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. . , . . , . .

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2007



, ( ).
. , , .
1. () , . 4-5 . , , .
2. , , , , , , .
.
3. , , . ,
, , .
4. , , .
5.
. , , ,
.
6. , , ; .
7. , .
.
.

1.
1.1.

( )
a11 a12
= a11a22 a12 a21 ,
a21 a22
.. , ,
, .
3 1
1.
.
3 2
:
3 1
= 3 ( 2 ) 1 ( 3) = 6 + 3 = 3 .
3 2
x 6 1
=0.
5
x
.
x 6 1
= ( x 6 ) x ( 1) 5 = ( x 6 ) x + 5 = x 2 6 x + 5 .
5
x
.
:
x 2 6 x + 5 = 0 ( ax 2 + bx + c = 0 ) .
2.


D = b 2 4 a c = ( 6 ) 4 1 5 = 36 20 = 16 = 42

2

x1,2 =

2
b D ( 6 ) 4
64
=
=
2a
2 1
2

x1 =

6+4
= 5,
2

x2 =

64
=1 .
2

1.2.
.
.

: .

a11 a12 a13


= a21 a22 a23 =
a31 a32 a33
= a11a22 a33 + a12 a23 a31 + a13 a21a32 ( a13 a22 a31 + a12 a21a33 + a11a23 a32 ) .
2 1 1
3. 3 4 2 .
0 5 6
. :
2 1 1
3 4 2 = 2 4 6 + 1 ( 2 ) 0 + ( 1) 3 5 ( ( 1) 4 0 +
0 5 6
+ 1 3 6 + 2 ( 2 ) 5 ) = 48 + 0 15 ( 0 + 18 20 ) = 33 ( 2 ) = 35.
. .
. ,
, .

, (1) k , k , . aij Aij .
. . ,

5

a11 a12 a13


= a21 a22 a23 = a11 A11 + a12 A12 + a13 A13
a31 a32 a33
:
a23
a23
a22
1+1 a
1+ 2 a
1+ 3 a
= a11 ( 1) 22
+ a12 ( 1) 21
+ a13 ( 1) 21
a32 a33
a31 a33
a31 a32 .
( ).
2 3 1
4. 3 5 6 .
7 1 6
.
:
2 3 1
6
6
5
1+1 5
1+ 2 3
1+ 3 3
3 5 6 = 2 ( 1)
+ ( 3)( 1)
+ ( 1)( 1)
=
1 6
7 6
7 1
7 1 6
= 2 1 ( 5 6 6 1) + ( 3) ( 1) ( 3 6 6 7 ) + ( 1) 1 ( 3 1 5 7 ) =
= 2 24 + 3 ( 24 ) 1( 32 ) = 48 72 + 32 = 8.

2 3 1
5. 3 0 2 .
1 1 6
. , a21 , a22 , a23 :
2 3 1
2 3 1
2 3 1
2
+
1
2
+
3
3 0 2 = 3 ( 1) 3 0 2 + 0 + 2 ( 1) 3 0 2 =
1 1 6
1 1 6
1 1 6
3 1
2 3
= 3
2
= 3( 3 6 ( 1) 1) 2( 2 1 ( 3) 1) =
1 6
1 1
= 3( 17 ) 2 5 = 51 10 = 41.

2.
,
.
1.
2 1 4 3 2 1 1 1 5

3 2 1 + 4 5 6 = 7 3 5 .
0 4 5 4 7 2 4 3 3

,
, l m m n (..
). 22 23:
a12 b11 b12 b13
a
A B = 11

a
a
b22 b23 .
21
22 b21
,
, , . . , c11
:
b
c11 = ( a11 a12 ) 11 = a11 b11 + a12 b21 .
b21
, , , c12 :
b
a12 ) 12 = a11 b12 + a12 b22 .
b22
c13 :
c12 = ( a11

b
a12 ) 13 = a11 b13 + a12 b23 .
b23

, C :
b
c21 = ( a21 a22 ) 11 = a21 b11 + a22 b21 ,
b21
c13 = ( a11

b
a22 ) 12 = a21 b12 + a22 b22 ,
b22
b
c23 = ( a21 a22 ) 13 = a21 b13 + a22 b23 .
b23
,
a11 b12 + a12 b22 a11 b13 + a12 b23
a b + a b
A B = 11 11 12 21
=
a

b
+
a

b
a
a21 b13 + a22 b23
21 11 22 21
21 b12 + a22 b22
c22 = ( a21

c
c
c
= 11 12 13 .
c
c
c
21 22 23
, , ..
A B B A.
2. ,
8 1
2 3 4

=
, B = 6 7 .
0

12 10

:
8 1
2 3 4

A B =
6 7 =
0 1 5 12 10

( )
( )

2 8 + 3 6 + 4 12 2 1 + 3 7 + 4 10 16 + 18 + 48 2 21 + 40

=
=

=
0 8 1 6 5 12 0 1 1 7 5 10 6 60
7 50

21
82
=
.

66

43


. .
(), .

3. ,
2 0 1

= 3 1 5 , B = ( 5 6 9 ) .
4 7 11

:
2 0 1

B = ( 5 6 9 ) 3 1 5 =
4 7 11

= ( 5 2 + 6 3 + 9 4 5 0 + 6 1 + 9 7 5 ( 1) + 6 ( 5 ) + 9 11) =

= (10 + 18 + 36 6 + 63 5 30 + 99 ) = ( 64 69 64 ) .
, .
4.
1 2 0
0

1
, C = 1 2 0 0 .
0
1
1
2 1 0

, , , , , ,
.
. A23 , B22 , C3 4
.
1. A B = A23 B2 2 . ,

1
A =
2

3
0
, B =
2
1

.
2. B A = B22 A23 . :
0 1 1 1 3 0 2 0 + 0 0 2 2 0 2

=
=
.
1 1 2 0 2 1 + 2 1 + 0 3 + 2 3 1 5
3. A C = A23C3 4 . :

0 1 2 0
1 1 3

AC =
1 2 0 0 =
2
0
2

1 2 1 0

0 ( 1) + 3 1 2 + 6 2 0 + 3 0 4 5 5 0
=
=
.
2 + 0 + 4 4 + 0 + 2 0 2 6 6 0
0+0+2
9

4. C A = C3 4 A23 . ,
.
5. B C = B22 C34 . .
6. C B = C3 4 B22 . .
3.
:
a11 x1 + a12 x2 + a13 x3 = b1 ,

(1)
a21 x1 + a22 x2 + a23 x3 = b2 ,
a x + a x + a x = b .
33 3
3
31 1 32 2
, . , 0 :
a11 a12 a13
= a21 a22 a23 0.
a31 a32 a33
(1) :
A X = B,

a11 a12 a13

A = a21 a22 a23 ,


a

31 a32 a33
x1
b1


X = x2 ; B = b2 x
b
3
3
.

10

3.1.
(1) . :
a11 a12 a13 b1
( A B ) = a21 a22 a23 b2 .
a

31 a32 a33 b3
: , .
:
1) ;
2) ;
3)
, .
1. :
x + x x = 2,

2 x + x + x = 3, .
x + x + x = 6.

. :
1 1 1
= 2 1 1 = 1 + 2 + 1 + 1 1 + 2 = 6 0
1 1 1
, .
1 1 1 2
( A B ) = 2 1 1 3 .
1 1 1 6

a21 = 2 , a31 = 1 .
, (-2); :
1 1 1 2
( A B ) ~ 0 3 1 7 .
0 0 2 4

11

1 , 1 :
3
2
1 1 1 2

( A B ) ~ 0 1 13 7 3 .

0 0 1 2
, :
x3 = 2,
1
7
1
7 7 2
x2 x3 = , x2 = x3 + = + = 3,
3
3
3
3 3 3
x1 + x2 x3 = 2, x1 = 2 x2 + x3 = 2 3 + 2 = 1.
x1 = 1,

: x2 = 3,
x = 2.
3
3.2.

. A1 , :
A A1 = A1 A = E ,
1 0 0

E = 0 1 0 .
0 0 1

A1 ,
0 .
:
a11 a12 a13

1) A = a21 a22 a23 ;


a

31 a32 a33
2) , :
a11 a21 a31

T
A = a12 a22 a32 ;
a

13 a23 a33
12

3) :
A11

A = A12
A
13

A21
A22
A23

A31

A32 , Aij A33

aij , i, j = 1, 2,3 ;
3) A1 =

A
,

A .
2.
1 2 1

A = 0 1 1 .
2 0 1

. :
1 2 1
= 0 1 1 = 1 + 0 + 4 2 0 0 = 3 .
2 0 1
0 , A1 .
:
1 0 2

T
A = 2 1 0
1 1 1

:
A11 = (1) 2

1 0
2 0
2 1
= 1, A21 = (1)3
= 2, A31 = (1) 4
= 1,
1 1
1 1
1 1

A12 = (1)3

0 2
1 2
1 0
= 2, A22 = (1) 4
= 1, A32 = (1)5
= 1,
1 1
1 1
1 1

A13 = (1)4

0 2
1 2
= 2, A23 = (1)5
= 4,
1 0
2 0

A23 = (1)6

1 0
= 1.
2 1

13

A = 2
2

1/ 3

A 1 = 2 / 3
2/3

2 1

1 1 4 1
2 / 3 1/ 3

1/ 3 1/ 3 .
4 / 3 1/ 3

:
A X = B .
A1 : A1 A X = A1 B , X = A1 B , .. A1 A = E .
,
A1 .
x1 + 2 x2 + 3 x3 = 1,

3. 2 x1 + 4 x2 + 5 x3 = 0, 3 x + 5 x + 6 x = 1
2
3
1
.
:
1 2 3
x
1



= 2 4 5 , X = x , B = 0 .
3 5 6
x
1




1 2 3
= 2 4 5 = 24 + 30 + 30 36 24 25 = 1.
3 5 6
1

0 , A1 .
1 2 3

AT = 2 4 5 .
3 5 6

AT :

14

A11 = (1) 2

4 5
2 5
2 4
= 1, A12 = (1)3
= 3, A13 = (1)4
= 2,
5 6
3 6
3 5

A21 = (1)3

2 3
1 3
1 2
= 3, A22 = (1) 4
= 3, A23 = (1)5
= 1,
5 6
3 6
3 5

2 3
1 2
1 2
= 2, A32 = (1)5
= 1, A33 = (1)6
= 0.
4 5
3 5
2 4

1 3 2
1 3 2

1
A = 3 3 1 ,
A = 3 3 1 .
2 1 0
2 1 0

:
1 3 2 1 1 0 2 1



1
X = A B = 3 3 1 0 = 3 + 0 + 1 = 2 .
2 1 0 1 2 0 0 2

A31 = (1)4

x1 = 1,

: x2 = 2,

x3 = 2.
4.
r
a ( ax ; a y ; az )
uuur
AB ( , ). .
1. A ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) ( )
uuur
B ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) ( ), AB
uuur
AB = ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) = ( x2 x1 ; y2 y1 ; z2 z1 ) .
r
r
a ( ax ; a y ; az ) b ( bx ; by ; bz ) ,
r r
2. a + b = ( ax + bx ; a y + by ; az + bz ) ( );
r
3. ka = ( kax ; ka y ; kaz ) ( k);
r r
4. a b = ( ax bx ; a y by ; az bz ) ( );
15

2
r
2
2
5. a = ( ax ) + ( a y ) + ( az ) ( );
r r
6. a b = ax bx + a y by + az bz (
);
r r r r
r r
7. a b = a b cos a $b ( ,

( )

);
r r
a x bx + a y by + az bz
a b
r$r
8. cos a b = r r =
(
2
ab
ax + a y 2 + az 2 bx 2 + by 2 + bz 2

( )

);
r r
r r
r
9. br a = a cos a $b ( a r
b );
r
10.
a ( ax ; a y ; az )
r
r r
b ( bx ; by ; bz ) : a b = ax bx + a y by + az bz = 0 .
r
11. a ( ax ; a y ; az )

r
b ( bx ; by ; bz ) , ..

( )

ax a y az
=
=
bx by bz .
12. ( r
r r
d = a b , r r
a , b ) (.1) :
r
r
r
i
j k
r
az r ax az r ax a y
ra
r
a b = ax a y a z = i y
j
+k
=

by bz
bx by
bx bz
bx by bz
r r
a b
a y az
ax az ax a y r
=
;
;
= d.
by bz
bx bz bx by

r
r
a
b
. 1.

16

r r
13. , a , b ,
:
r
r r
S = d = a b = d x 2 + d y 2 + d z 2 .
14. (),
r r
a , b , ,
r r
r r
r r
a b = a b sin a $b = S = 2 S .

r
r
15. a ( ax ; a y ; az ) , b ( bx ; by ; bz )
r
c = ( cx ; c y ; cz ) ,

( )

ax
r rr
r r r
abc = a b c = bx
cx

( ) (

ay
by
cy

az
bz = .
cz

16. , r
r
r
a ( ax ; a y ; az ) , b ( bx ; by ; bz ) c = ( cx ; c y ; cz ) ,
ax
r rr
V. = abc = bx
cx

( )

ay
by
cy

az
bz = .
cz

.
1
1 r rr
1
1 r rr
V. = V. =
abc ,
V = V. =
abc .
6
6
2
2
17. (
, ).
ax a y az
r rr
r r
r
abc = bx by bz = = 0 , a , b c cx c y cz

( )

( )

( )

.
r
r r
r
1. 2a b , a ( 3; 4;1) b ( 1; 0;5 ) .
. 3) 4):

17

r
r r
d = 2a b = 2 ( 3; 4;1) ( 1;0;5 ) = ( 6; 8; 2 ) ( 1;0;5 ) =
= ( 6 ( 1) ; 8 0; 2 5 ) = ( 7; 8; 3) .

5):
r r
2
2
2
2a b = ( 7 ) + ( 8 ) + ( 3 ) = 49 + 64 + 9 = 122 .
r r
2. a + b r
r
r
r
c , a ( 3; 2; 0 ) , b ( 1;1;3) , c ( 3; 2;1) .
.
r
r r
d = a + b = ( 3; 2;0 ) + ( 1;1;3) = ( 3 1; 2 + 1;0 + 3) = ( 2;3;3) .

9)
r r
r r
r r
cr a + b = cr d = d cos d $c .

( )

8)
r r
r r
d c
cos d $c = r r ,
d c

( )

r
r
r d cr d cr 2 3 + 3 ( 2 ) + 3 1 6 6 + 3
3
r r
=
=
cr a + b = d r r = r =
.
2
c
9 + 4 +1
14
d c
32 + ( 2 ) + 12

r
r
r rr
r
3. 2a 2 ab + 4b 2 , a ( 2;1; 1) , b ( 0; 4; 3) .
. 6):
r
rr
a 2 = aa = ( 2;1; 1)( 2;1; 1) = 2 2 + 1 1 1 ( 1) = 6 ,
r
rr
b 2 = bb = ( 0; 4; 3)( 0; 4; 3) = 0 + 4 4 3 ( 3) = 25 ,
rr
ab = ( 2;1; 1)( 0; 4; 3) = 2 0 + 1 4 1 ( 3) = 7 ,
r
r rr
2a 2 ab + 4b 2 = 2 6 7 + 4 25 = 12 7 + 100 = 105 .
4. ,
A (1; 1; 0 ) , B ( 0;0; 2 ) , C ( 1; 2;1) .
. , , uuur uuur
, AB AC 1):
uuur
AB = ( 0; 0; 2 ) (1; 1;0 ) = ( 0 1;0 ( 1) ; 2 0 ) = ( 1;1; 2 ) ,

18

uuur
AC = ( 1; 2;1) (1; 1; 0 ) = ( 1 1; 2 ( 1) ;1 0 ) = ( 2;3;1) .
12)
r r r
i
j k
uuur uuur
r 1 2 r 1 2 r 1 1
AB AC = 1 1 2 = i
j
+k
=
3 1
2 1
2 3
2 3 1
r
r
r
r
r r
= i (1 6 ) j ( 1 + 4 ) + k ( 3 + 2 ) = i ( 5) 3 j + k ( 1) = ( 5; 3; 1) .
13) ,
:
uuur uuur
2
2
2
AB AC = ( 5 ) + ( 3) + ( 1) = 25 + 9 + 1 = 35 = S .
S
1
S = =
35 .
2
2
5. ,
r
r
r
a ( 3;1; 0 ) , b (1; 2; 0 ) , c ( 4;0;1) .
. 16)
:
3 1 0
1 2 0 = 3 2 1 + 0 + 0 ( 0 + 0 + 1 1 1) = 6 1 = 7 .
4 0 1
,
1
1
7
: V = = 7 = .
6
6
6
r
6. t, a ( 4; 2; t ) ,
r
b ( 1;1; 2 ) .
. 10)
rr
ab = 0 , ( 4; 2; t )( 1;1; 2 ) = 4 ( 1) + 2 1 + t 2 = 4 + 2 + 2t = 0.
6 + 2t = 0 , t =

6
= 3 .
2

19

5.
1.
Ax + By + C = 0
, ,
, .
2. B 0 , ,
y = kx + b ,
k OX , b , OY ,
.
3. , A ( x1 ; y1 ) k , y y1 = k ( x x1 ) .
4. ,
A ( x1 ; y1 ) B ( x2 ; y2 ) ,

y y1
x x1
,
=
y2 y1 x2 x1

y y1
.
k= 2
x 2 x1
5. k1 k2 ,

k k
tg = 2 1 .
1+ k1k 2
6.
k1 = k2 .
7. k1 k2 = 1 .
1. ,

( 2; 4 ) , .

.
y = x , , k = 1 .
6) 3) k = 1 , x1 = 2 , y1 = 4 ,
20

y 2 = 1 ( x + 4) y = x + 4 + 2 y = x + 6 .
2. ,
( 2; 4 ) 2 x + 5 y 10 = 0 .
. y = k1 x + b k1 :
2
2
x k1 = .
5
5
7)
2
5
k1 k2 = 1 k2 = 1 k2 = . 5
2
A k2 3),
2 x + 5 y 10 = 0 5 y = 10 2 x y = 2

5
5
5
( x + 2) y = x + 5 + 4 y = x + 9
2
2
2
2 y = 5 x + 18 .
5 x 2 y + 18 = 0.
y4 =

3. A (1;3 ) , B ( 6;12 )

D ( 2; 4 ) . (. 2).

. AD .
4)
:

k=

y 2 y1 4 3
=
= 7 .
x 2 x1
2 1

D
. 2.

3) k = 7 , x1 = 6 , y1 = 12 ,
y 12 = 7(x 6 ) y 12 + 7x 42 = 0 7 x + y 54 = 0 .
4. ,
A ( 2;0 ) B ( 4; 6 ) .
. 4), :
x ( 2 )
y0
x+2
y
=

=
x + 2 = y .
4 ( 2 ) 6 0
6
6

x+ y+2=0.
21

6.
1. , M ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) ,
r
N ( A; B; C ) ,

A ( x x0 ) + B ( y y0 ) + C ( z z0 ) = 0 .
2. 1) , Ax + By + Cz + D = 0 .
, , r
N ( A; B; C ) .
3. ,
M 1 ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) , M 2 ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) M 3 ( x3 ; y3 ; z3 ) ,
x x1
x2 x1
x3 x1

y y1
y2 y1
y3 y1

z z1
z2 z1 = 0.
z3 z1

4.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0 ,
r
r
N1 ( A1 ; B1 ; C1 ) N 2 ( A2 ; B2 ; C2 ) ,

A1 B1 C1
=
=
.
A2 B2 C2

5.

A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0

A2 x + B2 y + C2 z + D2 = 0 ,

N1 ( A1 ; B1 ; C1 ) N 2 ( A2 ; B2 ; C2 ) ,

N1 N 2 = 0, A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 = 0 .
6. A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
A1 x + B1 y + C1 z + D1 = 0
N1 ( A1 ; B1 ; C1 ) N ( A ; B ; C ) : cos = N1 N 2 .
2
2
2
2
N1 N 2
7.

( x1 ; y1 ; z1 )

Ax + By + Cz + D = 0
d=

22

Ax1 + By1 + Cz1 + D


A2 + B 2 + C 2

1. , 3x 2 y + z + 17 = 0
4 x + 6 y 23 = 0 .
.
r
r
N1 ( 3; 2;1) N 2 ( 4;6; 0 ) , 5) A1 A2 + B1 B2 + C1C2 = 0 .

3 4 + ( 2 ) 6 + 1 0 = 12 12 = 0 .
, , .

2. , r
(3; -5; 2) b ( 4; 2; 5 ) .
.

1)
A ( x x0 ) + B ( y y0 ) + C ( z z0 ) = 0 .
r
r
N ( A; B; C ) = b ( 4; 2; 5 ) .
1) N

( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) =(

3; -5; 2) ,

4 ( x 3) 2 ( y + 5 ) 5 ( z 2 ) = 0 4 x 12 2 y 10 5 z + 10 = 0 . ,

:
4 x 5 y 2 z 12 = 0 .
3. ,
M ( 2; 4;3) 3x 5 y + 2 z 5 = 0 .
. 4)
A1 B1 C1
=
=
. 1, A1 = A2 ,
A2 B2 C2
r
r
B1 = B2 , C1 = C2 . , N1 = N 2 = ( 3, 5, 2 ) .

1)

3 ( x 2 ) 5 ( y + 4 ) + 2 ( z 3) = 0 ,

3x 6 5 y 20 + 2 z 6 = 0, 3 x 5 y + 2 z 32 = 0 .
4. M ( 1; 2; 3)
5x 2 y + 4 z 3 = 0 .
. 7),
5 (1) 2 2 + 4 (3)
5 4 12
21
21
7
d=
=
=
=
=
.
2
2
2
25 + 4 + 16
45 3 5
5
5 + ( 2 ) + 4
23

5. ,
M 1 (1; 2;1) , M 2 ( 1; 2; 0 ) , M 3 ( 0; 3; 2 ) .
. 3):
x 1 y + 2 z 1
x 1 y + 2 z 1
1 1 2 + 2 0 1 = 0 2
4
1 = 0.
0 1 3 + 2 2 1
1
1
1
, :
4 1
2 1
2 4
( x 1)
( y + 2)
+ ( z 1)
=0
1 1
1 1
1 1

( x 1)(4 1) ( y + 2)(2 1) + ( z 1)(2 + 4) = 3( x 1) + 3( y + 2) + 6( z 1) = 0.


3, x + y + 2 z 1 = 0 .

7. .

1. ,
r
M ( x0 ; y0 ; z0 ) S ( m; n; p ) (
)
x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
m
n
p .
2. , t,
x = x0 + mt ,

y = y0 + nt ,
z = z + pt.
0

3. , , ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) ,

x x1
y y1
z z1
=
=
x2 x1 y2 y1 z2 z1 .

24

4.

x x2 y y2 z z2
=
=
m2
n2
p2

x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=
m1
n1
p1

r r
S1 S2
cos = r r =
S1 S2

m1m2 + n1 n2 + p1 p2
m12 + n12 + p12 m22 + n22 + p22

5. :
m1m2 + n1n2 + p1 p2 = 0 .
6. :

m1 n1
p
=
= 1 .
m2 n2 p2

x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=

m
n
p
Ax + By + Cz + D = 0

7.

sin =

Am + Bn + Cp

.
A + B 2 + C 2 m2 + n2 + p 2
8.
r r
A B C
N || S = = .
m n
p
9.
r r
r r
N S N S = 0 Am + Bn + Cp = 0 .
1. , A ( 4; 6; 3) B ( 3; 1;0 ) .
.
r uuur
S = AB = ( 3; 1;0 ) ( 4; 6; 3) = ( 3 4; 1 6; 0 ( 3) ) = ( 1; 7;3) .
2

2)
x = x0 1 t ,
x = 4 t,

y = y0 7 t , y = 6 7 t ,
z = z + 3 t.
z = 3 + 3 t.

2. , x4
y
z+2
=
=
M ( 3;1; 2 )
.
2
3
5

25

. ,
r
S ( m; n; p ) = ( 2; 3;5 ) . 1)
x x0 y y0 z z0
=
=
. ,
3
2
5
x + 3 y 1 z 2
=
=
.
3
2
5
3. , M ( 8; 0; 2 ) ,
x +6 y 9
z
=
=
.
4
7
2
. ,
S ( 4; 7; 2 ) , ,
r r
N = S ( 4; 7; 2 ) (.3).

r
S

. 3.

A ( x x0 ) + B ( y y0 ) + C ( z z0 ) = 0 , :

4 ( x x0 ) + 7 ( y y0 ) 2 ( z z0 ) = 0 . ,

4 ( x 8) + 7 ( y 0 ) 2 ( z + 2 ) = 0 4 x 32 + 7 y 2 z 4 = 0 .
: 4 x + 7 y 2 z 36 = 0 .
x = 1 4t

4. y = 2 t z = 3

2 x y 2 z 17 = 0 .
.
2 (1 4t ) ( 2 t ) 2 ( 3) 17 = 0 , 2 8t + 2 + t + 6 17 = 0 .
t,
7t 7 = 0 t = 1 . t
, :
x = 1 4 ( 1) ,
x = 5,

y = 2 ( 1) , y = 1,
z = 3.
z = 3.

26

5.

A1 A2 A3 A4 :

A1 ( 4; 4; 5 ) , A2 ( 0; 10; 4 ) , A3 ( 5; 6; 1) , A4 ( 4; 9; 7 ) . :

1) A1 A2 ;
2) A1 A2 A1 A4 ;
3) A1 A4 A1 A2 A3 ;
4) A1 A2 A3 ;
5) A1 A2 A3 A4 ;
6) A1 A2 ;
7) A1 A2 A3 ;
8) , A4
A1 A2 A3 .
uuuur
. 1) A1 A2 = {

A2 ( 0; 10; 4 ) A1 ( 4; 4; 5 ) }=(0-4;
10-4; 4-5)=(-4; 6; -1). (4.5)
uuuur
2
2
A1 A2 = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = ( 4 ) + 6 2 + ( 1) = 16 + 36 + 1 = 53 .

2) A1 A2 A1 A4 . uuuur uuuur
A1 A2 A1 A4
(4.8) cos = uuuur
uuuur . 1)
A1 A2 A1 A4
uuuur

A1 A4 = ( 4 4;9 4;7 5 ) = ( 0;5; 2 )

uuuur
A1 A4 = 0 + 25 + 4 = 29 . :

uuuur uuuur
A1 A2 A1 A4 = ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) ( x2 ; y2 ; z2 ) = x1 x2 + y1 y2 + z1 z2 ,
uuuur uuuur
A1 A2 A1 A4 = ( 4; 6; 1) ( 0;5; 2 ) = 0 + 30 2 = 28 .

cos =

28

53 29
=arccos(0,714)=44o42.

28
1537

0, 714

3) A1 A4 A1 A2 A3 .
(7.7)

27

r uuuur
N A1 A4
sin = r uuuur . N , N A1 A4
uuuuur
uuuuur
A1 A2 A1 A3 , A1 A2 A3 .
uuuur
A1 A2

1).

A1 A3 = ( 5 4; 6 4; 1 5 ) = (1; 2; 4 ) . (4.12)

r r r
i j k
r
r
r 6 1 r 4 1 r 4 6
r
r
N = 4 6 1 = i
j
+k
= 22i 17 j 14k .
2 4
1 4
1 2
1 2 4
r
N :
r
2
2
2
N = ( 22 ) + ( 17 ) + ( 14 ) = 484 + 289 + 196 = 969 .
uuuur
A1 A4 2):
r uuuur
N A1 A4 = 22 0 17 5 14 2 = 113 . 7):
r uuuur
N A1 A4
113
113
sin = r uuuur
=
=
0, 674
969 29
28101
N A1 A4
=arcsin(-0,674)= 42o 38.
4) A1 A2 A3
1 uuuur uuuur
S = A1 A2 A1 A3 .

2
S=

(4.13)
uuuur uuuur
r
A1 A2 A1 A3 = N ,

969
15,56 .
2
5) A1 A2 A3 A4 (4.16):

x1 y1 z1
1 uuuur uuuur uuuur 1
A1 A2 A1 A3 A1 A4 = x2 y2 z2 .
6
6
x3 y3 z3
. :
4 6 1
1
1
113 113
V = 1 2 4 = ( 16 + 0 5 ) ( 0 + 80 + 12 ) =
=
.
6
6
6
6
0 5 2
V=

28

6) A1 A2 (7.1):
uuuur
x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=
, ( m; n; p ) = A1 A2 = (4; 6;1) . m
n
p

x 4 y 4 z 5
=
=

4
6
1

x = 4 4t ,

y = 4 + 6t ,
z = 5 t.

7)

(6.1):
r
A( x x1 ) + B( y y1 ) + C ( z z1 ) = 0 . ( A; B; C ) = N
r
A1 A2 A3 3): N = ( 22; 17; 14 ) . -

( x1 ; y1 ; z1 )
A1 ( 4; 4; 5 ) .

A1 A2 A3

,
22( x 4) 17( y 4) 14( z 5) = 0 .

22 x 17 y 14 z + 226 = 0 .
8) , A4
A1 A2 A3 ,
,

(7.1)
x x1 y y1 z z1
=
=
. S ( m; n; p )
m
n
p
() A1 A2 A3 :
r
N = ( 22; 17; 14 ) = ( m; n; p ) .
A4 ( 4; 9; 7 ) = ( x1 ; y1 ; z1 ) .

x 4 y 9 z 7
=
=
.
22
17
14
x = 4 22t ,

y = 9 17t ,
z = 7 14t.

29

8.
, ,
,
. ,
. ,
, , A

= . , ,
0

= 0 .

2
x + 3x 2
1. lim 2
.
x 2 2 x + x 3
. 2,
x 2 + 3 x 2 22 + 3 2 2 4 + 6 2 8
lim 2
=
=
= .
x 2 2 x + x 3
2 22 + 2 3 8 + 2 3 7
0

, , [ ] , 1 . 0
:

1.

const

0 .
,

3
2x + 2x 3
2. lim
.
x
4 x + x3
:
2x 3
2 3

x3 2 + 3 3
2+ 2 3
2 x3 + 2 x 3
x
x
x
x
= lim
lim
= = lim
=
3
x
x

4x + x
4x
4

x 3 3 + 1
1
+
2

const
2
=
0 = = 2.

1

30

8 x3 17
.
x x 5 + 9 x

3. lim
:

17
17
x3 8 3
8 3
8 x 17
8 8
x
x
lim 5
= = lim
= lim
= lim 2 = = 0.
x x + 9 x
x x 5 1 + 9 x x x 2 1 + 9 x x x

5
5
x
x

x2 2x
.
x 7 x + 5

4. lim
:

2x
2
x 2 1 2
x 1
x 2x
x
x
x
lim
= = lim
= lim
= lim = = .
x 7 x + 5
x
x
x 7
5


7
x7 +
x

0
2. 0
,
sin
lim
= 1.
0
x 2 16
5. lim 2
.
x 4 2 x 3 x 20
. x 4 0
. . 0
. ax 2 + bx + c = a ( x x1 )( x x2 ) , x1
x2 2 x 2 3 x 20 = 0 . :
D = b 2 4ac = ( 3) 4 2 ( 20 ) = 169 = (13) ,
2

b D 3 13
16
10 5
=
x1 =
= 4 x2 =
=
.
2a
4
4
4
2
,
x1,2 =

31

2 x 2 3 x 20 = 2 ( x 4 ) x + .
2

a 2 b 2 = ( a b )( a + b ) .

lim
x4

( x 4 )( x + 4 )
( x + 4)
x 2 16
4+4
8
0
= = lim
= lim
=
= .
4
4
x

5
5
5 13
2 x 3 x 20 0

2 ( x 4) x +
2 x + 2 4 +
2
2
2

6. lim
x 3

x2 9
x +6 3

. 3,

99

0
, ..
0

9 3
0

.
0
, ,

( a + b a b ).
x2 9
x2 9 x + 6 + 3
0
= = lim
=
lim
x 3
x + 6 3 0 x3 x + 6 3 x + 6 + 3

)(

)(
)
(x 9)( x + 6 + 3) = lim (x 9)( x + 6 + 3) =
= lim
(x + 6 9)
( x + 6 ) 9

( x + 3)( x 3) ( x + 6 + 3)
( x + 3) ( x + 6 + 3 )
= lim
= lim
=
2

x 3

x 3

= ( 3 + 3)

x3

( x 3)

x 3

3 + 6 + 3 = 6 6 = 36.

sin 2 x
.
tgx
. , , :
sin 2 x 0 sin 2 x = 2sin x cos x
lim
= =
=
x 0 tgx
0 tgx = sin x / cos x
7. lim
x 0

2 ( cos x )
2sin x cos x
= lim
= lim
= 2.
x 0
x 0
sin x
1
cos x
2

32

x
.
sin 2 x
.
sin
= 1 .
lim
0
2. :
8. lim
x 0

lim
x 0

x
x2
2x 1 1
2x
1
0
=
= lim
= lim
= lim
= 1 = 1.
sin 2 x 0 x 0 ( sin 2 x ) 2 x 0 ( sin 2 x ) 2 2 x 0 sin 2 x 2
3.

[ ]

0
0 .

18
3
9. lim
2
.
x 3 x 3
x 9

. :
3

18
18
3
lim
2
= [ ] = lim

x 3 x 3
x 3 x 3
x 9
( x 3)( x + 3)

3 ( x + 3) 18
3 ( x 3)
3x 9
= lim
= lim
= lim
=
x 3 ( x 3 )( x + 3 )
x 3 ( x 3 )( x + 3 )
x 3 ( x 3 )( x + 3 )
3
3 1
= = .
x 3 ( x + 3 )
6 2

= lim

4. 1 x

1
lim 1 + = e, e = 2, 71828K
x
x
x2 + 3
10. lim 2

x x 1

x 2 +1

33

x2 1 + 2
x +3
x
=
= 1, . lim 2
x x 1
1

2
x 1 2
x

, 1 .
2

:
x2 + 3
lim 2

x x 1

x 2 +1

x2 1 + 4
= lim 2

x
x 1

= lim 1 + 2
x
x
1

x 2 1
4

(
1

4
2

x 2 +1

= lim 1 + 2

x
x 1

x 2 +1

lim

= e x x

4
2

x 2 +1

x 2 +1

1
4 x 2 1+ 2
x
x 2
1
x 1 2
x

lim

=e

= e4 .

9.
z = x + iy ,
x y , i ,
i 2 = 1 . x ,
. : x = Re z , y = Im z . z = x iy z .

.
. z1 = x1 + iy 1 , z 2 = x 2 + iy 2 ,
z1 + z2 = ( x1 + x2 ) + i ( y1 + y2 ) .

.
z1 z2 = ( x1 + iy1 )( x2 + iy2 ) = ( x1 x2 y1 y2 ) + i ( x2 y1 + x1 y2 ) .
, ,
i 2 -1.
. , z
zz
( x + iy1 )( x2 iy2 ) x1 x2 + y1 y2
x y x y
: 1 = 1 2 = 1
=
+i 2 21 12 2 .
2
2
z 2 z 2 z 2 ( x2 +iy2 )( x2 iy2 )
x2 + y2
x2 + y2

34

1
(1 2i )( 2 +i ) = 2 4i + i 2i 2 =
= 2 3i + 2 = 4 3i .
2
1 3i (1 3i )( 2 i ) 2 6i i 3
=
=
=
2+ i
4 +1
( 2 +i )( 2 i )
=

1 7i
1 7
= i.
5
5 5

. 4.
z = x + iy x y - (. 4).
z OM : r = x 2 + y 2 .
z

uuuur
OM . :

arctg

=arctg

arctg

y
, x > 0;
x
y
+ , x < 0, y > 0;
x
y
, x < 0, y < 0.
x
y

arctg
, .
x
2 2

z = x + iy

z = r ( cos + isin )
.
3. z = 2 3 + 2i .
. r =

( 2 3 )2 + 2 2 =

12 + 4 = 4
35


= arctg

+ = arctg

5
+ = + =
6
6
3

2 3
.
,
5
5
z = 4 cos + isin .
6
6

z = r ( cos + isin ) ,
z n = r n ( cos n + isin n ) .
z = r ( cos + isin ) , n-
z n ,
n z = n r cos + 2 k +isin + 2 k ,

n
n

k = 0, 1, 2, n 1 .
8
.:
1+ i 3
1) z ; 2)
w 3 + z = 0 .
. 1. ,
, :
8
8( 1 i 3 )
8( 1 i 3 )
z=
=
=
= 2 2 3i .
1+ 3
1+ i 3 ( 1+ i 3 )( 1 i 3 )
, z
: z = 2 2 3 i .
z :
4. z =

r=

x +y =

(-2) + (-2 3) =

4 + 12 = 4 ,

y
2 3

2
= arctg
= arctg 3 = =
.
x
2
3
3
, z
:
2
2
z = r ( cos + isin ) = 4 cos
+ isin 3 .
3

= arctg

36

2. w 3 + z = 0 . w 3 = z = 2 + i 2 3 . z = 2 + i2 3
:
r = x 2 + y 2 = 22 +( 2 3 )2 = 4 +12 = 4 ,

2 3

z = 4 cos + isin .
= arctg 3 = ,
3
3
2
3

, n- ,
+ 2k
+2k

, k = 0 , 1, 2 .
w = 3 z = 3 4 cos 3
+isin 3

3
3

.
= arctg

k = 0

w1 =

4 cos + i sin ,
9
9

k = 1 2
2
7
7
w2 = 3 4 cos + + isin + = 3 4 cos + isin
,
9
3
9
3
9
9

k = 2 4
4
13
13
w3 = 3 4 cos + + isin + = 3 4 cos
+ isin
.
9
3
9
3
9
9

, , , ,

4 .

37

10.
y = f (x ) x0 ,

, x 0 ,
lim f ( x) = f ( x0 ) .
x x0

,
.
, .
, ,
.
x0
y = f ( x) , y = f ( x)
, , .
x0
y = f ( x) , y = f ( x)
.
x0
y = f ( x) ,
.
1

1. y = f ( x) = 2 3+ x x1 = 3 x 2 = 1 . : 1) ,

; 2)
; 3) .
. x 2 = 1 , , x 2 = 1 ,
1

lim 2 3+x = 2 4 = f (1) . , x2 = 1


x 1

. x1 = 3 ,
1
. x 3 0 ,

3+ x

38

lim 2 3+x = 2 = 0 .

x 3 0

x 3+ 0 ,

1
+
3+ x

lim 2 3+x = 2 = .

x 3 0

, x = 3 II .
(.5).

. 5
2.

x 2 , x 1;

y = 2x 1, 1 < x 2;
4 x, x > 2.

, .
.
.
, ,
x = 1 x = 2 .
. x = 1
lim f ( x ) = lim x 2 = 1 ,
lim f ( x ) = lim ( 2x 1) = 1 .
x 1 0

x 1 0

x 1+ 0

x 1+ 0

, x = 1
. , x = 1 .
x = 2 I ,
:
lim f ( x ) = lim ( 2x 1) = 3 ,
lim f ( x ) = lim ( 4 x ) = 2 .
x 2 0

x 2 0

x 2+ 0

x 2 + 0

(.6):

39

. 6

11.

1 .
1
2

40

:
2x 1 3
= 0.
1 x
BA ,
1 2 3
1 2
A=
, B=
.
3

1
2

0 3

r
a = { 2, 3, 2},
r
v
r
b = { 1, 4,1}. a 2b .
, M(1,3)

3 x + 2 y 1 = 0 ,

. -2; 3
. 2; 1

. 1; 1,5 .1;1,5
. 3; 1,5

5 4 1 5 4 1
.
.

9 3 6 2 2 4
5 4 1
5 2 1
B.
.

1 2 3
9 3 6
5 4 1
.

2 3 6
. 5
. 24
. 137 . 24
. 3 x 2 y + 3 = 0
. 2 x 3 y + 7 = 0
. 3 x + 2 y + 5 = 0
. 2 x + 3 y + 7 = 0
. 3 x 4 y 2 = 0

29

8
9

, (4,-1,2)

x + 3 y + 2 z 1
,
=
=
2
1
3

r
v
a = {2; 1; 3}; b = {3; 1;2}
v
c = {0; 2; 1} ,

2 x y 3z + 2 = 0
x + 4 y z 12 = 0 .

1 2 x3 + 3x 4
= ...
x 3 + 2 x 2 4 x 5

lim

1 3 + x
= ...
x2 + 2 x

3 + 2i
:
.
2+i
lim

x 2

10

.
.
.
.
.

4x y + 2z 3 = 0
3x + 2 y z +1 = 0
4 x y + 2 z + 13 = 0
2 x y 3z 3 = 0
2 x y 3z + 3 = 0

5
7
. 2 . 1 .
2
6
4
.
3
1
. arccos
. 30 0
7
1
. arccos
3 7
1
. arccos
6 7
2
. arccos
14
1
3
.
. .
. 0 . 3
3
4
4
1
1
1
3
.
. .
. 0 .
2
4
4
5
.

.
.

26
9
. .
5
4
65
5
.
5
2

13
9

41


1. .. . .: , 2003.
2. .., .., ..
, .1. .: ,
1996.3. .., ..
. .: , 2003.
4. .., .
, .1 : , 1989.
5. ..
, .1. .: -, 1998.
6. .. . .: ,
2002.

42