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# WATER ENGINEERING

## & DESIGN IIIS2

LECTURE 18
REVIEW OF OPEN CHANNEL FLOW #1
DR JINZHE GONG

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

## The PowerPoint slides used in this lecture are

developed based on the original slides prepared by
Dr Aaron Zecchin at the University of Adelaide.

REFERENCES
Subramanya, K. (2009). Flow in Open Channels,
3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India.

REFERENCES

## Subramanya, K. (2009). Flow in Open Channels,

3rd Ed., Tata McGraw-Hill, New Delhi, India.

Not 1.6-1.8
Not 2.4-2.5

## A flow that has a free surface and is driven by

gravity
Rivers, streams
Canals (irrigation or water supply)
Drainage networks (sewer, storm)

Waterfall Gully

## WHY STUDY OPEN CHANNEL

FLOW?
Open Channel Flow
design of formal sections (rectangular,...)
design of less formal sections (natural)
design of energy dissipation structures
assessment of existing channels and sections
flood plain mapping
use of standard computer programs

(HEC-RAS)

## OVERVIEW OF THE TWO REVIEW LECTURES

Fundamentals
Classification of open channel flows
1-D conceptual model
Real open channel systems
Energy, mass and momentum equations

Uniform Flow
Normal depth
Manning's equation

Specific energy

## Sub- and super-critical flows

Transitions

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
1.

momentum

2.

3.

## Open channel flow can be understood in terms

of the energy associated with the flow and
how that changes along the channel.
The keys are therefore:
fluid pressure, friction, momentum, and energy.
MAIN VARIABLES

## Flow rate Q, Depth y

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
CLASSIFICATION OF OC FLOW
Flow properties, such
as the depth or
discharge, at a section
do not change with
time.

Flow properties
remain constant
along the length
of the channel

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
CLASSIFICATION OF CHANNELS

## Prismatic channels: the cross sectional shape and size and

also the bottom slope are constant

## Rigid channels: the boundary is not deformable; geometry

and roughness are essentially constant over time

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW:
OUTLINE 1-D CONCEPTUAL MODEL

## For engineering analysis of OC flow, we

use a 1-D conceptual model
Hydraulic variables (uniform at cross-section)
velocity (V) or flow (Q); and depth (y or d)

Channel variables
Shape
(depth to wetted perimeter
and area relationships)

Slope
Roughness

Fig - http://www.pipeflow.co.uk/public/control.php?_path=/497/595

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW:
OUTLINE 1-D CONCEPTUAL MODEL

## What happens to the fluid depth if the bed

elevation/slope/cross-section changes?
?
d,v

## What is the head-discharge relationship of a weir?

What forces will an obstacle
in the flow experience?

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS

distribution

Velocity dip

## Narrow channels B/y0 5

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
VELOCITY DISTRIBUTIONS

## Deal with cross-sectional averages

Assume an average V (or a Q) and
Apply correction factors a and b to account for velocity
distribution

V2

2g

## Mass conservation is not affected

momentum flux b QV

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
HYDROSTATIC PRESSURE
We assume the pressure distribution is hydrostatic

p y
This is applicable when:

## V = 0; no vertical accelerations; small slope; gradually-varied

flow

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
CONTINUITY EQUATION
Conservation of Mass
Flow In Flow Out = Change in Volume
For Steady Flow (for a given point, velocity is constant over time)

## As flow is steady in time, Change in Volume = 0

Q1 = Q2 or V1A1 = V2A2

V1, A1

V2, A2

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION (BERNOULLI)

## Recall: For a pipe, energy can be

separated into

V2/2g
p/

Horizontal datum

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION (BERNOULLI)

## What about for an open channel?

Bed elevation, z

Water depth, d

Bernoulli Equation

V
H Z d
2g

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION
Taking account of the velocity distribution, the total energy
(Bernoulli) becomes
2

V
H Z d a
2g
is the Kinetic Energy Correction Factor
When we have straight prismatic channels (same crosssection and slope throughout the length of channel) with
gradually-varied flow, we assume = 1.0

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION

## Conservation of Energy implies

E1 = E2 + Losses

What processes
would cause losses?

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
ENERGY EQUATION

Losses hl = he + hf
Eddy losses, he
Frictional losses, hf

In a prismatic channel:

he = 0 (parallel streamlines)

Frictional losses
Channel roughness
Length of channel
Velocity of flow

Compound channels
are complicated

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
MOMENTUM EQUATION

## For steady flow use force-momentum flux equation:

Sum of forces on CV = change in momentum flux across CV

Momentum flux??

## Rate of transport of momentum through an area

M V V A V A QV
2

Momentum
per unit
volume

Rate of
transport of
momentum

Cross-sectional area

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
MOMENTUM EQUATION

## Forces = Momentum Flux

F1 - F2 - F3 + F4 = M2 M1
F1, F2 are pressure forces,
F3 is frictional resistance,
F4 is the force of gravity

M QV V A
2

FUNDAMENTALS OF OC FLOW
MOMENTUM EQUATION

## For a short control volume in a prismatic horizontal (or

F3 is negligible, F4 = 0 or negligible
Momentum equation becomes F1 - F2 = M2 - M1

M bQV bV A
2

1.0

UNIFORM FLOW

## Is achieved in practice in a very long channel

The water depth converges to the
Normal Depth
(the depth of flow at which a given discharge flows as
uniform flow in a given channel)

UNIFORM FLOW
MANNINGS FORMULA
Popular equation for uniform flow

1 2/3 1/2
V R S0
n

or

1
2/3 1/2
Q AR S0
n

## where n is a roughness coefficient, known as Mannings

number
Can be derived from the momentum equation
(cross-sectional area/wetted perimeter)
S0 = bottom slope

UNIFORM FLOW
MANNINGS N
Concrete
0.013 0.017
Tiles
0.016 0.018
Brick
0.014 0.017
Earth (clean)
0.016 0.020
(grass)
0.022 0.033
Rock
0.025 0.045
Rivers with trees etc.
0.125
(Bigger for rougher sections)

UNIFORM FLOW
NORMAL DEPTH AND MANNINGS FORMULA

## For a given Q, it is possible to determine normal depth

d using Mannings equations:

1
2/3 1/2
Q A(d ) R(d ) S0
n

## So root finding methods are required

Newtons method, bisection method, method of successive
substitutions
Or goalseek

UNIFORM FLOW
So what is significant about uniform flow?
Why be concerned with normal depth?

UNIFORM FLOW

## Applying momentum equation to the CV:

P1 W sin Ff P2 M 2 M 1

UNIFORM FLOW
Given that y1 = y2, then P1 = P2
Given that V1 = V2, then M1 = M2
So we are left with

P1 W sin Ff P2 M 2 M 1

Which becomes

Ff W sin
Frictional force
(resists motion)

Gravitational force
(drives motion)

UNIFORM FLOW

## So normal depth represents the depth that, for a given

Q, the gravitational force is balanced by the frictional
force

UNIFORM FLOW

## How do we deal with natural channels of a complex

geometry, and varying roughness?
A typical approach is to use equivalent roughness

## where P1, P2, PN are the lengths of the N parts of the

perimeter, and n1, n2, , nN are the representative
roughness coefficients

UNIFORM FLOW
EQUIVALENT ROUGHNESS

2/3
3/ 2
i
i
2/3

## More to discuss in the next lecture

(Hortons formula)

UNIFORM FLOW

## What if the cross-section is a little complex?

UNIFORM FLOW
COMPOUND CHANNELS

## Divided channel methods can be used

Vertical, horizontal, or diagonal divisions
More to discuss in the next lecture