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WATER ENGINEERING

& DESIGN IIIS2


LECTURE 18
REVIEW OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW #1
DR JINZHE GONG

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

The PowerPoint slides used in this lecture are


developed based on the original slides prepared by
Dr Aaron Zecchin at the University of Adelaide.

REFERENCES
Subramanya, K. (2009). Flow in Open Channels,
3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India.

REFERENCES

Subramanya, K. (2009). Flow in Open Channels,


3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India.

Chapter 1: Flow in Open Channels

Chapter 2: Energy-Depth Relationships

Not 1.6-1.8
Not 2.4-2.5

Chapter 3: Uniform Flow

3.1, 3.4, 3.6, 3.9, 3.10, 3.16

WHAT IS OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

A flow that has a free surface and is driven by


gravity
Rivers, streams
Canals (irrigation or water supply)
Drainage networks (sewer, storm)

OPEN CHANNEL FLOW

River Murray, 1956 flood


More information at http://www.slsa.sa.gov.au/1956floods/collection/index.htm

Waterfall Gully

WHY STUDY OPEN CHANNEL


FLOW?
Open Channel Flow
design of formal sections (rectangular,...)
design of less formal sections (natural)
design of energy dissipation structures
assessment of existing channels and sections
flood plain mapping
use of standard computer programs

e.g. Hydrologic Engineering Centres River Analysis System


(HEC-RAS)

OVERVIEW OF THE TWO REVIEW LECTURES

Fundamentals
Classification of open channel flows
1-D conceptual model
Real open channel systems
Energy, mass and momentum equations

Uniform Flow
Normal depth
Manning's equation

Specific energy

Sub- and super-critical flows


Transitions

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
1.

Open channel flow is

driven by gravity, and

subject to external forces and changes in


momentum

2.

3.

due to fluid pressure, friction, and obstructions.

Open channel flow can be understood in terms


of the energy associated with the flow and
how that changes along the channel.
The keys are therefore:
fluid pressure, friction, momentum, and energy.
MAIN VARIABLES

Flow rate Q, Depth y

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
CLASSIFICATION OF OC FLOW
Flow properties, such
as the depth or
discharge, at a section
do not change with
time.

Flow properties
remain constant
along the length
of the channel

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
CLASSIFICATION OF CHANNELS

Prismatic and Non-prismatic Channels

Prismatic channels: the cross sectional shape and size and


also the bottom slope are constant

Rigid and Mobile-boundary Channels

Rigid channels: the boundary is not deformable; geometry


and roughness are essentially constant over time

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW:
OUTLINE 1-D CONCEPTUAL MODEL

For engineering analysis of OC flow, we


use a 1-D conceptual model
Hydraulic variables (uniform at cross-section)
velocity (V) or flow (Q); and depth (y or d)

Channel variables
Shape
(depth to wetted perimeter
and area relationships)

Slope
Roughness

Fig - http://www.pipeflow.co.uk/public/control.php?_path=/497/595

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW:
OUTLINE 1-D CONCEPTUAL MODEL

Use model to answer questions like:

What happens to the fluid depth if the bed


elevation/slope/cross-section changes?
?
d,v

What is the head-discharge relationship of a weir?


What forces will an obstacle
in the flow experience?

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS

Flow within open channels follows a complex velocity


distribution

How to deal with this within a 1-D framework?


Velocity dip

Narrow channels B/y0 5

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS

Deal with cross-sectional averages


Assume an average V (or a Q) and
Apply correction factors a and b to account for velocity
distribution

V2
velocity head (kinetic energy) a

2g

Mass conservation is not affected

momentum flux b QV

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
We assume the pressure distribution is hydrostatic

p y
This is applicable when:

V = 0; no vertical accelerations; small slope; gradually-varied


flow

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
CONTINUITY EQUATION
Conservation of Mass
Flow In Flow Out = Change in Volume
For Steady Flow (for a given point, velocity is constant over time)

As flow is steady in time, Change in Volume = 0


Q1 = Q2 or V1A1 = V2A2

V1, A1

V2, A2

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION (BERNOULLI)

Recall: For a pipe, energy can be


separated into

Pressure head, p/

Velocity head, V2/(2g)


Elevation head, z

V2/2g
p/

Horizontal datum

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION (BERNOULLI)

What about for an open channel?


Velocity head, V2/(2g)
Bed elevation, z

Like elevation head

Water depth, d

Like pressure head

Bernoulli Equation

V
H Z d
2g

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION
Taking account of the velocity distribution, the total energy
(Bernoulli) becomes
2

V
H Z d a
2g
is the Kinetic Energy Correction Factor
When we have straight prismatic channels (same crosssection and slope throughout the length of channel) with
gradually-varied flow, we assume = 1.0

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION

Conservation of Energy implies


E1 = E2 + Losses

What processes
would cause losses?

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION

Losses hl = he + hf
Eddy losses, he
Frictional losses, hf

In a prismatic channel:

he = 0 (parallel streamlines)

Frictional losses
Channel roughness
Length of channel
Velocity of flow

Compound channels
are complicated

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
MOMENTUM EQUATION

For steady flow use force-momentum flux equation:


Sum of forces on CV = change in momentum flux across CV

Momentum flux??

Rate of transport of momentum through an area

M V V A V A QV
2

Momentum
per unit
volume

Rate of
transport of
momentum

Cross-sectional area

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
MOMENTUM EQUATION

Forces = Momentum Flux

F1 - F2 - F3 + F4 = M2 M1
F1, F2 are pressure forces,
F3 is frictional resistance,
F4 is the force of gravity

M QV V A
2

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
MOMENTUM EQUATION

For a short control volume in a prismatic horizontal (or


small-slope) channel with steady flow

F3 is negligible, F4 = 0 or negligible
Momentum equation becomes F1 - F2 = M2 - M1

Momentum Correction Factor, > 1.0

M bQV bV A
2

For straight prismatic channels with gradually-varied flow, =


1.0

UNIFORM FLOW

Uniform flow is unchanging in time and space

Constant water depth, constant velocity

Is achieved in practice in a very long channel


The water depth converges to the
Normal Depth
(the depth of flow at which a given discharge flows as
uniform flow in a given channel)

UNIFORM FLOW
MANNINGS FORMULA
Popular equation for uniform flow

1 2/3 1/2
V R S0
n

or

1
2/3 1/2
Q AR S0
n

where n is a roughness coefficient, known as Mannings


number
Can be derived from the momentum equation
R = hydraulic radius
(cross-sectional area/wetted perimeter)
S0 = bottom slope

UNIFORM FLOW
MANNINGS N
Concrete
0.013 0.017
Tiles
0.016 0.018
Brick
0.014 0.017
Earth (clean)
0.016 0.020
(grass)
0.022 0.033
Rock
0.025 0.045
Rivers with trees etc.
0.125
(Bigger for rougher sections)

UNIFORM FLOW
NORMAL DEPTH AND MANNINGS FORMULA

For a given Q, it is possible to determine normal depth


d using Mannings equations:

1
2/3 1/2
Q A(d ) R(d ) S0
n

This equation is typically implicit in d

So root finding methods are required


Newtons method, bisection method, method of successive
substitutions
Or goalseek
See also Section 3.11 in Subramanya

UNIFORM FLOW
So what is significant about uniform flow?
Why be concerned with normal depth?

UNIFORM FLOW

Applying momentum equation to the CV:

P1 W sin Ff P2 M 2 M 1

UNIFORM FLOW
Given that y1 = y2, then P1 = P2
Given that V1 = V2, then M1 = M2
So we are left with

P1 W sin Ff P2 M 2 M 1

Which becomes

Ff W sin
Frictional force
(resists motion)

Gravitational force
(drives motion)

UNIFORM FLOW

So normal depth represents the depth that, for a given


Q, the gravitational force is balanced by the frictional
force

UNIFORM FLOW

How do we deal with natural channels of a complex


geometry, and varying roughness?
A typical approach is to use equivalent roughness

where P1, P2, PN are the lengths of the N parts of the


perimeter, and n1, n2, , nN are the representative
roughness coefficients

UNIFORM FLOW
EQUIVALENT ROUGHNESS

It can be shown that:

2/3
3/ 2
i
i
2/3

More to discuss in the next lecture

(Hortons formula)

UNIFORM FLOW

What if the cross-section is a little complex?

UNIFORM FLOW
COMPOUND CHANNELS

Divided channel methods can be used


Vertical, horizontal, or diagonal divisions
More to discuss in the next lecture

See also section 3.16 in Subramanya

END OF LECTURE