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# DRILLING & PRODUCTION

E QUATIONS

 

T
HP = 
550

2

60

2pmax pmot)

K (s + 2)

(1)

Q =

(2)

ROP = Kf

i (1 + i)

## HHP = 2 x 106 pmot

ph D2h N

(2 i)2

T = 0.01 pmot i

pmot = Krc

1 + i


(2 i)2

Dh ph 

pmot = 63.08

Kx Kb
 and Ki = i
Ky Ki

(2 i)2

ppar = KQs

(6)

(ppar pb)2
log 
(ppar pb)1
s = 1    0
(Q2)
log 
Q1

(7)

ppar pb



(8)

Qs

1

s

bypass flow ratio or the ratio of the diverted flow in the downhole tools to
the total pump flow.
Engineers select the flow rate and
total flow area of the bit nozzles to use
the available pump pressure fully, i.e.,
for the given solution, the sum of the
parasitic losses, pressure drop across the
motor, and the pressure drop over the
bit equal the maximum pump pressure.
This means that after engineers determine the true optimum flow rate,
they may increase the rate slightly to
use all available pump pressure.
In a similar manner, Equations 9 and
10 present the relationship between
48

N

100

a2

(11)

(12)

6.01.5 x 6.372.5


4.52 x 35.75 x 0.70

= 185 psi.

(13)

1 + i


(5)

pmax pmot

K (s + 1)

a1

(4)

D2h ph 

## (pcirc ppar pmot)

HHPbit =  Q
1714

Q =

W

4db

Example calculations:
Given that Kx = 5,252, Ky = 0.01, Kb = 4 x 105, and Ki = 0.333, the
pressure drop coeffecient becomes, Krc = 63.08, as explained under Equation 4. Calculated by Equation 4, the motor pressure loss, assuming the parameters of Table 1 and WOB of 6,000 lb, follows:

where

K =

  

(3)

Wx dyb

(10)

HPb = Kb Wx N dyb.
2



Krc =

1

s

(9)

Nomenclature:
a1
= WOB exponent.
a2
= Speed exponent.

= Flow ratio.
db
= Diameter of the bit, in.
Dh
= Diameter of the housing, in.
ph
= Pitch of the shaft, in.
i
= Winding ratio, configuration.
K
= Flow coefficient.
Kb
= Formation hardness, teeth, bearing, and mud coefficient.
Kf
= Formation drillability factor, fph.
Ki
= Winding ratio coefficient.
Krc
= Pressure drop coefficient.
Kx
= Constant, 5,252.
Ky
= Constant, 0.01.
N
= Rotational speed per minute, rpm.
p
= Pressure drop, psi.
s
= Turbulence coefficient.
T
= Torque developed by the motor, ft-lb.
Q
= Flow rate, cu.in.
ROP = Rate of penetration, fph.
W
= Weight on bit (WOB), lb x 1,000.

= Overall efficiency.
Subscripts
b
= Bit.
h
= Housing.
max = Maximum.
mot = Motor.
n
= Integer.
par
= Parasitic.

## flow rate and optimum horsepower

and optimum impact force, respectively.
Equation 11 is the average rate of
penetration as a function of WOB and
bit rotation speed. Equation 12 gives
the empirical relationship for the power required for drilling.1 2
These two equations assume that the
formation is macroscopically homogeneous, hole cleaning is adequate, and
the rig is drilling a vertical wellbore.
Using the above equations, operators
can calculate the optimum flow rate
that will maximize the rate of penetrations within the available pump pressure and power.

Optimization example
An example illustrates the calculations involved to optimize drilling parameters. Table 1 lists the wellbore and
drilling operational details, calculation
parameters, and the PDM configuration.
Equation 4 calculates the pressure
drop across the motor for various values of WOB. In the example, the pressure drop for a WOB of 6,000 lbf is
185 psi, as calculated in Equation 13.
Fig. 2 shows the plot of power per
area through the bit for a range of flow
rates, varied total-flow area (TFA), and