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<h1>
Full text of "<a href="/details/ERIC_ED452548">ERIC ED452548: Disembodie
d Spirituality: Conflicts in the Writing Center.</a>"
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<pre>DOCUMENT RESUME

} , r
r

ED 452 548

CS 217 513

AUTHOR
TITLE
PUB DATE
NOTE

PUB TYPE
EDRS PRICE
DESCRIPTORS
IDENTIFIERS

Johnson, Peggy; Mutschelknaus , Mike


Disembodied Spirituality: Conflicts in the Writing Center.
2001-03-00
13p . ; Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the
Conference on College Composition and Communication (52nd,
Denver, Colorado, March 14-17, 2001) .
Opinion Papers (120) -- Speeches/Meeting Papers (150)
MF01/PC01 Plus Postage.
Higher Education; Interdisciplinary Approach; ^Spirituality ;
*Student Needs; ^Writing Assignments; ^Writing Laboratories
Enneagrams,* Personal Writing; *Saint Marys University of
Minnesota; Tutor Role; Tutor Training

ABSTRACT

Noting that at Saint Marys University (where the authors


teach) the issue of spirituality is in the forefront of education and is
seamlessly woven into required courses throughout four years of college in an
attempt to "enhance students spiritual and personal lives, this paper

positions writing centers as a place for student inquiries about their


spirituality. The paper. states that one avenue of spiritual study is through
the University s Interdisciplinary Program, a required course sequence
intended to address the theme of understanding the human condition- -students
and faculty in this core curriculum are considered co- learners who value
discussion, in-depth analysis, questioning, and critical thinking. It
explains that central to these courses are writing assignments that serve the
purposes of using writing as a tool for learning as well as helping students
learn to write. According to the paper, however, almost 20% of students
believe they cannot meet assignment requirements and be true to their own
spirituality. The paper reports that writing center faculty notice that
conflicts arise when students who do not follow Christian traditions must
write about Christian topics and when some traditional students feel they
must reveal too much of their souls, as in "too personal" writing. If the
writing center is to meet students needs brought about by the University s
expectations of requiring spiritually based courses which emphasize writing,
the center must reposition its approach to tutoring: it must move from a
traditional format, which focuses on external assignments, to a
non-traditional format, which emphasizes the process of learning how to
convey internal spirituality to an external audience. It suggests using the
"enneagram" (an aid for self-knowledge) as a tutor training strategy for
strengthening the tutor/student conference experience through promoting tutor
self-knowledge and empathy toward others. (NKA)

Reproductions supplied by EDRS are the best that can be made


from the original document.

ED 452 548

Disembodied Spirituality: Conflicts in the Writing Center

by

Peggy Johnson and Mike Mutschelknaus

Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Conference on College


Composition and Communication (52nd, Denver, Colorado, March 14-17, 2001).

CO
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1

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 1

05/24/01

Disembodied Spirituality: Conflicts in the Writing Center


In her introduction to Our Little Secret: A History of Writing Centers (February

,
1999), Elizabeth Boquet provides several varied interpretations of writing cente
rs: a place
where secrets are imparted from wise tutors to receptive students; a space like
a
laundromat where students are dropped off, cleaned up, and picked up again; a
temporality where methodological interactions between people occur over time; an
d a
secret life where writing center faculty and tutors struggle not to divulge too
much about
the failures of faculty to students or the failures of students to faculty (463464). Boquet
suggests that, most importantly, writing centers be a place for playful inquiry:
[The writing center] does away with the script for the how-to-write-research-pap
er
session or the why-the-writing-center-does-not-constitute-plagiarism defense and
insists on less predictable but potentially more productive conversations which
wander, circle, and return again to the point where they began. This is not a
failing; it is instead a part of the process, the nature of scholarly inquiry, a
nd it is
what we must engage in ourselves if we hope to model it for our students. (47879)
In this presentation, we would like to position writing centers as a place for s
tudent
inquiries about their spiritualities. We think Boquet would agree with our stanc
e.
The issue of spirituality is at the forefront of education at Saint Marys Univers
ity,
an issue that is, in fact, seamlessly woven into required courses throughout stu
dents four
years of college in an attempt to enhance students spiritual and personal lives thr
ough
the teaching of faith, zeal, and service to society (SMU mission statement).

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 2

05/24/01

One main avenue of spiritual study is through Saint Marys Universitys


Interdisciplinary Program, which is a required sequence of courses intended to a

ddress the
theme of understanding the human condition. The courses seek answers to four of
humankinds most basic questions: Who am I? Where do I come from? What is my
relationship to the global community? and Where am I going? First year students
are
asked to reflect on the meaning of the self and their own sense of self in cours
es such as
Stories of God and the Human Condition and Cornerstone: Facets of Human and
Personal Identity. Sophomores address the question, Where do I come from? throug
h
their readings and discussion of great books of literature, philosophy, theology
, and
history in the required courses Perspectives on the Good Human Life from Homeric
Greece to the Early Middle Ages and Our Modern Heritage. In the course entitled
Global Issues, juniors confront the question, What is my relationship to the glo
bal
community? by examining multi-cultural realities of various cultures throughout
the
world. The senior course Capstone addresses the question, Where am I going? thro
ugh
examining the historical origins of the American culture and how these origins a
ffect our

understanding of work, marriage and family life, and faith.


Students and faculty in this core interdisciplinary curriculum are considered co
learners who value discussion, in-depth analysis, questioning, and critical thin
king; at the
center of these courses are writing assignments that serve the purposes of using
writing as
a tool for learning as well as helping students learn to write, both of which, a
ccording to
McLeod and Mainmon in their article Clearing the Air: WAC Myths and Realities, are
necessary in writing across the curriculum programs.

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 3

05/24/01

The writing center supports Saint Marys Universitys commitment to awaken,


nourish and empower its community of learners to lives of service and leadership
for
God, society, and self (SMU mission statement), and we believe the majority of st
udents

on campus support this commitment as well. In an informal campus survey, fully 9


0
percent of students defined themselves as very spiritual or moderately spiritual
, and 65
percent believe writing about personal faith issues helps them to learn more abo
ut
themselves. A struggle surfaces, however, when students believe the requirements
of
interdisciplinary writing assignments may be too narrow for their personal under
standing
of spirituality. According to the campus survey (Fall 2000), almost 20 percent o
f students
believe they cannot meet assignment requirements and be true to their own spirit
uality.
Almost a third of students surveyed said to some degree they change their portra
yal of
their spirituality in order to

/\

O
ERLC

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 4

05/24/01

fit the requirements of some interdisciplinary writing assignments; in other wor


ds, they
make themselves appear more or less spiritual than they really are.
Currently at Saint Mary s University, students do not consider the writing cente
r
as a place for spiritual inquiry. For example, as writing center faculty, we not
ice that
conflicts arise when students who do not follow Christian traditions--such as ou
r
Buddhist Vietnamese students, animist Hmong students, and Islamic Malaysian stud
entsmust write about Christian topics, such as redemption, for example. Chor, one of
our

Hmong students, for instance, found it difficult to describe the theological sig
nificance of
his village s centering post in a Stories of God and the Human Condition assignm
ent.
According to Chor, his refugee community in Minnesota feels cut off and adrift b
ecause
their centering post is so far away from them now, in the jungles of Laos. "Engl
ish," Chor
said, "doesn t have the words I need in order to describe it." As another exampl
e, Boris,
one of our Hong Kong students, worried that writing about the many ancestral gho
sts that
inhabit his city might lower his grade in a course that focused on great ideas o
f Western
humanism. "You Americans don t understand about ghosts," he told us, "because yo
ur
country is too young to have any. People have been living in Hong Kong for thous
ands of
years."
International and refugee students, however, are not the only ones who have
conflicts when they write about spirituality. Our traditional students sometimes
voice the
concern that professors want them to include information that is "too personal"
in their
essays. They either have to reveal too much of their souls, or, if unwilling, cr
eate fake
spiritual personas in order to get through the assignments. Chris, a student fro
m a private
high school in Chicago, explains the conundrum. "I shouldn t have to write all t
his

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 5

05/24/01

Catholic stuff in order to get A s in my courses, but that s what expected of me


." Said
Melissa, a senior, Ive been writing like Im a Catholic for four years because I dont
feel
comfortable sharing my growing interest in Wicca with my professors.
What is the role of the writing center in this tension of autonomy and voice? As
Gregory Shafer notes in his article Negotiating Audience and Voice in the Writing

Center, we must question if we are truly doing our job if we censor the uninhibite
d
writer simply because he doesnt fit into the narrow parameters of what has come t
o be
called safe academic discourse (221). We agree with Shafer that there is a need f
or
writers to be heard, to bring a piece of their lives, culture and social context
into the
writing they do (221). Boquets work suggests the same concept: that writing center
s are
places distinct from the classroom where students should feel secure in their ex
pression
of thoughts and ideas (470).
Therefore, our role as writing center faculty, who believe strongly in the LaSal
lian
mission of our university, is to position ourselves as guides in the struggle th
at these
students face in their production of work that not only reflects their own voice
s, but also
meets the theological criteria of their assignments.
In order to discern where our position should be, we created an informal survey
that we distributed last fall to 197 students in courses dealing with spiritual
issues. The
survey covered student attitudes towards spirituality, interdisciplinary courses
, and-most
importantly-the writing center s role in fostering spiritual development. The re
sults, for
us as writing center faculty, were initially disappointing. According to our sur
vey, 63
percent of students were either neutral or not comfortable going to the writing
center to

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 6

05/24/01

work on spiritual writing assignments, and 68 percent were either neutral or not
comfortable sharing spiritual issues with writing center tutors.
Instead of being in the middle of the deep spiritual struggles our students face
, we

discovered that we, as a writing center, had been sidelined. Being benched is
disappointing for us because Saint Marys University is currently in the middle of
WAC
program development. We concur with Mcleod and Maimon that an involved writing
center is critical for the success of a WAC initiative. According to them:
A writing center is crucial. Students need audiences other than their peers in t
he
classroom or their teacher to respond to their writing, and faculty need the
assurance that when they assign writing in their classes, there will be a place
on
campus where knowledgeable tutors can respond to drafts of their students
writing. (581)
Our survey results showed that our writing center was not providing audiences fo
r writing
in spiritual courses or assuring faculty that there was a place on campus for st
udents to go
for effective tutoring on spiritual writing assignments.
As a result of our own soul-searching, we re-evaluated our tutor-training progra
m
with the following research questions in mind. First, what assumptions do tutors
have
about helping students with spiritual writing that silence those students? Secon
d, how can
we train tutors to recognize when students are beginning to develop spiritual vo
ices?
Finally, what kinds of dialogues must we model in order to help tutors learn how
to assist
others in exploring spiritual issues through writing?
We wanted our tutor-training program to overcome the dilemma that Nancy
Welch describes so well in her 1999 CCC article "Playing With Reality: Writing C
enters

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 7

05/24/01

After the Mirror Stage." According to Welch, "Ultimately, both arguments-for


assimilation or for resistance share the view that academic languages are inheren
tly
outside, other, and alienating.... [A student] can learn to accomplish or protes
t what s
being asked of her in her weekly assignments], but she cannot fundamentally alte
r her
relationship to [her] assignments" (56). We wanted to teach our tutors to help s
tudents

avoid assimilating fake spiritualities into their writing and to help students a
void
protesting that spiritual writing is not worthwhile.
In his 1999 article in Teaching English in the Two Year College , Shafer wrestle
s
with a similar problem:
Is it our job to assist students in becoming models of academic discourse, reple
te
with properly placed commas and standard white English, or rather, is it our job
to
help them unleash the clamor and discord that rumbles inside their heads, a
cacophony that can enliven their papers if it is allowed to become part of their
discourse. (221-222)
We concur with Shafer, because student explorations in spirituality are unleashi
ngs of the
"clamor and discord" that Shafer describes.
It is in this tension of clamor and discord, in what Welsh describes as the stru
ggle
between the ideal and the real (58), that students and tutors both begin to partic
ipate in
the fun of meaning and experience the zest of experimentation (60). However, the
student/tutor relationship does not fully engage in the zest of meaning and
experimentation when the relationship focuses on spirituality. Many students at
Saint
Marys University do not view writing center tutors as what Welsh calls partners in
the
same dance (60) when it comes to issues of spirituality. If the writing center su
ccessfully

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 8

05/24/01

provides a space that encourages a relationship of basic security and trust in t


utoring
situations that involve other personal identity papers, why does this security a
nd trust
break down when it comes to the issue of spiritual identity?
This breakdown may be attributed to student confusion between religion and

spirituality; some professors may ask students to read, discuss, reflect and ana
lyze
theological texts while other professors may require students to engage in the m
eaning of
their own personal spirituality. The struggle for students lies in sifting throu
gh a
staggering amount of spiritual information to come to their own unique sense of
higher
truths, and once arriving at that, to be able to freely and confidently express
that in
writing assignments.
We believe this breakdown also occurs in part because other personal identity
papers address parts of identity that are already developed, while spiritual ide
ntity papers
ask students to define and reflect on a part of their identity that is still in
flux. As Ronald
Rolheiser claims in his text The Holy Longing: The Search for a Christian Spirit
uality
(1999), most young people are caught up in a culture of individualism and indiff
erence,
and therefore have not grappled with theological or spiritual issues (113).
Interdisciplinary courses and general education courses at Saint Marys University
require
students to engage in the deep, universal questions of the human condition, but
students
may not be confident and secure that theyve arrived at any substantive answers. B
ut
university professors require them to, at the least, participate in the struggle
to answer
these questions.
If the writing center is to meet student needs brought about by the universitys
external expectations of requiring spiritually based courses which emphasize wri
ting, the

10

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 9

05/24/01

writing center must reposition its approach to tutoring: it must move from a tra
ditional
format, which focuses on external assignments, to a non-traditional format, whic
h has as

its emphasis the process of learning how to convey internal spirituality to an e


xternal
audience.
Writing center tutoring, then, must focus on using writing to explore those dept
hs.
Through writing and prewriting activities as well as by asking questions that wi
ll lead
students to discover their own voice, tutors must act to help guide students in
the
exploration of their inner spirituality; as a result, their own, unique voice wi
ll surface.
The strongest challenge in creating an atmosphere where student and tutor can
safely and openly explore the depths of naming their personal spirituality comes
in
preparing tutors for the task of shifting from a traditional to a nontraditional
approach to
tutoring, from an external dialogue to an internal one. In order to successfully
make this
transition, we believe tutors must be engaged in the process of identifying thei
r own
spiritual voice before they can guide other students in their struggle to identi
fy their
unique spiritual voice.
We have relied upon the work of Father Richard Rohr to develop training that
explores the inner search that can lead to spiritual dialogue, most notably his
outstanding
work on the enneagram as found in Discovering the Enneagram: An Ancient Tool for
a
New Spiritual Journey (1990).
Generally speaking, the enneagram is an aid for self-knowledge that is ancient,
although Western cultures have discovered it only in our time. According to Rohr
, many
psychologists and theologians believe the enneagram is an excellent tool to help
people
reach intellectual and spiritual growth. The enneagram describes characteristics
of nine

11

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 10

05/24/01

different personalities that bring into focus essential truths of our soul. In o
ther words,
the enneagram directly asks us to explore the questions, Who am I? and, How do I
differ
at the most basic level from others? Rohr believes working with the enneagram wi
ll help
people become more aware of themselves as well as more understanding of other pe
ople.
The enneagram bases its types on nine traps or defense mechanisms that have
been built up since early childhood and work to destroy our psyche, our relation
ship to
God, and our interpersonal relationships. According to enneagram work done by th
e
Franciscan Spirituality Center, these nine faces of the soul can be divided into t
hree
centers: the gut, heart, and head. Gut people act from a center that is immediate,
spontaneous, and intuitive. Heart people act from a center that is social and emot
ional.
Head people act from a center that is mental and self-preserving. In each person,
one of
the three areas dominates.
The enneagram can be successfully used as a tutor training strategy for
strengthening the tutor/student conference experience through promoting tutor se
lfknowledge and empathy toward others. Coming to an awareness of one s personal
weaknesses and strengths helps tutors not only to discover the workings of their
inner
self, but also to acknowledge the personal differences of others with whom they
interact.
Using the training tool of the Enneagram has helped us as a writing center facul
ty to discover that
we were initially too self-centered about our own roles as writing center leader
s. Instead of helping our
tutors and students with their spiritual issues, we were positioning the writing
centers place in the
university. Through the process of research and. reflection, we have begun the p
rocess of repositioning our
writing center as a place of spiritual and intellectual inquiry.

12

Johnson &amp; Mutschelknaus

Page 1 1

05/24/01

References
Boquet, E. (1999). "Our little secret": A history of writing centers, pre- to po
stopen admissions. College Composition and Communication, 50, (3), 463-482.
Enneagram workshop. Franciscan Spirituality Center. LaCrosse, WI. 1999.
McLeod, S. &amp; Maimon, E. (2000). Clearing the air: WAC myths and realities.
College English. 62, (5), 573-583.
Rohr, R., &amp; Ebert, A. (1990). Discovering the enneagram : an ancient tool fo
r a
new spiritual journey. New York: Crossroad.
Rolheiser, R. (1999). The holy longing: the search for a Christian spirituality
.
New York: Doubleday.
Shafer, G. (1999). Negotiating audience and voice in the writing center. Teachin
g
English in the Two-Year College, 27, (2) 220-227.
Welch, N. (1999). Playing with reality: Writing centers after the mirror stage.
College Composition and Communication, 51, ( 1 ), 5 1 -69.

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rendered on: www11.us.archive.org
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message stack(file:line:function)
=========================================================
0.0000 0.0000
petabox start var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl
oad.php:1:require
|common/ia:55:require_once
|setup.php:314:log
0.0024 0.0024
call get_redis() var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl
oad.php:1717:main
|download.php:649:getItem
|common/Item.inc:63:parseMetadata
|Item.inc:95:get_obj
|Metadata.inc:206:get_json_obj
|Metadata.inc:1265:_get_json_obj
|Metadata.inc:1611:log
0.0097 0.0073
redis_read start var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl
oad.php:1717:main

0.0120 0.0023
oad.php:1717:main

0.0145 0.0025
oad.php:1717:main

0.0146 0.0002
oad.php:1717:main

0.0785 0.0638
oad.php:1717:main

redis_read finish

|download.php:649:getItem
|common/Item.inc:63:parseMetadata
|Item.inc:95:get_obj
|Metadata.inc:206:get_json_obj
|Metadata.inc:1265:_get_json_obj
|Metadata.inc:1709:log
var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl

begin session_start

|download.php:649:getItem
|common/Item.inc:63:parseMetadata
|Item.inc:95:get_obj
|Metadata.inc:206:get_json_obj
|Metadata.inc:1265:_get_json_obj
|Metadata.inc:1714:log
var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl

done session_start

|download.php:882:stream
|download.php:1329:head
|common/Nav.inc:66:__construct
|Nav.inc:135:session_start
|Cookies.inc:61:log
var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl

bug dump

|download.php:882:stream
|download.php:1329:head
|common/Nav.inc:66:__construct
|Nav.inc:135:session_start
|Cookies.inc:67:log
var/cache/petabox/petabox/www/sf/downl
|download.php:882:stream
|download.php:1355:footer
|common/setup.php:152:footer
|Nav.inc:1616:dump
|Bug.inc:120:log

-->
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