution:

Ex. 2

Find the molarity of a solution prepared by dissolving 1.25 g of KOH


in 250.0 mL of solution:

Ex. 3

Indicate the molarity of each ion in the solutions indicated below:

Ex. 4

a.

[Cl] = _____________ in 0.500 M CaCl2 (aq)

b.

[Na+] = _____________ in 0.125 M Na3PO4 (aq)

c.

[NO3] = _____________ in 1.500 M Mg(NO3)2 (aq)

d.

[SO42] = _____________ in 1.250 M Al2(SO4)3 (aq)

Circle the solution in each set with the highest [H+]:

a.

0.100 M HF (aq)

b.

0.100 M H2CO3 (aq)

Ex. 5

0.100 M HCl (aq)


0.100 M H2SO3 (aq)

0.100 M HNO2
0.100 M H2SO4(aq)

Explain why the hydroxide ion concentration, [OH], in a 1.00 M


NH4OH solution is not 1.00 M.

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 12 of 18

4.8

Diluting Solutions

Dilution Equation:

M1 V1 = M2 V2

where

M1=initial molarity, V1=initial volume, M2=final molarity, V2=final volume

Ex. 1:

What is the molarity of a HCl solution prepared by diluting 15.0 mL of


6.00 M HCl to give a total volume of 100.0 mL?

Ex. 2:

What is the molarity of a NaOH solution prepared by diluting 12.5 mL


of 0.500 M NaOH to give a total volume of 50.0 mL?

Writing Molar Concentration Unit Factors and Molarity Calculations:


Ex. 1 Write 2 unit factors for each of the following:
a. 6.00 M HCl solution

b. 0.125 M NaCl solution

Ex. 2 Calculate the number of moles of HCl present in 50.0 mL of 6.00 M HCl.

Ex. 3 Calculate the mass of NaOH in 25.0 mL of a 0.500 M NaOH solution.

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 13 of 18

Ex. 4 What volume (in L) of a 0.250 M NaCl solution contains 5.00 g of


NaCl?

Solution Stoichiometry
Ex1. One important property of oxalic acid (H2C2O4) is its ability to remove rust
(Fe2O3), as shown in the following equation:
Fe2O3 (s) + 6 H2C2O4 (aq) 2 Fe(C2O4)33(aq) + 3 H2O (l) + 6 H+(aq)
Calculate the mass of rust in grams that can be removed with 175 mL of a
0.250 M oxalic acid solution.

Ex2. Barium hydroxide and sodium sulfate react to form barium sulfate
precipitate.
2 AgNO3 (aq) + CaCl2 (aq) 2 AgCl (s) + Ca(NO3)2 (aq)
Calculate the amount of precipitate formed when 22.75 mL of 0.820 M
silver nitrate reacts with excess calcium chloride.

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 14 of 18

4.6 Volumetric Analysis


standard solution: an acid or base solution where the concentration is
known, generally to 3 sig figs
used to analyze properties of substances, such as neutralizing power of
commercial antacids, tartness of wine, etc.
acid-base indicators:
Solutions that are pH sensitive & change color
Generally have their color change occurring for pH7 since reactions
monitored are neutralization reactions, which are complete at pH=7
titration: The gradual addition of standard solution to another solution of
unknown concentration until the reaction between the two is
complete, as signaled by an indicator changing color
endpoint:

When one reactant has completely reacted with the other


reactant, as evidenced by an indicator changing color

Ex1. Find the molarity of a HCl solution if 25.50 mL of HCl is required to


neutralize 0.375 g of Na2CO3 as shown in the following equation:
2 HCl (aq) + Na2CO3 (aq)

2 NaCl (aq) + H2O (l) + CO2 (l)

Ex2. Find the molarity of a NaOH solution if 42.15 mL of NaOH is required to


neutralize 0.424 g of oxalic acid, H2C2O4, as shown in the following
balanced equation:
2 NaOH (aq) + H2C2O4 (aq)

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

Na2C2O4 (aq) + 2 H2O (l)

page 15 of 18

Ex 3. A 10.0 mL sample of vinegar (or acetic acid, HC2H3O2) requires 37.55 mL


of a 0.255 M NaOH solution for complete neutralization. Calculate the
molarity of the acetic acid solution if the balanced equation for the reaction
is:
HC2H3O2 (aq) + NaOH (aq)

H2O (l) + NaC2H3O2 (aq)

Ex 4. A 10.0 mL sample of battery acid (H2SO4) is titrated with 0.275 M NaOH. If


the acid concentration is 0.555 M, what volume of NaOH is required for
the titration?
H2SO4 (aq) + 2 NaOH (aq) 2 H2O (l) + Na2SO4 (aq)

Ex 5. Citric acid (abbreviated H3Cit) is a triprotic acidie. it has three H+ ions


that can react to produce water. If 36.10 mL of 0.223 M NaOH is used to
neutralize a 0.515 g sample of citric acid, what is the molar mass of the
acid?
H3Cit (aq) + 3 NaOH (aq)

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

Na3Cit (aq) + 3 H2O (l)

page 16 of 18

solution: composed of a solute dissolved in a solvent


solute: component present in smaller amount
solvent: component present in greater amount
MASS PERCENT CONCENTRATION (M/M%)
M/M% =

mass of solute
mass of solute
100%
100%
mass of solution
mass of solute + mass of solvent

Ex1. What is the mass percent concentration of a solution made by dissolving


25.0 g of HCl in 65.0 g of water? (What is the solute, and what is the
solvent?)

Ex2. A person accused of a DUI violation submitted a 5.00 g sample of blood


for alcohol content analysis. The analysis determined the presence of
4.59 mg of alcohol in the blood. If a person with a blood alcohol content
(mass percent of alcohol in the blood) of 0.08% is considered legally
impaired, was this person driving while impairedi.e., was the blood
alcohol content greater than or equal to 0.08%?

Ex3. Intravenous injections of glucose are sometimes administered to patients


with low blood sugar. If a normal glucose solution is 5.00%, what is the
mass of solution that contains 12.7 g of glucose?

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 17 of 18

Ex4. Intravenous saline injections are sometimes administered to restore


electrolyte balance in trauma patients. What is the mass of water required
to dissolve 2.00 g of NaCl for a 0.90% saline solution?

CHM 151: Chapter 4 Notes

page 18 of 18

CHAPTER 5: GASES AND THE KINETIC-MOLECULAR THEORY


Problems: 1, 10, 20, 23-46, 51-81, 83-94, 101-103, 105-107, 109, 113-114

AN OVERVIEW OF THE PHYSICAL STATES OF MATTER


At "normal atmospheric conditions" (25C and 1 atm)
Elements that are gases: H2, N2, O2, F2, Cl2, ozone (O3), all noble gases
No ionic compounds exist as gases
Some molecules are gases (CO, CO2, HCl, NH3, CH4); most are solids or liquids
Physical characteristics of gases
Gases assume the volume and shape of their containers
Gases are the most compressible of the states of matter
Gases will mix evenly and completely when confined to the same container
Gases have much lower densities than liquids and solids; in units of g/L
5.1

GAS PRESSURE AND ITS MEASUREMENT


Because gas molecules are in constant motion, gases exert pressure on
any surface they encounter

Atmospheric Pressure:
pressure exerted by column of air on an area exposed to Earth's
atmosphere
depends on location, temperature, and weather conditions
decreases as altitude increases because air becomes thinner
! About 760 mmHg at sea level
barometer: instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
Units of Pressure
Standard Atmospheric Pressure (1 atm): 760 mmHg at 0C at sea level
1 atm ! " 760 mmHg " 760 torr = 101.325 kPa
Ex. 1: If the atmospheric pressure is measured to be 725 mmHg on a given
day in Phoenix, express this atmospheric pressure in torr, atm, and
kPa.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 1 of 10

5.2 EMPIRICAL GAS LAWS


Boyles Law: Pressure-Volume Changes
When T and n are constant, V is indirectly proportional to pressure of the gas

Charles Law: Volume-Temperature Changes


When P and n are constant, V is directly proportional to the absolute T

Gay-Lussacs Law: Pressure-Temperature Changes


When V and the n are constant, P is directly proportional to the absolute T

Combined Gas Law


Consider when there are changes in P,V, and T for a gas, but n and R
remain constant

Exercises: If a value (P,V,n, or T) is not given, that value is constant.


Ex. 1.

If 25.0 mL of hydrogen gas are heated from 225K to 675K, calculate the
new volume.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 2 of 10

Ex. 2.

A 250.0-mL sample at 1.20 atm is compressed to 125.0 mL. Calculate


the new pressure.

Ex. 3.

A sample of CO2 gas at 795 torr is cooled from 25C until the new
pressure is 125 torr. Calculate the new temperature of the gas.

Ex. 4.

A sample of krypton gas at 80.0C and 1245 torr occupies 50.5 mL.
What is the volume at STP (1.00 atm and 0.00C)?

5.3 The Ideal Gas Law:

PV=nRT

where P=pressure (in atm), V=volume (in L), n=# of moles of gas,
L ! atm
T=temperature (in K), and the ideal gas constant, R = 0.0821
mol ! K

Standard temperature and pressure (STP): 0C and 1 atm


Ex. 1:

Calculate the volume for 1.00 mole of gas at STP.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 3 of 10

Ideal Gas Calculations NOT at STP


Ex. 2:

How many moles of NO2 gas occupy a volume of 5.00 L at 50.00C and
735 torr?

Ex. 3.

Calculate the mass of nitrogen gas that occupies a volume of 75.0 L at


35.00C and 2.50 atm. (Remember that nitrogen exists as a diatomic
molecule.)

Further Applications of the Ideal Gas Law: Density and Molar Mass
Ex. 1:

Calculate the density (in g/L) of H2S (g) at STP.

Ex. 2:

An unknown gas having a mass of 2.041g occupies a volume of 1.15 L at


740 torr and 20.0C. Calculate the molar mass of the unknown gas.

Ex. 3:

Calculate the density of ammonia (NH3) in g/L at 645 mmHg and 65C.
Use R and solve using unit analysis.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 4 of 10

5.4

STOICHIOMETRY PROBLEMS INVOLVING GAS VOLUMES


The first step in every stoichiometry problem is getting moles!

At STP, use

PV
22.4L
, and for other conditions, start with: n =
mol
RT

Ex. 1 Magnesium nitride reacts with water to give ammonia gas:


Mg3N2 (s) + 6 H2O (l) " 3 Mg(OH)2 (s) + 2 NH3 (g)
What volume of ammonia would be produced at STP given 5.00 g of
magnesium nitride and excess water?

Ex. 2 When heated, NH4NO3 decomposes to give off steam and nitrogen gas:
NH4NO3 (s) " 2 H2O (g) + N2 (g)
How many grams of ammonium nitrate are required to produce 6.37 L of
steam at 25.00C and 720.0 torr?

Ex. 3 The active agent in many hair bleaches is hydrogen peroxide, H2O2. The
amount of hydrogen peroxide present can be determined by titration with a
standard permanganate, MnO4, solution:
2 MnO4 (aq) + 5 H2O2 (aq) + 6 H+ (aq) " 5 O2 (g) + 2 Mn+2 (aq) + 8 H2O (l)
Calculate the molarity of hydrogen peroxide if 28.75 mL of hydrogen
peroxide produced 695 mL of oxygen gas at 0.950 atm and 315 K?

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 5 of 10

The Volume-Amount Relationship: Avogadro's Law


Avogadro's Law:
At constant temperature and pressure, the volume of a gas is directly proportional
to the number of moles of gas present.
" When the reactants and products in a chemical equation are gases, we can
relate the amounts of each gas to each other in terms of a volume-to-volume
ratio, just like the mole-to-mole ratio.
Example:
2 SO2 (g)
+
O2 (g)
" 2 SO3 (g)
2 mol

1 mol

2 mol

2L

1L

2L

All Gaseous Species in a Reaction


If all the reactants and products involved in a problem are gases, use volumevolume ratios since Avogradros Law applies.
Ex. 1:

Consider the reaction to produce sulfur trioxide gas:


3 H2 (g) + N2 (g) " 2 NH3 (g)
Calculate the volume of ammonia formed if 5.00 L of hydrogen gas
reacts with 3.00 L of nitrogen gas.

5.5 GAS MIXTURES; LAW OF PARTIAL PRESSURES


partial pressure: pressures of individual gas components in a mixture
Dalton's Law of Partial Pressure:
total pressure of a mixture of gases is the sum of the partial pressures of the
gases present
PTotal = P1 + P2 + P3 + ...
Example: A mixture of gases contains nitrogen (N2), oxygen (O2), and trace
gases. Given the following partial pressures for the gases:
P N2 = 0 .78 atm
P O2 = 0 .19 atm
P trace = 0 .05 atm
Determine the total pressure for the mixture.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 6 of 10

mole fraction: ratio of the number of moles of one component to sum total of all the
moles of all components
X A !"

# of moles of A
total # of moles of all gases in mixture

We can use mole fraction to calculate the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture
For system with more than many gases, the partial pressure of nth component:
Pn = Xn PTotal
Ex. 1 A mixture of gases contains 4.46 mol of neon, 0.74 mol of argon, and
2.15 mol of xenon. Calculate the partial pressures of the gases if the total
pressure is 2.00 atm at a given temperature.

5.6

KINETIC THEORY OF AN IDEAL GAS

1. Particle volume: Gas molecules are so small they occupy no volume


i.e. "points" that have mass but negligible volume
2. Particle motion: Gas molecules move in constant, random, straight-line
motion.
3. Particle attraction: Gas molecules do not attract or repel one another
i.e. they have no effect on the motion of other particles except upon collision
4. Particle collisions: Collisions are perfectly elastic
i.e. energy totally transferred from one molecule to another, and overall
energy of the system remains the same; no energy lost to friction
5. The average kinetic energy (KE or energy of motion) of the molecule is
proportional to the temperature of the gas in Kelvins
"
at higher temperatures, gas molecules move more quickly
"
at lower temperatures, gas molecules move more slowly
CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 7 of 10

5.7

MOLECULAR SPEEDS; DIFFUSION AND EFFFUSION

kinetic energy: energy associated with the motion of an object


KE =

1
(mass)(speed)2
2

Molecular Speeds
In 1860, Maxwell formulated an equation to determine the speed of molecules
at a given instant
Combining ideal gas equation and KMT, we can get root-mean-square speed,
urms:
urms =
where R=0.0821

3RT
MM

L ! atm
, T in Kelvins, MM=molar mass
mol ! K

This equation indicates that the higher the molar mass of a particle, the
slower the particle moves.

Same Gas at Two Different Temperatures


Example: Given two distribution curves corresponding to N2 at 0C and 500C,
match each curve with the corresponding temperature.

# of
molecules

molecular speeds

Note:

At higher temperatures, the curve for any gas flattens out because more
molecules have higher molecular speeds.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 8 of 10

Different Gases at the Same Temperature: Relationship Between Molar


Mass and Molecular Speed
Example: Given the distribution curves of equal samples of H2 and N2 at STP,
match each curve with the corresponding gas, H2 or N2.

# of
molecules

molecular speeds

Note: Heavier molecules move slower than lighter molecules


Diffusion and Effusion
Diffusion: gradual mixing of molecules of one gas with molecules of another
by virtue of their kinetic properties
Example: Consider a tube where gas molecules can be injected into both
ends. If a sample of neon gas and a sample of fluorine gas are
injected into opposite ends of the tube at the same time, predict
where along the tube the two gases would meet. Explain why.
Ne

F2

Effusion: process of a gas under pressure escaping from a container via a


small opening.
Example: Consider a container sealed with a
small opening. A mixture of several
gases is added to the container.
Assuming the gases do not react,
indicate the order that the gases
escape out of the container,
starting with the gas that escapes
the fastest. Explain why.

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Ar

Ne
Kr
N2

O2

Page 9 of 10

Grahams Law of Effusion


rate of effusion of molecules " #

For 2 gases:

1
MMg as

(same temp. and pressure)

MMGas2
rate of effusion of Gas1
!
rate of effusion of Gas2
MMGas1

Ex. 1 Calculate the ratio of effusion rates for molecules of methane and
carbon dioxide.

Ex. 2 If it takes 10.0 s for a sample of neon to escape from a hole in a


container, how long would it take for an equal amount of nitrogen
gas, N2, to escape from the hole in the same container?

CHM 151: Chapter 5 Notes

Page 10 of 10

Chapter 6: Thermochemistry
Problems: 1, 6, 8-11, 13, 18-22, 25-28, 33-60, 63-78, 85-94, 97-102

heat: form of energy that is transferred from a body at a higher temperature


to one at a lower temperature
"heat flow" means heat transfer
thermodynamics: study of heat and its transformations
thermochemistry: study of heat flow that accompanies chemical reactions
6.1 ENERGY AND ITS UNITS
energy: potential or capacity to move matter
kinetic energy (KE): energy associated with an objects motion
e.g. a car moving at 75 mph has much greater KE than the same car
moving at 15 mph
! Greater damage if the car crashes at 75 mph than at 15 mph
KE =

1
mv2
2

potential energy (PE): energy associated with an objects position or its


chemical bonds
A 10-lb bowling ball has higher PE when its 10 feet off the ground as
opposed to 10 inches off the ground
! Greater damage on your foot if it hit your foot after falling 10 feet than
if it hit after falling only 10 inches
In terms of chemical bonds, the stronger the bond
!
more energy required to break the bond
! higher the potential energy of the bond

joule (J):

1J=

1 kg " m2

s2
SI (i.e. standard) unit of energy
To appreciate the size of a joule, note that

1 watt = 1

! So a 100-watt bulb uses 100 J every second.

J
s

Heat can also be reported in kilojoules (kJ), where 1 kJ = 1000 J

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 1 of 12

Example: Calculate the kinetic energy (in joules) Randy Johnson fastball
if the baseball has a mass of 143 g and travels at 95 miles per
hour.
(1 mph = 0.4469 m/s approximately)

calorie (cal): unit of energy used most often in the U.S.


amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C
1 cal ! 4.184 J

(Note: This is EXACT!)

Example: What is the kinetic energy in calories of the Randy Johnson


fastball described above?

law of conservation of energy:

6.2

energy is neither created nor destroyed


but converted from one form to another

HEAT OF REACTION

system: that part of the universe being studied


surroundings: the rest of the universe outside the system
Direction and Sign of Heat Flow
Let q = heat flow,
q is + when heat flows into the system from the surroundings
q is when heat flows out of the system into the surroundings
CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 2 of 12

heat of reaction (qreaction):

heat associated with a chemical reaction

Where Does the Heat of Reaction Come From?


Bond Energy
energy required to break a particular bond in 1 mol of gaseous molecules
always positive since breaking a bond always requires energy
a quantitative measure of the strength of a bond (i.e. stability of molecule)
Breaking and Forming Bonds
energy is absorbed by reactants when their bonds are broken, and
energy is released by products when their bonds are formed
If

! energy released $
! energy required $
&
#
&
#
& > # when products' &
#
to break
&&
##
&&
##
" bonds are formed%
"reactants' bonds %

'

endothermic reaction

If

! energy released $
! energy required $
&
#
&
#
& < # when products' &
#
to break
&&
##
&&
##
" bonds are formed%
"reactants' bonds %

'

exothermic reaction

Endothermic reaction: qreaction = +


Heat flows from surroundings to reaction system
' surroundings feel cooler
e.g. water evaporating is endothermic
H2O (l)

' H2O (g)

qreaction = +ve

Exothermic reaction: qreaction =


Heat flows from reaction system to surroundings:
' surroundings feel hotter
e.g. propane burning is exothermic
C2H5OH (l) + 3 O2 (g) ' 3 H2O (g) + 2 CO2 (g)

qreaction = ve

6.6 MEASURING HEATS OF REACTION


Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
specific heat (s): amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1
gram of any substance by 1C; has units of J/gC
water has relatively high specific heat (4.184 J/gC)
because the earth is covered by so much water
' why temperatures on earth do not vary by large degree

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 3 of 12

heat capacity (C):

amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a


given amount of any substance by 1C; in units of J/C

molar heat capacity: heat capacity per mole of a substance (in J/molC)
Use the following equations to solve problems:
q = heat capacity ! ! T

or

q = (specific heat) ! (mass) ! ! T

where !T=change in temperature

Ex. 1.

How much heat is released by a 150.0-g sample of copper that cools


from 100.0C to 25.0C? (The molar heat capacity for copper is
24.6 J/molC)

Ex. 2

To raise the temperature from 23.5C to 100.0 C for a 15.5-g sample of


silver, 279.9 J is required. What is the specific heat of silver?

Ex. 3

A beaker with 250.1 g of water is heated from 25.0C to its boiling


point. If the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/gC, how much heat is
required to heat the water?

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 4 of 12

Ex. 4 When drinking an ice-cold beverage, a person must raise the


temperature of the beverage to 37.0C (normal body temperature). One
argument for losing weight is to drink ice-cold beverages since the
body must expend about 1 calorie per gram of water per degree
Celsiusi.e. the specific heat of water = 1.00 cal/gC to consume the
drink.
a. Calculate the amount of energy expended (in cal) to consume a 12oz beer (about 355 mL) if the beer is originally at 4.0C. Assume the
drink is mostly water and its density is 1.01 g/mL.
b. If the label indicates 103 Calories (where 1 nutritional Calorie (Cal)
equal 1 kcal), what is the net calorie gain or loss when a person
consumes this beer? Is this a viable weight loss alternative?

Measurement of Heat of Reaction


calorimeter:
an instrument that measures heat changes for physical and chemical processes
insulated, so the only heat flow is between reaction system and calorimeter
Coffee-Cup Calorimeter
also called constant-pressure calorimeter since under atmospheric pressure
polystyrene cup partially filled with water
since polystyrene is good insulator, very little heat lost through cup walls
heat evolved by a reaction is absorbed by water, and the heat capacity of
calorimeter is the heat capacity of the water
heat of reaction:

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

qreaction = mwater !

4.184 J
!""T
g !C
page 5 of 12

Ex. 1 A 28.2 g sample of nickel is heated to 99.8C and placed in a coffee cup
calorimeter containing 150.0 g of water at 23.5C. After the metal cools,
the final temperature of metal and water is 25.0C. Calculate the specific
heat of the metal assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings or the
calorimeter.

6.2

Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change

Enthalpy (H): refers to heat flow into and out of a system under constant pressure
Under constant pressure (usually the case since under atmospheric pressure),
qreaction = !H = Hproducts Hreactants

6.4

For an endothermic reaction:

! H = +ve

For an exothermic reaction:

! H = ve

Thermochemical Equations:

thermochemical equation: shows both mass and enthalpy relationships


Consider: Ice melting to form water at 0C and 1 atm
requires energy (6.01 kJ/mol)
We can represent the melting of 1 mol of ice as an equation:
H2O (s) " H2O (l)

!H = +6.01 kJ

Note: ! H is +ve since ice must absorb heat to form water


CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 6 of 12

Consider: The formation of water releases heat:


2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) ! 2 H2O (g)

"H = 571.6 kJ

Note: " H is ve since heat is lost to the surroundings

Guidelines for Thermochemical Equations


1. Sign of "H indicates if reaction is exothermic ("H<0) or endothermic ("H>0).
2. The coefficients in the chemical equation represent the numbers of moles
of reactants and products for the "H given.
e.g. " H is 185 kJ for 1 mol H2 + 1 mol Cl2 to form 2 mols of HCl
3. The physical states must be indicated for each reactant and product.
e.g. For water, the solid and the liquid states vary by 6.01 kJ
4. "H generally reported for reactants and products at 25C.

6.5 APPLYING STOICHIOMETRY TO HEATS OF REACTION


Rule 1.

The magnitude of " H is directly proportional to the amount of


reactant or product.
! Consider heat as you would a reactant or product in a mole-tomole ratio, where "H is the heat released or absorbed for the
moles of reactants and products indicated in the equation

Example: Consider

H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) ! 2 HCl (g)

"H = 185 kJ

a. What is "H for when 5.00 mol of hydrogen gas reacts completely?

b. What is "H for the formation of 1.00 g of hydrogen chloride gas?

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 7 of 12

Rule 2. For a reverse rxn, ! H is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.


If

H2O (s)

" H2O (l)

then

H2O (l)

"

! H fusion):
heat of fusion (!

H2O (s)

!H = +6.01 kJ
!H = 6.01 kJ

heat associated with a solid melting, in kJ/mol;


i.e. solid " liquid
!H!"!!Hfusion

! H vapor):
heat of vaporization (!

heat associated with a liquid vaporizing,


in kJ/mol; i.e. liquid " gas
!H!"!!Hvapor

Example: If a 24.6-g ice cube requires 8.19 kJ of heat to melt completely,


calculate !Hfusion for ice (in kJ/mol)?

Rule 3: If all the coefficients in a chemical equation are multiplied by a factor n


" !H is multiplied by factor n:
If

H2O (s)

" H2O (l)

!H = +6.01 kJ

"

2 [H2O (s) " H2O (l)] = 2 H2O (s) "2 H2O (l)

!H = 2(+6.01 kJ) = 12.0 kJ

"

1
1
1
[H2O (s) " H2O (s)] = H2O (s) " H2O (l)
2
2
2

!H =

6.7

1
(+6.01 kJ) =3.01kJ
2

Hesss Law

Hesss Law of heat summation: The value of !H for a reaction is the same
whether it occurs in one step or in a series of steps
! H = ! H1 + ! H2 + ! H3 + ...
CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 8 of 12

Example 1:

Cgraphite (s) + 2 H2 (g)

! CH4 (g)

Here are the reactions involved in the formation of CH4:


(a) Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g) !

CO2 (g)

"H = 393.5 kJ

(b) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) ! 2 H2O (l)

"H = 571.6 kJ

(c) CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) ! CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l)

"H = 890.4 kJ

Rearranging the data allows us to calculate "H for the reaction:


(a)Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g)
(b)2 H2 (g) + O2(g)
(c)

!
!

CO2 (g)

"H = 393.5 kJ

2 H2O (l)

"H = 571.6 kJ

C O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l)

Cgraphite (s) + 2 H2 (g)

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)


CH4 (g)

"H =

890.4 kJ

"H = 74.7

kJ

If the coefficients in an equation can be simplified, multiply by the


necessary factors to cancel all intermediate compounds and get the
correct coefficients for your final equation.
Ex. 2

Rearrange the following data:


(a) Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g) ! CO2 (g)

"H = 393.5 kJ

(b) 2 CO (g) + O2 (g)

"H = 566.0 kJ

! 2 CO2 (g)

to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction:


2 Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g) ! 2 CO (g)

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 9 of 12

Ex. 3

From the following data:


(a)N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) ! 2 NH3 (g)

"H = 92.6 kJ

(b)N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) ! 2 NO2 (g)

"H =

(c)

"H = 571.6 kJ

2 H2 (g) +

O2 (g) ! 2 H2O (l)

67.70 kJ

Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction:


4 NH3 (g) + 7 O2 (g) ! 4 NO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l)

6.6

Standard Enthalpies of Formation ( "Hf! )

Definitions of standard state (or reference form)


1. A gas at 1 atm
2. An aqueous solution with a concentration of 1 M at a pressure of 1 atm
3. Pure liquids and solids
4. The most stable form of elements at 1 atm and 25C
allotrope:

one or 2 or more forms of an element in the same physical state


e.g. diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon;
O 2 (g) and ozone, O3 (g) are allotropes of oxygen

standard enthalpy of formation ( "H!f )


enthalpy change for formation of 1 mole of an element or compound from its
elements in their standard states (i.e. naturally occurring form at 1 atm and 25C)
Note: "H!f =0 for any element in its naturally occurring (most stable) form
CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 10 of 12

Examples of !H!f are as follows:


1
Ag (s) +
Cl2 (g) " AgCl (s)
2
""
1
N2 (g) + O2 (g) " NO2 (g)
2

!H = 127.1 kJ
"

!H!f (AgCl, s) = -127.1 kJ

!H = +33.2 kJ
""" !H!f (NO2, g) = +33.2 kJ

Example: Explain for each of the following if !H is a heat of formation.


a.

N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) " 2 NH3 (g)

b.

H2O (l) " H2O (g)

c.

Cgraphite (s) + 2 H2 (g)

d.

2 CO (g) + O2 (g)

e.

CO2 (s) " CO2 (g)

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

" CH4 (g)

" 2 CO2 (g)

page 11 of 12

Calculation of ! H
superscript denotes taken under 1 atm and 25C
For the reaction:

aA + bB "

cC + dD

where a,b,c,d = stoichiometric


coefficients

!
= # n !H!f (products) # m !H!f (reactants)
!Hrxn
= [c !H!f (C) + d !H!f (D)] [a !H!f (A) + b !H!f (B)]

!
Use Table 6.2 to solve for !Hrxn
for each of the following:

Ex. 1: C graphite (s) + O2 (g) "

CO2 (g)

!
= (1mol) !H!f (CO2, g) [(1mol) !H!f (Cgraphite, s) + (1mol) !H!f (O2, g)]
!Hrxn

Ex. 2:

2 CH3OH (l) + 5 O2 (g) " 2 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g)

!
=
!Hrxn

Ex. 3

Consider the reaction for the combustion of glucose:

C6H12O 6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) " 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g)

!
!Hrxn
= 2803 kJ

Calculate the enthalpy of formation for glucose using Table 6.2.

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 12 of 12

Chapter 7: Quantum Theory of the Atom


Problems: 1, 8-11, 15, 18, 25, 27-40, 49-54, 63-66, 71-72, 83-84

7.1 The Wave Nature of Light


Light travels through space as a wave
Waves have the following characteristics (see Fig. 7.4)
! =Greek lambda): distance between successive peaks
wavelength (!
!=

distance
; generally in units of m, cm, nm
wave

" =Greek nu): number of waves passing by a given point in 1 s


frequency ("
"=

wave
1
cycle
; generally in hertz (Hz) =
or
time
s
s

Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum:!! continuum of radiant energy (Fig. 7.5)


visible region:!! ! portion of the EM spectrum that we can perceive as color
For example, a "red-hot" or "white-hot" iron bar freshly removed from a hightemperature source has forms of energy in different parts of the EM spectrum
red or white glow = radiation within the visible region
warmth = radiation within the infrared region
speed of light, c=3.00 x 108 m/s, depends on frequency and wavelength
c

"

"

distance distance wave


"
#
time
wave
time
Know how to convert between wavelength and frequency using the speed of light!
Ex. 1

The wavelength for the electromagnetic radiation responsible for a blue


sky is about 473 nm. What is the frequency of this radiation in Hz?

CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 1 of 6

7.2

Quantum Effects and Photons

Classical Descriptions of Matter


John Dalton (1803)
atoms are hard, indivisible, billiard-like particles
atoms have distinct masses (what distinguishes on type of atom from another)
all atoms of same element are the same
JJ Thomson (1890s)
discovered charge-to-mass ratios of electrons!
! atoms are divisible because the electrons are one part of atom
Ernest Rutherford (1910)
shot positive alpha particles at a thin foil of gold!
! discovery of the atomic nucleus
James Maxwell (1873)
visible light consists of electromagnetic waves
Transition between Classical and Quantum Theory
Max Planck (1900); Blackbody Radiation
heated solids to red or white heat
noted matter did not emit energy in continuous bursts, but in whole-number
multiples of certain well-defined quantities
! matter absorbs/emits energy in bundles = "quanta"
(single bundle of energy= "quantum")
Albert Einstein (1905); Photoelectric Effect
Photoelectric Effect: Light shining on a clean metal ! ! emission of electrons
Einstein applied Planck's quantum theory to light
! !!light exists as a stream of "particles" called photons
Energy is proportional to the frequency (") and wavelength (#) of radiation, and the
proportionality constant (h) is now called Planck's constant
E " h" =

CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

hc
#

where

h = 6.626#1034 Js

page 2 of 6

Ex. 1.

Excited mercury atoms emit light strongly at a wavelength of 436 nm.


a. What is the energy (in J) for one photon of this light?

b. What is the energy (in kJ/mol) for a mole of photons of this light?

Ex. 2.

Certain elements emit light of a specific color when they are burned.
When an potassium solution is burned in a flame test, the energy of
the light emitted is 4.909!10-19 J. Calculate the wavelength for this
light, and use the visible spectrum (Fig. 7.5) to determine the color of the
light.

7.4 Quantum Mechanics


Louis de Broglie (1924); Dual Nature of the Electron
If light can behave like a wave and a particle
! " matter (like an electron) can behave like waves
if electron behaves like a standing wave
! an electron can only have specific wavelengths
"
! an electron can only have specific frequencies and thus, energies
"
for wave: E = mc2

for matter: E = h"

Combining the two equations, we can solve for the wavelength for any matter.
! de Broglie relation#
h
#"$"
mv
CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 3 of 6

Ex. 1 a. A baseball with mass 0.143 kg is thrown towards a batter at a velocity of


42.5 m/s, calculate the wavelength (in m) associated with the baseballs
motion.

b. How does the !! compare in size to the baseball (diameter"0.08 m)?


The baseballs !!"""""""! baseballs size. (Circle one)

"

>>

<<

Ex. 2 a. Calculate the wavelength (in m) associated with an electron traveling at the
same velocity, 42.5 m/s. (The mass of the electron is 9.1095 #1031 kg.)

b. How does the !! compare in size to the electron (diameter"1#1010 m)?


The electron s !!"""""""! electrons size. (Circle one)

"

>>

<<

Thus, although all matter can have wave properties, such properties are
only significant for submicroscopic particles.

7.3 Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom


Bohr Postulates: Bohr Model of the Atom
1. Energy-level Postulate
Electrons move in discrete (quantized), circular orbits around the nucleus
"tennis ball and stairs" analogy for electrons and energy levels
a ball can bounce up to or drop from one stair to another, but it can
never be halfway between two levels
Each orbit has a specific energy associated with it, indicated as n=1, 2,...
ground state or ground level (n = 1): lowest energy state for atom
!when the electron is in most stable orbit
excited state: when the electron is in a higher energy orbit (n = 2,3,4,...)
CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 4 of 6

2. Transitions Between Energy Levels


When the atom absorbs energy, an electron can jump from a lower energy
level to a higher energy level.
When an electron drops from a higher energy level to a lower energy level,
the atom releases energy, sometimes in the form of visible light.
Atomic Line Spectra
Emission Spectra: continuous or line spectra of radiation emitted by substances
a heated solid (e.g. the filament in an incandescent light bulb) emits light that can be
spread out to give a continuous spectrum = spectrum containing all
wavelengths of light, like a rainbow
an atom in the gas phase emits light only at specific wavelengths = line spectrum
each element has a unique line spectrum ! !!can be used to identify
unknown atoms in chemical analysis
why line spectrum for each element called "atomic fingerprint"

Limitations of the Bohr Model ! Quantum Mechanical Model


Unfortunately, the Bohr Model failed for all other elements that had more than one
proton and one electron. (The multiple electron-nuclear attractions, electronelectron repulsions, and nuclear repulsions make other atoms much more
complicated than hydrogen.)
In 1920s, a new discipline, quantum mechanics, was developed to describe the
motion of submicroscopic particles confined to tiny regions of space.
Quantum mechanics makes no attempt to specify the position of a small particle
at a given instant or how the electron got there
It only gives the probability of finding small particles
Just like taking snapshot of a location and estimating where greatest
number of people are likely to be
! Instead we take a snapshot of the atom at different times and see
where the electrons are usually found (See. Figs. 7.24, 7.26)
Erwin Schrdinger (1926)
developed a differential equation that allows us to find the electron's wave
" ), which ultimately allows us to determine the probability of finding
function ("
the electron in a given place
probability density for an electron is called the "electron cloud"
! !shape
Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Orbitals
4 quantum numbers describe distribution and behavior of electrons in atoms
Each wave function corresponds to a set of 3 quantum numbers and is referred
to as an atomic orbital
CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 5 of 6

We will only discuss the first 2 Quantum Numbers:


First (or Principal) Quantum Number (n): n=1,2,3,...
relates the average distance of electron from nucleus
higher n means electron is further from nucleus and higher energy (less
stable) orbital
Second (or Angular Momentum) Quantum Number (l);
! Sublevels (s, p, d, f)
gives the "shape" of the electron clouds associated with each orbital
The limitations on n and l
! ! for n=1, only 1s sublevel
! ! for n=2, only 2s and 2p sublevels
! ! for n=3, there are 3s, 3p, and 3d sublevels
! ! for n=4, there are 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f sublevels
Atomic Orbital Shapes:
s orbital: spherical (see Fig. 7.25)
p orbitals:
dumbbell-shaped (see Fig. 7.26)
only for n=2 or greater
3 types: px, py, pz (where x, y, and z give axis on which orbital aligns)
d orbitals:
various shapes (see Fig. 7.27)
only for n=3 or greater
5 types: dxy, dxz, dyz, d x 2 " y 2 , dz2
f orbitals: Dont worry about these.

The interesting part...


Consider Fig. 7.26 showing the electron distribution for the 2px orbital.
Note that the electron is never along the y-axis. There is a node in that
region, indicating the electron is never found there.
! !How can the electron be on either side of the y-axis without going through it?

CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 6 of 6

Chapter 8: Electron Configurations and Periodicity


Problems: 7-8, 12, 15, 19, 23, 33-56, 61-66, 71-72

8.2

Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table

Electrons are distributed in orbitals of increasing energy levels, where the


lowest energy orbitals are filled first.
Once an orbital has the maximum number of electrons it can hold, it is
considered filled. Remaining electrons must then be placed into the next
highest energy orbital, and so on.
Parking garage analogy
Orbitals in order of increasing energy:
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s < 5d < 6p
electron configuration:
Shorthand description of the arrangement of electrons by sublevel
according to
increasing energy
REMEMBER!
s orbitals can hold 2 electrons
a set of p orbitals can hold 6 electrons
a set of d orbitals can hold 10 electrons
a set of f orbitals can hold 14 electrons
Ex. 1

Li!! atomic number=3! ! 3 eelectron configuration for Li:

Ex. 2

F ! ! _____ e
electron configuration for F:

Ex. 3

Fe ! _____ e
electron configuration for Fe:

CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 1 of 8

Exceptions to the Building-Up Principle


Atoms gain extra stability when their d subshells are half-filled or completely
filled.
! If we can fill or half-fill a d subshell by promoting an electron from an s orbital
to a d orbital, we do so to gain the extra stability.
Ex. 1

Cr!! _____ e

electron configuration for Cr:


actual electron configuration for Cr:

Ex. 2

Ag!!_____ e

electron configuration for Ag:


actual electron configuration for Ag:
8.3 Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table
Electron Configuration from the Periodic Table
The Periodic Table's shape actually corresponds to the filling of energy
sublevels.
See Fig. 8.12 (p. 325), to see how electrons for each element are distributed
into the energy sublevels.
Electron configurations of atoms with many electrons can become cumbersome.
! Abbreviated electron configurations (noble-gas core notation):
Since noble gases are at the end of each row in the Periodic Table, all of
their electrons are in filled orbitals.
Such electrons are called core electrons since they are more stable
(less reactive) when they belong to completely filled orbitals.
valence electrons: electrons that are in the outermost shell (unfilled orbitals)
Noble gas electron configurations can be used to abbreviate the core
electrons of all elements.
[He]
[Ne]
[Ar]
[Kr]
[Xe]

= 1s2
= 1s2 2s2 2p6
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 2 of 8

[Fe] = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6


=
[Cd] = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10
=

[Ni] =

[Y]

[I]

Remember again that for some transition metals, extra stability with filled
and half-filled d orbitals, so electrons are excited from the s orbitals to d
orbitals:
[Cu] =

[Mo] =

8.1

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

Each electron in an atom can have one of two possible orientations, spin ! or spin ".

electron configuration: arrangement of electrons in an atom among sublevels


CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 3 of 8

orbital diagram: diagram showing how electrons exist within an atoms orbitals
Pauli Exclusion Principle: no 2 e-s in an atom can have same four quantum #s
! Two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins
For example, with the helium atom, there are three ways to represent two
electrons in 1s orbital (where spin is represented with the electron pointing
up or down):
for He:
""
##
"#
(a)
(b)
(c)
but the Pauli exclusion principle rules out (a) and (b) since these show
two electrons in the same orbital with the same spin.
8.4 Orbital Diagrams of Atoms; Hunds Rule
Hund's Rule: the most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells has the
greatest number of parallel spins
i.e. distribute electrons with same spin (up or down) and do
not pair electrons until all subshells have an electron
For example, if carbons electron configuration is: 1s2 2s2 2p2
! carbons orbital diagram can be shown in the following ways:
(a)

"#

"#

"#

"#

"#

"

"#

"#

"

"

1s

(b)

1s

(c)

1s

2s
2s

2s

2p
2p
2p

but using Hund's rule, we know (c) would be the most stable.
General Rules for Assigning Electrons in Atomic Orbital Diagrams
1. First, determine the electron configuration.
2. There is only one s orbital for each level: one 1s, one 2s, one 3s, etc.
There are 3 p orbitals for each p sublevel.
There are 5 d orbitals for each d sublevel.
3. Each orbital orbital can only hold 2 electrons
! Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons, each p sublevel can hold 6, ds can hold 10.
4. Electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins.
5. To fill sublevels, put one electron in each orbital (with same spin) before pairing.
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 4 of 8

Ex. 1

Draw the atomic orbital diagram for oxygen.

Ex. 2

Draw the atomic orbital diagram for phosphorus. (Use full notation)

Ex. 3

Draw the atomic orbital diagram for the valence (outermost shell)
electrons in cobalt. (Use core notation.)

Magnetic Properties of Atoms


paramagnetic: substance that contains unpaired electrons
! weakly attracted to magnetic field
diamagnetic:

substance that contains only paired electrons


! slightly repelled by magnetic field

To determine if a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, you must draw


its orbital diagram and determine if it has an unpaired electrons.
Ex.

Is cobalt paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

____________________
page 5 of 8

8.3 Mendeleevs Predictions from the Periodic Table


Dimitri Mendeleev proposed that elements display recurring properties
according to increasing atomic mass
! Periodic Table originally arranged with elements in order of increasing atomic
mass
Henry G.J. Moseleys high-energy x-ray radiation experiments of atomic nuclei
! Repeating properties of elements more clearly reflected by the arrangement
of elements according to increasing atomic number
! Periodic Tables arrangement today
Trends for increasing atomic mass are identical with those forincreasing
atomic number, except for Ni & Co, Ar & K, Te & I.
Neils Bohrs introduction of electron energy levels
! Periodic Tables shape
Indicates filling of electron orbitals and elements electron configuration
periodic law: When elements are arranged in terms of increasing atomic
number, the trends within a row or column form patterns that
allow us to predict the physical and chemical properties of
elements
8.6 Some Periodic Properties
Atomic radius: distance from nucleus to outermost electrons
Increases down a group: More p+, n, and e ! bigger radius
Decreases from left to right along a period.
effective nuclear charge:
positive charge an electron experiences because of charge from protons
in the nucleus minus any shielding due to electrons closer to the nucleus
Consider the atoms of Ti and Ni:

Thus, the higher the effective nuclear charge, the smaller the atomic radius!
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 6 of 8

Atomic radius trend:


Trend from top to bottom ! like a snowman
Trend from left to right ! like a snowman that fell to the right

First Ionization Energy:

Energy necessary to remove first electron from a


neutral atom in gaseous state to form negatively
charged ion.

First Ionization Energy TRENDS


Decreases down a group:
Bigger the atom, the further away es are from +vely charged nucleus
! es held less tightly and are more easily removed
Increases from left to right along a period:
Elements with fewer (13) valence es can more easily give up es to
gain noble gas configuration (stability)
Elements with more (47) valence es can more easily gain es togain
noble gas configuration (stability)
Trend from top to bottom ! like an upside-down snowman
Trend from left to right ! like a upside-down snowman that fell to the right

Variations in Successive Ionization Energies


Recognize that it becomes more difficult to remove electrons from stable ions.
See Table 8.3 on p. 337.
For example, the ionization energy to remove the first electron from Li is
much smaller than the any successive ionization energy since electrons
are now removed from a stable ion (with a positive charge AND
sometimes a noble gas electron configuration).
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 7 of 8

We can indicate first and successive ionization energies in the following way:
First ionization energy = IE1
Second ionization energy = IE2
Third ionization energy = IE3
Ex. 1:

Between which two ionization energies (IE1 and IE2, IE2 and IE3, etc.)
would you expect there to be the largest jump for the following
elements? Explain.

a. Mg: Between _____ and _____


Explain why:

b. K: Between _____ and _____


Explain why:

c. Al: Between _____ and _____


Explain why:

Ex. 2:

8.7

This 3rd period element has a large jump between IE5 and IE6.
Explain how you can identify the element.

Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements

Metallic character:
Decreases from left to right along a period:
Metals concentrated on left-hand side of P.T., nonmetals on right-hand side
Increases down a group: Looking at groups IVA and VA, go from
nonmetals (C & N) to semimetals (Si & As) to metals (Sn & Bi)
! Same snowman trends as for atomic radius!
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 8 of 8

Chapter 6: Thermochemistry
Problems: 1, 6, 8-11, 13, 18-22, 25-28, 33-60, 63-78, 85-94, 97-102

heat: form of energy that is transferred from a body at a higher temperature


to one at a lower temperature
"heat flow" means heat transfer
thermodynamics: study of heat and its transformations
thermochemistry: study of heat flow that accompanies chemical reactions
6.1 ENERGY AND ITS UNITS
energy: potential or capacity to move matter
kinetic energy (KE): energy associated with an objects motion
e.g. a car moving at 75 mph has much greater KE than the same car
moving at 15 mph
Greater damage if the car crashes at 75 mph than at 15 mph
KE =

1
mv2
2

potential energy (PE): energy associated with an objects position or its


chemical bonds
A 10-lb bowling ball has higher PE when its 10 feet off the ground as
opposed to 10 inches off the ground
Greater damage on your foot if it hit your foot after falling 10 feet than
if it hit after falling only 10 inches
In terms of chemical bonds, the stronger the bond

more energy required to break the bond


higher the potential energy of the bond

joule (J):

1J=

1 kg m2

s2
SI (i.e. standard) unit of energy
To appreciate the size of a joule, note that

1 watt = 1

So a 100-watt bulb uses 100 J every second.

J
s

Heat can also be reported in kilojoules (kJ), where 1 kJ = 1000 J

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 1 of 12

Example: Calculate the kinetic energy (in joules) Randy Johnson fastball
if the baseball has a mass of 143 g and travels at 95 miles per
hour.
(1 mph = 0.4469 m/s approximately)

calorie (cal): unit of energy used most often in the U.S.


amount of energy required to raise the temperature of 1 g of water by 1C
1 cal 4.184 J

(Note: This is EXACT!)

Example: What is the kinetic energy in calories of the Randy Johnson


fastball described above?

law of conservation of energy:

6.2

energy is neither created nor destroyed


but converted from one form to another

HEAT OF REACTION

system: that part of the universe being studied


surroundings: the rest of the universe outside the system
Direction and Sign of Heat Flow
Let q = heat flow,
q is + when heat flows into the system from the surroundings
q is when heat flows out of the system into the surroundings
CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 2 of 12

heat of reaction (qreaction):

heat associated with a chemical reaction

Where Does the Heat of Reaction Come From?


Bond Energy
energy required to break a particular bond in 1 mol of gaseous molecules
always positive since breaking a bond always requires energy
a quantitative measure of the strength of a bond (i.e. stability of molecule)
Breaking and Forming Bonds
energy is absorbed by reactants when their bonds are broken, and
energy is released by products when their bonds are formed
If

energy released
energy required

> when products'

to break

bonds are formed


reactants' bonds

endothermic reaction

If

energy released
energy required

< when products'

to break

bonds are formed


reactants' bonds

exothermic reaction

Endothermic reaction: qreaction = +


Heat flows from surroundings to reaction system
surroundings feel cooler
e.g. water evaporating is endothermic
H2O (l)

H2O (g)

qreaction = +ve

Exothermic reaction: qreaction =


Heat flows from reaction system to surroundings:
surroundings feel hotter
e.g. propane burning is exothermic
C2H5OH (l) + 3 O2 (g) 3 H2O (g) + 2 CO2 (g)

qreaction = ve

6.6 MEASURING HEATS OF REACTION


Heat Capacity and Specific Heat
specific heat (s): amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1
gram of any substance by 1C; has units of J/gC
water has relatively high specific heat (4.184 J/gC)
because the earth is covered by so much water
why temperatures on earth do not vary by large degree

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 3 of 12

heat capacity (C):

amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of a


given amount of any substance by 1C; in units of J/C

molar heat capacity: heat capacity per mole of a substance (in J/molC)
Use the following equations to solve problems:
q = heat capacity T

or

q = (specific heat) (mass) T

where T=change in temperature

Ex. 1.

How much heat is released by a 150.0-g sample of copper that cools


from 100.0C to 25.0C? (The molar heat capacity for copper is
24.6 J/molC)

Ex. 2

To raise the temperature from 23.5C to 100.0 C for a 15.5-g sample of


silver, 279.9 J is required. What is the specific heat of silver?

Ex. 3

A beaker with 250.1 g of water is heated from 25.0C to its boiling


point. If the specific heat of water is 4.184 J/gC, how much heat is
required to heat the water?

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 4 of 12

Ex. 4 When drinking an ice-cold beverage, a person must raise the


temperature of the beverage to 37.0C (normal body temperature). One
argument for losing weight is to drink ice-cold beverages since the
body must expend about 1 calorie per gram of water per degree
Celsiusi.e. the specific heat of water = 1.00 cal/gC to consume the
drink.
a. Calculate the amount of energy expended (in cal) to consume a 12oz beer (about 355 mL) if the beer is originally at 4.0C. Assume the
drink is mostly water and its density is 1.01 g/mL.
b. If the label indicates 103 Calories (where 1 nutritional Calorie (Cal)
equal 1 kcal), what is the net calorie gain or loss when a person
consumes this beer? Is this a viable weight loss alternative?

Measurement of Heat of Reaction


calorimeter:
an instrument that measures heat changes for physical and chemical processes
insulated, so the only heat flow is between reaction system and calorimeter
Coffee-Cup Calorimeter
also called constant-pressure calorimeter since under atmospheric pressure
polystyrene cup partially filled with water
since polystyrene is good insulator, very little heat lost through cup walls
heat evolved by a reaction is absorbed by water, and the heat capacity of
calorimeter is the heat capacity of the water
heat of reaction:

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

qreaction = mwater

4.184 J
T
g C
page 5 of 12

Ex. 1 A 28.2 g sample of nickel is heated to 99.8C and placed in a coffee cup
calorimeter containing 150.0 g of water at 23.5C. After the metal cools,
the final temperature of metal and water is 25.0C. Calculate the specific
heat of the metal assuming no heat is lost to the surroundings or the
calorimeter.

6.2

Enthalpy and Enthalpy Change

Enthalpy (H): refers to heat flow into and out of a system under constant pressure
Under constant pressure (usually the case since under atmospheric pressure),
qreaction = H = Hproducts Hreactants

6.4

For an endothermic reaction:

H = +ve

For an exothermic reaction:

H = ve

Thermochemical Equations:

thermochemical equation: shows both mass and enthalpy relationships


Consider: Ice melting to form water at 0C and 1 atm
requires energy (6.01 kJ/mol)
We can represent the melting of 1 mol of ice as an equation:
H2O (s) H2O (l)

H = +6.01 kJ

Note: H is +ve since ice must absorb heat to form water


CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 6 of 12

Consider: The formation of water releases heat:


2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (g)

H = 571.6 kJ

Note: H is ve since heat is lost to the surroundings

Guidelines for Thermochemical Equations


1. Sign of H indicates if reaction is exothermic (H<0) or endothermic (H>0).
2. The coefficients in the chemical equation represent the numbers of moles
of reactants and products for the H given.
e.g. H is 185 kJ for 1 mol H2 + 1 mol Cl2 to form 2 mols of HCl
3. The physical states must be indicated for each reactant and product.
e.g. For water, the solid and the liquid states vary by 6.01 kJ
4. H generally reported for reactants and products at 25C.

6.5 APPLYING STOICHIOMETRY TO HEATS OF REACTION


Rule 1.

The magnitude of H is directly proportional to the amount of


reactant or product.
Consider heat as you would a reactant or product in a mole-tomole ratio, where H is the heat released or absorbed for the
moles of reactants and products indicated in the equation

Example: Consider

H2 (g) + Cl2 (g) 2 HCl (g)

H = 185 kJ

a. What is H for when 5.00 mol of hydrogen gas reacts completely?

b. What is H for the formation of 1.00 g of hydrogen chloride gas?

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 7 of 12

Rule 2. For a reverse rxn, H is equal in magnitude but opposite in sign.


If

H2O (s)

H2O (l)

then

H2O (l)

H fusion):
heat of fusion (

H2O (s)

H = +6.01 kJ
H = 6.01 kJ

heat associated with a solid melting, in kJ/mol;


i.e. solid liquid
HHfusion

H vapor):
heat of vaporization (

heat associated with a liquid vaporizing,


in kJ/mol; i.e. liquid gas
HHvapor

Example: If a 24.6-g ice cube requires 8.19 kJ of heat to melt completely,


calculate Hfusion for ice (in kJ/mol)?

Rule 3: If all the coefficients in a chemical equation are multiplied by a factor n


H is multiplied by factor n:
If

H2O (s)

H2O (l)

H = +6.01 kJ

2 [H2O (s) H2O (l)] = 2 H2O (s) 2 H2O (l)

H = 2(+6.01 kJ) = 12.0 kJ

1
1
1
[H2O (s) H2O (s)] = H2O (s) H2O (l)
2
2
2

H =

6.7

1
(+6.01 kJ) =3.01kJ
2

Hesss Law

Hesss Law of heat summation: The value of H for a reaction is the same
whether it occurs in one step or in a series of steps
H = H1 + H2 + H3 + ...
CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 8 of 12

Example 1:

Cgraphite (s) + 2 H2 (g)

CH4 (g)

Here are the reactions involved in the formation of CH4:


(a) Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g)

H = 393.5 kJ

(b) 2 H2 (g) + O2 (g) 2 H2O (l)

H = 571.6 kJ

(c) CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g) CO2 (g) + 2 H2O (l)

H = 890.4 kJ

Rearranging the data allows us to calculate H for the reaction:


(a)Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g)
(b)2 H2 (g) + O2(g)
(c)

CO2 (g)

H = 393.5 kJ

2 H2O (l)

H = 571.6 kJ

C O2 (g) + 2 H2O (l)

Cgraphite (s) + 2 H2 (g)

CH4 (g) + 2 O2 (g)


CH4 (g)

H =

890.4 kJ

H = 74.7

kJ

If the coefficients in an equation can be simplified, multiply by the


necessary factors to cancel all intermediate compounds and get the
correct coefficients for your final equation.
Ex. 2

Rearrange the following data:


(a) Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g) CO2 (g)

H = 393.5 kJ

(b) 2 CO (g) + O2 (g)

H = 566.0 kJ

2 CO2 (g)

to calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction:


2 Cgraphite (s) + O2 (g) 2 CO (g)

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 9 of 12

Ex. 3

From the following data:


(a)N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3 (g)

H = 92.6 kJ

(b)N2 (g) + 2 O2 (g) 2 NO2 (g)

H =

(c)

H = 571.6 kJ

2 H2 (g) +

O2 (g) 2 H2O (l)

67.70 kJ

Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction:


4 NH3 (g) + 7 O2 (g) 4 NO2 (g) + 6 H2O (l)

6.6

Standard Enthalpies of Formation ( Hf )

Definitions of standard state (or reference form)


1. A gas at 1 atm
2. An aqueous solution with a concentration of 1 M at a pressure of 1 atm
3. Pure liquids and solids
4. The most stable form of elements at 1 atm and 25C
allotrope:

one or 2 or more forms of an element in the same physical state


e.g. diamond and graphite are allotropes of carbon;
O 2 (g) and ozone, O3 (g) are allotropes of oxygen

standard enthalpy of formation ( Hf )


enthalpy change for formation of 1 mole of an element or compound from its
elements in their standard states (i.e. naturally occurring form at 1 atm and 25C)
Note: Hf =0 for any element in its naturally occurring (most stable) form
CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 10 of 12

Examples of Hf are as follows:


1
Ag (s) +
Cl2 (g) AgCl (s)
2

1
N2 (g) + O2 (g) NO2 (g)
2

H = 127.1 kJ

Hf (AgCl, s) = -127.1 kJ

H = +33.2 kJ
Hf (NO2, g) = +33.2 kJ

Example: Explain for each of the following if H is a heat of formation.


a.

N2 (g) + 3 H2 (g) 2 NH3 (g)

b.

H2O (l) H2O (g)

c.

Cgraphite (s) + 2 H2 (g)

d.

2 CO (g) + O2 (g)

e.

CO2 (s) CO2 (g)

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

CH4 (g)

2 CO2 (g)

page 11 of 12

Calculation of H
superscript denotes taken under 1 atm and 25C
For the reaction:

aA + bB

cC + dD

where a,b,c,d = stoichiometric


coefficients

= n Hf (products) m Hf (reactants)
Hrxn
= [c Hf (C) + d Hf (D)] [a Hf (A) + b Hf (B)]

Use Table 6.2 to solve for Hrxn


for each of the following:

Ex. 1: C graphite (s) + O2 (g)

CO2 (g)

= (1mol) Hf (CO2, g) [(1mol) Hf (Cgraphite, s) + (1mol) Hf (O2, g)]


Hrxn

Ex. 2:

2 CH3OH (l) + 5 O2 (g) 2 CO2 (g) + 4 H2O (g)

=
Hrxn

Ex. 3

Consider the reaction for the combustion of glucose:

C6H12O 6 (s) + 6 O2 (g) 6 CO2 (g) + 6 H2O (g)

Hrxn
= 2803 kJ

Calculate the enthalpy of formation for glucose using Table 6.2.

CHM 151: Chapter 6 Thermochemistry

page 12 of 12

Chapter 7: Quantum Theory of the Atom


Problems: 1, 8-11, 15, 18, 25, 27-40, 49-54, 63-66, 71-72, 83-84

7.1 The Wave Nature of Light


Light travels through space as a wave
Waves have the following characteristics (see Fig. 7.4)
=Greek lambda): distance between successive peaks
wavelength (
=

distance
; generally in units of m, cm, nm
wave

=Greek nu): number of waves passing by a given point in 1 s


frequency (
=

wave
1
cycle
; generally in hertz (Hz) =
or
time
s
s

Electromagnetic (EM) spectrum: continuum of radiant energy (Fig. 7.5)


visible region: portion of the EM spectrum that we can perceive as color
For example, a "red-hot" or "white-hot" iron bar freshly removed from a hightemperature source has forms of energy in different parts of the EM spectrum
red or white glow = radiation within the visible region
warmth = radiation within the infrared region
speed of light, c=3.00 x 108 m/s, depends on frequency and wavelength
c

distance distance wave

time
wave
time
Know how to convert between wavelength and frequency using the speed of light!
Ex. 1

The wavelength for the electromagnetic radiation responsible for a blue


sky is about 473 nm. What is the frequency of this radiation in Hz?

CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 1 of 6

7.2

Quantum Effects and Photons

Classical Descriptions of Matter


John Dalton (1803)
atoms are hard, indivisible, billiard-like particles
atoms have distinct masses (what distinguishes on type of atom from another)
all atoms of same element are the same
JJ Thomson (1890s)
discovered charge-to-mass ratios of electrons
atoms are divisible because the electrons are one part of atom
Ernest Rutherford (1910)
shot positive alpha particles at a thin foil of gold
discovery of the atomic nucleus
James Maxwell (1873)
visible light consists of electromagnetic waves
Transition between Classical and Quantum Theory
Max Planck (1900); Blackbody Radiation
heated solids to red or white heat
noted matter did not emit energy in continuous bursts, but in whole-number
multiples of certain well-defined quantities
matter absorbs/emits energy in bundles = "quanta"
(single bundle of energy= "quantum")
Albert Einstein (1905); Photoelectric Effect
Photoelectric Effect: Light shining on a clean metal emission of electrons
Einstein applied Planck's quantum theory to light
light exists as a stream of "particles" called photons
Energy is proportional to the frequency () and wavelength () of radiation, and the
proportionality constant (h) is now called Planck's constant
E h =

CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

hc

where

h = 6.6261034 Js

page 2 of 6

Ex. 1.

Excited mercury atoms emit light strongly at a wavelength of 436 nm.


a. What is the energy (in J) for one photon of this light?

b. What is the energy (in kJ/mol) for a mole of photons of this light?

Ex. 2.

Certain elements emit light of a specific color when they are burned.
When an potassium solution is burned in a flame test, the energy of
the light emitted is 4.90910-19 J. Calculate the wavelength for this
light, and use the visible spectrum (Fig. 7.5) to determine the color of the
light.

7.4 Quantum Mechanics


Louis de Broglie (1924); Dual Nature of the Electron
If light can behave like a wave and a particle
matter (like an electron) can behave like waves
if electron behaves like a standing wave
an electron can only have specific wavelengths

an electron can only have specific frequencies and thus, energies

for wave: E = mc2

for matter: E = h

Combining the two equations, we can solve for the wavelength for any matter.
de Broglie relation
h

mv
CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 3 of 6

Ex. 1 a. A baseball with mass 0.143 kg is thrown towards a batter at a velocity of


42.5 m/s, calculate the wavelength (in m) associated with the baseballs
motion.

b. How does the compare in size to the baseball (diameter0.08 m)?


The baseballs baseballs size. (Circle one)

>>

<<

Ex. 2 a. Calculate the wavelength (in m) associated with an electron traveling at the
same velocity, 42.5 m/s. (The mass of the electron is 9.1095 1031 kg.)

b. How does the compare in size to the electron (diameter11010 m)?


The electron s electrons size. (Circle one)

>>

<<

Thus, although all matter can have wave properties, such properties are
only significant for submicroscopic particles.

7.3 Bohr Theory of the Hydrogen Atom


Bohr Postulates: Bohr Model of the Atom
1. Energy-level Postulate
Electrons move in discrete (quantized), circular orbits around the nucleus
"tennis ball and stairs" analogy for electrons and energy levels
a ball can bounce up to or drop from one stair to another, but it can
never be halfway between two levels
Each orbit has a specific energy associated with it, indicated as n=1, 2,...
ground state or ground level (n = 1): lowest energy state for atom
when the electron is in most stable orbit
excited state: when the electron is in a higher energy orbit (n = 2,3,4,...)
CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 4 of 6

2. Transitions Between Energy Levels


When the atom absorbs energy, an electron can jump from a lower energy
level to a higher energy level.
When an electron drops from a higher energy level to a lower energy level,
the atom releases energy, sometimes in the form of visible light.
Atomic Line Spectra
Emission Spectra: continuous or line spectra of radiation emitted by substances
a heated solid (e.g. the filament in an incandescent light bulb) emits light that can be
spread out to give a continuous spectrum = spectrum containing all
wavelengths of light, like a rainbow
an atom in the gas phase emits light only at specific wavelengths = line spectrum
each element has a unique line spectrum can be used to identify
unknown atoms in chemical analysis
why line spectrum for each element called "atomic fingerprint"

Limitations of the Bohr Model Quantum Mechanical Model


Unfortunately, the Bohr Model failed for all other elements that had more than one
proton and one electron. (The multiple electron-nuclear attractions, electronelectron repulsions, and nuclear repulsions make other atoms much more
complicated than hydrogen.)
In 1920s, a new discipline, quantum mechanics, was developed to describe the
motion of submicroscopic particles confined to tiny regions of space.
Quantum mechanics makes no attempt to specify the position of a small particle
at a given instant or how the electron got there
It only gives the probability of finding small particles
Just like taking snapshot of a location and estimating where greatest
number of people are likely to be
Instead we take a snapshot of the atom at different times and see
where the electrons are usually found (See. Figs. 7.24, 7.26)
Erwin Schrdinger (1926)
developed a differential equation that allows us to find the electron's wave
), which ultimately allows us to determine the probability of finding
function (
the electron in a given place
probability density for an electron is called the "electron cloud"
shape
Quantum Numbers, Energy Levels, and Orbitals
4 quantum numbers describe distribution and behavior of electrons in atoms
Each wave function corresponds to a set of 3 quantum numbers and is referred
to as an atomic orbital
CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 5 of 6

We will only discuss the first 2 Quantum Numbers:


First (or Principal) Quantum Number (n): n=1,2,3,...
relates the average distance of electron from nucleus
higher n means electron is further from nucleus and higher energy (less
stable) orbital
Second (or Angular Momentum) Quantum Number (l);
Sublevels (s, p, d, f)
gives the "shape" of the electron clouds associated with each orbital
The limitations on n and l
for n=1, only 1s sublevel
for n=2, only 2s and 2p sublevels
for n=3, there are 3s, 3p, and 3d sublevels
for n=4, there are 4s, 4p, 4d, and 4f sublevels
Atomic Orbital Shapes:
s orbital: spherical (see Fig. 7.25)
p orbitals:
dumbbell-shaped (see Fig. 7.26)
only for n=2 or greater
3 types: px, py, pz (where x, y, and z give axis on which orbital aligns)
d orbitals:
various shapes (see Fig. 7.27)
only for n=3 or greater
5 types: dxy, dxz, dyz, d x 2 y 2 , dz2
f orbitals: Dont worry about these.

The interesting part...


Consider Fig. 7.26 showing the electron distribution for the 2px orbital.
Note that the electron is never along the y-axis. There is a node in that
region, indicating the electron is never found there.
How can the electron be on either side of the y-axis without going through it?

CHM 151: Chapter 7 Notes

page 6 of 6

Chapter 8: Electron Configurations and Periodicity


Problems: 7-8, 12, 15, 19, 23, 33-56, 61-66, 71-72

8.2

Building-Up Principle and the Periodic Table

Electrons are distributed in orbitals of increasing energy levels, where the


lowest energy orbitals are filled first.
Once an orbital has the maximum number of electrons it can hold, it is
considered filled. Remaining electrons must then be placed into the next
highest energy orbital, and so on.
Parking garage analogy
Orbitals in order of increasing energy:
1s < 2s < 2p < 3s < 3p < 4s < 3d < 4p < 5s < 4d < 5p < 6s < 5d < 6p
electron configuration:
Shorthand description of the arrangement of electrons by sublevel
according to
increasing energy
REMEMBER!
s orbitals can hold 2 electrons
a set of p orbitals can hold 6 electrons
a set of d orbitals can hold 10 electrons
a set of f orbitals can hold 14 electrons
Ex. 1

Li atomic number=3 3 eelectron configuration for Li:

Ex. 2

F _____ e
electron configuration for F:

Ex. 3

Fe _____ e
electron configuration for Fe:

CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 1 of 8

Exceptions to the Building-Up Principle


Atoms gain extra stability when their d subshells are half-filled or completely
filled.
If we can fill or half-fill a d subshell by promoting an electron from an s orbital
to a d orbital, we do so to gain the extra stability.
Ex. 1

Cr _____ e

electron configuration for Cr:


actual electron configuration for Cr:

Ex. 2

Ag_____ e

electron configuration for Ag:


actual electron configuration for Ag:
8.3 Writing Electron Configurations Using the Periodic Table
Electron Configuration from the Periodic Table
The Periodic Table's shape actually corresponds to the filling of energy
sublevels.
See Fig. 8.12 (p. 325), to see how electrons for each element are distributed
into the energy sublevels.
Electron configurations of atoms with many electrons can become cumbersome.
Abbreviated electron configurations (noble-gas core notation):
Since noble gases are at the end of each row in the Periodic Table, all of
their electrons are in filled orbitals.
Such electrons are called core electrons since they are more stable
(less reactive) when they belong to completely filled orbitals.
valence electrons: electrons that are in the outermost shell (unfilled orbitals)
Noble gas electron configurations can be used to abbreviate the core
electrons of all elements.
[He]
[Ne]
[Ar]
[Kr]
[Xe]

= 1s2
= 1s2 2s2 2p6
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6
= 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10 5p6
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 2 of 8

[Fe] = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d6


=
[Cd] = 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p6 4s2 3d10 4p6 5s2 4d10
=

[Ni] =

[Y]

[I]

Remember again that for some transition metals, extra stability with filled
and half-filled d orbitals, so electrons are excited from the s orbitals to d
orbitals:
[Cu] =

[Mo] =

8.1

Electron Spin and the Pauli Exclusion Principle

Each electron in an atom can have one of two possible orientations, spin or spin .

electron configuration: arrangement of electrons in an atom among sublevels


CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 3 of 8

orbital diagram: diagram showing how electrons exist within an atoms orbitals
Pauli Exclusion Principle: no 2 e-s in an atom can have same four quantum #s
Two electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins
For example, with the helium atom, there are three ways to represent two
electrons in 1s orbital (where spin is represented with the electron pointing
up or down):
for He:

(a)
(b)
(c)
but the Pauli exclusion principle rules out (a) and (b) since these show
two electrons in the same orbital with the same spin.
8.4 Orbital Diagrams of Atoms; Hunds Rule
Hund's Rule: the most stable arrangement of electrons in subshells has the
greatest number of parallel spins
i.e. distribute electrons with same spin (up or down) and do
not pair electrons until all subshells have an electron
For example, if carbons electron configuration is: 1s2 2s2 2p2
carbons orbital diagram can be shown in the following ways:
(a)

1s

(b)

1s

(c)

1s

2s
2s

2s

2p
2p
2p

but using Hund's rule, we know (c) would be the most stable.
General Rules for Assigning Electrons in Atomic Orbital Diagrams
1. First, determine the electron configuration.
2. There is only one s orbital for each level: one 1s, one 2s, one 3s, etc.
There are 3 p orbitals for each p sublevel.
There are 5 d orbitals for each d sublevel.
3. Each orbital orbital can only hold 2 electrons
Each s orbital can hold 2 electrons, each p sublevel can hold 6, ds can hold 10.
4. Electrons in the same orbital must have opposite spins.
5. To fill sublevels, put one electron in each orbital (with same spin) before pairing.
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 4 of 8

Ex. 1

Draw the atomic orbital diagram for oxygen.

Ex. 2

Draw the atomic orbital diagram for phosphorus. (Use full notation)

Ex. 3

Draw the atomic orbital diagram for the valence (outermost shell)
electrons in cobalt. (Use core notation.)

Magnetic Properties of Atoms


paramagnetic: substance that contains unpaired electrons
weakly attracted to magnetic field
diamagnetic:

substance that contains only paired electrons


slightly repelled by magnetic field

To determine if a substance is paramagnetic or diamagnetic, you must draw


its orbital diagram and determine if it has an unpaired electrons.
Ex.

Is cobalt paramagnetic or diamagnetic?

CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

____________________
page 5 of 8

8.3 Mendeleevs Predictions from the Periodic Table


Dimitri Mendeleev proposed that elements display recurring properties
according to increasing atomic mass
Periodic Table originally arranged with elements in order of increasing atomic
mass
Henry G.J. Moseleys high-energy x-ray radiation experiments of atomic nuclei
Repeating properties of elements more clearly reflected by the arrangement
of elements according to increasing atomic number
Periodic Tables arrangement today
Trends for increasing atomic mass are identical with those forincreasing
atomic number, except for Ni & Co, Ar & K, Te & I.
Neils Bohrs introduction of electron energy levels
Periodic Tables shape
Indicates filling of electron orbitals and elements electron configuration
periodic law: When elements are arranged in terms of increasing atomic
number, the trends within a row or column form patterns that
allow us to predict the physical and chemical properties of
elements
8.6 Some Periodic Properties
Atomic radius: distance from nucleus to outermost electrons
Increases down a group: More p+, n, and e bigger radius
Decreases from left to right along a period.
effective nuclear charge:
positive charge an electron experiences because of charge from protons
in the nucleus minus any shielding due to electrons closer to the nucleus
Consider the atoms of Ti and Ni:

Thus, the higher the effective nuclear charge, the smaller the atomic radius!
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 6 of 8

Atomic radius trend:


Trend from top to bottom like a snowman
Trend from left to right like a snowman that fell to the right

First Ionization Energy:

Energy necessary to remove first electron from a


neutral atom in gaseous state to form negatively
charged ion.

First Ionization Energy TRENDS


Decreases down a group:
Bigger the atom, the further away es are from +vely charged nucleus
es held less tightly and are more easily removed
Increases from left to right along a period:
Elements with fewer (13) valence es can more easily give up es to
gain noble gas configuration (stability)
Elements with more (47) valence es can more easily gain es togain
noble gas configuration (stability)
Trend from top to bottom like an upside-down snowman
Trend from left to right like a upside-down snowman that fell to the right

Variations in Successive Ionization Energies


Recognize that it becomes more difficult to remove electrons from stable ions.
See Table 8.3 on p. 337.
For example, the ionization energy to remove the first electron from Li is
much smaller than the any successive ionization energy since electrons
are now removed from a stable ion (with a positive charge AND
sometimes a noble gas electron configuration).
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 7 of 8

We can indicate first and successive ionization energies in the following way:
First ionization energy = IE1
Second ionization energy = IE2
Third ionization energy = IE3
Ex. 1:

Between which two ionization energies (IE1 and IE2, IE2 and IE3, etc.)
would you expect there to be the largest jump for the following
elements? Explain.

a. Mg: Between _____ and _____


Explain why:

b. K: Between _____ and _____


Explain why:

c. Al: Between _____ and _____


Explain why:

Ex. 2:

8.7

This 3rd period element has a large jump between IE5 and IE6.
Explain how you can identify the element.

Periodicity in the Main-Group Elements

Metallic character:
Decreases from left to right along a period:
Metals concentrated on left-hand side of P.T., nonmetals on right-hand side
Increases down a group: Looking at groups IVA and VA, go from
nonmetals (C & N) to semimetals (Si & As) to metals (Sn & Bi)
Same snowman trends as for atomic radius!
CHEM 151: Chapter 8 Notes

page 8 of 8

Chapter 9: Ionic and Covalent Bonding


Problems: 13, 15-16, 18, 22-24, 26-28, 31-38, 47-70, 75-78, 81-84, 91

9.1

Describing Ionic Bonds

A metal transfers valence electrons to a nonmetal


metal cations and nonmetal anions
the charged ions are attracted to each other
ionic bond: electrostatic attraction between positively charged cation
and negatively charged anion
core electrons: innermost electrons belonging to filled electron shells
valence electrons: Electrons in the outermost shell
Since atoms want filled electron shells to be most stable, theyll combine with
other atoms with unfilled shells (gaining or losing es) to get stability.

Valence es lead to chemical bonds and reactions between atoms


For Main Group (A) elements, Group # # of valence es
Elements in Group IA: each have 1 valence e
Elements in Group IIA: each have 2 valence e
Elements in Group IIIA: each have 3 valence e
Elements in Group IVA: each have 4 valence e
Elements in Group VA: each have 5 valence e
Elements in Group VIA: each have 6 valence e
Elements in Group VIIA: each have 7 valence e
Elements in Group VIIIA: each have 8 valence e
How many valence electrons do each of the following have?
Mg: ____ val. e

N: ____ val. e

Br: ____ val. e

Al: ____ val. e

Rb: ____ val. e

Si: ____ val. e

Se: ____ val. e

Xe: ____ val. e

Lewis Electron-Dot Symbols


Shows the atom or ion of an element with its valence electrons
1. Element symbol representing the nucleus and core electrons
2. Dots representing the valence e

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 1

Rules for writing Electron Dot Symbol


1. Write down the element symbol
2. Determine the number of valence electrons using the group number
3. For ions, account for electrons gained or lost leading to the charge.
4. Assume the atom has four sides, and distribute electrons with one electron
per side before pairing electrons.
Ex. 1 Give the Lewis electron-dot symbol for the following elements:

Si

Cl

Al

Ex. 2 Give the Lewis electron-dot symbol for the following ions:
calcium ion:

potassium ion:

sulfide ion:

Why do ions form if formation requires energy (i.e. ionization energy)?


When ionic compounds form, energy is released due to so many bonds formed
amount of energy released more than makes up for the ionization energy
Properties of Ionic Substances:
An ionic compound is actually a network of ions, with each cation surrounded
by anions, and vice versa. A 2-dimensional slice would look like this:

Most ionic compounds are solid at room temperature and have very high
melting points, since every bond between each ion must be broken to melt
the substance.

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 2

Coulomb's law: Relative strength of ionic bond given by the following:


1. Charges of ions: Higher the charge the stronger the bond
The bond in CaO (+2 and 2) is stronger than that in NaCl (+1 and 1)
why melting point of CaO (2927C) much higher than NaCl's (801C)
2. Distance between two ions: Shorter distance stronger the bond
internuclear distance for NaCl (0.276 nm) is shorter than KBr's (0.328 nm).
why NaCl melting point (801C) is higher than KBr's (734C).
9.2

Electron Configuration of Ions

Ions of the Main-Group Elements


Representative elements generally form ionsie. gain or lose electronsto
achieve a noble gas electron configuration
Ions from representative metals are usually isoelectronic withi.e. have
the same electron configuration asone of the noble gases!
For IONS, one must account for the loss or gain of electrons:
# electrons = atomic # (charge = change in # of valence electrons)
Or you can simply use the Periodic Table
Find out with which element the ion is isoelectronic
Move to the left for electrons lost
Move to the right for electrons gained
write the electron configuration for that element
Fill in the table below:
Ion

Isoelectronic
with this element

Electron Configuration
(using core notation)

P3
Na+
Al+3

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 3

Transition-Metal Ions
Transition metals lose their s electrons first when forming ions
Ion

Electron Configuration for


element (use core notation)

Electron Configuration for ion


(use core notation)

Zn2+
Ag+
Fe+3
9.3

IONIC RADII:

cation radius < neutral atom radius < anion radius


(loses e-s)
(gains e-s)

Cl atom

Na+ ion

Cl ion

Na atom

9.4 Describing Covalent Bonds


covalent bond:

sharing of a pair of electrons between 2 nonmetal atoms


the type of bond that holds atoms together in a molecule

H. +

HH

bonding electrons: electrons involved in covalent bond formation


nonbonding electrons (or lone pairs): belong solely to an individual atom
bonding electron pair

: :
: :

: :

: :

:F .

:F :

nonbonding electrons
or lone pairs

: FF :

Coordinate covalent bond:


When one atom donates both electrons to make the bond

:F :

: :

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

: :

H+ +

HF :
page 4

9.5 Polar Covalent Bonds; Electronegativity


Electronegativity (EN): Ability of an atom in a bond to draw es to itself
F is the most electronegative (EN) element
Elements are less electronegative the further away from F
EN increases

Periodic Table

EN
increases

Except for H, which has EN between B and C.


In some covalent bonds, one of the two atoms holds bonding es more tightly
polar covalent bond results between two atoms
Because the electrons spend more time around F, they must spend less time
around H F gets a partial ve charge () and H gets partial +ve charge (+):

: :

HF :
In other covalent bonds, both atoms have equal EN values
share the bonding electrons equally nonpolar covalent bond

9.6 Writing Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas


1. Count the total number of valence electrons present
from atoms
from charge if polyatomic ion (add or subtract es for charge)
2. Write the skeleton structure of the compound
Put least EN atom as central atom and surround with other atoms
Note: H and F atoms will always be outer atoms
3. Connect all atoms by drawing single bonds between all atoms, then distribute the
remaining valence electrons as lone pairs around outer atoms so each has 8 es
octet rule: atoms form bonds such that all atoms get eight electrons
BUT hydrogen (H) can only have 2 electrons (to fill 1s orbital)

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 5

4. If there are not enough electrons for each atom to have an octet, make double
and/or triple bonds between central atom and surrounding atoms
BUT fluorine can only form a single bond
Note that double bonds are shorter than single bonds, and
triple bonds are shorter than double bonds
5. For polyatomic ions, square brackets are drawn around the Lewis structure, and
the charge is put in the upper right-hand corner
Give the Lewis formula for the following:
a. H2O

b. O 2

c. NF3

d. HCN

e. NH4+

f. NO2

g. SO42

h. CO32

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 6

Lewis Electron-Dot Formulas for Ternary Oxyacids (e.g. HNO3, H2SO4, etc.)
Ternary oxyacids contain hydrogen, oxygen, and one other element.
In ternary oxyacids, the central atom is the other element and hydrogen atoms
are bonded directly to oxygen atoms.
more than one central atom in the molecule
Example:

Draw the electron-dot formula for each of the following:

a. HNO3 (aq)

9.9

b.

H2SO4 (aq)

Formal Charge and Lewis Formulas

Example:

Give two different Lewis formulas for CO2 that satisfy the octet rule.

Because there are many ways to draw Lewis structures, we need a way to
determine the most plausible structure
formal charge: hypothetical charge an atom would have if bonding electrons are
shared equally and lone pairs belong solely to a single atom
total number of
total number of
formal charge = valence electrons nonbonding total number
of bonds
in free atom
electrons

1. For neutral molecules, sum of formal charges must equal zero.


2. For ions, the sum of the formal charges must equal charge.
CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 7

Guidelines for formal charges and plausible structures:


Lewis formulas with no formal charges is preferable to one with formal charges.
Lewis formula with large formal charges (+2, +3, and/or 2, 3, etc.) is less
plausible than one with lower formal charges (+1 and 1, etc.)
When Lewis formulas have similar formal charge distributions, most plausible
formula has negative formal charge on more electronegative atom
Ex. 1 Determine the most plausible formula for CO2 above using formal charges.

Ex. 2 Determine the most likely Lewis structure for formaldehyde, CH2O, starting the
with following skeletal structures and by determining formal charges:

H
H

H
9.7

Delocalized Bonding; Resonance

Given the Lewis structure for ozone, we expect either of the following structures:

:
:

so one bond (OO) bond should be longer than the other (O=O).
BUT experimental evidence indicates that both oxygen-oxygen bonds in ozone
are identical, so neither of the structures accurately represents the molecule.

page 8

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

These types of electrons are called delocalized electrons


because they are spread between more than two atoms.

The actual structure is a cross between the two structures,


where the electron pair is actually spread over all three atoms:

To correctly represent such delocalized electrons using Lewis formulas we show


all the Lewis formulas with a double-arrow between each:

:
:

where each of these structures is called a resonance structure.


resonance structure:one of two or more Lewis structures representing a single
molecule that cannot be described fully with only one Lewis structure
resonance: the use of two or more Lewis structures to represent a molecule
a real ozone molecule doesn't oscillate between the resonance
structures above but is a unique, stable structure we cannot
adequately represent with one Lewis structure
Ex. 1

Give the resonance structures for NO2:

O
Ex. 2

9.8

Give the resonance structures for the carbonate ion, CO32:

Exceptions to the Octet Rule

The Incomplete Octet:


Some atoms are satisfied with less than an octet
Be (1s22s2) is stable with only four valence electrons

:F

: :

: :

Boron (1s2 2s2 2p1) also tends to form compounds


with less than eight electrons

HBeH

F:

:F :
:

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 9

: : : :

The Expanded Octet:


Atoms in and beyond the 3rd period can
have more than eight electrons when in a
compound

:F

:F

: :
: : : :
. : :
:

Odd-Electron Molecules:
Some molecules have an odd number of electrons
can't satisfy octet rule; usually N has the odd number

N=O

:F :

F:

:F :

F:

Examples: Draw the Lewis structure for the following molecules:


BeCl2:

BH3:

PF5:

XeF4:

NO2:

triiodide ion, I3:

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 10

9.10 Bond Length and Bond Order


Bond Length: distance between 2 nuclei of two bonded atoms
shorter the bond length, the stronger the bond
triple bonds are the shortest, so they are the strongest bonds
double bonds are the next shortest, so they are next in strength
single bonds are longest, so they are weaker than double and triple bonds
Bond order: number of pairs of electrons in a bond
single bond: bond order=1
double bond: bond order=2
triple bond: bond order=3
9.11 Bond Energy
bond energy: energy required to break a particular bond in the gas phase
always positive since it takes energy to break a bond
a quantitative measure of a bonds strength (i.e. stability of molecule)
higher the bond energy stronger the bond
Use of Bond Energies in Thermochemistry
We can estimate the enthalpy change (H) for any reaction using bond energies:
H = BE (reactants) BE (products)
= total energy input total energy released
Note:

if
if

BE (reactants)
BE (reactants)

>
<

BE (products)
BE (products)

endothermic reaction
exothermic reaction

Ex. 1 Use Table 9.5 to calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the following:
H2 (g) + F2 (g) 2 HF (g)

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

page 11

Ex. 2 Use Table 9.5 to calculate the enthalpy of reaction for the following:

H
:NN: (g)

CHM 151: Chapter 9 Notes

2 H2 (g)

HNNH

(g)

page 12

Chapter 10: Molecular Geometry and


Chemical Bonding Theory
Problems: 2-4, 7-9, 17-18, 23-32, 35-40, 43-44, 47-48, 55-60

10.1 The Valence-Shell Electron-Pair Repulsion (VSEPR) model


refers to three-dimensional arrangement of atoms in molecule
responsible for many physical and chemical properties of molecules
Repulsion between electrons causes them to be as far apart as possible
valence-shell electron-pair repulsion (VSEPR) model
accounts for geometric arrangements of electron pairs around central atom in
terms of repulsion between electron pairs
General Rules
1. Consider double and triple bonds like single bonds
(an approximation since extra electrons occupy space but sufficient for
qualitative purposes)
2. If two or more resonance structures can be drawn for a molecule, VSEPR
model can be applied to any one of them
3. Don't show formal charges

If there are only two atoms, the molecule must be linear.


Ideal Geometries with Two to Six Electron Pairs on the Central Atom
(where central atom has no lone pairs)
consider a molecule composed of only two types of atoms, A and X
A=central atom

X=outer atoms

For three or more atoms in a molecule, general formula: AX# (where #=2 to 6)

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 1 of 13

Molecules Where Central Atom Has No Lone Pairs


# of
BONDS

General
Formula

AX 2

AX 3

AX 4

MOLECULAR
GEOMETRY
180

120

109.5

NAME

Examples

linear

BeCl2

trigonal
planar

BF3

tetrahedral

CH4, NH4+

trigonal
bipyramidal

PCl5

octahedral

SF6

90

AX 5

AX 6

120

all angles are 90

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 2 of 16

AX 2: linear
the two outer atoms are 180 from each other
e.g. HCN
AX 3: trigonal planar
three outer atoms at the corners of an equilateral triangle
each outer atom is 120 from the other two outer atoms
e.g. CH2O
AX 4: tetrahedral (tetra = four) since four-sided, or four faces
maximum distance between electrons requires 3D structure with
each outer atom is 109.5 from the other outer atoms
e.g. CH4
AX 5: trigonal bipyramidal
trigonal = three outer atoms form planar triangle around central atom
bipyramidal = two outer atom directly above and below central atom,
connecting outer atom forms two 3-sided pyramids
equatorial positions: ends of planar triangle
3 of outer atoms are at equatorial positions, 120 from each other
axial positions: above and below central atom
2 atoms are at axial positions, 90 from equatorial atoms
e.g. PF5
AX 6: octahedral (octa=eight) connecting six atoms eight faces
all outer atoms are 90 away from each other
the terms "axial" and "equatorial" do not apply because all six positions
are identical
e.g. SF6

Molecules Where Central Atom Has One Or More Lone Pairs


A central atom with lone pairs has three types of repulsive forces
lone - pair vs.
lone - pair
repulsion

>

lone - pair vs.


bonding - pair
repulsion

>

bonding - pair vs.


bonding - pair
repulsion

bonding-pair: takes up less space than lone pairs since held by attractive
lone pairs: take up more space than bonding-pair
A=central atom
CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

X=outer atoms

E=lone pairs
page 3 of 13

Molecules Where Central Atom Has Lone Pairs


Original Shape

General
Formula

Molecular Geometry

Name

trigonal planar (AX3)


<120
120

tetrahedral (AX4)

AX2E

bent or
angular

AX3E

trigonal
pyramidal
< 109.5

109.5

trigonal
pyramidal

AX3E

< 109.5

AX2E: bent
start with AX3 molecule (trigonal planar) and replace an X atom w/ lone pair
bond angles are now less than 120
e.g. SO2
AX3E: trigonal pyramidal (central atom + 3 outer atoms make a pyramid)
start with AX4 molecule (tetrahedral) and replace a X atom w/ lone pair
bond angles are now less than 109.5
e.g. NH3
AX2E2: bent
start with AX4 molecule (tetrahedral) and replace 2 X atoms with 2 lone pairs
bond angles are now less than 109.5
eg. H2O
CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 4 of 16

Molecules Where Central Atom Has Lone Pairs (Contd)


Original Shape

General
Formula

Molecular Geometry

Name

< 180

AX4E

See-saw
< 90

trigonal bipyramidal
(AX5)

90

< 120

< 180

AX3E2

T-shaped

< 90

120

AX2E3
linear
180

AX4E: seesaw
start with AX5 molecule and replace one X atom with one lone pair
X atom can be taken from an axial or an equatorial position
from axial: lone pair is 90 from three equatorial X atoms and
from equatorial: lone pair is 90 from two axial and 120 from
two other equatorial X atoms
taking X atom from equatorial position maximizes space between lone
pair and X atoms
bond angles are now less than 90 and less than 120
eg. SF4
CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 5 of 13

AX3E2:T-shaped
start with AX5 molecule and replace two X atoms with two lone pairs
both X atoms taken from equatorial positions to maximize distance between
the lone pairs bond angles for remaining atoms are now less than 90
eg. ClF3
AB2E3:linear
start with AX5 molecule and replace three X atoms with three lone pairs
first two X atoms taken from equatorial positions; third X atom taken:
from axial: third lone pair would be 90 from other lone pairs
from equatorial: third lone pair would be ~120 from other lone pairs
taking third X atom from equatorial position maximizes space
bond angle is now 180
eg. XeF2

Molecules Where Central Atom Has Lone Pairs (Contd)


Original Molecular
Geometry

General
Formula

Molecular
Geometry

Name

octahedral (AX6)
square
pyramidal
AX5E
all angles are < 90

square
planar

AX4E2
all angles are 90
all angles are 90

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 6 of 16

AX 5E: square pyramidal (central atom + 5 X atoms make 4-faced pyramid)


start with AX6 (octahedral) and replace one X atom with one lone pair
since all six outer positions are identical, doesn't matter which one you take
bond angles are now less than 90
e.g. BrF5
AX4E2: square planar (central atom + 4 X atoms form square all in 1 plane)
start with AX6 (octahedral) and replace 2 X atoms with 2 lone pairs
doesn't matter which X atom taken first, second X atom taken 180 away from it
to maximize space between lone pairs square planar shape
bond angles are now exactly 90 since lone pairs balance each other
e.g. XeF4
Guidelines for Applying the VSEPR Model
1. Draw Lewis formula
2. Count number of atoms and lone pairs around central atom, treating
double and triple bonds as single bonds
Consider molecule's shape if lone pairs around central atom were
actually bonded pairs, then remove number of outer atoms equal to
number of lone pairs.
Remember that lone pair(s) occupy more space than bonded pairs of
electrons, so the bond angles are compressed when the central atom has
lone pairs.
Example: For each of the following,
i. Draw the Lewis formula
ii. Indicate the molecular geometry (or shape).
iii. Indicate the bond angles.

PCl3:

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

IBr4:

page 7 of 13

NH2:

SCN:

SeF4:

SnCl5:

Geometry of Molecules with More than One Central Atom


Overall geometry of entire molecule cannot be described
instead describe shape around each central atom in molecule
e.g. CH3OH
Lewis structure

H
: :

HCOH
H

tetrahedral around C and

H
bent around O

What is the geometry around each central atom in CH3COOH?

: :

: :

HCCOH
H

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 8 of 16

10.2

Dipole Moment and Molecular Geometry

Polar Covalent Bonds


Electrons concentrate around the more electronegative atom in a molecule
Atom gains a partial ve charge
Since atoms spend less time around the other atom
Other atom gains a partial +ve charge
molecules that have separated +ve and ve ends are polar molecules
overall dipole indicated with an arrow pointing to more electronegative end

:
HF
Nonpolar covalent bond: Covalent bond between 2 atoms w/ same EN
Best example is found between two identical atoms:
H2, O2, N2, Cl2, F2, I2, Br2
Nonpolar covalent bonds can also occur between different atoms which
have identical EN values: (See table of EN values in Table 9.15 on p. 367)
eg. NCl, CS, SI, etc.
Example: Indicate the type of bond (ionic, polar covalent, nonpolar covalent)
for each of the following bonds:
a. SO in SO2
b. CC in C2H4
c. ClBa in BaCl2

ionic
ionic
ionic

polar covalent
polar covalent
polar covalent

nonpolar covalent
nonpolar covalent
nonpolar covalent

For diatomic molecules:


nonpolar molecules: when the 2 atoms have equal EN values
polar molecules: when the 2 atoms have different EN values
have dipole (+ve and ve ends)
For molecules of three of more atoms:
polarity depend on individual bonds and geometry around central atom
Example: Determine whether the following have dipole moments:
BeCl2:

H2O:

Cl BeCl
CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

O
H

H
page 9 of 13

CCl4 versus CHCl3:


H

CCl4

CHCl3

10.3 Valence Bond (VB) Theory


Basic Theory
a covalent bond consists of a pair of electrons in atomic orbitals
H atom has the atomic orbital diagram:

1s

Each H in a H2 (HH) molecule

1s

Hybridization of Atomic Orbitals (explaining polyatomic molecules)


hybridization: mixing of atomic orbitals in an atom (usually central atom) to
generate a new set of atomic orbitals, called hybrid orbitals
sp Hybridization: mixing one s orbital and one p orbital
Consider BeCl2:
the ground state orbital diagram for Be should be

2s

2p

BUT this indicates that Be does not form covalent bonds with Cl since Be's
electrons are already paired
one of Be's electrons must be promoted to 2p:

2s
CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

2p
page 10 of 16


2s

2p

Now there are two Be orbitals for bonding, but this indicates that the two BeCl
bonds are different since one forms from a 2s orbital and other from a 2p
BUT VSEPR predicts BeCl2 is linear and experiment indicates that the two
BeCl bonds are equivalent
hybridize a 2s and a 2p orbital to get 2 equivalent sp hybrid orbitals:

2s

unhybridized p orbitals

sp

2p

2p

linear shape (180 bond angle) corresponds to sp orbitals

sp2 Hybridization: mixing one s orbital and two p orbitals


Consider BF3:

ground state orbital diagram for B should be

2s

2p

and promoting one of Be's 2s electrons to 2p gives:

2s

2p

Now there are three B orbitals for bonding, but this indicates that two of the
BF bonds (from 2s) should be the same but one (from 2s) should be different.

But VSEPR predicts BF3 is trigonal planar and experiment indicates that
the three BF bonds are equivalent
hybridize a 2s and two 2p orbitals to get 3 equivalent sp2 hybrid orbitals:

2s

2p

sp 2

last unhybridized
p orbital

2p
2

trigonal planar shape (120 bond angle) corresponds to sp orbitals

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 11 of 13

sp3 Hybridization: mixing one s orbital and three p orbitals


Consider CH4:

ground state orbital diagram for C should be

2s

2p

form 4 bonds, Cs orbital diagram should be:

2s

2p

But VSEPR predicts CH4 is tetrahedral and experiment indicates that


the four CH bonds are equivalent
hybridize a 2s and three 2p orbitals to get 4 equivalent sp3 orbitals:

2s

sp 3

2p

tetrahedral shape (109.5 bond angle) corresponds to sp 3 orbitals


sp3 hybridization also applies to ammonia (NH3), where N's es are arranged as

sp 3

The lone pair on the N takes up more space than the es in NH bonds, so the
HNH angles are all less than 109.5.
sp3d Hybridization: mixing one s orbital, three p orbitals, and one d orbital
Consider PCl5:

3p
ground state orbital diagram for P should be 3s
the necessary configuration for P to form 5 bonds should be:

3s

3d

3p

But VSEPR predicts PCl5 is trigonal bipyramid and experiment indicates that
the five PCl bonds are equivalent
hybridize the 3s, all three 3p, and one 3d orbital to get 5 equal sp3d orbitals:

sp 3d

3d
3

trigonal bipyramidal shape corresponds to sp d orbitals


CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 12 of 16

sp3d2 Hybridization: mixing one s orbital, three p orbitals, two d orbitals


Consider SF6:

3p
ground state orbital diagram for S should be 3s
the necessary configuration for S to form 6 bonds should be:

3s

3d

3p

Now VSEPR predicts SF6 is octahedron and experiment indicates that the
six SF bonds are equivalent
hybridize the 3s, all three 3p, and two 3ds to get 6 equal sp3d2 orbitals:

sp 3d 2

3d

octahedral shape corresponds to sp 3d 2 orbitals


Predicting what hybrid orbitals form:
1. Draw Lewis structure to determine total number of bonds on central atom
2. Given the shape of molecule or bond angle from the VSEPR model, we can
determine what hybrid orbitals must be involved:
Molecular Geometry (Shape)

Hybrid Orbitals

linear (e.g. HCN, BeCl2, CO2)

sp

trigonal planar (120), bent (<120)

sp 2

tetrahedral (109.5) or shapes with <109.5 angles

sp 3

trigonal bipyramidal, see-saw, T-shape, linear with


expanded octet on central atom

sp 3d

octahedral (90) or shapes with all 90 or <90 angles

sp3d2

Example: What are the hybrid orbitals for the central atom in each of the
following molecules from pages 7-8 of your notes?
PCl3:

IBr4:

NH2:

SCN:

SeF4:

SnCl5:

CHM 151: Chapter 10 Notes

page 13 of 13

Chapter 11: States of Matter; Liquids and Solids


Problems: 1, 5-6, 9, 10, 12-13, 27, 29-32, 35-36, 45-46, 49-50, 53-64
11.1 Comparison of Gases, Liquids, and Solids
phase (=physical state): solid, liquid, or gas
Solids have the lowest kinetic energy (KE)i.e. do not move very much
Highest attraction between particles
particles are stuck in specific sites = very confined
Liquids have slightly higher KEi.e. particles moving more than in solid
Particles are still attracted and maintain contact with one another
but can move past one another
particles are less confined
Gases have greatest KEi.e. particles move quickly and randomly
Attractive forces almost (if not) completely overcome, so particles can fly
particles are far away from each other = unrestricted
11.5 Intermolecular Forces; Explaining Liquid Properties
intermolecular forces: Attraction between 2 or more molecules
e.g. between 2 water molecules or between a water and a CO2 molecule
London (Dispersion) Forces
Attraction between temporary or induced dipoles in adjacent molecules
Electrons are constantly shifting and can sometimes concentrate in one
region
instantaneous (temporary) dipole that goes away once electrons shift
Chocolate-chip cookie dough analogy
Most common type and weakest of intermolecular forces, found in all
molecules
Only type of intermolecular force between nonpolar molecules
The strength of theses forces depends on
Number of electrons in a molecule
How easily the electrons are dispersed or (polarized) to form
temporary dipoles
In general, larger molecules have more electrons and are more
polarizable
as molar mass increases, dispersion/London forces
become stronger
boiling point of nonpolar molecules increases with molar
mass
CHEM 151: Chapter 11

page 1 of 8

Dipole-Dipole Forces: Attraction between polar molecules


strong because attraction is due to permanent electrostatic charges
Note: Van der Waals Forces refer to intermolecular forces due to either
London forces or dipole-dipole forces.
Hydrogen Bonds:
Exist between molecules with following bonds: HF, HO, HN
Special type of dipole-dipole force caused by small radii and large
electronegativity differences between H and O, N, and F atoms
strongest type of intermolecular bond
Responsible for relatively high boiling points of molecules like H2O,
NH3, and HF
Responsible for many of water's unusual properties, including why
the density of ice (d=0.917 g/cm3) is less than the density of liquid
water (d=1.000 g/cm3)
Arrangement of water molecules in ice crystal results in "holes" or
empty space, but in water, the molecules arrange to fill in the
holes
Note:

Although hydrogen bonds are the strongest type of intermolecular


bonds, ionic and covalent bonds will always be stronger than
hydrogen bonds because ionic and covalent bonds hold the ions or
atoms together in a compound.

How to determine type of intermolecular forces involved:


yes
polar
Is the molecule
polar or nonpolar

hydrogen
bonding

Are there HF,


HO, or HN bonds
no

nonpolar

CHEM 151: Chapter 11

dispersion
(London) forces

dipole-dipole
forces

page 2 of 8

Example

Identify the type of bond holding atoms together in the molecules


and the intermolecular forces between the molecules for the two
examples below:

O
O

H
H

H
H

Cl
Cl
H

H
H

H
Cl

H
H

Cl

Cl

H
H

Cl

Cl

Ex. 2: Circle the type of bond or attraction described for each below:
a. The CC bond in C2H6.
dispersion forces
ionic bond

dipole-dipole forces
polar covalent bond

hydrogen bond
nonpolar covalent bond

b. The NaCl bond in NaCl.


dispersion forces
ionic bond
CHEM 151: Chapter 11

dipole-dipole forces
polar covalent bond

hydrogen bond
nonpolar covalent bond
page 3 of 8

c.

What attracts HF molecules to each other in a sample.

dispersion forces
ionic bond
d.

dipole-dipole forces
polar covalent bond

hydrogen bond
nonpolar covalent bond

The HO bond in a H2O molecule.

dispersion forces
ionic bond
e.

dipole-dipole forces
polar covalent bond

hydrogen bond
nonpolar covalent bond

What holds atoms together in a molecule of NH3.

dispersion forces
ionic bond

Ex. 2:

dipole-dipole forces
polar covalent bond

hydrogen bond
nonpolar covalent bond

The stronger the intermolecular forces, the more energy is required to


break the attraction between molecules in liquids and solids
higher melting and boiling points

Explain each the following:


a. Why O2's boiling point is -183C while NO's boiling point is -151C.

b. Why N2's boiling point is -196C while Br2's boiling point is 59C.

c. Why H2Ss boiling point is 61C and H2Os boiling point is 100C.

CHEM 151: Chapter 11

page 4 of 8

Physical Properties and Intermolecular Forces:


Vapor Pressure: partial pressure exerted by gas molecules above
the liquid in equilibrium with the liquid
varies for different liquids, varies for different Ts
more gas molecules higher vapor pressure
weaker the intermolecular forces
more molecules can go from liquid to vapor
higher vapor pressure
H vap):
molar heat of vaporization (
energy required to vaporize one mole of a liquid
stronger intermolecular forces higher molar heat of vaporization
Practical example of molar heat of vaporization:
rubbing alcohol on your hands
heat from your hands increases the KE of alcohol molecules
evaporates
this is an endothermic process
perspiration: body heat vaporizes water of perspiration from
body's surface
Boiling Point: temperature where vapor pressure of liquid is equal to
external pressure (usually atmospheric pressure)
normal boiling point is boiling point at 1 atm
e.g. water boils at 100C at 1 atm, but it boils at ~95C in
Albuquerque where the atmospheric pressure is ~0.85 atm
both Hvap and boiling point depend on intermolecular forces
Surface Tension: attraction between surface molecules in a liquid
stronger intermolecular forces = stronger attraction
surface molecules are held together more strongly
higher surface tension
11.2 Phase Transition: change from one physical state to another
sublimation
SOLID

fusion
freezing

LIQUID

vaporization
condensation

GAS

deposition
CHEM 151: Chapter 11

page 5 of 8

The Equilibrium Nature of Phase Changes


dynamic equilibrium: rate of forward process is exactly equal to the rate
of reverse process
Liquid-Gas Equilibrium:
liquid
vapor
evaporation (or vaporization): liquid vapor
condensation: vapor liquid
the process of a gas liquefying
can result from two techniques:
1. cooling sample of gas lower KE, and molecules start to
aggregate to form small drops of liquid
2. applying pressure to gas minimize space between
molecules, so molecules are attracted to each other
Liquid-Solid Equilibrium
freezing: liquid solid
melting (or fusion): solid liquid
melting point: temperature at which solid and liquid phases coexist in
equilibrium
normal melting point is melting point at 1 atm
Consider solid-liquid equilibrium of water and ice (at 0C and 1 atm):
ice
water
When ice cubes are placed into a glass of water, the ice cubes begin to
melt, but some water between the ice cubes freezes, causing ice cubes to
fuse
H fus): energy required to melt one mole of solid
molar heat of fusion (
supercooling: a liquid can be temporarily cooled to below its freezing
point
results when a liquid is cooled so rapidly that molecules don't have time
to arrange themselves properly
unstable condition; gentle stirring or adding "seed" crystal will cause
solidification
Practical example: Sometimes happens in your refrigerator if a bottle
of carbonated soda supercools.
You notice ice crystals upon opening.
CHEM 151: Chapter 11

page 6 of 8

Solid-Gas Equilibrium:
Consider the dynamic equilibrium:

solid

vapor

Dry ice, CO2 (s), sublimes at room temperature, completely skipping a


liquid phase.
sublimation:solid gas (with no liquid phase)
deposition: gas solid (with no liquid phase)
H sub): Hsub = Hfus + Hvap
molar heat of sublimation (
energy required to sublime one mole of solid
given by sum of heats of fusion and vaporization
another illustration of Hess's Law
Heat of Phase Transition
heating-cooling curve:

Shows the phase changes that occur when heat


is added or removed from a sample
Heating Curve

Temperature (C)

Heat added

Draw a heating curve indicating the following:


1. Regions for solid only, liquid only, gas only, solid-liquid, liquid-gas
2. The relationship between melting point and phases present
3. The relationship between boiling point and phases present
4. Where the curve is flat, where the slope is positive
CHEM 151: Chapter 11

page 7 of 8

11.3 Phase Diagrams


summarize the conditions at which a substance exists as solid, liquid, or
gas
allow us to determine melting and boiling points at different external
pressures
Water: phase diagram shown in Fig. 11.11
graph divided into three regions corresponding to each phase
lines separating two regions indicate conditions when both phases exist
triple point: point at which all three curves meet
when all three phases can be in equilibrium with each other
for water, at 0.01C and about 4.56 mm Hg
Phase Diagram for Water versus that for CO2:
Note that line separating solid and liquid phases has positive slope for
CO2 but negative slope for H2O
for CO2, the solid is more dense than the liquid, so increasing pressure
converts the liquid to a solid
for H2O, the solid is less dense than the liquid, so increasing pressure
converts the solid to a liquid
Critical Temperature and Pressure:
critical temperature (Tc): above which its gas form cannot be made to
liquefy, no matter how great the applied pressure
highest temperature at which a substance can exist as a liquid
intermolecular attraction is a finite quantity for given substance
below Tc, molecules are moving slowly enough to maintain contact
above Tc, molecular motion so energetic that molecules will always
break away from attraction
critical pressure (Pc):

minimum pressure that must be applied to


liquefy sample at the critical temperature

Given a Phase Diagram, be able to do the following:


Determine what phase(s) is/are present at a given temperature and
pressure
Indicate the boiling point or melting point at a given pressure
Describe what phase change occurs when temperature is changed at a
constant pressure
Describe what phase change occurs when pressure is changed at a
constant temperature.
CHEM 151: Chapter 11

page 8 of 8