Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 357

Copyright & A K-C

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Copyright & A K-C



   
  

Copyright & A K-C

Fundamentals of the
Physical Theory of
Diffraction

Pyotr Ya. Umtsev

WILEY-INTERSCIENCE
A JOHN WILEY & SONS, INC., PUBLICATION

Copyright & A K-C

2- ()

2013

Copyright & A K-C

535
22.343
88

88

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[ ] / . . ; . . 2- . (.).
. : . , 2013. 351 . : .
ISBN 978-5-9963-2102-5

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535
22.343

:
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: (499) 157-5272
e-mail: binom@Lbz.ru, http://www.Lbz.ru

ISBN 978-5-9963-2102-5

c 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.


Copyright
All Rights Reserved. This
translation published under license.
c ,

. ,
2009

Copyright & A K-C


. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23
25
29
29
32
33
34
39
42
43
46
50

2. : . . . . . 53
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6. : . . . . . . . . .
2.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53
58
60
65
67
72
76
77

3. : . . . 80
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
3.2. . . . . . .
3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

vi

80
83
87
89

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vii

4. : ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.2. (1) (1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.3.2. . . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104

5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1. .
5.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
(1)
5.1.4. . . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1. : . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.2. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3. : . . . . . . . .
5.2.4. : . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

105
106
109
113
116
121
121
124
126
129
131
133

6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137
6.1. . . . . . . . . 137
6.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138
6.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140
6.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146
(1)
6.1.4. , 148
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149
6.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150
6.2.2. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152
6.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154
6.3. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
6.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156
6.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160
6.4. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163
6.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
6.4.2. . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

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6.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4.4. . . . . . . . . .
6.5. : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.1. . . . . .
6.5.2. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.3. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.4. - 2
= 2 . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.5. 2 < , = 2 . . . . . . . . . .
6.5.6. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

167
172
175
177
180
181
182
182
186
187

7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189
7.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.
(1)
, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. . . . . .
7.4. . . . . . .
7.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.6. . . . . . . . . .
7.7. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.8. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.
0 = 0 = . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

190
192
195
198
203
207
211
214
218
219
224
229
230

8. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

234
234
239
240

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8.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

ix
242
242
246
248

9. :
(slope diffraction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 250
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3. (slope
diffraction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4. :
slope diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

250
251
252
256
257
257
260
261
261
264
267

10. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268
10.1. . . . . . . . . . . .
10.2. . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

269
271
273
275

11.
. . . . . . . . . 276
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. . . . . .
11.3. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

276
278
279
281

12.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282
12.1. . . . .
12.2. . . . . .
12.3. . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

282
285
289
290

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13. . . . . . . . 291
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.1.2. , (1) . . . .
13.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1. E- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2. H-. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

291
291
295
299
301
301
305
307

14. . . 309
14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.2. . . .
14.1.3. , . . . . . .
14.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.5. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.2. -. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.3. , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

309
310
313
314
318
321
325
325
327
329
332

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

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. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
1.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.4. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.3.5. .
1.3.6. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
1.4. . . . . . . . . . .
1.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

23
23
25
29
29
32
33
34
39
42
43
46
50

2. :
2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.3. . . . . .
2.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.5. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2.6. : . . .
2.7. . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

53
53
58
60
65
67
72
76
77

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3. : . . . . 80
3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80
3.2. . . . . . . . 83

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3.3.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89
4. : ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90
4.2. f (1) g(1) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95
4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97
4.3.2. . . . . . . . 101
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104
5.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.1.
5.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . .
5.1.4. jh(1) . .
5.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.1. : . . . . . . .
5.2.2. : . . . . . . . . . .
5.2.3. : . . . . .
5.2.4. : . . . . . . . .
5.2.5. . . . . . . . . . . .
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6.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1. . . . . . .
6.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.1.4. us(,1h) .
6.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.2. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.2.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3. : . . . . . . . . .
6.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
6.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . .
6.4. :
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105
105
106
109
113
116
121
121
124
126
129
131
133

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137
137
138
140
146
148
149
150

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152
154
156
156
160

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6.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164
6.4.2. . :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166
6.4.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167
6.4.4. . . . . . . . . 172
6.5. :
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175
6.5.1. . . . . . 177
6.5.2. :
p w J p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180
6.5.3. :
p w J p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181
6.5.4. - 2w J p w
J = 2w . . . . . . . . 182
6.5.5.
2w < J p w, J = 2w. . . . . . . . . . 182
6.5.6. -
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187
7.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.1. . . . . . . . . . .
7.2.
js(,1h) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.3. . . . .
7.4. . . . . .
7.5. . . . . . . . . . .
7.6. . . . . . .
7.7. . . . . . . . . .
7.8. . . . . . . . . .
7.9.
j0 = p j0 = a p . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
7.10. ,
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

. 229
. 230

8.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
8.1.3. . . . . . .

.
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. 189
. 190
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.

192
195
198
203
207
211
214

. 218
. 219
. 224

234
234
234
239
240

Copyright & A K-C

8.2. . . .
8.2.1 . . . .
8.2.2. .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
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9. :

(slope diffraction). . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.2.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.
(slope diffraction) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.3.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4. :
slope diffraction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
9.4.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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242
242
246
248

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250
250
251
252
256

. . . . 257
. . . . 257
. . . . 260
.
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.

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.

261
261
264
267

10.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
10.1. . . . . . .
10.2. . . . . . . .
10.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
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.

.
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.

268
269
271
273
275

11.
. . . . . . .
11.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . .
11.2. . . . . . .
11.3. . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

276
276
278
279
281

12.
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
12.1. . . . . .
12.2. . . . . .
12.3. . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

282
282
285
289
290

13. . . . . . . 291
13.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291
13.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291

Copyright & A K-C

13.1.2. ,
13.1.3. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.1. E- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
13.2.2. H- . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

j (1)
. .
. .
. .
. .
. .

.
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.

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.

.
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.

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.

295
299
301
301
305
307

14.
14.1. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.1. . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.2.
14.1.3. , . . .
14.1.4. . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.5. ,
. . . . .
14.2. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.1. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.2. - . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.3. ,
. . . .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

.
.
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.

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.

309
309
310
313
314
318

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.

321
325
325
327

. . . 329
. . . 332

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 335
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 336
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 346

Copyright & A K-C

Ideas have consequences. Great ideas have far-reaching


consequences.
( .
.)
(), 1950- , ,
, .
, , , ,

, Lockheed F-117 Stealth Fighter
Northrop B-2 Stealth Bomber, ,
.
.
, F-117 (Lockheed),
Rosetta Stone1,
-.
(Northrop), -2,
, , , . , industrial-strength diffraction theory, , , -.
, , . , ,
, . -,
1

Rosetta Stone ( ) ,
1799 . ,
. .
. .

Copyright & A K-C

11

, .
,
. (hard) (soft) ,
.
,
(
)
,
.
,
, ()
, , () , . . , (
), . ,
, .

.
,
,
.
, . , , ,
.
, , (). , , , . ,
,
. .
, ,
,
, .
1 .

Copyright & A K-C

12

,
, ,
, , . ,
, (), . , , . ,
() .
, . , , . , ,
, . , , ,
- .
(
). :
, , , .
. ,
, ,
.
, ,
. 7, , , , .
, .
, .
, , .
, , (. .
, ), ,
, ,
( ). ,
(

Copyright & A K-C

13

)
. , .
,
.
, ,
:
l , ,
.
l
.
l ,
,
.

, .

, , , . , , . ,
. .
, .
,
.
, - ,
, .

, () ,
: [uniform theory of diffraction (UTD)], Ohio State University, [uniform asymptotic theory of diffraction (UAT)].
,
( , ), -

Copyright & A K-C

14

,
. ,

.

,
.
. (Kenneth M. Mitzner)
2006 .

Copyright & A K-C

() ,
.
,
(). , .
. , (), .
. ,
,
. .
() , .
fringe component. fringe ,
, , .
, , ().
,
, .

(fringe components) . , , , , ( ),
.
, .

Copyright & A K-C

16

. , . .
, ,
.
(forward scattering).
, ,
.
, .
, , .
, ,
. , .
. .
-,
. 2006 .

Copyright & A K-C


(Center of Aerospace Research and Education)
. (Irvine).
, . . (Satya N. Atluri).
. . , FORTRAN SIGMA-PLOT.
,
, .
.
. (E. V. Jull), . (K. M. Mitzner),
. - (Y. Rahmat-Samii) . (A. J. Terzuoli, Jr.)
. . .
, . .
. .

Copyright & A K-C

() , .
(,
1957, 1958, 1961). (, 1962), . ,
(, 2003, 2007 ).
, ,
( , 1986; , , 1987; Ufimtsev,
1989, 1991; Ufimtsev and Rahmat-Samii, 1995; Ufimtsev, 2006 a, b).
, ().
.

, ( ). ,
.
(, )
(Kinsler et al., 1982; Pierce, 1994).
, . , (, 1988;
Balanis, 1989). M .

. , , ,
. .

Copyright & A K-C

19

, .
.
, . , ,
.
. , ,
: , . ,

Stealth-Fighter F-117 Stealth-Bomber B-2, [(Browne,
1991 a, b; Rich, 1994; Rich and Janos, 1994); .
(, 2003, 2007 )]. (Ufimtsev, 2007 b) , ( ).
, , . .

. (
, ) ,
, ,
, , .
.

(Ufimtsev, 1998). ( 7.9) ,
, .
, .
( ) () .
, ,
. .
().

Copyright & A K-C

20

,
, (Bowman et al., 1987, p. 29).
, ,
.
7.9.
() ,
, (
).
, , .
,
(. 7.9).
, .
, ( ).
.
(, 1962, 2003, 2007 ).

, . , (
) (k = 2p/l ) ,
.
,
. 2, 3 4.
5 ,
.
,
()
,
r
r
E ( H) . , (,
1962) , -

Copyright & A K-C

21

. ,
5 , , .
1 . , ,
. . , (
, ), (. 1.4 14.6). (forward scattering).
1.3.5 , .
[., , , (2007),
]. , , . ,
, . , .

() . , , . 7 ,
.
, .
. . , ,
,
.

, .
,

/ (Bakker and Copson, 1939).

Copyright & A K-C

22


. 6.
8. (slope diffraction)
9 10. 11 12
.
( ) ,

.
, . ,
( , 1972; , 2007 ).
13 14 , .
. . : )
; ) , , .
, ,
. , ,
, . .

. ,

. , , , .
()
exp(iwt).
, .
:


Slope Diffraction ,

Copyright & A K-C




1.1.
() , .
(/ z = 0) , , .


, . (Kinsler et al., 1982; Pierce, 1994)
2 u + k 2 u = I.

(1.1)

k = 2p/l = w/c , l , w
, c , I . exp(iw t) . r
p v ,
, [Kinsler et al.
(1982); Pierce (1994)]
r
u
(1.2)
p =- r = iwru, v = u,
t
r .

r
r
(1.3 )
P = pv = pu.

Copyright & A K-C

24

1.

, T = 2p/w,
r
r
1
Pav = Re ( p* v ).
2

(1.4)

- .

:
()
u = 0 p = 0

[soft]

(1.5)

(soft) , . . ;
()
u
= n$ u = 0
n

[hard]

(1.6)

(hard) . , u , . .
. n$
(. 1.1). Q S.
,

u

lim r - iku r .
r

(1.7)

()
:
r
[ r ]= , [t ]= c, [ v ]= [c]= / c, [ w ]=1/ c ,
r
(1.8)
[ r ]= / 3 , [ p]= / c 2 , [ u]= 2 / c, [ P ]= / c 3 .

. 1.1. S. r P ( ) Q $ Q P
; m

Copyright & A K-C

25

1.2.

: , c . (),
1 = 1 /2. 1 /2 =
= 1 / 2.
, ,
([E] = /) ([H] = A/),
.

r r r
r
r r
1
(1.9)
P = E H Pav = Re [ E H * ] .
2

1.2.
[Bakker and Copson
(1939)]:
us =-

e ikr
u e ikr
1
1
ds, uh =
u
ds ,

4 p S n r
4 p S n r

(1.10)

S. us
, , uh ,
. u u/n , . . . ,
.

u
(1.11)
js = , jh = u,
n
, / (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ).
eikr/r (1.10) , . . , n$ S .
, r ? kd 2 ( d
), (1.10) . - (. 1.2). R ? r, r ? kd 2
:
r R - rcos W,

e ikr e ikR -ikrcosW


,

e
r
R

(1.12)

cosW = cosJ cosJ + sinJ sinJ cos(j j).

(1.13)

Copyright & A K-C

26

1.

. 1.2. S ; Q ( r, J, j) ; P (
R, J, j); W

e ikr
e ikr
1e ikr
=
n$ =- ik -
r n$ ,

n r
r
r r

$,
r = m

(1.14)

(1.12),
e ikr
e ikR -ikrcosW
$ n$ ).
-ik
e
(m
n r
R

(1.15)


:
us =uh =-

1 e ikR
4p R

js e -ikrcosW ds ,

(1.16)

ik e ikR
4p R

jh e -ikrcosW (m$ n$ )ds ,

(1.17)

$ n$ . m
js,h, (1.16), (1.17).
(1.16) (1.17)
us, h = u0F s, h

e ikR
,
R

(1.18)

ik
4pu0

(1.19)


F s =-

1
4pu0

js e -ikrcosW ds,
S

F h =-

jh e -ikrcosW (m$ n$ )ds


S

,
u0 (R = 0).

Copyright & A K-C

27

1.2.

, ,
, u0.
(1.2) (1.3),

r
(1.20)
P sc = iwruu.

u iku R$ , R$ = R .

(1.21)

(1.20), T = 2p/w,
r
r 1
1
1
$
(1.22)
Pascv = Re [ p* v ]= Re [( iwru)* ( iku)] R$ = k 2 Z| u 2 | R,
2
2
2

Z = rc
(1.23)
.
s,
Pascv =

s Painc
v
4p R 2

(1.24)

1 2
inc 2
(1.25)
Painc
|
v = k Z| u
2
. (1.24)
.
s
, . Painc
v s
, Pasv . Pasv
, .
,
, s = s(J, j).
,
. , s
(monostatic cross-section),
(backscattering cross-section).
(1.24) (1.25) ,
P scv
(1.26)
s = 4pR 2 ainc
= 4pR 2 | u sc | 2 / | u inc | 2 .
Pav

Copyright & A K-C

28

1.

, , ,
,
()
() :
s = pr1 r2.

(1.27)

r1 r2 . ( ).
.
-, . -, , . . , . . ,
. , , .
, . , , , ,
.
, (1.27)
:
s = |R|2pr1 r2 ,

(1.28)

R , ,
.
, (1.27) .

(. 1.3). , s

. 1.3. .

Copyright & A K-C

1.3.

29


, .
(Ufimtsev, 1999, 2005), (1965,
1970).
(1965, 1970)
,
R. (1.28), ,
.

1.3.
.

1.3.1.
()
1912 . ,
( ) .
,
, (Ufimtsev, 1999, 2005).
(Ufimtsev, 2008 ) 1.3.4. , , (),
(, 1972; , 1976)
( , 2005).

(Menounou et al., 2000; Brill et al., 1993; Moser et al., 1993). (Bowman et al., 1987),
, .
,
, .
, ,
(). . ,
.
. , ,
, . P1 P2,
Q1 Q2, . 1.4.
(Sil). ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

30

1.

. 1.4. , Q1 Q2
, , P1
P2. Sil .

, () . ,
. , , . ,

(. 1.5).
,
(1.5),
us
u inc
=2 s .
n
n

(1.29)


(1.6),
uh =2uhinc ,

(1.30)

. ()
(1.29) (1.30) -

. 1.5.

Copyright & A K-C

31

1.3.

,
js( 0) = 2

u inc
,
n

jh( 0) = 2u inc .

(1.31)

. js(,0h) .
(1.31) (1.10), :
usPO us( 0) =-

1
e ikr
js( 0)
ds,

r
4p S
il

uhPO

( 0)
uh

ikr
1
( 0) e
=
j
ds.

4p S h n r

(1.32)

il

us( 0) uh( 0) , (1.32) ,


(1.31) .
(1.32) , , . . .
(1.16) (1.17)

1 e ikR u inc -ikrcosW


(1.33)
e
us( 0) =ds ,

2p R S n
il

( 0)

uh =-

ikR

ik e
2p R

u inc e -ikrcosW (m$ n$ )ds .

(1.34)

S il

, , ,
(1.35)
u inc = const e ikf .
i
i
$
f = k ,
$ = r = k$ s . m
k$ s =-k$ i . ,
i

u inc
(1.36)
= u inc n$ = iku inc (f i n$ ) = iku inc ( k$ i n$ ).
n
(1.36) (1.33) (1.34)
$ n$ ) =- (k$ i n$ ),
(m
us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-

ik e ikR
2p R

u inc e -ikrcosW (k$ i n$ )ds .

S il

(1.37)

Copyright & A K-C

32

1.

,
( )
.

1.3.2.
(1.22).
,
, .
r
1
P tot = Re ( pssc )* ( v stot n$ ) ds ,
2 S

(1.38)

il

r
u inc
.
v stot n$ = 2
n

(1.39)

, (1.5) pssc =- p inc =- iwru inc .


, , ,
(. 1.4),
(1.40)
u inc = u0e ikz .

r
u inc
v stot n$ = 2
= 2iku0e ikz ( z$ n$ ),
n

( pssc )* = iwru0* e -ikz

(1.41)

P tot =-kwr| u0 | 2

( z$ n$ )ds= k 2 ZA| u0 | 2 ,

(1.42)

S il

A , , , A (. 1.4).
, (1.25)

1 2
2
(1.43)
Painc
v = k Z | u0 | .
2

s tot = P tot / Painc
v

(1.44)

, ,
stot = 2A.

(1.45)

Copyright & A K-C

33

1.3.

. ,

r
1
P tot = Re ( phtot )* ( v hsc n$ ) ds
2 S

(1.46)

il

r
r
phtot = 2 p inc = 2iwru0e ikz , (v hsc n$ ) =-(v inc n$ ) =-iku0e ikz ( z$ n$ ).

(1.47)

(1.47) (1.46)
(1.42) (1.45).

1.3.3.
(forward scattering), . . .
(1.18) (1.19)
usPO = u0F PO
s

e ikR
e ikR
,
, uhPO = u0F PO
h
R
R

(1.48)

F PO
s =F PO
h =-

1
2pu0
ik
2pu0

S il

u inc -ikrcosW
e
ds,
n

u inc e -ikrcosW (m$ n$ )ds,

(1.49)
(1.50)

S il

cosW (1.13). (1.40)


z. ,
$ = z$, rcos J = z,
, J = 0, cosW = cosJ, m
u inc
= u inc n$ = iku0e ikz ( z$ n$ )
n

(1.51)

PO
F PO
s ( J = 0) = F h ( J = 0) =-

ik
ik
A,
(z$ n$ ) ds =

2p S
2p

(1.52)

il

A (. 1.4). (1.52) (1.45),


s tot =

4p
ImF( J = 0),
k

(Born and Wolf , 1980).

(1.53)

Copyright & A K-C

34

1.

1.3.4.
(,
1968). (,
1990). (Ufimtsev, 1996). , ,
(Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 a).
. (Ufimtsev, 2008 a).
, (. 1.6).
z > 0
(Bakker and Copson, 1939)
ikr
tot ikr
1
u tot e - u e ds,
(1.54)
u sc =

n r
n r
4p S

utot = uinc + usc ; ds = dxdy


S (z = 0) r .
, .

ustot
u inc u inc u inc
.
(1.55)
u tot = 0, ussc =-u inc ,
=2
=
+
n
n
n
n
(1.54)
ustot, sc = ussc, 1 + ussc, 2 ,

(1.56)

ussc,1 =

ikr
1
u inc e ikr
inc e

ds ,
u

n
r
n
r
4p S

(1.57)

ussc, 2 =

ikr
inc ikr
1
-u inc e - u e ds .

4p S
n r
n r

(1.58)

. 1.6. S . z > 0. (z < 0)

Copyright & A K-C

1.3.

35

. 1.7. : S
, V ; n$ N$ S; V

(1.57)
(Bakker & Copson, 1939). , ,
V (. 1.7), , uinc uinc/N,
S:
u( P ) =

ikr
0, P V ,
u inc e ikr
1
inc e

ds =
u

inc
N r
N r
4p S
u (P ), P V .

(1.59)

, V.
.
P V S. , (1.59)
: u(P) = 0, P V, u(P) = uinc(P), P V.
, (1.59) (1.57).
S = SR + HR (. 1.8). SR
R, S, . 1.6,
HR R. ,
V.
(1.59) :
1
4p S

ikr
inc ikr

0, P V ,
u inc e - u e ds =

inc
N r
N r
u ( P ), P V .

R+H R

(1.60)

$ :
N$ (- n)
1
4p S

ikr

0, P V ,
u inc e ikr
inc e

ds =
(1.61)
u
n r

inc
n r
u
P

V
(
),
.

H
+
R
R

Copyright & A K-C

36

1.

. 1.8. S = SR + HR (1.60). V

, P, , HR, , R
. , R SR S. , (1.57):
0 z > 0,
ussc, 1 = inc
-u z < 0.

(1.62)

ussc,1 .
z < 0, . ush,
u sh =

ikr
u inc e ikr
1
inc e

ds.
u

4p S
n
r
n
r

(1.63)

(1.63) S
(. . ),
(, 1968, 1990, 1996, 2003, 2007 ).
ussc, 2 , (1.58):
usrefl =-u inc ,

usrefl u inc
=
n
n

(1.64)

S= S R + H R* ,
. 1.9. , V*.
,
u( P )=

1
4p S

ikr
refl ikr
0, P V * ,

u refl e - u e ds =
(1.65)

*
refl

n r
n r

u ( P ), P V .
R+H R

Copyright & A K-C

37

1.3.

. 1.9. . ,
. 1.8, SR R z = 0, H *R
R

R , H R* , SR
S. ,
ussc, 2 = usrefl =

1
4p

refl ikr
ikr

u refl e - us e ds =
s n r
n r

u refl z > 0,
= s
0 z < 0.

(1.66)

, (1.58)
z > 0.
(1.54), S,

:
uhsc = uhrefl + u sh ,

(1.67)

refl ikr
ikr

u refl e - uh e ds
h n r
n r

(1.68)

uhrefl

1
=
4p

uhrefl = u inc ,

uhrefl
u inc
.
=n
n

(1.69)


, , . (1.63).

Copyright & A K-C

38

1.


, .
(1.63), (1.66) (1.68)
(Sil) ( 1.4).
,
refl
sh
usPO
, h = us, h + u ,

(1.70)

usrefl
,h

1
=
4p

u sh =

1
4p

ikr
ikr
usrefl
,h e
refl e

u
ds,
s, h n r
n r

S il

(1.71)

ikr
inc ikr

u inc e - u e ds,

n r
n r

(1.72)

S il

refl
usrefl
, h , us, h / n (1.64) (1.69).

(1.72) .
.
(,
1968, 2003, 2007 ).
, , (1.70)
(Ufimtsev, 2007 b, 2008 a).
1.5.

. (1.31), (1.32) (1.72) :
1
u sh = ( usPO + uhPO ).
2

(1.73)

(1.37), : . , (, )
.
,
,
(1.71) (1.72), ,
. -

Copyright & A K-C

1.3.

39

. ,
(, 1968, 1990, 1996, 2003, 2007 ). ,
(Ufimtsev, 2008).
(forward scattering); .,
, (Glaser, 1985; Willis, 1991; Ufimtsev, 1996).
, , , , . ,
17- (Grimaldi, Newton,
Young, Fresnel).
.
(Willis, 1991). ,
, (Bowman et al., 1987). ,
.
, , (, 1990; . 14.2 ). ,
, (Ufimtsev, 1996, 2003,
2007 a).

1.3.5.
.
(, 1968, 1990, 1996,
2003, 2007 a). .
, , (. 1.10). S1 S2 .

. 1.10. ( )

Copyright & A K-C

40

1.

. 1.11. S1 + S2 .
,

(1.72),
u1sh =

u2sh

1
4p

1
=
4p

ikr
inc ikr

u inc e - u e ds ,

n1 r
n1 r

S1

ikr
inc ikr

u inc e - u e ds .

n2 r
n2 r

S2

(1.74)


u1sh - u2sh =

1
4p

inc

S1+ S 2

e ikr u inc e ikr


ds ,
n r
n r

(1.75)

n$ = n$1 , n$ =- n$ 2 S1 + S2 (. 1.11).
(Bakker & Copson, 1939)
(1.75) ,
S1 + S2. ,
u1sh = u2sh .

(1.76)

:
.

(Maggi, 1888; Rubinowicz,


1917; Kottler, 1923 a, 1923 b; , 1990),
(1.72) .
, .
1
refl * r refl
$
Ps,refl
h = Re ( ps, h ) ( v s, h n ) ds,
2 S
il

(1.77)

Copyright & A K-C

41

1.3.

, (1.2), (1.41), (1.64) (1.69),


r
r
psrefl =- p inc =-iw r u0e ikz , v srefl n$ = v inc n$ = iku0e ikz ( z$ n$ ) ,
r refl
r
refl
ph = p inc = iw r u0e ikz , v h n$ =- v inc n$ =-iku0e ikz ( z$ n$ ) .

(1.78)

(1.77),
1
Psrefl = Phrefl = k 2 ZA| u0 | 2 = P inc A
2

(1.79)

srefl,tot = A.

(1.80)

,
, , .
Sil , , /.
, - (, 1996; , , 2007).

r
1
P sh, tot = Re ( p inc )* [v inc (-n$ )]ds .
2 s

(1.81)

il

n$ ,
. (1.2) (1.40),
r
(1.82)
p inc = iwru0e ikz , (v inc n$ ) = iku0e ikz ( z$ n$ ).
(1.81),
1
P sh, tot = k 2 ZA| u0 | 2 = P inc A
2

(1.83)

ssh,tot = A.

(1.84)

, , (1.42). , (1.45). , ,
.
( Rs = 1 Rh = 1)

Copyright & A K-C

42

1.

( R = 0), . . .
stot = srefl,tot + ssh,tot = 2A,

(1.85)

A .
srefl,tot = A ,
, .
, .
- . ,
. ,
/ (Ufimtsev, 1996; , , 2007).

1.3.6.
l , .
l ( ) .
l .
l

.
l , .
(Maggi, 1888; Rubinowicz, 1917; Asvestas, 1985, 1986, 1995;
Gordon, 1994, 2002, 2003; Meincke, et al., 2003).
l (1.37): ,
( ) .
l
. , , .
l (Ufimtsev, 2008 ).
l (Ufimtsev, 2008 ).

Copyright & A K-C

1.4.

43


(forward scattering).

:
l .
, . , .
l .
l .
,
. ,
(, 1962, 1991, 2003, 2007 , b).

1.4.
u u/n, , .
, :
js, h = js(,0h) + js(,1h) .

(1.86)

js(,0h) (1.31)
,
, (. 1.4 1.12). -

. 1.12. Q1, Q2 Q3
,

Copyright & A K-C

44

1.

: , . j(0)
. (1.31)
.
, js(,1h) .

.
, , ,
, , (. 1.13).

. 1.13. ,

Copyright & A K-C

1.4.

45

. 1.14. ,
, (k ) ,

,
,
(. 1.4).
(Fock, 1965, 1970). , , .
(), (. 1.14)
(Sommerfeld, 1935), 2. , fringe waves. ,
.
/ ,
. .
.
,
.

. .
(Ufimtsev, 1998) , (Ufimtsev, 1996, 2003, 2007 a). . , : ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

46

1.

1.5.
,
.
, . , ( ).

r
r
(E) (H) :
r i
r
r
r
(1.87)
E = Z 0 [( A e ) + k 2 A e ]- A m ,
k
r
r
r
r
i
(1.88)
[ ( A m ) + k 2 A m ] + A e .
H=
kZ 0
Z 0 =1 / Y 0 = m 0 / e 0 =120p [] , k = w e 0 m 0 = 2p / l ,
r
r
r e e ikr
r m e ikr
1
1
Ae =
j
dv A m =
j
dv

r
r
4p
4p

(1.89)

.
r
r
r
(1.90)
DA e, m + k 2 A e, m =- j e, m ,
re rm
j ( j ) () .
, (1.871.91) , . , (1.89) (1.90) , . (1.87)
(1.88) 1/m0 1/e0,
r r
m0 e0 E H.

, (1.16), (1.17):
r
1 e ikR
A e, m =
4p R

j e, me -ikrcosW dv.

(1.91)

:
E J = Z 0 H j = ik (Z 0 AJe + Ajm ) ,

(1.92)

E j =-Z 0 H J = ik ( Z 0 Aje - AJm ) .

(1.93)

Copyright & A K-C

47

1.5.

ER, HR 1/R2 .

(1.9) (1.26)
r 2
sc
2E
s = 4pR r inc .
E

(1.94)

(1.27) (1.28)
. (1.45)
.

(1.53)
s tot =

4p
Im [(E sc / E inc ) R e -ikR ] ,
k

(1.95)

Esc , ( ).

() , ,
r
1 e ikR
Ae =
4p R

j ( 0) e -ikrcosW ds,

r
A m = 0,

(1.96)

S il

Sil ,
r
r ( 0)
j = 2 [n$ H inc ]

(1.97)


r , . j m =-[n$ E ]
[ n$ E ]=0.
(Ufimtsev, 1999, 2005). . (Ruck et al., 1970).

(4.1.12) (4.1.13) (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 a),
. , (4.1.13) , H0x = E0J.

Copyright & A K-C

48

1.

.

- (4.1.12)
(4.1.13) (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 a). :
a)
k$ i = y$ sin g + z$ cos g.
) , . .
$ i =-k$ i . yOz (j = p/2).
m
) (4.1.12) -,
E xinc = E 0x e ik ( y sin g + z cos g ) .
) (4.1.13) -,
H xinc = H 0x e ik ( y sin g + z cos g ) .
, - (4.1.12)
(4.1.13) (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 a)
E x( 0) =-

ik e ikR
2p R

H x( 0) =-

ik e ikR
2p R

E xince -ikrcosW (k$ i n$ )ds,

(1.98)

H xinc e -ikrcosW (k$ i n$ )ds.

(1.99)

S il

S il

(1.37) ( )
(backscattering) :
E x( 0) = us( 0) , E xinc = u inc ,

(1.100)

H x( 0) = uh( 0) , H xinc = u inc .

(1.101)

, (1.101)
(, , , 2007, . 98).

(Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 a)
1.3.4 [. (Ufimtsev, 2008 )],
, (1.70):
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
r
(1.102)
E PO E ( 0) = E refl + E sh , H PO H ( 0) = H refl + H sh .

Copyright & A K-C

49

1.5.

r
r
r
r
E refl , H refl E sh , H sh , . :
refl

EJ

E jrefl =
E Jsh =

ik e ikR
4p R
ik e ikR
4p R

ik e ikR
4p R

{Z 0 [n H inc ] J$ + [n$ E$ inc ] j$ }e -ikrcosW ds,

(1.103)

S il

{Z 0 [n H inc ] j$ - [n$ E$ inc ] J$ }e -ikrcosW ds,

(1.104)

S il

{Z 0 [n H inc ] J$ - [n$ E$ inc ] j$ }e -ikrcosW ds,

(1.105)

S il

r
ik e ikR
$ + [ n$ E$ inc ] J$ }e -ikrcosW ds,
{Z 0 [ n H inc ] j

4p R S
il
r refl
r
r
r
H = [R E refl ] / Z 0 , H sh = [R E sh ] / Z 0 .

E jsh =

(1.106)
(1.107)

$ J (j).
J$ (j)
,
E xinc = Z 0 H yinc = E 0x e ikz .

(1.108)


E xsh =

ik
e ikR
E 0x A
, E xrefl = 0 [J = 0]
2p
R

(1.109)

( ),
E xsh =0 [J = p]

(1.110)

.
(. 1.4).
,
E xPO E xsh = E 0x

ik e ikz
A
z
2p

[J = 0]

(1.111)

,
E xPO = E xrefl =-

ik
e ikR
E 0x
R
2p

(n$ z$ )e i 2kz ds

[J = p]

(1.112)

S il

.

, 1.3.5 ,
(Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ).

Copyright & A K-C

50

1.


,
. 1 (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 a)
,
.
,
(Ufimtsev, 2008 ).

, 1.4,
.
p 7.9.1 7.9.2.

1.1. u inc = u0 exp[- ik ( xcos j0 + ysin j0 )] js = 2u inc / y (y = +0)


(. 1.1). ussc , . :
l (1.10).
l z (3.7).
l (3.8) , .
t
inc
sc
l us = us + us y < 0 js.
1.2. , 1.1, .
1.3. Erinc
z = E 0 z exp[- ik ( x cos j0 + y sin j0 )] r
j = 2[ y$ H inc ] (y = +0)
(. 1.1).
E sc
z , .
:
l (1.87), (1.89) .
l z (3.7).
l (3.8) , .
t
inc
sc
l E z = E z + E z y < 0 jz.

. 1.1.

Copyright & A K-C

51

1.4. , 1.3, H inc


z =
= H 0 z exp[- ik ( xcos j0 + ysin j0 )] . , . (1.89), (1.88) H sc
z , . , 1.3.
1.5. u inc = u0 exp[ ik ( xcos f0 + ysin f0 )] ,
. 5.1. (1.71) . :
l z (3.7).
l (2.29) (r ? ka2).
l f = f0, f = p f0, f = p + f0 f = f0.
l (5.16) f = p f0
.
l ,
a = 2l, f0 = 45. .
1.6. , 1.5, .
1.7. u inc = u0 exp[ ik ( xcos f0 + ysin f0 )]
(. 5.1). (1.72) . :
l z (3.7).
l (2.29) (r ? ka2).
l f = f0, f = p f0, f = p + f0.
l (5.16) f = f0
.
l ,
a = 2l, f0 = 45. .
1.8. , , ( ).
1.9. , - , (
).
1.10. E inc
z = E0 z exp[ ik ( x cos f 0 + y sin f 0 )]
(. 5.1). .
l (1.87), (1.88) (1.89).
r
r
r e , refl
r
l j
= n$ H inc , j m , refl = n$ E inc .
l .
l z (3.7). (2.29)
(r ? ka2).
l f = f0, f = p f0, f = p + f0 f = f0.
l f = p f0 .

Copyright & A K-C

52

1.

,
a = 2l, f0 = 45. .
1.11. E inc
z = E 0 z exp[ ik ( x cos f 0 + y sin f 0 )]
(. 5.1).
.
l (1.87), (1.88) (1.89).
r
r
r e , sh
r
j
= n$ H inc , j m , sh = - n$ E inc .
l .
l z (3.7). (2.29)
(r ? ka2).
l f = f 0, f = p f 0, f = p + f 0.
l f = f 0 .
l ,
a = 2l, f0 = 45. .
l

Copyright & A K-C

,
(/z = 0),
:
us = Ez uh = Hz. Ez Hz r r
( E H), .

2.1.
, , , . ,
,
(1896) .
(Ufimtsev, 1998) ,
,
, , , . (1902)
. (1935, 1937)
.

, . , ,
. , -

Copyright & A K-C

54

2. :

. 2.1. , ,
r = r0, j = j0

2.6 2.7, , (, 1962).


. 2.1.
j = 0 j = a
.
r = r0, j = j0.
, z (/z = 0).
(0 j a)
Du + k 2 u = I 0 d(r - r0 , j - j 0 )

(2.1)


us = 0

(2.2)

uh/n = 0

(2.3)

j = 0 j = a. . r
us z-
E, r
uh z- H. (2.2) , (2.3) .
1.1.
u
Du + k 2 u = 0.

(2.4)


D=

2
r 2

1
1 2
.
+ 2
r r r j 2

(2.5)

Copyright & A K-C

55

2.1.

, (2.4)
u = R(r)F(j).

(2.6)

:
d 2R
dx 2

n 2l
1 dR
R = 0, x = kr,
+
1
2
x dx
x

(2.7)

d 2F
dj 2

+ n 2l F = 0.

(2.8)

F nl
.
(2.2) (2.8)
F = sin n l j, n l = l

p
, l = 1, 2, 3, ...,
a

(2.9)

(2.3) (2.8)
F = cos n l j, n l = l

p
, l = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...
a

(2.10)

J n l ( kr )

R = (1)

H n l ( kr )

(2.11)

(2.7). J n l (kr )
r r0, r = 0. r r0,
:
du

lim r - iku=0 r .
dr

(2.12)

, (2.4)

a l J n l (kr ) H n(1) ( kr0 )sin n l j 0 sin n l j r r0 ,


l
l=1
us =

(1)
a l J n l ( kr0 ) H n l ( kr )sin n l j 0 sin n l j r r0 ,
l=1

(2.13)

Copyright & A K-C

56

2. :

. 2.2. L (2.15)

bl J n l ( kr ) H n(1) ( kr0 )cos n l j 0 cos n l j r r0 ,


l
l=0
uh =

(1)
bl J n l (kr0 )H n l ( kr )cos n l j 0 cos n l j r r0 .
l=0

(2.14)

,
, . . r r0, j j0.
al bl
:
u
(2.15)
n dl = Duds, ds= rdrdj ,
L
S
us uh S, L (. 2.2).
r = r0 e, r = r0 + e j = j0 y, j = j0 + y.
us,h (2.15), , (2.1)
Du =-k 2 u + I 0 d(r - r0 , j - j 0 )

(2.16)

e . ,

us, h ds 0,

S 0,

(2.17)

r = r0 > 0.
us,h

j 0 + y
us, h

us, h

r
r0 dj=
r
r=r + 0
j 0 -y
=
r
r
0

0
0
j 0+ y

=I0

j 0 -y

r0 + e

dj lim

d(r - r0 , j - j 0 )rdr

r0 -e

e 0.

(2.18)

Copyright & A K-C

57

2.1.

, d-
1
d( r - r0 , j - j 0 ) = d( r - r0 ) d( j - j 0 ) .
r

(2.19)

,
j 0 + y

us, h
r
j 0 -y

r=r0 + 0

j 0+ y

r
d
j
=
I
0 d( j - j 0 ) dj .
0
r r r
j 0 -y
= 0 -0

us, h

(2.20)

(2.20) .
, , . .
us, h
r

r=r0 + 0

us, h
r

=
r=r0 -0

1
I d( j - j 0 ) .
r0 0

(2.21)

, al bl (2.13) (2.14).
us, (2.13),
(2.21), sin n t j, nt = t p/a, j 0 a. ,
1
a, l = t,
sinn l j sin n t j dj =2

0
0, l t, t =1, 2, 3, .. .,
a

(2.22)


kr0

d
d
a
(1)
(1)
a l J n l (kr0 )
H n ( kr0 ) - H n ( kr0 )
J n l ( kr0 )= I 0 .
l
l
dkr0
dkr0
2

(2.23)

,
W [ J v (x ), H n(1) (x )]= J n (x )

d (1)
d
2i
.
H n (x ) - H n(1) (x )
J n (x )=
dx
dx
px

(2.24)

(2.23) (2.24) ,
al =

p
I .
ia 0

(2.25)

. uh, (2.14), (2.21), cos n t j j 0 a. , bl:


bl = e l

1
p
I 0 , e 0 = , e1 = e 2 = e 3 = ...=1 .
ia
2

(2.26)

Copyright & A K-C

58

2. :

, al bl , us,h
. , (r0, j0).
us
:

p
I 0 J n l ( kr ) H n(1) ( kr0 )sin n l j 0 sin n l j r r0 ,
l
ia l=1
us =

p
( )
I
J n l ( kr0 ) H n1 ( kr )sin n l j 0 sin n l j r r0 ,

a 0
l
i

l=1

(2.27)

uh
:

p
I 0 e l J n l ( kr ) H n(1) ( kr0 )cos n l j 0 cos n l j r r0 ,
l
ia l=0
uh =

p
(1)
I
e l J n l ( kr0 ) H n ( kr )cos n l j 0 cos n l j r r0 .

0
l
i
a

l=0

(2.28)

0 j a,
0 r . ,
I0d(r r0, j j0) (2.1).
.

2.2.
(kr0 )

(1)
H v ( kr0 )
l

-i n l
2 i kr0 - 2 n l - 4
(1)
e
~ H 0 ( kr0 )e 2 .
pkr0

(2.29)

(2.27) (2.28) r < r0

us =

-i n l
p
I 0 H 0(1) ( kr0 ) e 2 J n l ( kr )sin n l j 0 sin n l j,
ia
l=1

(2.30)

-i n l
p
( )
uh = I 0 H 01 ( kr0 ) e l e 2 J n l ( kr )cos n l j 0 cos n l j,
ia
l=0

(2.31)

Copyright & A K-C

59

2.2.

us =

p
I H (1) ( kr0 )
2 ia 0 0

p
-i n l
e 2

l=0

uh =

J n l ( kr )[cos n l (j - j 0 ) - cos n l (j + j 0 )] ,

(2.32)

p
I 0 H 0(1) ( kr0 )
2 ia

e l

p
-i n l
e 2

l=0

J n l ( kr )[cos n l (j - j 0 ) + cos n l (j + j 0 )] .

(2.33)

, (2.1) , .
(r, j) . , ,
u = u(r). , ,
,
(1)

( 2)

u( r ) = c1 H 0 (kr ) + c2 H 0 (kr ),

(2.34)

c1 c2.
( )

u( r ) = c1 H 01 (kr ),

(2.35)

,
( 2)
H 0 ( kr ), (2.12) ,
. 1
. 2.3.
(2.15),
(0 r e, 0 j 2p)
S,

e

r = 0 (. 2.3).
kr = 1 u(kr)
du/dn = du/dr ( S)
u( r ) c1

i2
ln( kr ),
p

du( r )
i2
, kr = 1.
c1
dr
pr

(2.36)

Copyright & A K-C

60

2. :


e 0, c1 = I0/i4
u( r ) =

1
( )
I H 1 ( kr ) .
i4 0 0

(2.37)

(2.32)
(2.33).
,
u0 =

1
( )
I 0 H 01 ( kr0 ) .
4i

(2.38)

r0 I0 , ,
j = j0:
u inc = u0e -ikr cos( j - j 0 ) .

(2.39)

, (2.32) (2.33)
(Sommerfeld, 1935, 1937):
us = u0 [u(kr, j - j 0 ) - u(kr, j + j 0 )]

(2.40)
u

inc

= u0e

uh = u0 [ u( kr, j - j 0 ) + u( kr, j + j 0 )]

-ikr cos( j-j 0 )

(2.41)

u( kr, y ) =

-i n l
2p
e l e 2 J n l ( kr )cos n l y.

a l=0

(2.42)

(2.402.42) , .

2.3.
(1935, 1937) , .
(2.40) (2.41) .
(, 1935, 1937):
J n l ( kr ) =

1
2p

III

e i[ kr cos b+ n ( b-p / 2)] db ,


l

(2.43)

Copyright & A K-C

61

2.3.

. 2.4. (2.43)

. 2.4. u(kr, y)

u( kr, y ) =

1
2a

III

l=1

e ikr cos b1 + e in ( b-p+ y ) + e in ( b-p-y ) db,


I

l=1

(2.44)

nl = lp/a. . ,
1
u( kr, y ) =
2a

III

ikr cos b

i ( b-p+ y )

1- e a

db.
p

-i ( b-p-y )
a

1- e
1

(2.45)

b = b p,
1
u( kr, y ) =
2a

III

-ikr cos b

i ( b+ y )

1- e a

b.
p
d
-i ( b-y )

1- e a
1

(2.46)

p , . 2.4. (2.46) . b b. b b.
(Sommerfeld, 1935,
1937):
u( kr, y ) =

1
e -ikr cos b
db ,

p
2a C
i ( b+ y )
a
1- e

C , . 2.5.

(2.47)

Copyright & A K-C

62

2. :

. 2.5. (2.47) (2.50)

u(kr, y)

bm = 2am y , m = 0, 1, 2, 3, ...

(2.48)

C D,

u(kr, y ) = v (kr, y ) + e -ikr cos y ,

p < y < p,

u( kr, y ) = v (kr, y ),

p < y < 2a p,

(2.49)

u(kr, y ) = v (kr, y ) - e -ikr cos( 2a-y ) , 2a p < y < 2a + p,

v( kr, y ) =

1
e -ikr cos b
db .

p
2a D
i ( b+ y )
1- e a

(2.50)

D (. 2.5).
b z p, -

Copyright & A K-C

2.3.

63

. 2.6. (2.51)

b = z + p. v(kr, y)
D0 (. 2.6);
p
n
v( kr, y ) = i
2p n
sin

D0

e ikr cos z
d z,
z+y
p
cos - cos
n
n

(2.51)

n = a/p.
(2.49) . n(kr, y)
, . , u(kr, j j 0) u(kr, j + j 0).
0 < j 0 < a p, (j = 0)
(. 2.7), :

u(kr, j - j 0 ) = v (kr, j - j 0 ) + e -ikr cos( j-j 0 )


0 < j < p j 0,
-ikr cos( j+ j 0 )
u(kr, j + j 0 ) = v (kr, j + j 0 ) + e

(2.52)

u(kr, j - j 0 ) = v (kr, j - j 0 ) + e -ikr cos( j-j 0 )


p j 0 < j < p + j 0, (2.53)
u(kr, j + j 0 ) = v (kr, j + j 0 )

u(kr, j - j 0 ) = v (kr, j - j 0 )
p + j 0 < j < a.
u(kr, j + j 0 ) = v (kr, j + j 0 )

(2.54)

Copyright & A K-C

64

2. :

. 2.7. j = j0. j = p j0 , j = p + j0

(2.52) (2.53) e ikr cos( j j 0 ) , 0 < j < p + j 0,


e ikr cos( j + j 0 ) , 0 < j < p j0.
(2.54) , ,
p + j0 < j < a . . 2.7.
. 2.8 , .
a p < j0 < p u(kr, j j0), u(kr, j + j0)
u( kr, j- j 0 ) = v ( kr, j- j 0 ) + e-ikr cos(j-j0 )

0 < j < p j0,


-ikr cos(j+j0 )
u( kr, j+ j 0 ) = v ( kr, j+ j 0 ) + e

(2.55)

u( kr, j- j 0 ) = v ( kr, j- j 0 ) + e-ikr cos(j-j0 )


p j0 < j < 2a p j0 (2.56)
u( kr, j+ j 0 ) = v ( kr, j+ j 0 )

u( kr, j- j 0 ) = v ( kr, j- j 0 ) + e-ikr cos(j-j0 )


u( kr, j+ j 0 ) = v ( kr, j+ j 0 ) + e

2a p j0 < j < a.

-ikr cos(2 a-j-j0 )

(2.57)

. 2.8. . j = p j0
, j = 0, j = 2a p j0 , j = a

Copyright & A K-C

2.4.

65

e ikr cos( 2a-j j 0 ) , j = a.

2.4.
, ,
: us = Ez uh = Hz.

v (kr, y) (kr ? 1) ,
(pson, 1965; Murray, 1984). (2.51),
s = 2e ip / 4 sin

z
.
2

(2.58)

s2 = i(1 cosz)
sin
v( kr, y ) =

p
n

np 2

i ( kr+ p / 4)

2
e-krs ds
,

y + z z
p
-cos n - cos n cos
2

(2.59)

n = a/p.
s = 0 . , exp(krs2)
, s s = 0
. , , s
s = 0 .
kr ? 1 . . .
, ,
, , . . .
v (kr, y) ,
sin

p
n

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
v( kr, y ) ~
np 2 cos p cos y
n
n

-krs2

1
p
sin
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
n
n
. (2.60)
ds =
y
p
2pkr
cos - cos
n
n

v (kr, y) (kr)3/2 . (2.60) kr |cos( y / 2)| ? 1 , , . . .

Copyright & A K-C

66

2. :

(2.40), (2.49) (2.60), , ,


usd = u0 [ v (kr, j - j 0 ) - v ( kr, j + j 0 )] ~ u0 f ( j, j 0 , a )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(2.61)

sin
n
1
1
.
f ( j, j 0 , a ) =
j- j0
j + j0
p
p
n
cos - cos

cos - cos
n
n
n
n

(2.62)

(2.41), (2.49) (2.60) ,


:
uhd = u0 [ v ( kr, j - j 0 ) + v ( kr, j + j 0 )] ~ u0 g (j, j 0 , a )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(2.63)

sin
1
1
n
.
+
g ( j, j 0 , a ) =
j- j0
j + j0
p
p
n
cos - cos

cos - cos

n
n
n
n

(2.64)

f g
. (2.602.64) (1935, 1937) . , (2.61)
(2.63) (2.2) (2.3).
, (2.61) (2.63)
. ,
, . (Pelosi et
al.,1998), ,
.
(1912), ,
. (1924), . (1962).
. ,

Copyright & A K-C

2.5.

67

()
: Das ist naturlich eine optische
Tauschung (Sommerfeld, 1896, . 369). , , , .
,
(2.612.64) ,
. . (j p + j0) (j p j0, j 2a p j0). .
s1 = 2e ip / 4 sin

p- y
,
2

p + y

s2 = 2e ip / 4 sin a
2

(2.65)

(2.59)
s = 0, y = j j0 p y = j + j0 2a p.
,
. .
, . 5 (, 2003, 2007 ).

2.5.
1938 . v(kr, y),
(Pauli, 1938). .

. , , .
, ,
.
.
(2.59),
sin
v( kr, y ) =

p
n

np 2

i ( kr+ p / 4)

2
e-krs ds
,

y + z z
p
-cos n - cos n cos
2

(2.66)

Copyright & A K-C

68

2. :

z
a
s = 2e ip / 4 sin , s 2 = i(1- cos z ), n = .
p
2

(2.67)


cos y + cos z = i( s 2 - s02 ), s02 = 2i cos 2

y
.
2

(2.68)

p
2

e -krs
n
i ( kr-p / 4)
v( kr, y ) =
e
f (s, y ) s2 - s2 ds.
np 2
-
0
sin

p
4

(2.69)

y

2
s = 0, y p.

s =s0 = 2e

cos

cos y + cos z
f ( s, y ) =

y + z
z
p
cos
cos - cos
n
n

(2.70)


. , v (kr, y) kr.

2
v( kr, y ) =
p

sin

p
n

1 + cos y
e -krs
ds .
e i ( kr-p / 4) 2
2
y
p
0 s - s0
cos - cos
n
n
2

(2.71)

e -krs

kr

s2 - s2 ds= e -krs ds e -( s -s ) t dt .
0

2
0

2
0

(2.72)

e -krs

s2 - s
0

ds = e -krs0
2

e s0 t
2

kr

p -ikr| s0 | 2
e
| s0 |

dt
t

e -x dx =

e iq
kr | s0 |

dq .

2
p -krs02
dt
e i| s0 | t
=
e

2
t
kr

(2.73)

Copyright & A K-C

2.5.

69

,
v( kr, y ) =

2
n

sin

p y
cos
n 2

y
p
cos - cos
n
n

e -ikr cos y

-i

p
4

e iq

dq

(2.74)

y
2kr cos
2

p
y
p
-i
cos
4
2
n
2 e -ikr cos y e
v( kr, y ) =

n
y
p
p
cos - cos
n
n

sin

cos

y
2

e iq dq .

(2.75)

y
2kr cos
2


.
(kr)1/2 j = p j0 (kr)3/2 .

y
(2.75) signcos .

2
, (y = j j0 = p). v (kr, y)
. ,

e iq dq =
2

p i4
e ,
2

(2.76)

,
1
1
v (kr, p + 0) = e ikr , v ( kr, p - 0) =- e ikr
2
2

(2.77)

1
u( kr, p 0) = e ikr .
2

p

iq 2

e ip
dq ~
,
2ip

-p

(2.78)

iq 2

e ip
p ? 1
dq ~ 2ip

(2.79)

, (2.75) y
(2.60) kr cos
? 1.
2
5.5 (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ) ,

Copyright & A K-C

70

2. :

i kr+ p
1
p

sin
kr
ikr
1 e 4
n
n

, (2.80)
v(kr, y ) =V
( y - p )e +
y y - p 2pkr
p

cos - cos

n
n


V (t) = e -it

-i

p
4 signt

e iq dq

(2.81)

.
V [ kr / 2 (y - p )]e ikr

. (2.80)
.
, , a 2p
, (2.75)
v( kr, y ) = e -ikr cos y

-ip / 4

2kr cos

y
2

e iq dq

(2.82)

y
cos
2

(!) . , n = 2 (2.51)
v( kr, y ) =-

i
e ikr cos z
y + z dz
4p D
0 cos
2

(2.83)

. ,
D0 (. 2.6) z = 0.
,

i
1
1
ikr cos z
dz =
v( kr, y ) =+
e
y+z
y- z

4p 0
cos

cos

2
2
p
-i
2

y
i
=- cos
p
2

p
-i
2

e ikr cos z
0

z
2
dz .
cos y + cos z
cos

(2.84)

Copyright & A K-C

2.5.

71
p
4

z

2
, (2.682.71).

s = 2e

y i ( kr- 4 ) e -krs
2
v( kr, y ) =cos e
s2 - s2 ds .
p
2
0
0

sin

(2.85)

(2.73)
(2.82). (2.392.41) (2.522.54)
.
, (2.75) .
. .
.
. :
l us,h, (2.75),
(2.2) (2.3) j = 0.
j = a ,
y
kr cos
? 1, 2
(2.60).
l (2.75)
(j = p + j0) j = p j0 ,
j = 0 (. 2.7).
j = 2a p j0 , j = a (. 2.8).
, .
, . (2.75) 0 j a/2. a/2 j a,
j, j = a, (2.75) 0 < j a/2.
, j = a,
. : j = a/2.
,
(2.75) .
. ,
j j0 , j = a,

v Pauli ( kr, j-j0 ) = v Pauli [ kr, a - j - ( a - j 0 )]= v Pauli ( kr, j - j 0 ) (2.86)

Copyright & A K-C

72

2. :

v Pauli ( kr, j+ j0 ) = v Pauli ( kr, 2a - j - j 0 ) v Pauli ( kr, j + j 0 ).

(2.87)

, , ,
. , .
,
0 < j < a.

2.6. :
,
.
(p < a 2p), / (p/2 < a < p),
. ,
,
(0 < a < p/2) .
(2.66) ,
s1 = 2e ip / 4 cos

y
2

y
s2 =- 2e ip / 4 cos a -

(2.88)

s = 0, y = j j0 p
y = j + j0 2a p. s1 , j j = p + j0
j = p j0 , j = 0 (. 2.7). s2 , j j = 2a p j0 , j = a (. 2.8).
(2.66) ,
.
, (2.66)
(cos z + cos y )[cos z + cos(2a - y )]=-( s 2 - s12 )( s 2 - s22 )

(2.89)


p
2

e -krs
n
i ( kr+ p / 4)
v( kr, y ) =e
f (s, y ) (s2 - s2 )(s2 - s2 ) ds,
np 2
-
1
2
sin

(2.90)

Copyright & A K-C

2.6. :

73

f (s, y ) =

(cos z + cos y )[cos z + cos(2a - y )]


.

y + z
z
p
cos - cos
cos
n
n

(2.91)

f(s, y) s = 0
, , .
(2.90)
v(kr, y), j j0. ,
, s2m (m = 1, 2, 3, ...), (2.90).
. , a 2p ,
. v(kr, y)

v (kr, y ) = v 1 ( kr, y ) + v 2 ( kr, y ),

(2.92)

p
2

e -krs ds
n e i ( kr+ p / 4) f (0, y )
v 1 ( kr, y ) = 2 2 2 2 ,
np 2
- ( s - s1 )( s - s2 )

(2.93)

p
2

2
e -krs s 2 ds
n
i ( kr+ p / 4) d f (0, y )
v 2 ( kr, y ) =e
2 2 2 2
np2 2
ds 2
- ( s - s1 )( s - s2 )

(2.94)

e -krs2 ds e -krs2 ds
2 2 2 2 ds= (s2 - s2 ) s2 - s2 - s2 - s2 ,
0

- ( s - s1 )( s - s2 )
0
1
2
1
2

(2.95)

sin

sin

e -krs

e -krs2 s 2 ds e -krs2 s 2 ds
2 2 2 2 ds= (s2 - s2 ) s2 - s2 - s2 - s2 , (2.96)
0

- ( s - s1 )( s - s2 )
0
1
2
1
2

e -krs s 2
2

e -krs s 2

1, 2

s2 - s2

ds = e
0

-krs2

ds + s12, 2

e -krs

s2 - s2
0

ds .

(2.97)

1, 2

(2.73) .

Copyright & A K-C

74

2. :

:
p
p
1
-i
sin
1
e 4
n
n
v( kr, y ) =

y sin a sin( a - y )
p
p
cos - cos
n
n

y
P ( a, y )cos 3 e -ikr cos y
2

cos

y
2

2kr cos

e iq dq y
2

y
-Q ( a, y )cos 3 a - e -ikr cos( 2a-y )

2
e iq dq ,

y
2kr cos a-

y
cos a-

(2.98)

y
y
p
1 + sin
- cos cos

y
4
n
n
n
P (a, y ) = 2 - cos a - 1 + 2
2


2
n

y
p
cos - cos

n
n

y 4
Q ( a, y ) = 2 -cos 2

2 n

y
y
p
- cos cos
n
n
n
.
2

y
p
cos - cos

n
n

(2.99)

1 + sin 2

(2.100)

, ,

y
y
kr cos
? 1 kr cos a - ? 1, (2.98)

2
2

p
1
sin
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
n
n
v( kr, y ) ~
+
y
p
p
kr
2
cos - cos
n
n

y
y
p
p
1
sin
1 + sin 2 - cos cos i ( kr-p / 4)
n e
4
n
n
n
n
. (2.101)
+
1+ 2
2
4 p (2kr ) 3/ 2
y
p
n

y
p
cos - cos
cos - cos

n
n
n
n

Copyright & A K-C

2.6. :

75

,
. , , (2.101), , r ( ).
(2.98) ,
v (kr, p 0) = v (kr, 2a - p m 0) =
e -ip / 4
1
1
p
= e ikr - ctg sin a e ikr cos 2a
n
n
2
p

sin a

e iq

dq,

(2.102)

2kr sin a

. 2kr sin a ? 1 (2.102) ,


1
1
p e i ( kr+ p / 4)
.
v ( kr, p 0) = v ( kr, 2a - p m 0) = e ikr - ctg
2
2n
n
2pkr

(2.103)

, (2.98)
v(kr, y) = 0 a = p, ( ). , P(2p, y) =
= Q(2p, y) = 0, , ,
, a 2p, (2.98) (2.82) , , .
(2.98). ,

(2.90). , (2.98) . ,
,

e -krs s 4

- s

- s12, 2

-3/ 2

], s1,2 = 0,
O[( kr )
ds =
-5/ 2

], kr | s1, 2 | ? 1,
O[( kr )

(2.104)

s1,2 = 0
. ,
(2.98) (2.2) (2.3)
, kr s1, 2 ? 1 .
(2.104) O[(kr)m], kr ? 1. ,
(, 1966). f(x) = O(xm) ,
lim[ f ( x )/ x m ]=const. -

Copyright & A K-C

76

2. :

, (2.75)
.
( 2.98):
v[kr, a - j + (a - j 0 )]= v (kr, j + j 0 ) ,

(2.105)

v[kr, a - j - ( a - j 0 )] v (kr, j - j 0 ) .

(2.106)

, (2.98) :
v ( kr, j - j 0 ) v ( kr, j 0 - j) .

(2.107)

, .
. , (2.102) (2.103)
, (2.104) (kr)3/2. , (2.101)
.
.
(2.98)
. , a = 2p ,
.
(0 j a). , ,
, .
(2.98) (2.90).
, , ,
2.5.

2.7.
(Bowman et al.,1984)
.
. . .
.
,
.

Copyright & A K-C

77

,
(2.80). , (2.80)
1/(y p) ,

.
(Bowman et al., 1984) . , , j = a,
.
(Bowman et al.,1984) (2.98). n (6.21)
(6.25), (Bowman et al., 1987), ,
j = 0.
(2.98) , .
, . .
, (Clemmow, 1950)
, .
, .
,
. , , (Molinet, 2005).

2.1. u inc = u0 exp[- ikrcos( j- j0 )] a < p . a = p/2.


? .
2.2. , 2.1,
a = p/2.
2.3. E inc
z = E 0 z exp[- ikrcos( j- j0 )] a < p.
a = p/2.
? .
2.4. , 2.3,
H inc
z = H 0 z exp[- ikrcos( j- j0 )] .

Copyright & A K-C

78

2. :

2.5. (2.40)
js = u/n, (kr = 1) .
l :
n
x 2
1 x
.
J 0 ( x ) 1- , J n ( x )
2
G ( n + 1) 2
l js(kr, a).
l a > p a < p.
2.6. , 2.5,
.
2.7. 2.5
E inc
z = E 0 z exp[- ikrcos( j- j0 )],
.
l (kr = 1).
l a > p a < p.
2.8. , 2.7,
H inc
z = H 0 z exp[- ikrcos( j- j0 )], .
a > p a < p.
2.9. (2.61) (2.63). js jh (kr ? 1).
, .
l ( ) ?
l exp(ip/4).
2.10. (2.61) (2.63)
E- H- .
(kr ? 1). , .
l ( jz jr) ?
l , , , ?
l exp(ip/4).
2.11. ( p )

2
2 dx
e ix xdx, eix n n 1.
x
p
p
2.12. (. 2.7). , , ?
, (2.61) (2.63).
l f(j, j0, a)/g(j, j0, a) .
l :
) a = 315, j0 = 45, 225 j a,
) a = 350, j0 = 45, 225 j a.
l , f(j, j0, a)/g(j, j0, a)
j = 180 + j0.

Copyright & A K-C

79

2.13. (. 2.7). Ez- Hz-.


?
l (2.61) (2.63).
l f(j, j0, a)/g(j, j0, a) .
:
) a = 300, j0 = 45, 225 j a,
) a = 360, j0 = 45, 225 j a.
l , f(j, j0, a)/g(j, j0, a)
j = 180 + j0.
2.14. E inc
z = E0 z exp( ikx ) (j0 = p) j = 0 (. 2.8). (
.)
j = 0 . (2.40)
E z = E0 z [v ( kr, j- p )- v ( kr, j+ p )], v(kr, y) (2.51).
jz
j = 0 (kr ? 1) :
i dE z
j = 0
l j z = - H r = Y 0
kr dj
Y0 = 1/Z0.
l
d/dj d/dz, z .
l .
l ,
eikr +ip / 4
kr ? 1.
j z 2E0 z Y0
2pkr
2.15. . (j0 = p) H inc
z = H 0 z exp( ikx )
. j = 0
(kr ? 1). :
l (2.41), (2.51).
l .
l ,
1
p eikr +ip/ 4
kr ? 1.
jx H 0 z1- ctg
n 2pkr
n

Copyright & A K-C

(0)
: u s(0) = E (z0) u h = H (z0) . (. 4.3).

.
, . . ,
.
, .

.

3.1.
. 3.1. , ,
u inc = u0e -ikr cos( j-j 0 ) = u0e -ik ( x cos j 0 + y sin j 0 ) ,

(3.1)

, 0 j 0 p. j = 0 (1.31):
js( 0) =-u0 2ik sin j 0e -ikx cos j 0 ,

( 0)
jh = u0 2e -ikx cos j 0 .

(3.2)

Copyright & A K-C

81

3.1.

. 3.1.

, , (1.32):
us( 0)

0
uh( )

ik sin j 0
= u0
2p

-ikx cos j 0

e ik

dx

(x - x) 2 + y 2 + z 2

( x-x ) 2 + y 2 + z 2

dz ,

e ik ( x-x) + y + z
1
= u0
e -ikx cos j 0 dx
dz .

n (x - x) 2 + y 2 + z 2
2p 0
-
2

(3.3)

(3.4)

f (r ) = f (r ) n$ =-f (r ) n$ =- f (r ) ,
n
y

(3.5)

, , . uh( 0)

0
uh( )

e ik ( x-x) + y + z
1
-ikx cos j 0
x
=-u0
e
d
dz .

2
2
2
2p y 0
- ( x - x ) + y + z
2

(3.6)

(3.3) (3.6) z
. .

( )
H 01 ( kd )=

1
e ik d + z
dz

ip - d 2 + z 2
2

(3.7)

Copyright & A K-C

82

3. :

8.421.11 (Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, 1994).



( )

H 01 ( k d 2 + z 2 ) =

1 e i ( vd -wz )
v dw
p -

(3.8)

( v = k 2 - w 2 , Imv > 0 d > 0)


(Sommerfeld, 1935, 1937)
H 0(1) ( r ) =

d-i

1
e ir cos b d b , 0 d p

p -d+ i

(3.9)

w = k sint, v = k cost k d 2 + z 2 = r.
(3.7),
us( 0) =-u0

ksinj 0
2

e -ikx cos j

H 0(1) (k (x - x) 2 + y 2 ) dx

(3.10)

uh( 0) =-u0

i
e -ikx cos j 0 H 0(1) (k (x - x) 2 + y 2 )dx .
2 y 0

(3.11)

(3.8)
us( 0) =-u0

0
uh( )

k sin j 0 e iv| y| -iwx i ( w-k cos j 0 ) x


dx ,
e dw e
2p - v
0

(3.12)

1
= sign ( y)u0
e i ( v| y|-wx ) dw e i ( w-k cos j 0 ) x dx .
2p -
0

(3.13)

x, Im(w k cos j0) > 0.


,
us( 0) = u0

i sin j 0
1
I s , uh( 0) = sign ( y)u0
I ,
i2p h
2p

(3.14)

e i ( v| y|-wx )
e i ( v| y|-wx )
dw, I h =
dw
k cos j 0 - w
v ( k cos j 0 - w)
-
-

Is =k

w = k cos j0.

(3.15)

Copyright & A K-C

3.2.

83

3.2.
Is Ih ,
r sin j j < p,
(3.16)
x = r cos j, y =
-r sin j j > p,
w x,
w =-k cos x, v = k sin x, Im v > 0 .

(3.17)

kr cos(x - j) j < p,
v| y | - wx =
kr cos(x + j ) j > p.

(3.18)

w =-k cos xch x+ ik sin xsh x,


v = k sin xch x+ ik cos xsh x

(3.19)


Im v = k cos xsh x> 0

(3.20)

F x = x + ix,
. 3.2.
:
Is =

e ikr cos( x-j )


dx j < p,
cos x + cos j 0

(3.21)

Is =

e ikr cos( x+ j )
dx j > p
cos x + cos j 0

(3.22)

. 3.2. F x = x + ix

Copyright & A K-C

84

3. :

Ih =

e ikr cos( x-j ) sin x


dx j < p,
cos x + cos j 0

(3.23)

Ih =

e ikr cos( x+ j ) sin x


dx j > p,
cos x + cos j 0

(3.24)

, . 3.2, F x = p j0.
. 3.3 . 3.4 G1 G2, j < p j > p, .
Imcos(x j) > 0 Imcos(x + j) > 0, Is Ih. F G1,2 ( )
Is =

e ikr cos( x-j )


2pi -ikr cos( j+ j 0 )
, 0 j p j0, (3.25)
dx +
e
cos x + cos j 0
sin j 0

Is =

e ikr cos( x-j )


dx, p j0 j p,
cos x + cos j 0

G1

G1

(3.26)

. 3.3. F G1 j < p. Im cos(x j) > 0

Copyright & A K-C

3.2.

85

. 3.4. F G2 j > p. Im cos(x + j) > 0

Is =

e ikr cos( x+ j )
dx , p j < p + j0,
cos x + cos j 0

Is =

e ikr cos( x+ j )
2pi -ikr cos( j-j 0 )
, p + j0 j 2p. (3.28)
dx +
e
cos x + cos j 0
sin j 0

G2

G2

(3.27)

x z + j 0 j < p z + 2p j p < j < 2p. (3.253.28) D0


(. 2.6):
e ikr cos z dz
e ikr cos( x-j )
d
x
=
cos x + cos j
cos j + cos(z + j) , 0 j < p,
0
0
D
G
1

e ikr cos( x+ j )

cos x + cos j

G2

(3.29)

dx =
D0

e ikr cos z dz
, p j < 2p.
cos j 0 + cos( z - j)

(3.30)

Copyright & A K-C

86

3. :

Ih :
Ih =

e ikr cos z sin( z + j)


dz + 2pie -ikr cos( j+ j 0 ) , 0 j p j0,
cos j 0 + cos(z + j)

(3.31)

Ih =

e ikr cos z sin( z + j)


dz , p j0 j < p,
cos j 0 + cos(z + j)

(3.32)

Ih =

e ikr cos z sin( z - j)


dz , p j p + j0,
cos j 0 + cos(z - j)

(3.33)

Ih =

e ikr cos z sin( z - j)


dz + 2pie -ikr cos( j-j 0 ) , p + j0 j 2p.
cos j 0 + cos(z - j)

(3.34)

D0

D0

D0

D0

:
-u e -ikr cos( j+ j 0 ) , 0 j p - j ,
0
0
us( 0) = u0 v +
s ( kr, j, j 0 ) +
p - j 0 < j < p,
0,

(3.35)

0,
p j p + j 0 ,
us( 0) = u0 v s ( kr, j, j 0 ) +
-ikrcos( j-j 0 )
, p + j 0 < j < 2p
-u0e

(3.36)

u e -ikr cos( j+ j 0 ) , 0 j p - j ,
( 0)
0
0
uh = u0 v +
h ( kr, j, j 0 ) +
p - j 0 < j < p,
0,

(3.37)

0,
p j p + j 0 ,
0
uh( ) = u0 v h ( kr, j, j 0 ) +
-ikrcos( j-j 0 )
, p + j 0 < j < 2p,
-u0e

(3.38)

v
s ( kr, j, j 0 ) =

i sin j 0
2p

v
h ( kr, j, j 0 ) =

cos j

D0

e ikr cos z
dz ,
0 + cos( z j )

e ikr cos z sin( z j)


1
dz.

i2p D cos j 0 + cos(z j)

(3.39)

(3.40)

us( 0)

( 0)
uh

,

j = 0.
0 j0 < a p, . ,
a p < j0 < p. (j = a) . (3.353.38),

Copyright & A K-C

87

3.3.

j a j j0 a j0. , us( 0) ,
, :
us( 0) = u0 [ v +
s ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v s ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] +

-u e -ikr cos( j+ j 0 ), 0 j p - j ,
0
+ 0
0

,
p
j
j
a - p,
<
<

0
+
us( 0) = u0 [ v +
s ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v s ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] , a p < j < p,

(3.41)
(3.42)

+
us( 0) = u0 [ v s ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v s ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] , p < j < 2a p j0, (3.43)
+
us( 0) = u0 [ v s ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v s ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] -

-u0e -ikr cos( 2a-j-j 0 ) , 2a p j0 < j < a.

(3.44)

uh( 0) a p < j 0 < p:


uh( 0) = u0 [ v +
h ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v h ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] +

u e -ikr cos( j + j 0 ) , 0 j p - j ,
0
+ 0
p - j 0 < j < a - p,
0,
0
+
uh( ) = u0 [ v +
h ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v h ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] , a p < j < p,

(3.45)
(3.46)

( 0)
+
uh = u0 [ v h ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v h ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] , p < j < 2a p j0, (3.47)
( )
+
uh = u0 [ v h ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v h ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 )] +
0

+ u0e -ikr cos( 2a-j-j 0 ) , 2a p j0 < j < a.

(3.48)

(3.413.48), ,

v
s v h .
.

3.3.

, , , : us = Ez uh = Hz.

Copyright & A K-C

88

3. :

, 2.4, (3.39) (3.40)


z
s = 2e ip / 4 sin v
s, h
2
sin
v
s ( kr, j, j 0 ) =

j0

2p

v
h ( kr, j, j 0 ) = m

e -krs ds

z
[cos j 0 + cos( z j)]cos
2

sin( z j)e -krs ds

i ( kr+ p / 4)

i ( kr+ p / 4)

(3.49)

. (3.50)
z
[cos j 0 + cos( z j)]cos
2
,
2p

v
s ( kr, j, j 0 ) ~

sin j 0
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
,
cos j + cos j 0
2pkr

v
h ( kr, j, j 0 ) ~ -

sin j
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
.
cos j + cos j 0
2pkr

(3.51)
(3.52)

j j0
? 1, . . 2
, . (3.413.48) :

kr cos

us( 0) d ~ u0 f

uh(

0) d

( 0)

( j, j 0 )

~ u0 g ( 0) ( j, j 0 )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(3.53)

(3.54)

f (0)(j, j 0) g (0)(j, j 0)
,
. 0 < j 0 < a p, j = 0,
sin j 0
sin j
. (3.55)
f ( 0) ( j, j 0 ) =
, g ( 0) (j, j 0 ) =cos j + cos j 0
cos j + cos j 0
(a p < j 0 < p),
sin( a - j 0)
sin j 0
,
f ( 0) ( j, j 0 ) =
+
cos j + cos j 0 cos( a - j) + cos( a - j 0 )
g ( 0) ( j, j 0 ) =-

sin j
sin( a - j)
.
cos j + cos j 0 cos( a - j) + cos( a - j 0 )

(3.56)
(3.57)

Copyright & A K-C

89

,
j = p j 0 j = 2a p j 0. , 0 j a, , , 2.5 2.6. ,
,
.

3.1. .
df (0) ( j, j0 , a ) = | F ( j, j 0 , a )- 1| 100% .
F ( j, j0 , a ) = f (0) ( j, j0 ) / f ( j, j0 , a ) .
:
() a = 270, j 0 = 45, 0 j a,
() a = 360, j 0 = 45, 0 j a.
F(p j0, j0, a) = 1.
df (0).
3.2. .
dg (0) ( j, j0 , a ) = |G ( j, j0 , a )- 1| 100% .
G ( j, j0 , a ) = g (0) ( j, j0 ) / g ( j, j0 , a ).
:
() a = 270, j0 = 45, 0 j a,
() a = 360, j0 = 45, 0 j a.
G(p j0, j0, a) = 1.
dg(0).
3.3. f (j, j0, a) , - f (0)(j, j0, a).
. dF(j, j0) =
= |F(j, j0, a) F(j0, j, a)| 100%, F ( j, j0 , a ) = f (0) ( j, j0 ) / f ( j, j0 , a ).
a = 350, Dj = Dj0 = 70. (6 6) dF.
.
3.4. g(j, j0, a) , - g(0)(j, j0, a).
. dG(j, j0) =
= |G(j, j0, a) G(j0, j, a)| 100%, G ( j, j0 , a ) = g (0) ( j, j0 ) / g ( j, j0 , a ).
a = 350, Dj = Dj0 = 70. (6 6) dG.
.

Copyright & A K-C

:
,

(1)

u s(1) = E (z1) u h = H (z1)


,
j(1) .
(. 4.3.2).

, , , .
2.
, , 3. , - ,
. .

4.1.
[. (2.40), (2.41), (2.522.57)]

ust, h = usd, h + usgo
,h ,

(4.1)

usd, h v(kr, y), a usgo


, h
. (3.353.38), (3.413.48)

Copyright & A K-C

4.1.

91

. , ,
us(,0h) t = us(,0h) d + usgo
,h ,

(4.2)

us(,0h) d , go
v
s, h . us, h
, (4.1). usd, h jst, h = js(,0h) + js(,1h) ,
. us(,0h) d js(,0h) . , ,
,
(1)
( 0) t
( 0) d
us, h = ust, h - us, h = usd, h - us, h .

(4.3)

0 < j 0 < a p, (j = 0)
,
us(1) /

v +
s ( kr, j, j 0 ), 0 j < p
(4.4)
u0 = v (kr, j - j 0 ) - v (kr, j + j 0 ) -
v s ( kr, j, j 0 ), p < j a

v +
h ( kr, j, j 0 ), 0 j < p
(1)
(4.5)
uh / u0 = v ( kr, j - j 0 ) + v ( kr, j + j 0 ) -
v
h ( kr, j, j 0 ), p < j a .
a p < j 0 < p, ,
us(1) / u0 = v (kr, j - j 0 ) - v (kr, j + j 0 )
v + ( kr, j, j ) + v - ( kr, a - j, a - j ), 0 j < a - p
s
0
s
0

+
+
-v s ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v s ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 ), a - p < j < p
+

v s (kr, j, j 0 ) + v s ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 ), p < j a,

(4.6)

uh(1) / u0 = v ( kr, j - j 0 ) + v ( kr, j + j 0 )


v + ( kr, j, j ) + v - ( kr, a - j, a - j ), 0 j < a - p
h
0
h
0

+
+
-v h ( kr, j, j 0 ) + v h ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 ), a - p < j < p
+

v h (kr, j, j 0 ) + v h ( kr, a - j, a - j 0 ), p < j a.

(4.7)

v(kr, y) (2.51) v
s, h ( kr, j, j 0 ) (3.39), (3.40)
D0, . 2.6. ,

Copyright & A K-C

92

4. : ,

us(,1h) D0 , v
v
s, h :
us(, h) = U s, h ( a, j, j 0 , z ) e ikr cos z d z .
1

(4.8)

D0

(kr ? 1)
, (, 1965;
Murray, 1984). z
z
s = 2e ip / 4 sin
2
1
us(, h)

= 2e

-i

p
U
s, h [ a, j, j 0 , z ( s)] -krs2
4 e ikr
e
ds .

(4.9)

cos[ z ( s)/ 2]

U s, h /cos( z / 2)
s = 0. ,
1

us(, h) = 2e

-i

p
4 e ikrU

-krs2 2
-krs2
(
a
,
j
,
j
,
0
)
e
ds
+
O
s ds,
e

0
s, h
-

(4.10)

1
us(, h)

= 2pe

-i

p
4

e ikr
kr

U s, h ( a, j, j 0 ,0) + O[( kr )

3
2 ],

(4.11)

kr ? 1.
(4.11) f, g, f (0),
(0)
g , 2.4 3.3:
us(1) ~ u0 f

(1)

(1)

(j, j 0 , a )

uh ~ u0 g (1) (j, j 0 , a )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(4.12)

(4.13)

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ) = f ( j, j 0 , a ) - f

( 0)

(j, j 0 ) ,

g (1) ( j, j 0 , a ) = g ( j, j 0 , a ) - g ( 0) ( j, j 0 ) .

(4.14)
(4.15)

Copyright & A K-C

93

4.1.

, , js(,1h) , , . ,
(1)
(1)
js, h . js, h fringe component.

, (4.12) (4.13) .
(4.12) (4.13)
. f, g, f (0), g(0), , f (1) g(1)
. , f g f (0) g(0).
f (1) g(1) .
j = p j 0 , j = 0
(. 2.7), f (1) g(1)
1
p
sin

f (1)

1
p
1
n
n

=
+ ctgj 0 ctg ,

2n
n
g (1)
cos p - cos p - 2j 0 2
n
n

(4.16)

0 < j 0 < a p,
1
p
sin

f (1)

1
p
1
n
n

=
+ ctgj 0 ctg (
1
)
p - 2j 0 2
g

p
2n
n

cos - cos
n
n

sin( a - j 0 )

cos( a - j 0 ) - cos( a + j 0 )
,
-
sin( a + j 0)

cos( a - j 0 ) - cos(a + j 0 )

(4.17)

a p < j 0 < p.
(j = p + j 0) (. 2.7) f (1)
g(1)
f (1)

= m

g (1)

1
p
sin
1
p
1
n
n
ctgj 0 - ctg ,
p + 2j 0 2
p
2n
n
cos - cos
n
n

(4.18)

0 < j 0 < p. a p < j 0 < p j = p + j 0 .

Copyright & A K-C

94

4. : ,

a p < j 0 < p, (. 2.8), f (1) g(1) j = 2a p j 0 , j = a:


1
p
sin

f (1)

1
1
p
n
n

=
+ ctg ( a - j 0 ) ctg +

2n
n
g (1)
cos p - cos j - j 0 2
n
n

sin j 0

cos j + cos j 0
.
+
sin j

cos j + cosj 0

(4.19)

, , f (1) g(1)
:
j = 0 j 0 = p

(4.20)

. 4.1. , . f (1) g(1) , .


Ez Hz , . (, 1957)

Copyright & A K-C

4.2. f (1) g(1)

95

. 4.2. , . f (1) g(1) , . Ez Hz ,


. (, 1957)

j = a j 0 = a p.

(4.21)


.
(4.9) ,
. , 7.9 , .
. 4.1 4.2 f (1) g(1).

4.2. f (1) g(1)


, / / , / . , , (1.19).
f (1), g(1) js(1) , jh(1) .

Copyright & A K-C

96

4. : ,

. 3.1, (3.1).
js(1) = u0 J s(1) ,

jh(1) = u0 J h(1)

(4.22)

(1.10). j = 0:
us(1)

u
e ik ( x-x) + y + z
=- 0 J s(1) ( kx, j 0 )dx
dz ,
2
2
2
4p 0
- ( x - x ) + y + z

(4.23)

(1)
uh

u (1)
e ik ( x-x) + y + z
=- 0
J h ( kx, j 0 ) dx
dz .

2
2
2
4 p y 0
- ( x - x ) + y + z

(4.24)

(3.7),

us(1) =- u0

i
J s(1) (kx, j 0 )H 0(1) (k (x - x) 2 + y 2 )dz ,
4 0

uh(1) =- u0

i
J (1) (kx, j 0 )H 0(1) (k (x - x) 2 + y 2 )dz.
4 y 0 h

(4.25)

(4.26)

(1.11), (2.61) (2.63), J s(1) J h(1) x (kx)3/2 (kx)1/2, .


x = xeff
x xeff. , r ? kx 2eff , (4.25)
(4.26) (2.29).
:
us(1)

(1)
uh

~ -u0

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2 2pkr

~ -u0 ik sin j

xeff

J s(1) (kx, j 0 )e -ikx cos j dx ,

(4.27)

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2 2pkr

xeff

J h(1) (kx, j 0 )e -ikx cos j dx .

(4.28)

, j = 0. j
a j j 0 a j 0, , j = a.
, ,
(4.12) (4.13). , (4.12) (4.13),

Copyright & A K-C

97

4.3.

f (1) g(1):
f

(1)

xeff
1

( j, j 0 , a ) ~ - J s(1) (kx, j 0 )e -ikx cos j dx +


2
0

+ J s(1) ( kx, a - j 0 )e -ikx cos( a-j ) dx,

x eff

(4.29)

ik
(j, j 0 , a ) ~ - sin j J h(1) ( kx, j 0 )e -ikx cos j dx +
2
0

xeff

(1)

+ sin( a - j) J h(1) ( kx, a - j 0 )e -ikx cos( a-j ) dx. (4.30)

xeff

f (1) g(1) ( , ), , , .

4.3.

(0 ,1 , t )
uh
= H (z0,1, t ) , u s(t ) = E z(t ) . 0, 1, t
, j(0), j(1),
j(t) = j(0) + j(1). u s(0) E (z0) u s(1) E (z1)
.

4.3.1.
4.1
(. 4.3).
~

u inc = u0e ik ( x cos a+ y cos b+ z cos g ) ,

(4.31)

0 < g p/2. ~
a,
a.
(2.2) (2.3)
. -

Copyright & A K-C

98

4. : ,

. 4.3.

, z, (4.31):
u d = u( r, j)e ikz cos g .

(4.32)

(2.4),
u(r, j):
Du(r, j) + k12 u(r, j) = 0 k1 = k sing,

(4.33)

D (2.5). (4.31)
(3.1):
u inc = u0e ikz cos g e -ik1 ( x cos j 0 + y sin j 0 ) ,

(4.34)

~ , sin g sin j =-cos b


sin g cos j 0 =-cos a
0

(4.35)

cos b
(4.36)
0 j 0 < p.
cos ~
a
,
(g = p/2), 2. , u0
~ ).
u0eikzcosg, k k1 = k sing j 0 j 0 = arctg(cos b /cos a

. ,
() . (4.34) (1.31)
:
tgj 0 =

js( 0) =-u0e ikz cos g 2ik1 sin j 0e -ik1x cos j 0 ,

(4.37)

jh( 0) = u0e ikz cos g 2e ik1x cos j 0 .

(4.38)

Copyright & A K-C

99

4.3.

(3.2) , (4.37) (4.38)


. , , , . ,
(4.37) (4.38) (1.32) :
us( 0)

ik sin j 0
= u0 1
2p

( 0)

uh =-u0

-ik1x cos j 0

dx e

e ik

ikz cos g

(x - x) 2 + y 2 + ( z - z ) 2

( x-x ) 2 + y 2 + ( z-z ) 2

e ik

1
e -ik1x cos j 0 dx e ikz cos g
2p y 0
-

( x-x ) 2 + y 2 + ( z-z ) 2

(x - x) 2 + y 2 + ( z - z ) 2

dz , (4.39)

dz ,

(4.40)

us( 0)

( 0)
uh

= u0e

ikz cos g

=-u0e

ik1 sin j 0
2p

ikz cos g

-ik1x cos j 0

dx e

iks cos g

1
e -ik1x cos j 0 dx e iks cos g
2p y 0
-

e ik

( x-x ) 2 + y 2 + s2

(x - x) 2 + y 2 + s 2
e ik

ds, (4.41)

( x-x ) 2 + y 2 + s2

ds .

(x - x) 2 + y 2 + s 2

(4.42)

s k .

iks cos g

e ik

D 2 + s2

D +s
2

ds, D = ( x - x) 2 + y 2 .

(4.43)

(3.8)
: w = s, z = t, d = ip, k = iD, q = p 2 - t 2 , D > 0 Imq > 0. (3.8)
( )
H 01 ( qD )=

1
1
e ip D + s
e ip D + s
ds =
e -ist
e ist
ds . (4.44)

ip -
ip -
D 2 + s2
D 2 + s2
2

Copyright & A K-C

100

4. : ,

t = k cosg, p = k, q = p 2 - t 2 = k sin g = k1 ,

e iks cos g

D 2 + s2

e ik

D +s
2

ds = ipH 0(1) ( k1 D ) .

(4.45)

(4.41) (4.42)
us( 0) =-u0e ikz cos g
uh( 0) =-u0 e ikz cos g

k1 sin j 0
2

e -ik x cos j
1

H 0(1) ( k1 ( x - x) 2 + y 2 ) dx ,

(4.46)

i
e -ik1x cos j 0 H 0(1) (k1 (x - x) 2 + y 2 )dx .
2 y 0

(4.47)

(3.10) (3.11) ,

.
, , , . ,
, . . us(,1h) , js(,1h)
. (4.12) (4.13), us(,1h) , :
us(1) ~ u0 f
(1)

(1)

(j, j 0 , a )

uh ~ u0 g (1) (j, j 0 , a )

e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r
e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r

e ikz cos g ,

(4.48)

e ikz cos g .

(4.49)

f (1) g(1) , 4.1, j 0 (4.36).


(4.48) (4.49) . ,
S = z cos g + r sin g

(4.50)

, S = const.
S = z$ cos g + r$ sin g

(4.51)

.
, . 4.4.
. g ,
.

Copyright & A K-C

4.3.

101

. 4.4.

, (Rubinowicz, 1924). ,

. , .
(1962) .
(4.56), (4.57) (, 1962). (Senior and Uslenghi, 1972)
.

4.3.2.

, . , (Ufimtsev, 1975; , 2007 ; Ufimtsev,
2008 b). ,
.
,
E zinc = E 0 z e ikz cos g e -ik1r cos( j-j 0 ) ,

(4.52)

H zinc = H 0 z e ikz cos g e -ik1r cos( j-j 0 ) .

(4.53)

Copyright & A K-C

102

4. : ,

, :
E z( 0) = {E 0 z f

( 0)

( j, j 0 ) -

-Z 0 H 0 z [ e( j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g }
H z( 0) = H 0 z g ( 0) ( j, j 0 )

e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r

e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r

e ikz cos g ,

e ikz cos g .

(4.54)

(4.55)

(4.12), (4.13)

(, 1962):
E z = E 0 z f ( j, j 0 , a )

e i ( k1r+ p / 4)

H z = H 0 z g ( j, j 0 , a )

2p k 1 r
e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r

e ikz cos g ,

(4.56)

e ikz cos g .

(4.57)

E z - E z( 0) , H z - H z( 0) , . . ,
,
(Ufimtsev, 1975, 2003, 2007 , 2008 b):
E z(1) = {E 0 z f

(1)

(j, j 0 , a ) +

+Z 0 H 0 z [ e( j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g }
H z(1) = H 0 z g (1) ( j, j 0 , a )

e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r

e i ( k1r+ p / 4)
2p k 1 r

e ikz cos g ,

e ikz cos g .

(4.58)

(4.59)

(4.54) (4.58) e(x)


1, 0 x p,
e(x ) =
0, x > p.

(4.60)

(4.54) (4.58) H0z .


.
(4.53) j = 0

ikz cos g
,
jr( 0) = jx( 0) = 2e( j 0 ) H 0inc
z e

(4.61)

Copyright & A K-C

103

4.3.

0 x (. 4.3). x = 0 ,
(x <r0).
j ( 0) = iwr ( 0) , :
r ( 0) =

2
e(j 0 )H 0 z e ikz cos g d(x ) .
iw


r
E =-F

(4.62)

(4.63)


F=

1
e( j 0 ) Z 0 H 0 z e ikz cos g H 0(1) ( k1 r )
2k

(4.64)


E z =-e( j 0 ) Z 0 H 0 z e ikz cos g cos g

e ik1r+ ip / 4
2p k 1 r

k1r ? 1. ,
r
r
ikZ 0 H = E =- ( F ) 0

(4.65)

(4.66)

(4.62) .
(4.65) (4.54), , , (4.65). (4.54) e(a j 0)
jr( 0) =-2e( a - j 0 ) H 0 z e ikz cos g ,

(4.67)

j = a.
, e(j 0) = e(a j 0) =
= 1, (4.54) (4.58) .
jr( 0) , , , ,
r(0) . (4.54), (4.58), (4.65),
(g = p/2).
, (4.63)
E r =-

e ik1r-i 3p / 4
F
,
~ e(j 0 )Z 0 H 0 z e ikz cos g sin g
r
2p k 1 r

(4.68)

k1r ? 1, (g = p/2).
, (4.55)
r
r
1
(4.69)
E =- Z 0 H ,
ik

Copyright & A K-C

104

4. : ,


E r =-

H z
1
Z0
ikr
j

(4.70)

(kr)3/2, (kr)1/2, (4.68). .


, (g = p/2) (4.68) , , , , j = 0 , . . x > 0+.
,
r
r r (4.56),
(4.57), j ( t ) = j ( 0) + j (1) .

f(j, j 0, a), g(j, j 0, a) f (0)(j, j 0), g(0)(j, j 0)


. , , . .
f (1)(j, j 0, a) g(1)(j, j 0, a) .
4.1. (4.16).
4.2. (4.17).
4.3. (4.18).
4.4. (4.19).

Copyright & A K-C

us = Ez uh = Hz
.

3 4
.
, , . .
. , ( )
(, 1969, 1970, 2003, 2007 ).
, .
(Schwarzschild, 1902).

(Morse, 1964) (, 1966). , , .

5.1.
. 5.1.
(1.5) (1.6) .

Copyright & A K-C

106

5.

. 5.1. z = const

. 5.2.

u inc = u0e ik ( x cos f 0 + y sin f 0 ) p/2 < f0 < p/2.

(5.1)


p/2 < f < 3p/2.
r1, j1,
j01 r2, j2, j02, j1 j2
(. 5.2).

5.1.1.

(1.31) (1.32).
.

Copyright & A K-C

107

5.1.

,
(3.53) (3.54):

us( 0) = u0 f

e i ( kr2 + p / 4)
,
2pkr2

(5.2)

e i ( kr1+ p / 4)
e i ( kr2 + p / 4)
( 0)
.
+ g ( 0) ( j 2 , j 02 )
uh = u0 g ( 0) ( j1 , j 01 )
2pkr1
2pkr2

(5.3)

( 0)

( j1 , j 01 )

e i ( kr1+ p / 4)
2pkr1

+f

( 0)

( j 2 , j 02 )

(r ? ka2) :
us( 0) = u0 [ f

( 0)

(1) e ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) + f

( 0)

(2)e -ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) ]

( )
uh = u0 [g ( 0) (1) e ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) + g ( 0) (2)e -ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) ]
0

e i ( kr+ p / 4)

2pkr

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(5.4)

(5.5)

( 0)

(1) f

( 0)

(j1 , j 01 ),

( 0)

(2) f

( 0)

(j 2 , j 02 )

(5.6)

g ( 0) (1) g ( 0) (j1 , j 01 ), g ( 0) (2) g ( 0) (j 2 , j 02 ).


(0)

(3.55), f g
f f0 (. 5.1) :
f

( 0)

(1) =- f

( 0)

(5.7)

cos f0
,
sin f0 - sin f

(5.8)

cos f
,
sin f0 - sin f

(5.9)

(2) =

g ( 0) (1) =-g ( 0) (2) =

(0)

p/2 < f < 3p/2 p/2 < f0 < p/2.


(5.4) (5.5)
. (5.8), (5.9) f = f0
f = p f0, (5.4) (5.5) f (0)(1) = f (0)(2) g(0)(1) = g(0)(2). (5.4)
(5.5) , :
us( 0) = u0F (s0) ( f, f0 )
0
0
uh( ) = u0F (h ) ( f, f0 )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr
e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(5.10)

(5.11)

Copyright & A K-C

108

5.

F (s0) ( f, f0 ) = i2 cos f0

( 0)

F h ( f, f0) = i2 cos f

sin[ ka (sin f - sin f0 )]


,
sin f - sin f0

sin[ ka (sin f - sin f0 )]


.
sin f - sin f0

(5.12)

(5.13)

,
F (s0) ( f 0 , f 0 ) = F (h0) ( f 0 , f 0 ) = i2ka cos f 0

(5.14)

f = f0,
F (s0) ( p - f 0 , f 0 ) =-F (h0) ( p - f 0 , f 0 ) = i2ka cos f 0

(5.15)

f = p f0.
(Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ),

2
(5.16)
s tot = Im F ( f 0 , f 0 )
k
(5.14)
s (s0) tot = s h( 0) tot = 2 A,

(5.17)

A = 2a cosf0 ,
(. 5.3). (5.17) , z.
,
s (1.24):
Pascv =

s Painc
v
,
2p r

(5.18)

. 5.3. ,

Copyright & A K-C

109

5.1.

1 2
1 2
sc
sc 2
2
Painc
v = k Z | u0 | , Pav = k Z | u | .
2
2

(5.19)

(5.10) (5.11)
1
0
0
s (s, h) = | F (z, h) ( f, f 0 )| 2 .
k

(5.20)


s, ,
(5.10), (5.11).
, f = p + f0,
F (s0) =-F (h0) = i ctgf0 sin(2ka sin f0 ).

(5.21)

, (5.12) (5.13) , . ,
ka(sin f0 sin f) = np n = 1, 2, 3, .
f
g (1) = g(0)(2).
(0)

(0)

(1) = f

(5.22)
(0)

(2)

5.1.2.

,
(4.12) (4.13).

us(1) = u0 f

(1)

( j1 , j 01 , 2p )

e i ( kr1+ p / 4)
2pkr1

+f

(1)

( j 2 , j 02 , 2p )

e i ( kr2 + p / 4)
(5.23)
2pkr2

e i ( kr1+ p / 4)
e i ( kr2 + p / 4)
(1)
. (5.24)
uh = u0 g (1) ( j1 , j 01 , 2p )
+ g (1) ( j 2 , j 02 , 2p )

2pkr1
2pkr2

(4.124.15),
(1)
( 0)
us(1) = us - us( 0) , uh = uh - uh .

(5.25)

Copyright & A K-C

110

5.

,
us = us( 0) + us(1) =

e i ( kr1+ p / 4)
e i ( kr2 + p / 4)
,
= u0 f ( j1 , j 01 , 2p )
+ f (j 2 , j 02 , 2p )

2pkr2
2pkr1

(5.26)

uh = uh( 0) + uh(1) =

e i ( kr1+ p / 4)
e i ( kr2 + p / 4)
,
= u0 g ( j1 , j 01 , 2p )
+ g ( j 2 , j 02 , 2p )

2pkr2
2pkr1

(5.27)

f g (2.62) (2.64).
(5.26) (5.27) :
us = u0 [ f (1) e ika (sin f 0 - sin f ) + f (2) e -ika (sin f 0 - sin f ) ]

uh = u0 [ g (1) e ika (sin f 0 - sin f ) + g (2) e -ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) ]

e i ( kr+p / 4)
2pkr

e i ( kr+p / 4)
2pkr

(5.28)

(5.29)

f (1) f (j1 , j 01 , 2p ),

f (2) f (j 2 , j 02 , 2p),

g (1) g ( j1 , j 01 , 2p ), g (2) g (j 2 , j 02 , 2p ).

(5.30)

f f0

f (1)
1
1
1
p/2 f 3/2p

= m
(1)

f
f
f
f
+

2
0
0
g sin

cos

2
2

(5.31)

f ( 2)
1

1
1
p/2 f p/2,

=
m
( 2)
f- f0
f + f0

g
2

sin
cos

2
2

(5.32)

1
f ( 2)
1
1
p/2 f 3p/2.

=
( 2)

f
f
f
+
f

2
0
0
g sin

cos

2
2

(5.33)

Copyright & A K-C

111

5.1.

, g(2) f(2)/f f = p/2. ,


, a < y < . g(1) f (1)/f . f = p/2 f = 3p/2, < y < a,
.
(5.28) (5.29)
. , js(,1h) ,
( a y a).
5.1.4. . (Michaeli, 1987; Johansen, 1996).
(Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ).
(5.315.33), (5.28), (5.29) :
us, h = u0F s, h (f, f 0 )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(5.34)

F s (f, f 0 ) =
=-

cos[ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]


sin[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]
p/2 f p/2, (5.35)
+i
f -f
f0 + f
sin 0
cos
2
2

F s (f, f 0 ) =
=

cos[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]


sin[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]
p/2 f 3p/2
-i
f +f
f -f
sin 0
cos 0
2
2

(5.36)

F h (f, f 0 ) =
=

sin[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]


cos[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]
p/2 f p/2,
+i
f0 - f
f0 + f
cos
sin
2
2

(5.37)

F h (f, f 0 ) =
=

cos[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]


sin[ ka (sin f 0 - sin f )]
p/2 f 3p/2,
+i
f0 + f
f0 - f
sin
cos
2
2

(5.38)

Copyright & A K-C

112

5.

, [ F (s,0h) ( f, f 0 )]
, (5.22).
Fs,h . (f = f0)
F s ( f 0 , f 0 ) = i2ka cos f 0 -

1
,
cos f 0

(5.39)

1
cos f 0

(5.40)

F h ( f 0 , f 0 ) = i2ka cos f 0 +

(f = p f0 , )
F s ( p - f 0 , f 0 ) = i2ka cos f 0 -

1
,
cos f 0

F h ( p - f 0 , f 0 ) =-i2ka cos f 0 -

1
.
cos f 0

(5.41)
(5.42)

, f = p + f0
F s ( p + f 0 , f 0 ) =-cos(2ka sin f 0 ) + i

sin(2ka sin f 0 )
,
sin f 0

(5.43)

F h ( p + f 0 , f 0 ) =-cos(2ka sin f 0 ) - i

sin(2ka sin f 0 )
.
sin f 0

(5.44)

(4.20) (4.21) (5.395.42) (f0 = p/2) .


(5.14) ,
(5.39) (5.40) , .
(5.16), ,
j(1), (5.23), (5.24),
(!). :
(5.23), (5.24), , ,
,
(5.34),
(5.23), (5.24).
(5.28),
(5.29) f g. f = f0 f = p f0, .
(5.28), (5.29), -

Copyright & A K-C

113

5.1.

. 5.4. .
f g : f = , g =

(5.395.42) . , . , ,
.
, ,
. , . ,
(. 5.4) , , . ,
f g, ,
. : , . , , .

5.1.3.

us = Ez uh = Hz .

. . 5.1.
(1.5) (1.6) . (5.1). us = Ez uh = Hz
. (5.20) .
2

F s, h ( f, f 0 )
, l = 2a.
=
2
kl

kl

s s, h

(5.45)

10lg(s/kl2), . . . ka f0
ka = 3p, f0 = 45. ka l = 2a
3l, . -

Copyright & A K-C

114

5.

[Fs(p f, f0) = Fs(f, f0),


Fh(p f, f0) = Fh(f, f0)], p/2 f 3p/2.
:
( 0)
l F
s, h , 5.1.1.
l Fs,h,
5.1.2 .
l (Ufimtsev,
2003, 2007 ). ( ). Fs,h(f, f0)

~
~
(5.46)
F s ( f, f 0 ) = Y1 (a, a 0 ) + Y1 (- a,- a 0 ),
~
~
(5.47)
F h (f, f 0 ) = F 1 (a, a 0 ) + F 1 (- a,- a 0 ),

1- a 1- a 0 ic ( a+ a 0 )
~
Y1 (a, a 0 ) =
e
+
a + a0
+

1- a 1 + a 0 1- a

1+ a 0
y ( q, a ) y ( q,-a 0 )e iq+ ic ( a-a 0 ) +

2
a+a
2
0

1- a i 2q
e [ 1- a 0 y (q, a 0 )e ica 0 2D s

- 1 + a 0 y ( q,-a 0 )y ( q,1)e iq-ica 0 ]y ( q, a )e ica ,

(5.48)

1 + a 1 + a 0 ic ( a + a 0 )
~
F 1 ( a, a 0 ) =e
+
a + a0
+

1- a 0
1
1+ a
j(q,-a 0 ) - (1- a )
j(q, a ) e iq+ ic ( a-a 0 ) (1 + a 0 )
2
2
a + a 0

1 i 2q
e [ j(q, a 0 )e ica 0 - j( q,-a 0 ) j( q,1)e iq-ica 0 ]j( q, a )e ica .
Dh

(5.49)

a = sin f, a 0 =-sin f 0 ,
j ( q, a ) =
y ( q, a ) =

2
p

c = ka, q = 2 c = 2ka,

e -ip / 4e -iq (1+ a )

e it

dt,

(5.50)
(5.51)

q (1+ a )

j( q, a )
,
q
2(1 + a )
i

Ds =1- y 2 ( q,1)e i 2q , Dh =1- j 2 ( q,1) e i 2q .

(5.52)
(5.53)

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115

5.1.

- (5.46) (5.47)
~
~
Qs, h ( a, a 0 ) = Qs, h (a, a 0 ) + Qs, h (- a, - a 0 ),

(5.54)

~
Qs ( a, a 0 ) =

O ( q -1/ 2 )
,
[1 + q (1 + a )][1 + q (1- a 0 )]

~
Qh ( a, a 0 ) =

1+ a 1+ a 0O( q )
[1 + q (1 + a )][1 + q (1 + a 0 )]

(5.55)

(5.56)

q(1 a) ? 1 q(1 a0) ? 1. ,


lim 1- a 2

Qs ( a, a 0 ) = 0 a 1
a

(5.57)

Qh ( a, 1) = Qh (1, a 0 ) = 0.

(5.58)

(5.57) (5.58) , (5.46) (5.47)


(|y| ? a) x = 0. , (5.46) (5.47) (1.11) .
(5.46) (5.47)
(5.55), (5.56) , - . . 5.5 5.6, , . . 10 lg(ss,h/kl2).

. 5.5. .
Ez-

Copyright & A K-C

116

5.

. 5.6. .
Hz-

,
. -
f = 90. 100 < f 270
T .

js(1) , jh(1) ,
, . js(1)
(2ka)3/2, jh(1)
(2ka)1/2.
,
, .
- sh
f = 90 f = 270
jh(1) , 5.1.2.
.

5.1.4. j n( 1)
uh = Hz .

. 5.1
(5.1). uh (1.10)
:

Copyright & A K-C

117

5.1.

. 5.7. S = S + S+ (1.10),

(1.10) r .
r = x 2 + ( y - h ) 2 + z 2 r
r = x 2 + y 2 , , x = r cosf y = r sinf.

(1.10) :
S = S + S+ (. 5.7).

(1.10) . n
(3.5), ,


. ,
=
n- x

S
=- S+. /x n+
x
, .
(3.7), (1.10) z .
, r ? ka2.
( )

H 01 ( k x 2 + ( y - h ) 2 ~

2 ik ( r-h sin f )-ip / 4


.
e
pkr

(5.59)

jh( 0) = u0 J h( 0) jh(1) = u0 J h(1) .


uh( 0)

e ip / 4

e ikr
= u0
2 2pk x r

J h( 0) (h , x =-0) e -ikh sin f dh ,

-a

(5.60)

Copyright & A K-C

118

5.

1
uh( )

e ikr
(1)
-ikh sin f
= u0
dh J h ( h , x =-0) e

x
2 2p k
r -a
e ip / 4

1
- J h( ) (h, x =+0)e -ikh sin f dh .

-a

(5.61)

, jh( 0)
, x = 0.

e ikr
e ikr
.
ik cos f
x r
r

l
l

(5.62)

(1.31), J h( 0) ( h, x =-0) = 2 e ikh sinf 0 .


jh(1) ( 2.5).
,
(1)
v jh :
1

( )
( )
jh (h, x =+0) =- jh (h, x =-0)

, , J h(1) (h, x =+0) =- J h(1) (h, x =-0).


v

J h( 0) ( h, x =-0)

p
J h(1) ( h, x =-0) = 2v k ( a - h ), - j 0 e ika sin f 0 +

p
+v k ( a + h ), + f 0 e -ika sin f 0 ,

(5.63)

v(ks, y) (2.82) .
, (5.60) (5.61) :
( 0)

uh = u0 i2 cos f
(1)
uh

sin[ka (sin f 0 - sin f )] e i ( kr+ p / 4)


,
sin f 0 - sin f
2pkr

= u0 2ik cos f

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(5.64)

v k (a - h ), 2 - f 0 e ika sin f

p
+v k ( a + h ), + f 0 e -ika sin f 0 e -ikh sin f dh .

-a

(5.65)

(5.64) -

Copyright & A K-C

119

5.1.

. (5.11), .
(5.65) .

:
uh(

0, 1)

= u0F (h0, 1) ( f, f 0 )

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(5.66)

F (h0) (5.13),

cos f
(1)
F h (f, f 0 ) =
-i4 sin( kax) +
x

+2

-2

e i 3p / 4 -ikax
e
p

2ka (1+ sin f 0 )

e i 3p / 4 1 + sin f 0 ikax
e
1 + sin f
p
-

2ka (1-sin f 0 )

e it dt -e ikax
2ka (1+ sin f )

2
e it dt

e it dt -

1- sin f 0 -ikax
e
1- sin f

2ka (1-sin f )

e it dt ,

(5.67)

x = sinf0 sinf.
uhtr = uh( 0) + uh(1) ( jh(1) )
( 0)
(1)
F trh = F h + F h ,

cos f
(1)
F h ( f, f 0 ) =
-i2 sin( kax) +
x

e i 3p / 4 -ikax
+2
e
p

-2

2ka (1+ sin f 0 )

dt -e

2ka (1-sin f 0 )

ikax

e i 3p / 4 1 + sin f 0 ikax
e
1 + sin f
p
-

it 2

2ka (1+ sin f )

1- sin f 0 -ikax
e
1- sin f

2
e it dt

e it dt -

2ka (1-sin f )

e it dt .

(5.68)

Copyright & A K-C

120

5.

[ ka(1 sinf0) ? 1 ka(1 sinf) ? 1]


:
F trh ( f, f 0 ) = g (1) e ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) + g (2) e -ika (sin f 0 -sin f )
e ika (sin f 0 + sin f )
e -ika (sin f 0 + sin f )
-cos f
+

(1- sin f ) 1- sin f 0


(1 + sin f ) 1 + sin f 0

e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)

, (5.69)

2pka

g(1) g(2) (5.315.33). , .


(5.69)
, .
,
.
- (5.47),
F T
( f, f 0 ) = g (1) e ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) + g (2) e -ika (sin f 0 -sin f ) +
h

e ika (sin f 0 + sin f )


e -ika (sin f 0 + sin f )
+
+

1- sin f 1- sin f 0
1 + sin f ) 1 + sin f 0

e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)

pka

(5.70)

F trh (f, f 0 ) , , f = p f0. , F trh (f, f 0 ) :


F trh ( p - f 0 , f 0 ) = i2ka cos f 0

e ip / 4

-cos f 0 4ka
p

2ka (1+ sin f 0 )

it 2

2ka (1-sin f 0 )

dt +

it 2

dt +

2ka i 3p / 4 e i 2ka (1+ sin f 0 ) e i 2ka (1-sin f 0 )

e
+
p

1- sin f 0
1 + sin f 0

e i 3p / 4
1
p
1 + sin f 0

2ka (1+ sin f 0 )

it 2

1
dt +
1- sin f 0

2ka (1-sin f 0 )

it 2

dt . (5.71)

(5.68) (5.71)
(5.45). . 5.8.
, (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ).
(. 5.6)
f = 90 f = 270.

Copyright & A K-C

5.2.

121

. 5.8. .
Hz-

5.2.
us = Ez uh = Hz
.

(. 5.9).
: () ,
; () , , , . ,
, ,
, js(,1h) .

5.2.1. :

u inc = u0e ikx

(5.72)

js(,1h) 12
13, x (. 5.9).
(1.5) (1.6) .
. l,

Copyright & A K-C

122

5.

. 5.9. . 1, 2 3 ; r f

60. 1, 2
3 (0,0), (h,a), (h, a), h = l cos(p/6) a = l/2. , 0 f p.

. , , 12 13.
5.1.1, , ,
, (3.53) (3.54).
, (r1,2,3, j1,2,3) (
) (r, f),
r ? kl2, 0 f p:
us(,0h) = u0F s(,0h) ( f,0)

e i ( kr+ p / 4)
2pkr

(5.73)

F (s0) = f

( 0)

(1) + f

( 0)

(2) e iy 2 + f

( 0)

(3) e iy 3 ,

F (h0) = g ( 0) (1) + g ( 0) (2) e iy 2 + g ( 0) (3) e iy 3

(5.74)
(5.75)

y 2 = kh(1- cos f ) - ka sin f, y 3 = kh(1- cos f ) + ka sin f .

(5.76)

(0)

, j s , h
, 12 13,
(0 f 2p).

f (0) g(0) ,
, . :

Copyright & A K-C

5.2.

123

p
p
sin
6
6
,
f ( 0) (1) =
+
p

p
p

cos - f - cos
cos + f -cos
6

6
6

(5.77)

p
p

sin - f
sin + f
6
6

,
+
g ( 0) (1) =

p
p
p
cos + f- cos
cos - f- cos
6

6
6

(5.78)

sin

p
p
sin - f

6
6
, (5.79)
f ( 0) (2) =
, g ( 0) (2) =
p

p
p
cos - cos - f
cos - cos - f
6

6
6
sin

p
p
sin + f

6
6
. (5.80)
f ( 0) (3) =
, g ( 0) (3) =
p

p
p
cos - cos + f
cos - cos + f
6

6
6
sin

f = 0, F (s,0h) . ,
F (s0) (0, 0) = F (h0) (0, 0) = ikl.

(5.81)


12
(f = p/3),
p
p
l
l
1
p
(5.82)
F (s0) ,0= ik + tg e iy 3 , F (h0) ,0=-ik +
e iy 3 .
p
3
3
2
6
2
cos
6
,
13:
p
p
p
0p
F (s0)- ,0= F s( 0) ,0, F (h0)- ,0= F (h ) ,0.
3
3
3
3

(5.83)

,
(5.82) (5.83) ikl, . . (5.81), . (5.16), , :
(1.79) ( kl ? 1)
(1.83).

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5.

5.2.2. :
,
u inc = u0e ik ( x cos f 0 + y sin f 0 )

(5.84)

p f0 0. , f = p + f0, .
, , f ( 0) ( j, j 0 )
g ( 0) ( j, j 0 ), (3.553.57).
, j = j0, f ( 0) ( j, j 0 ) =-g ( 0) (j, j 0 ). ,
. , . (1.37). , (5.73), , :
F (s0) =-F (h0) .

(5.85)

,
.
, .
, 2 3, 0 f p/6.
F (s0) ( f ) = f

( 0)

(2) e iy 2 + f

( 0)

(3) e iy 3 ,

(5.86)

( 0)

(2) =- f

( 0)

1
(3) =- ctgf ,
2

(5.87)

y 2 =-2k ( h cos f + a sin f ), y 3 =-2k (h cos f - a sin f )

(5.88)

h = l cos(p/6) a = l/2.
(5.86) ,
F (s0) ( f ) = i cos f

sin(2ka sin f ) -i 2kh cos f


,
e
sin f

(5.89)

,
F (s0) (0) = i2kae -i 2kh = ikle -i 2kh .

(5.90)

p/6 < f < p/2 ,


F (s0) ( f ) = f

( 0)

(1) + f

( 0)

(2) e iy 2 + f

( 0)

(3) e iy 3 ,

(5.91)

Copyright & A K-C

125

5.2.

( 0)

1 p
(1) =- tg - f,

2 6

(5.92)

( 0)

1 p
(2) = tg - f- ctgf ,

2 6

(5.93)

( 0)

1
(3) = ctgf .
2

(5.94)

p/2 < f < 5p/6 ,


F (s0) ( f ) = f
f
f

( 0)

( 0)

( 0)

(1) + f

( 0)

(2) e iy 2 ,

(5.95)

(1) (5.92).

(2) (5.93)
f

( 0)

1 p
(2) = tg - f.

2 6

(5.96)

, 23 , , . 12,
f = 2p/3, (5.95)
2p
F (s0) = ikl,
3

(5.97)

(5.90). 12 23 .
5p/6 < f p
(5.91),
f ( 0) (1) f ( 0) (3):
f

( 0)

1 p
(1) =- tg - f+ tg + f,

2 6

(5.98)

( 0)

1 p
(3) = tg + f.

2 6

(5.99)

f ( 0) (2) - (5.96). (5.98)


(5.92) ,
1, . . 12 13. (5.99) (5.94)
, 0 f < p/2 5p/6 < f p
3.

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5.

5.2.3. :
Fs (Fh) Ez (Hz) , .

5.2.1 5.2.2
, js(,0h) (3.53), (3.54). , js(,1h)
(4.12) (4.13). (4.14) (4.15)
(2.61) (2.63),
f g. (. . ),
, , .
, (5.72)
, x (. 5.9).
0 f p.
.
0 f < p/6
F s (f, 0) = f (2) e iy 2 + f (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.100)

F h ( f, 0) = g (2) e iy 2 + g (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.101)

f (2) sin n
1
1

0 f p,

=
m
p f
p f
n
p
p
g (2)
cos - cos - cos + cos +

n
n
n n
5 n

(5.102)

p
sin

f (3)
1
1
n
0 f p/2

=
m
p f
p f
n
p
p
g (3)
cos - cos + cos + cos -

n
n
n n
5 n

(5.103)
n = a/p = 5/3 ( a = 5p/3 ),
y2,3 (5.76).

Copyright & A K-C

127

5.2.

(5.102) (5.103) f = 0.
. ,
2
p
sin
1
p
n
n
,
F s (0) = ikl - ctg p
p
n
n
cos + cos
n
5

(5.104)

2
p
sin
n
n
.
p
p
cos + cos
n
5

(5.105)

1
p
F h (0) = ikl - ctg +
n
n

(5.81) , , , js(,1h) .
p/6 < f < p/2 :
F s ( f ) = f (1) + f (2) e iy 2 + f (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.106)

F h (f ) = g (1) + g (2) e iy 2 + g (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.107)

sin
f (1)
1
1
n
p/6 f p.
=

m
p f
p f
n
p
p
g (1)
cos - cos - cos + cos -

n
n n
n n
n

(5.108)
(f = p/3)
12, f(1), g(1) f(2), g(2).
, :
l 1 p
p
F s (p / 3) = ik + tg + ctg + f (3)e iy 3 ,
2 n n
n

(5.109)

l 1 p
p
F h ( p / 3) =-ik + tg - ctg + g (3) e iy 3 .
2 n n
n

(5.110)

, 13. ,
5.2.1: , 12 13, ,
(5.16) -

Copyright & A K-C

128

5.

(5.104) (5.105). , ikl/2


(5.109) (5.110) .
p/2 < f < 5p/6 3 :
F s ( f ) = f (1) + f (2) e iy 2 ,
F h (f ) = g (1) + g (2) e

iy 2

(5.111)
(5.112)

5p/6 < f p ,
(5.106) (5.107)

f (3) sin n
1
1

p/6 f p.
=

m
p f
p f
n
p
p
g (3)
cos - cos - cos + cos +

n
n
n n
n n

(5.113)
f(3) g(3) (5.103), (2.62) (2.64). ,
j3 [
f(3) g(3)] j3 < p/6
j3 > p/6 (. 5.10) f 0 f p.
,
uh dus/df f = p/6, f = p/2
f = 5p/6,
. ,
, . , 5.2.5,
, l 3l.

. 5.10. 0 j3 5p/3 f(3) g(3). (r, f) 0 f p

Copyright & A K-C

5.2.

129

. : (4.20) (4.21)
. , ,
7.9. , , (Michaeli, 1987;
Breinbjerg, 1992; Johansen, 1996).

5.2.4. :
Fs (Fh) Ez (Hz) ,
.

, , , , (2.61) (2.63).
, ,
(5.84), f0 p f0 0. , f = p + f0 0 f p. . 5.9. ,
(r, f) , , ,
(5.73).
0 f p/6
F s ( f ) = f (2) e iky 2 + f (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.114)

F h (f ) = g (2) e iky 2 + g (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.115)

p
sin

f (2)
1
1
n
0 f p,

=
m
p 2f
p
n
p
g (2)
cos -1 cos - cos +

n
n

n
n

(5.116)

p
sin

f (3)
1
1
n
0 f p/2. (5.117)

=
m
p 2f
p
n
p
g (3)
cos -1 cos - cos -

n
n

n
n

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130

5.

, , , n =
= a/p = 5/3, y2,3 (5.88).
(5.114) (5.115) , f = 0

p
2

sin
p
1
n e -i 2kh ,
F s (0) = ikl + ctg + n
p

n
n

cos -1

(5.118)

p
2

sin
p
1
n e -i 2kh ,
F h (0) =-ikl - ctg + n
p

n
n

cos -1

(5.119)

h = l cos(p/6).
p/6 < f p/2 ,
1. ,
F s ( f ) = f (1) + f (2) e iky 2 + f (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.120)

F h (f ) = g (1) + g (2) e iky 2 + g (3) e iy 3 ,

(5.121)

f(2), f(3) g(2), g(3) (5.116) (5.117),

p
sin

f (1)
1
1
n
p/6 < f p. (5.122)

=
m
p 2f
p
n
p
g (1)
cos -1 cos - cos -

n
5

n
n
p/2 < f < 5p/6 3 ,
,
F s ( f ) = f (1) + f (2) e iky 2 ,

(5.123)

F h (f ) = g (1) + g (2) e iky 2 .

(5.124)

f = 2p/3, 12,
2
p
sin
2p
1
p
n ,
F s = ikl + ctg + n
p
3
n
n
cos -1
n

(5.125)

2
p
sin
2p
1
p
n .
F h =-ikl - ctg + n
p
3
n
n
cos -1
n

(5.126)

Copyright & A K-C

131

5.2.

, (5.118), (5.119). ei2kh, 1.


5p/6 < f p ,
(5.120), (5.121). f(3), g(3)

f (3) sin n
1
1

=
m
p
2f
p
n
g (3)
cos -1 cos + cos

n
n
n

(5.127)

(5.117). .

5.2.5.
ss (sh)
Ez (Hz).

(5.20)
2

F s, h ( f )
.
=
2
kl
kl

s s, h

(5.128)


kl = 6p, l = 3l. 10 lg(s/kl2).
5.11 5.12 , -

. 5.11. ( Ez )

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132

5.

. 5.12. ( Hz )

(. 5.9).
5.13 5.14 .
,
. . 69 160180.
. , - -
59 5070
170 180.

. 5.13. ( Ez )

Copyright & A K-C

133

. 5.14. ( Hz )

, (Johanson, 1996),
.

5.1. , (. 5.1). (5.1).


:
l (1.32).
, (3.7) .
l (2.29).
l ,
.
l .
l .
l , (5.4).
5.2. , (. 5.1). (5.1). :
l (1.32). . 5.1.4 /n
/x.
l , (3.7) .
l (2.29).

Copyright & A K-C

134

5.

l
l
l
l

,
.
.
.
, (5.5).

5.3. ,
(. 5.1).
ik (x cos f 0 + y sin f 0 )
.
E inc
z = E0 z e
:
l (1.87) (1.97).
l , (3.7) .
l (2.29).
l ,
.
l .
l .
l (5.4) .
5.4. ,
(. 5.1).
ik (x cos f 0 + y sin f 0 )
.
H inc
z = H0 z e
:
l (1.88) (1.97).
l , (3.7) .
l (2.29).
l ,
.
l .
l .
l (5.5) .
5.5. (5.35). (5.39). (5.16)
.
5.6. (5.37). (5.40). (5.16)
.
5.7.
eikr0
,
(. 5.1). u inc = u0
kr0
r0 = ( x- x0 )2 + y2 k|x0| ? 1.

Copyright & A K-C

135

- : us(0) us(1) . :
l , (1.32).
l , (3.7) .
l (2.29).
l ,
.
(0)
l us .
l (4.12) , js(1) .
l ,
(. 5.4).
l ( ) eikr0
, lim u0
= eikx .
x 0 -
kr0
5.8.
eikr0
(. 5.1). u inc = u0
,
kr0
r0 = ( x- x0 )2 + y2 k|x0| ? 1.
- (0)
(1)
: uh uh . :
l , (1.32).
l , (3.7) .
l (2.29).
l ,
.
(0)
l uh .
l (4.13) (1)
, jh .
l ,
(. 5.4).
l ( ) eikr0
, lim u0
= eikx .
x 0 -
kr0
5.9.
eikr0
(. 5.1). E inc
,
z = E0 z
kr0
r0 = ( x- x0 )2 + y2 k|x0| ? 1.

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5.

- : E (z0) E (z1) . :
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l

E (z0) , (1.87).
, (3.7) .
(2.29).
,
.
E (z0) .
(4.12), ,
E (z1)
.
, (. 5.4).
( ) eikr0
, lim E0 z
= eikx .
x 0 -
kr0

5.10.
eikr0
(. 5.1). H inc
,
=
H
z
0z
kr0
r0 = ( x- x0 )2 + y2 k|x0| ? 1.
- : H (z0) H (z1) . :
l
l
l
l

l
l

l
l

H (z0) , (1.88).
, (3.7) .
(2.29).
,
.
H (z0) .
(4.13), ,
H (z1)
.
, (. 5.4).
( ) eikr0
, lim H 0 z
= eikx .
x 0 -
kr0

Copyright & A K-C

2
(Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ).

, . , . ,
. (a) (l).
js(,1h)
( ka ) (. 6.1). 6.1.
.

6.1.
6.1 6.2.
. 6.1 . . . 6.2. , x ;
r, J, y r, y, z

Copyright & A K-C

138

6.

. 6.1. ( ) ( ),

. 6.2. .

; R, J, y ; j0
, ; a j0
, ; w W ; 1 2 .

6.1.1.
,
u inc = u0e ikz

(6.1)

Copyright & A K-C

139

6.1.


js(,0h) js(,1h) .
, js(,1h) ,
.
js(1) = u0 J s(1) ,

jh(1) = u0 J h(1) .

(6.2)

, y. (1.16) (1.17). ,
, , :

ds- = ( a - x sin w ) dxdy,

(6.3)
+
ds = ( a - x sin W ) dxdy


(z < 0) (z > 0) , ;
rsin J = a - x sin w
z < 0,
(6.4)
rcos J =- x cos w
rsin J = a - x sin W
z > 0;
rcos J = x cos W

(6.5)

$ n$ )- = sin J cos w cos( y-y ) - sin w cos J


(m

(6.6)

z < 0
$ n$ )+ = sin J cos W cos( y-y ) + sin W cos J
(m

(6.7)

z > 0.
W , . 6.2.
(1.16) (1.17)
(. 1.2). , .
(1.16) (1.17)
:
us(1) =- u0

1 e ikR

4p R

xeff
2p
J s(1) ( kx, j 0 )e ikx cos w cos J (a - x sin w ) dx e -ikY ( y, y ) dy+

0
0
x eff

2p

+ J s(1) ( kx, a - j 0 )e -ikx cosW cos J (a - x sin W )dx e -ikY

( y, y )

dy,

(6.8)

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140

6.

(1)

uh =- u0

ik e ikR

4p R

xeff
2p
$ n$ )- dy+
J h(1) ( kx, j 0 )e ikx cos w cos J (a - x sin w ) dx e -ikY ( y, y ) ( m

0
0
x eff

2p

+ J h ( kx, a - j 0 )e -ikx cosW cos J (a - x sin W )dx e -ikY


(1)

( y, y )

$ n$ )+ dy, (6.9)
(m

Y - (y, y ) = ( a - x sin w )sin J cos( y- y ),

Y + ( y, y ) = (a - x sin W ) sin J cos( y- y ).

(6.10)

(6.8) (6.9)
(z < 0), (z > 0). x ,
0 x xeff, J s(,1h) ( kx)
(x = 0) . x > xeff
. .

6.1.2.
,
(0 y 2p). : 0 J W p w J p. ,
k (a - x eff sin w )sin J ? 1,

k (a - x eff sin W )sin J ? 1

(6.11)

(, 1966; Murray, 1984) y.


dY ( y, y )/ dy= 0 ,

(6.12)


d cos( y-y )/ dy=-sin(y-y ) =0 y= y st .

(6.13)

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6.1.

0 y 2p :
y1 = y y2 = p + y.

(6.14)

, cos(y y), Y, ,
1
cos( y-y ) 1- ( y-y 1 ) 2
2

(6. 15)

y = y1
1
cos( y-y ) -1 + ( y-y 2 ) 2
2

(6.16)

$ n$ ) y = y2. ( m
.
y ,
. , +.
:
2p

e -ikY

( y, y )

$ n$ ) dy ~
(m

$ n$ )
( m

$ n$ )
+ (m

y=y1

y=y 2

2p

W
k a - x sin

sin J
w


-ik a - x sinW sin J


ik a-x sinW sin J

-i

p
4

4,

(6.17)

$ n$ )+
(m
$ n$ )+
(m

y=y1
y=y 2

= sin( J + W ),

$ n$ )(m

$ n$ )=-sin( J - W ), ( m

y=y1

=-sin(J + w ).

= sin( J - w ),

y=y 2

(6.18)

(6.17) (6.8) (6.9)


x. a - x sin w a - xsin W,
a a ? xeff.

Copyright & A K-C

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6.


(6.8) (6.9), j1 j2
y1 y2. . 6.2 1 2. . 6.3 1, . 6.4 6.5 2.

. 6.3. 1 ( yst = y)

. 6.4. 2 (yst = p + y)
p w J p

. 6.5. 2 (yst = p + y)
0 J W

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143

6.1.

j1, j2 J (6.17),
(6.8) (6.9):
us(1) =- u0

e ikR

2 2pka sin J R
a

p
-ika sin J +i 4 eff (1)

e
J s ( kx , j 0 ) e-ikx cos j1 dx +

xeff

J s(1) ( kx, a - j 0 ) e -ikx cos( a-j1 ) dx+

+e

ika sin J -i

p
4

xeff
J s(1) ( kx, j 0 ) e -ikx cos j 2 dx +

+ J s(1) ( kx, a - j 0 ) e -ikx cos( a-j 2 ) dx ,

xeff

( )

1
uh =-u0

(6.19)

e ikR

2 2pka sin J R
ika

x eff
-ika sin J + i p

e
sin j1 J h(1) ( kx, j 0 ) e -ikx cos j1 dx +

(1)
+sin( a - j1 ) J h ( kx, a - j 0 ) e -ikx cos( a-j1 ) dx+

xeff

+e

ika sin J -i

p
4

xeff

sin j 2 J h(1) ( kx, j 0 ) e -ikx cos j 2 dx +

xeff

( )
+sin( a - j 2 ) J h1 ( kx, a - j 0 ) e -ikx cos( a-j 2 ) dx .

(6.20)

ka ? 1 J s(,1h)

. ,
(6.19) (6.20) -

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6.

(4.29) (4.30),
. , (6.19) (6.20)

us(1) =

f
2pka sin J

1
uh( ) =

p
p

-ika sin J + i
ika sin J -i e ikR
4 + g (1) (2) e
4
g (1) (1) e
. (6.22)
2pka sin J

u0 a

(1)

(1) e

-ika sin J + i

p
4

+f

(1)

(2) e

ika sin J -i

p
4

e ikR

, (6.21)

u0 a


us(,1h) . , ka sinJ ? 1
, 1 2 . , 2 ,
p/2, , z.
0 < J W
p w J < p, .
W J p w, 2 , ,
.
1 , :
us(1) =
1
uh( ) =

u0 a
2pka sin J
u0 a
2pka sin J

(1)

-ika sin J + i

p
4

-ika sin J + i

p
4

(1) e

g (1) (1) e

e ikR
,
R

(6.23)

e ikR
.
R

(6.24)

f (1) g(1) (4.14), (4.15)


(3.553.57 ) ( 2.62), (2.64). ,

sin
1
1
n
(1)

f (1) =
p
p- J
p
p + 2w - J
n
cos - cos

cos - cos

n
n
n
n
-

sin w
,
cos w - cos( w - J )

(6.25)

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145

6.1.

sin
1
1
n

+
g (1) (1) =
p
p- J
p
p + 2w - J
n
cos - cos

cos - cos

n
n
n
n
-

sin( w - J )
,
cos w - cos( w - J )

n=

a
w +W
.
=1 +
p
p

(6.26)

(6.27)

f (1) g(1)
0 J p, f (1)(2) g(1)(2) . 0 J W

sin
1
1
n
(1)
f (2) =
p
p+J
p
p + 2w + J
n
cos - cos

cos - cos

n
n
n
n

sin w
,
cos w - cos( w + J )

(6.28)

sin
1
1
n

+
g (1) (2) =
p
p+J
p
p + 2w + J
n
cos - cos

cos - cos

n
n
n
n

sin( w + J )
.
cos w - cos( w + J )

(6.29)

p w J p

sin
1
1
n
f (1) (2) =
p
p- J
p
p - 2w - J
n

cos - cos
cos - cos

n
n
n
n

sin w
,
cos w - cos( w + J )

(6.30)

sin
1
1
n

+
g (1) (2) =
p
p- J
p
p - 2w - J
n
cos - cos

cos - cos

n
n
n
n

sin( w + J )
.
cos w - cos( w + J )

(6.31)

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6.

f (1) g(1) J,
, . J = 0, ,

(1)

(1) = f

(1)

1
p
sin
1
p 1
n
n
(2) =- ctg + ctg w , (6.32)
n 2
p
p + 2w 2n
cos - cos
n
n

1
p
sin
1
p 1
n
n
g (1) (1) = g (1) (2) =
- ctg - ctg w .
n 2
p
p + 2w 2n
cos - cos
n
n

(6.33)

J = 2w,
,
1
p
sin
1
p 1
n
n
f (1) (1) =
+ ctg + ctg w ,
n 2
p
p - 2w 2n
cos - cos
n
n

(6.34)

1
p
sin
1
p 1
n
n
g (1) (1) =
- ctg + ctg w .
n 2
p
p - 2w 2n
cos - cos
n
n

(6.35)

, J = 0
J = p
f (1)(1) = f (2)(2) g(1)(1) = g(2)(2).

(6.36)

6.1.3.
, j(1) . (Ufimtsev,
2003, 2007 ). .

(6.1) z
(. 6.1).
z > 0 J = 0, z < 0
J = p. J (6.8) (6.9) . y , -

Copyright & A K-C

6.1.

147

x a ? xeff, :
us(1) =- u0

a e ikR

2 R

xeff
xeff

(1)
ikx cos w
(1)
mikx cosW

J s ( kx, j 0 ) e
dx + J s (kx, a - j 0 ) e
dx ,

0
0

(1)
uh

(6.37)

xeff

ika e ikR
(1)
=- u0
m sin w J h ( kx, j 0 ) e ikx cos w dx
2 R
0

sin W J h(1) ( kx, a - j 0 ) e m ikx cosW dx.

x eff

(6.38)

() J = 0 (J = p).
:
us(1)

xeff
a e ikR
=- u0
J s(1) ( kx, j 0 )e -ikx cos j1 dx +
2 R
0

+ J s(1) ( kx, a - j 0 )e -ikx cos( a-j1 ) dx,

xeff

(1)
uh

(6.39)

xeff

ika e ikR
(1)
=- u0
sin j1 J h ( kx, j 0 )e -ikx cos j1 dx +
2 R
0

+sin( a - j1 ) J h(1) ( kx, a - j 0 )e -ikx cos( a-j1 ) dx.

xeff

(6.40)

j1 = w (j1 = p + w), J = p (J = 0). (4.29), (4.30) :


(1)

e ikR
,
R

(6.41)

uh = u0 ag (1) (1)

e ikR
.
R

(6.42)

us(1) = u0 af
(1)

(1)

Copyright & A K-C

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6.

, ka ,
(6.21), (6.22). (6.41) (6.42) (6.36), .
( 1)

6.1.4. u s, h

us(,1h) . (6.216.24)
kasinJ ? 1, . . . (6.41) (6.42) , kasinJ = 0.
,
, . , , J0(kasinJ) J1(kasinJ).
(kasinJ ? 1) (Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, 1994)
p
ika sin J -i p
-ika sin J + i

4
4 ,
J 0 ( ka sin J ) ~
e
+e

2pka sin J

J1 ( ka sin J ) ~

3p
ika sin J -i 3p
-ika sin J + i

4 +e
4 .
e

2pka sin J

(6.43)

(6.44)

,
e

-ika sin J + i

p
4

1
[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )] ,
2
2pka sin J
ika sin J -i

(6.45)

p
4

1
[ J 0 (ka sin J ) + iJ1 (ka sin J )] .
2pka sin J 2

(6.46)

(6.21), (6.22)
us(1) = u0
+f

a e ikR
{f
2 R

(1)

1
uh( ) = u0

(1)

(1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +

(2)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) + iJ1 ( ka sin J )]},

(6.47)

a e ikR
{g (1) (1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +
2 R

+g (1) (2)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) + iJ1 ( ka sin J )]}.

(6.48)

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6.2.

.
(6.36), J0(0) = 1
J1(0) = 0, , (6.47) (6.48) (6.41), (6.42), J 0 J p. , (6.47), (6.48) 0 J W p w J p.
W J p w, 2 ,
(6.47) (6.48),
us(1) = u0
(1)

uh = u0

e ikR
,
R

(6.49)

a (1)
e ikR
,
g (1)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )]
R
2

(6.50)

a
f
2

(1)

(1)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )]

(6.23)
(6.24) W J p w.
, .

6.2.
. 6.6. ,
(6.1), z
a. ,
j = const (0 j 2p). , :
us(z) = us(z), uh(z) = uh(z).
j = p/2 0 J p/2.

. 6.6. . 1
2 x = 0

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6.

6.2.1.
(0)

u s(0) = E j(0) u h = H j(0)


u sinc = E jinc u hinc = H jinc .


, (1.31) ,
(z = 0) .
(1.16) (1.17),
z
$ n$ =- -cos J , (6.51)
J = p / 2, j = p / 2, cos W = sin J sin j, m
r
jh = jh( 0) = 2u0 .

js = js( 0) =-2iku0 ,

(6.52)

us( 0) = u0
( 0)

uh = u0

ik e ikR
2p R

2p

rdr e -ikrsin J sin j dj,

ik
e ikR
cos J
R
2p

2p

rdr e -ikrsin J sin j dj.

(6.53)

(6.54)

(Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, 1994),


2p

1
e -ix sin j dj= J 0 (x ),
2p 0

J 0 (x )x dx = xJ1 (x ),

(6.55)

J0 J1 . ,
us( 0) = u0

ia
e ikR
,
J1 ( ka sin J )
R
sin J

(6.56)

ia
e ikR
.
(6.57)
cos J J1 (ka sin J )
sin J
R
J1(kasinJ) (kasinJ)/2. ,
J = 0, p, :
( 0)

uh = u0

us( 0) = u0
( 0)

ika 2 e ikR
J = 0 J = p,
2 R

uh = u0

0
ika 2 e ikR
J =

.
2 R
p

(6.58)
(6.59)

, kasinJ ? 1,
(6.56) (6.57) -

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6.2.

(6.44). , ,
. ,
1 2:
us( 0)

f
=
2pka sin J

0
uh( ) =

u0 a

( 0)

(1) e

-ika sin J + i

p
4

+f

( 0)

(2) e

ika sin J -i

p
4

e ikR

, (6.60)

p
p

-ika sin J + i
ika sin J -i e ikR
4 + g ( 0) (2) e
4
g ( 0) (1) e
,

2pka sin J
R

u0 a

(6.61)

( 0)

(1) =- f

( 0)

1
,
sin J

(6.62)

cos J
sin J

(6.63)

(2) =-

g ( 0) (1) =-g ( 0) (2) =-

.

, ,
(, 1962):
cos J
e ikR
J1 ( ka sin J )
,
sin J
R
1
e ikR
E j( 0) =-Z 0 H J( 0) =- iaZ 0 H 0x cos j
J1 (ka sin J )
sin J
R
( 0)

E J = Z 0 H j( 0) =- iaZ 0 H 0x sin j

(6.64)


E yinc =-Z 0 H xinc =-Z 0 H 0x e ikz = E 0 y e ikz ,

(6.65)

Z 0 = m 0 / e 0 =120p .
(6.65),
E 0j = E 0 y cos j =-Z 0 H 0x cos j, H 0j =-H 0x sin j

(6.66)

, ,
ia
e ikR
J1 ( ka sin J )
,
R
sin J
e ikR
ia
H j( 0) = H 0j
cos J J1 ( ka sin J )
R
sin J
E j( 0) = E 0j

(6.67)

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6.

(6.56) (6.57)
:
us( 0) = E j( 0) , u0 = E 0j ,
( 0)
uh

= H j( 0) ,

(6.68)

u0 = H 0j .

(1.100), (1.101), .

6.2.2. ,

, js(,1h) ,
6.1.4.
. ,
us(1) = u0
+f
(1)

uh = u0

a e ikR
{f
2 R
(1)

(1)

(1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +

(2)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) + iJ1 ( ka sin J )]},

(6.69)

a e ikR
{g (1) (1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +
2 R

+g (1) (2)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) + iJ1 ( ka sin J )]},

(6.70)

0 J p.
(6.21) (6.22). (6.41)
(6.42). f (1)(1), f (1)(2) g(1)(1), g(1)(2)
(6.256.31).
.
f (1)(1) g(1)(1) 0 J p :

1
1
1
+ 1 ,
f (1) (1) =-
+
J sin J
2 J
sin
cos

2
2

(6.71)

1
1
1
+ cos J .
g (1) (1) = +
J
J sin J
2
sin
cos

2
2

(6.72)

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6.2.

f (1)(2) g(1)(2)

1
1
1
(1)

- 1 ,
f (2) =
J sin J
2 J
sin
cos

2
2

(6.73)

1 1
1 cos J
g (1) (2) =
+
J sin J
2 J
sin
cos

2
2

(6.74)

0 J p/2,

1
1
1
1
(1)
,
f (2) = +
J
J
sin J
2
sin
cos

2
2

1
1
1
- cos J
g (1) (2) =-
+
J sin J
2 J
sin
cos

2
2

(6.75)

(6.76)

p/2 J p.
f (1)(1) f (1)(2) :
f

(1)

(1, p - J ) = f

(1)

(1, J ),

(1)

(2, p - J ) = f

(1)

(2, J ),

(6.77)

g(1)(1) g(1)(2) :
g (1) (1, p - J ) =-g (1) (1, J ), g (1) (2, p - J ) =-g (1) (2, J ).

(6.78)

p J
(z < 0).
(6.716.76) ,
f

(1)

(1) = f

(1)

1
J = 0 J = p,
2

(6.79)

0
1
J = .
2
p

(6.80)

(2) =-

g (1) (1) = g (1) (2) =

(6.41) (6.42)
us(1) =(1)

uh =

u0 a e ikR
J = 0 J = p,
2 R

(6.81)

0
u0 a e ikR
J = .
2 R
p

(6.82)

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6.

, , , .

6.2.3.

( )
( )
us, h = us, h + us, h

(6.83)

:
( 0)
(1)
l u
s, h us, h (6.56),
(6.57) (6.69), (6.70).

l
(6.60), (6.61) (6.21), (6.22).
, f (0), g(0) us(,0h) us(,1h)
.
,
(6.83) f g:
p
p

-ika sin J + i
ika sin J -i e ikR
4
4
f (1) e
,
us =
+ f (2) e
2pka sin J

(6.84)

p
p

-ika sin J + i
ika sin J -i e ikR
4
4

.
uh =
g (1) e
+ g (2) e
2pka sin J

(6.85)

u0 a

u0 a

f(1, 2) g(1, 2) (6.716.76), ,


.
us(,0h) us(,1h) (6.58), (6.59) (6.81), (6.82). ,
us = u0

ika 2
i e ikR
1 +
J = 0 J = p,
ka R
2

(6.86)

0
ika 2
i e ikR
1-
J = .
2 ka R
p

(6.87)

uh = u0

(6.87) J = p
(14.114) [Bowman et al. (1987)].
, . 6.7 6.8,
.
s s, h
s norm =
pa 2 ( ka ) 2

Copyright & A K-C

6.2.

155

. 6.7. . ,
(fringe) .
. (1.100),

(10 lg snorm).
(1.26).

. 6.8. . ,
(fringe) .
(). (1.101),

Copyright & A K-C

156

6.

, (fringe) j(1) .
, , ,
J = 90. -
(. 6.8) j(1), ( ) .
, 5.1.4.

6.3. :

. .

. 6.9.
(6.1).

6.3.1.
,
js(,0h) .
(1.31) :
js( 0) =-2u0 ik sin w e ikz ,

jh( 0) = 2u0e ikz .

(6.88)

(1.16), (1.17),
$ n$ =-sin w cos J J = 0 J = p
m

(6.89)

ds = x sin wdxdj, x = r.

(6.90)

. 6.9. yOz. a

Copyright & A K-C

157

6.3. :

(J = 0, p)
j 2p. us(,0h)
us( 0) = u0 ik sin 2 w

e ikR
R

uh( ) = u0 ik sin 2 w cos J

e ikx(1-cos J ) cos w xdx,

(6.91)

e ikR
R

e ikx(1-cos J ) cos w xdx,

(6.92)

b = a/sinw a .
,
( 0)

us( 0) = uh = u0

ika 2 e ikR
2 R

(6.93)

(J = 0)
( 0)

us( 0) =-uh =-u0

i
e ikR i 2kl
i
a
e ikR
e
tg 2 w
+ u0 tg 2 w + tgw
4k
R
R
4k
2

(6.94)

(J = p).
(6.93) (6.58) (6.59)
, , , 1.3.4. , 1.3.5.
a .
(6.93), (6.94) ,
[ (2.4.3) (Ufimtsev,
2003, 2007 ), :
E x( 0) = us( 0) , E x( 0) = u inc ,

(6.95)

( 0)

H y( 0) = uh , H y( 0) = u inc
J = 0 J = p. (1.100) (1.101) .
, js(,1h) , , 6.1. (6.41) (6.42)
us(1) = u0 af
(1)

(1)

uh = u0 ag (1)

e ikR
,
R

(6.96)

e ikR
R

(6.97)

Copyright & A K-C

158

6.

(J = 0),
us(1) = u0 af
(1)

(1)

uh = u0 ag (1)

e ikR i 2kl
,
e
R

(6.98)

e ikR i 2kl
e
R

(6.99)

(J = p).
1
p
sin
1
p 1
n
n
f (1) =- ctg + ctg w ,
n 2
p
p + 2w 2n
cos - cos
n
n

(6.100)

1
p
sin
1
p 1
n
n
g (1) =
- ctg - ctg w
n 2
p
p + 2w 2n
cos - cos
n
n

(6.101)

(J = 0),

sin
1
1
n

- 1 tg w ,
f (1) =
n
2w 2
p
p
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.102)

sin
1
1
n
(1)

+ 1 tg w
g =
+
2w 2
p
p
n
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n

(6.103)

(J = p). n = 1 + (w + W)/p.

, ,
, . ,
(2.3.18), (2.3.19) (Ufimtsev, 2003, 2007 ), f (1) g(1),
us(1) f (1), uh(1)
g(1).
us(,1h) ,
,
.
. (kr)1 . r -

Copyright & A K-C

6.3. :

159

(r = a ).
,
. x
(kx)1 . (, 1962,
2003, 2007 ),
. (Felsen, 1955; Bowman et al.,1987)
.
- (J = p) , (6.94), (6.98)
(6.99):

i
us = u0 atg 2 w (1- e i 2kl ) +
ka
4

sin
ikR
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
,
+
2w
p
p
n
R
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.104)

i
uh = u0 a
tg 2 w (1- e i 2kl ) +
4ka

sin
ikR
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
.
+
+
2w
p
p
n
R
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.105)

, w p/2 (. 6.9)
,
:

1
p

sin
ika
1
p e ikR
n
n
,
(6.106)
us = u0 a
+
+ ctg
p
2
n R
2n

cos -1

1
p

ikR
sin
ika
1
p
e
n
n

,
uh = u0 a +
- ctg
p
2
n R
2n

cos -1

(6.107)

Copyright & A K-C

160

6.

n = 3/2 + W/p. , , W p/2



ika 2 a e ikR

us = u0
2 - 2 R ,

(6.108)

ika 2 a e ikR

uh =-u0
2 + 2 R ,

(6.109)

(6.86) (6.87)
.

6.3.2.

us, h = u0F s, h

e ikR
R

(6.110)

(1.26)
:
s s, h = 4p | F s, h | 2 .

(6.111)


2
s norm
s, h = s s, h / pa

(6.112)

, . . 10 lg s norm
s, h . ,
6.2.3 .
. 6.3.1, :
2

s ( 0) = s s( 0) = s h( 0) = pa 2
tg 2 w (1- e i 2kl ) - tg w e i 2kl .
2ka

(6.113)

, w p/2,
s ( 0) = pa 2 ( ka ) 2 .

(6.114)

js(,1h) ,
2

s s = pa 2

i
tg 2 w (1- e i 2kl
2ka

p
2
1
1
e i 2kl ,
)- sin
n
n
p
p
2w
cos - 1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.115)

Copyright & A K-C

161

6.3. :
2

i
p
2
1
1
e i 2kl ,
s h = pa 2
tg 2 w (1- e i 2kl ) + sin
+
n
n
p
p
2w
2ka
cos - 1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.116)

n = 1 + (w + W)/p.
, w p/2,
2

p
2

sin

1
p
n
n
s s = pa 2ika +
+ ctg ,
n
n
p

cos -1

(6.117)

p
2

sin

1
p
n
n
s h = pa 2-ika +
- n ctg n ,
p

cos -1

(6.118)

n = 3/2 + W/p.
, w W p/2
,
s s = pa 2 | ika -1| 2 ,

(6.119)

s h = pa 2 | ika +1| 2 .

(6.120)

(6.112)
: l, w W.
.
:
l (6.112) l
w = 45, W = 90, a = l tg w = l, 10 kl < 30.
1,5l < l < 4,8l 3l < 2a < 9,6l.
. 6.10.
, . 15 . , , ss
sh.
l (6.112)
(w)
ka = 3p, 10 w 90, W = 90.
2a = 3l, 0 l 8,5l. . 6.11.

. 40 .

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162

6.

. 6.10. : l. (6.95),

(6.112) W (. 6.9)

w = 10, ka = 3p, kl = 17p, 0 W p w = 170.
2a = 3l l 8.5l. . 6.12.
W
.
4257 . 11 16
.

. 6.11. : . (6.95),

Copyright & A K-C

6.4. :

163

. 6.12. : W. (6.95),

6.4. :

, . . 6.13. ,
.
(6.1)
z, .
: r, j, z r, J, j. r = r(z).

. 6.13.

Copyright & A K-C

164

6.

, d 2 r / dz 2 0 (0 z l) .
, . ,
(r = a): dr/dz = tgw (z = l 0) dr/dz = tgW
(z = l + 0). , 0 W p w. , W = p w,
( -
) r = r(z), 0 z l.

( , 1953,
1985):
R1 =

{1 + [ r ( z )]2 }3/ 2
, R 2 = r ( z ) 1 + [ r ( z )]2 ,
| r ( z )|

(6.121)

r = dr(z)/dz, r = d 2r(z)/dz2. R1
(r, z). R2 . r = tgq w q p/2,
q:
r( z)
1
.
(6.122)
R1 =
, R2 =
3
cos
q
| r ( z )|cos q
R2 . 6.13.
| r ( z )|
1
(6.123)
kG =
=
cos 4 q.
R1 R 2
r( z)
R1, R2 kG
z = 0, r = 0 q = p/2. ,
,
r 1 + [ z ( r )]2
{1 + [ z ( r )]2 }3/ 2
,
R1 =
, R2 =
z ( r )
z ( r )

(6.124)

z = z(r), z = dz(r)/dr z = d2z(r)/dr2. ,


r = z = 0
1
.
(6.125)
R1 = R 2 =
z ( r )
, r = z = 0 .

6.4.1.
,
(1.31) ,
js( 0) = iu0 2kn z e ikz ,

( 0)
jh = u0 2e ikz .

(6.126)

Copyright & A K-C

6.4. :

165

( , 1953, 1985),
cos y
sin y
r ( z )
,
(6.127)
n$ = x$
+ y$
- z$
2
2
1 + [ r ( z )]
1 + [ r ( z )]
1 + [ r ( z)]2

n$ = x$ cos q cos y + y$ cos q sin y - z$ sin q.

(6.128)

y j .
(1.16) (1.17),

ds = r ( z ) 1 + ( r ) 2 dzdy, rsin J = r ( z ), rcos J = z,

(6.129)

$ = r = x$ sin J cos j + y$ sin J sin j + z$ cos J.


m

(6.130)

, j = p/2.
sin J sin y - r ( z )cos J
$ n$ =
(6.131)
m
1 + [ r ( z )]2

us( 0) = u0
0

ik e ikR
2p R

uh( ) =-u0

2p

e ikz (1-cos J ) r( z ) r ( z )dz e -ikr ( z ) sin J sin y dy,

ik e ikR
2p R

(6.132)

e ikz (1-cos J ) r( z )dz


0

2p

e -ikr ( z ) sin J sin y [sin J sin y - r ( z )cos J ] dy.

(6.133)

,
us( 0) = uh( 0) = u0

ika 2 e ikR
2 R

(6.134)

(J = 0)
us( 0) =-uh( 0) = u0 ik

e ikR
R

e i 2kz r( z ) r ( z ) dz

(6.135)

(J = p). ,
:
1 e ikR
1
.
us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-u0 r (0) r (0) - r ( l) r ( l)e i 2kl + O
k R
2

(6.136)

Copyright & A K-C

166

6.


:
r (0) r (0) = lim r ( z )
z 0

d r( z)
r
1
1
. (6.137)
=
= lim
= lim 2
2
r 0 dz ( r )/ d r
r 0 d z ( r )/ d r
z (0)
dz

(6.125), z = 0. (6.136)

e ikR
1 1
.
us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-u0
- a tgw e i 2kl
2 z (0)
R

(6.138)

,
, ,
js(,0h) , (z = l). ,
(6.125) (6.138), (1.26),
,
s= p

1
[ z (0)]2

= p R12, 2 ,

(6.139)

(1.27). , (1.100) (1.101), (6.138) (6.139)


, .

6.4.2. . :

J = p
(6.138) (6.41), (6.42), js(,0h) js(,1h) . , f (1) g(1) (6.41) (6.42) J = p (6.102) (6.103).
:

2 sin
ikR
u0 1
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
, (6.140)
us =-
-a
n
2w
p
p
2 z (0)
R

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

Copyright & A K-C

167

6.4. :

2 sin
ikR
u0 1
1
1
n
e i 2kl e .
uh =
+a
+
n
2w
p
p
2 z (0)
R

cos -1 cos - cos


n
n

(6.141)

n = 1 + (w + W)/p, 0 w p/2 0 W p w. .

6.4.3.

. - .


,

r 2 ( z ) = 2 pz,

(6.142)

0 z l. z = p/2. (6.125) p
(z = 0). . 6.13.
(6.138) (6.140), (6.141), . :
us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-

u0
e ikR
.
( p - a tgw e i 2kl )
2
R

(6.143)

2
sin

ikR
u
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
,
us =- 0 p - a
2w
p
p
n
2
R

cos -1 cos - cos


n
n
n

(6.144)

2 sin
ikR
u0
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
,
uh = p + a
+
2w
p
p
n
2
R
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.145)

n = 1 + (w + W)/p.
, [. (2.5.3)

Copyright & A K-C

168

6.

(, 2003, 2007 )], :


E x( 0) = us( 0) , E x( 0) = u inc ,

(6.146)

( 0)

H y( 0) = uh , H y( 0) = u inc ,
(1.100) (1.101).
r(l) = p/a = tgw p = a tgw,

us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-u0

a
e ikR
tgw (1- e i 2kl )
R
2

(6.147)

2 sin
ikR
a
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
,
us =-u0 tgw p
p
2w
n
2
R
cos -1 cos - cos
n
n
n

(6.148)

2 sin

ikR
a
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
.
uh = u0 tgw +
+
p
p
2w
n
2
R

cos -1 cos - cos


n
n
n

(6.149)

, , , ,
w p/2. l = a2/2p = (actgw)/2, ,
w = p/2
( 0)

us( 0) =-uh = u0

ika 2 e ikR
2 R

(6.150)

n = 3/2 + W/p.

2
p

sin ikR
a
1
p
n
n e
,
us = u0
ika + ctg +
n
n
p R
2

cos -1
n

(6.151)

2
p

sin ikR
a
1
p
n
n e
,
uh =- u0
ika + ctg n
n
p R
2

cos -1
n

(6.152)

Copyright & A K-C

169

6.4. :

,
kl = mp, m = 1, 2, 3, ... .
.

(6.112),
(6.110) (6.111).
,
.

s (s0) = s (h0) = pa 2 | tgw (1- e i 2kl )| 2

(6.153)

2 sin

1
1
n

e i 2kl ,
s s = pa 2tgw
2w
p
p
n

cos -1 cos - cos


n
n
n

(6.154)

2 sin

1
1
n
e i 2kl ,
s h = pa 2tgw +
+

2w
p
p
n

cos -1 cos - cos


n
n
n

(6.155)

n = 1 + (w + W)/p.
l 0 w p/2, ,
s ( 0) = pa 2 ( ka ) 2 ,

(6.156)
2

p
2
sin

p
1
n
n
,
s s = pa 2ika + ctg +
n
n
p

cos -1

(6.157)

p
2
sin
p
1
n
n
2
,
s h = pa ika + ctg
n
n
p

cos -1

(6.158)

n = 3/2 + W/p.
, ,
6.3.2 . .
.
.

Copyright & A K-C

170

6.


(kp = 3ptg14), kl
(6p kl 36).

1,5l a 2l 3l l 5,8l.
(k = const) p l.
,
.
.
l = a2/2p = (actgw)/2 w (. 6.13) ctgw = 2kl / ka. kl 10,24 w 14. W (.
6.13) W = 90.
. 6.14.

1619 . , . , ,
.
. , , p, l.
l = a2/2p , p = a2/2l. w
(. 6.13), tgw = a/2l,

. 6.14. l
p.
(6.146), , ()

Copyright & A K-C

6.4. :

171

. 6.15. . p. (6.146), O ,

tgw = ka/2kl. ka
ka = 3p, .

2a = 3l. , , kl = 6p, . e. l = 3l.
. 6.15.
.
ka = 3p kl = 6p.
, 2a = l = 3l. , ,
W. W = p w,

. 6.16.

Copyright & A K-C

172

6.

ka
w = arctg 14. W = p w
2kl
. . 6.16.
.
kl = 6p . , , . ,
W. 3 . , (
20 ).

6.4.4.

. - .


, . 6.17
z ( r ) = b - b 2 - r 2 0 z l,

(6.159)

b . ,
dz ( r )
r
z ( r ) =
=
= ctgq,
dr
b2 - r 2
z ( r ) =

d 2 z( r)
dr

b2
(b - r
2

2) 3 / 2

z (0) =

1
.
b

(6.160)

(6.161)

. 6.17.

Copyright & A K-C

173

6.4. :

q(z), (6.160), . 6.13. z = l,


r = a q(l) = w. b a w l
tgw =

b2 - a 2
, l= b- b2 - a 2 .
a

(6.162)

w a, b l

b=

a
1- sin w
.
, l= a
cos w
cos w

(6.163)

, w p/2, l 0 a = const.
(6.138), (6.161) (6.163), us(,0h)
us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-u0

1
e ikR
,
(b - a tgw e i 2kl )
R
2

(6.164)

a
e ikR
.
(6.165)
(1- sin w e i 2kl )
R
2 cos w
(2.6.4) (, 2003,
2007 ) , :
us( 0) =-uh( 0) =-u0

E x( 0) = us( 0) , E x( 0) = u inc ,

(6.166)

( 0)

H y( 0) = uh , H y( 0) = u inc .
, ,
.
, (6.140), (6.141), (6.161) (6.163) us, h = us(,0h) + us(,1h) :

2 sin

ikR
1
1
1
n
i 2kl e

, (6.167)
us =- u0 b - a
e

2w
p
p
n
R
2

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n

2 sin
ikR
1
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
,
uh = u0 b + a
+
2w
p
p
n
2
R
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.168)

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174

6.

2 sin

ikR
a
1
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
, (6.169)
us =- u0
2w
p
p
n
2 cos w
R

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

2 sin
ikR
a 1
1
1
n
e i 2kl e
,
uh = u0
+
+
2w
p
p
n
2 cos w
R
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n

(6.170)

n = 1 + (w + W)/p, 0 w p/2 0 W p w.
, (w p/2 l 0), (6.164), (6.165) (6.167), (6.168)
(6.150) (6.151), (6.152), .

(6.112),
(6.110) (6.111). , (1.26).

2

1
s (s0) = s (h0) = pa 2
- tgw e i 2kl ,

cos w

(6.171)

2 sin

1
1
1
n
e i 2kl ,
s s = pa 2

2w
p
p
n
cos w

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n

(6.172)

2 sin

1
1
1
n
e i 2kl ,
s h = pa 2
+
+

2w
p
p
n
cos w

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(6.173)

n = 1 + (w + W)/p.
.
l ,
w p/2. ,
b = a/cosw. ka = 3p, kl0 2,5p, w0 = 10 W = 90.

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 175

. 6.18. . (6.166), O ( )


a = 1,5l l0 1,26l.
. 6.18.
( js(,1h) ) ,
.

. W, . 6.17 p w. , -

. 6.19. .
(6.166), ( )

Copyright & A K-C

176

6.

W = p w, .
w = 10, ka = 3p, kl 2,5p.
a = 1,5l l0 1,26l.
. 6.19.

. 6.19 ().
10
13,5 .

6.5. :

. 6.20. (6.1) z,
. .
l (0 z l)
r = r(z), d 2r/dz2 0. , .
l (z > l) ,
0 W p w. , W = p w,
r = r(z) 0 z l.
l q z.
, z = l 0, q(l) = w = arctg[dr(l)/dz].
l (R1, R2) (6.121)
(6.122). (6.123).
l
(6.128).
,
j = p/2.

. 6.20.

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 177

6.5.1.
(6.132) (6.133)
k rsinJ ? 1. ,
yOz, p w < J p, (0 z l) (. 6.21).
(6.132) (6.133) y (, 1966; Murray, 1984). 6.1.2. y1 = p/2 y2 = 3p/2.
:
us( 0) = u0

e ikR

2pk sin J R
ik

l
l

ikF1 ( z )
ip / 4
-ip / 4
e
r ( z ) r ( z ) dz + e
e
e ikF2 ( z ) r( z ) r ( z )dz ,

0
0

. 6.21. yOz

(6.174)

Copyright & A K-C

178

6.

( )

0
uh =-u0

e ikR

2pk sin J R
ik

e ip / 4 e ikF1 ( z ) r ( z )[sin J - r ( z ) cosJ ]dz

(6.175)

- e -ip / 4 e ikF2 ( z ) r ( z )[sin J + r ( z )cos J ] dz,

F 1 ( z ) = z (1- cos J ) - r ( z )sin J,

(6.176)

F 2 ( z ) = z (1- cos J ) + r ( z )sin J.

(6.177)

exp[F1(z)] ,
y = p/2, 0 < z l. exp[F2(z)] ,
y = 3p/2, 0 < z l (. 6.21).
F1(z) F2(z) zst.
F 1 ( z ) =1- cos J - r ( z st )sin J = 0

(6.178)

r ( z st ) = dr / dz = tg q ( z st ) = tg ( J / 2)

(6.179)

q( z st ) = J / 2.

(6.180)

zst ,
. 6.20. r(z) q = J/2 z, .
F2(z) .

F 2 ( z ) =1- cos J + r ( z st )sin J = 0

(6.181)

r ( z st ) = dr / dz = tgq( z st ) =-tg (J /2)

(6.182)

q( z st ) =-J / 2, p < J < 0.

(6.183)


j = 3p/2. zst (6.180)
(6.183)

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 179

, . 6.20.
j = p/2, F2(z) .
(6.174) (6.175) x = z F1(z) x = z F2(z).
,
l

I (P ) = F ( x, P ) e ikF( x, P ) dx,

(6.184)

-l

P .
(k ? 1) exp[F(x, P)] x . F ( x, P ) e ikF( x, P ) dx I(P)
. ,
, I(P).
(, 1966; Murray, 1984).
(x = l) . I(P):
I (P ) ~

2p
F ( x st , P ) e ikF( xst , P )+ ip / 4 +

kF ( x st , P )

F (-l, P ) ikF(-l, P )
1 F ( l, P ) ikF( l, P )
+
e
e
.
F (-l, P )
ik F (l, P )

(6.185)

,
. (6.185).
,
:
0

( )
( )
( )
( )
us, h = us, h ( z st ) + us, h (1) + us, h (2),

(6.186)

us( 0) ( z st ) =-uh( 0) ( z st ) =-u0

1
e ikR
R1 ( z st )R 2 ( z st ) e ikF1 ( z st )
R
2

(6.187)

us( 0) (1) + us( 0) (2) =


[ f

( 0)

u0 a
2pka sin J

(1) e -ika sin J + ip / 4 + f

( 0)

(2) e ika sin J -ip / 4 ]

e ikR ikl (1-cos J )


,
e
R

(6.188)

Copyright & A K-C

180

6.

u0 a

uh( ) (1) + uh( ) (2) =

2pka sin J

[ g ( 0) (1) e -ika sin J + ip / 4 + g ( 0) (2) e ika sin J -ip / 4 ]

e ikR ikl (1-cos J )


.
e
R

(6.189)

us(,0h) ( z st ) , zst, (6.179) (6.180).


R1 R2 (6.121) (6.122).
(6.188) (6.189) ,
1 2 (. 6.21).

f

( 0)

(1) =

g ( 0) (1) =

sin w
,
cos w - cos( w - J )

sin w
,
cos w - cos( w + J)

(6.190)

sin(w + J )
sin(w - J )
.
, g ( 0) (2) =
cos w - cos(w - J )
cos w - cos( w + J )

(6.191)

( 0)

(2) =

6.5.2. :
p w J p
(6.45) (6.46), :

us( 0) = u0 a
+ {f
2
+f
( 0)

( 0)

( 0)

(1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +

(6.192)

e R

(2)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) + iJ1 (ka sin J )]}e ikl (1-cos J ) ]

12

uh = u0

1
R1 ( z st ) R 2 ( z st ) e ikF1 ( z st ) +
2

ikR

R1 ( z st )R 2 ( z st )e ikF1 ( z st ) +

a
+ {g ( 0) (1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +
2
+g ( 0) (2)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) + iJ1 (ka sin J )]}e ikl (1-cos J )

(6.193)

e R

ikR

J0 J1 . (J = p) kasinJ ? 1.

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 181

(6.138),
1
e ikR
a
,
us( 0) =-uh( 0) = u0- R1 (0) R 2 (0) + tg w e i 2kl
2
R
2

(6.194)

R1 (0) = R 2 (0) =1/ z (0).


J p, (6.192) (6.193) (6.194). ,

p w J p.

6.5.3. :
p w J p
us(,0h) us(,1h) . us(,0h)
js(,0h) . us(,1h) js(,1h) .
js(,1h) . , k1 (Schensted, 1955). js(,1h)
(6.21) (6.22),
k1/2.
, js(,1h) ,
.
p w J p
(6.47) (6.48), .
, . 6.2.
, . 6.21, z , l. (6.47) (6.48)
exp[ikl(1 cosJ)].
(6.47) (6.48)
(6.192) (6.193),
:

us = u0 -

1
R1 ( z st ) R 2 ( z st ) e ikF1 ( z st ) +
2

a
+ { f (1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] +
2
+ f (2)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) + iJ1 (ka sin J )]} e ikl (1-cos J )

(6.195)

e ikR
,
R

Copyright & A K-C

182

6.

12

us = u0

R1 ( z st ) R 2 ( z st ) e ikF1 ( z st ) +

a
+ {g (1)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )] +
2

(6.196)

+g (2)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) + iJ1 (ka sin J )]} e ikl (1-cos J )

e R

ikR

f (1,2) g(1,2) (6.25) (6.26),


. f (0)(1,2) g(0)(1,2)
(6.47), (6.48) (6.192), (6.193).

6.5.4. - 2w J p w
J = 2w
2 (. 6.21) ,
W < 2w. .
, (J = 2w), f (1) g(1) . :

us = u0 +

1
R1 ( z st ) R 2 ( z st ) e ikF1 ( z st ) +
2

(6.197)

(6.198)

e ikR
a
,
f (1)[ J 0 (ka sin J ) - iJ1 (ka sin J )] e ikl (1-cos J )
2
R

12

uh = u0

R1 ( z st ) R 2 ( z st ) e ikF1 ( z st ) +

e ikR
a
.
+ g (1)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )] e ikl (1-cos J )
2
R

6.5.5.
2w < J p w, J = 2w
(6.197) (6.198) J = 2w, .
, ,
,
(, 2003, 2007 ).
f (1), g(1) 1/F(l) (6.185), (
xst l F(l, P) 0). (6.184) ,

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 183

x = l (Felsen
and Marcuvitz, 1972). .
(6.184).
P, . , 2 (. 6.21) . .
(6.184) x = l.
, x = .
t,
F ( x) = F ( x st ) + t 2 .

(6.199)

(6.176), F ( x st ) =- r ( x st )sin J , F(xst)


F(x). , t x,

F ( x) - F ( x st ) x x st ,
t ( x) =

- F ( x) - F ( x st ) x x st ,

(6.200)

.
, F(xst) = 0,
F (x) = F ( x st ) +

1
1
F (x st )(x - x st ) 2 + F (x st )(x - x st ) 3 +... (6.201)
2!
3!

t (x) = ( x - x st )

1 F ( x st )
1
F ( x st ) 1 +
( x - x st ) .
2
6 F ( x st )

(6.202)

(6.184)
I = e ikF( xst )

t (l )

e ikt G (t )dt,

(6.203)

dx
2t ( x )
= F (x)
dt
F ( x )

(6.204)

G (t ) = F (x)

2t ( x )
2
F (x) =
F ( x st ).
x xst F ( x )
F ( x st )

G (0) = lim

(6.205)

Copyright & A K-C

184

6.

, (6.203) . ,
t (l )
t (l )

ikF( xst )
ikt 2
(6.206)
I =e
G (0) e dt + e ikt [G ( t ) - G (0)] dt.

-
-
,
I=

1
k

e ikF( xst ) G (0)

k t (l )

e ix dx +

1
G[t (l)]- G (0) ikF( l )
e
+ O 2 .
i2kt (l)
k

(6.207)

k t (l) ?1, J = 2w,


(6.185 ).

(J = 2w + 0 t = +0), (6.201), (6.202) :
1 F (x st )

1
1
=
( x - x st ) + O[( x - x st ) 2 ],
1F ( x) ( x - x st )F ( x st ) 2 F ( x st )

(6.208)

2t ( x )
2 1 F ( x st )
=
1(x - x st ) + O[(x - x st ) 2 ],
F ( x )
F ( x st ) 3 F ( x st )

(6.209)

F ( x) = F ( x st ) + F ( x st )( x - x st ) + ... ,

(6.210)

G ( t ) - G (0) = ( x - x st )

F ( x st )
2
1
F ( x st ) - F (x st )
.
F (x st )
F ( x st )
3

(6.211)

J = 2w + 0:
I=

p
F (l) e ikF( l )+ ip / 4 +
2kF ( l)
+

1
F ( l) ikF( l )
1
1
e
F ( l) - F ( l)
+ O 2 .

F ( l)
ikF (l)
3
k

(6.212)


:
us( 0) = u0
( )

0
uh =-u0

ik
2pk sin J

e ip / 4 I s

ik
2pk sin J

e ikR
,
R

e ip / 4 I h

e ikR
,
R

(6.213)
(6.214)

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 185

Is,h (6.203)
Fs ( x) = r ( x) r ( x), Fh (x) = r (x)[sin J - r ( x)cos J ],

(6.215)

F( x) = x(1- cos J ) - r ( x)sin J .

(6.216)


, k2:
us( 0)

e ikR e i 3p / 4

= u0
R
2 p

a
+
f

2pka sin J

( 0)

uh = u0

R1 ( z st ) R st ( z st ) e

ikF ( z st )

k t (l )

e ix dx +

( 0)

e ikR e i 3p / 4
R
2 p

(1) -

R1 ( z st )R 2 ( z st ) ikF( l )+ ip / 4

e
,

4 pk t ( l)

R1 ( z st ) R st ( z st )e ikF( z st )

k t (l )

(6.217)

e ix dx +

R1 ( z st )R 2 ( z st ) ikF( l )+ ip / 4

a
e
.
+
g ( 0) (1) +

4 pk t ( l)
2pka sin J

(6.218)

t ( l) = F (l) - F ( z st ) ; f (0)(1) g(0)(1)


(6.190) (6.191); R1,2 (6.121).
( k t (l) ?1), (6.217)
(6.218) :
u s(0) = u 0
(0)

uh = u0

e ikR 1
a
f (0) (1) e ikF (l )+ip/ 4 ,
- R1 ( z st )R st ( z st ) e ikF ( z st) +
R 2
2pka sin J

(6.219)

e ikR 1
a
g (0) (1) e ikF (l )+ip/ 4 .
R1 ( z st )R st ( z st ) e ikF ( z st) +
R 2
2pka sin J

(6.220)

(6.1866.189),
, 2 2w J < p w.
(6.219) (6.220) , .
(J = 2w + 0) (6.217)
(6.218) :
us( 0) = u0
+

e ikR 1
R1 ( l)R 2 (l) +
R 4

F ( l) ikF( l )
1
,
Fs(l) - Fs ( l)
e
3
F ( l)
2pk sin J F ( l)

e ip / 4

(6.221)

Copyright & A K-C

186

6.

( 0)

uh = u0
-

e ikR 1
R1 ( l) R 2 (l) R 4

F ( l) ikF( l )
1
,
Fh ( l) - Fh ( l) e
3
F ( l)
2pk sin J F ( l)

e ip / 4

(6.222)

, x (6.184), s h
( ) .
(2w J p w) - (6.217), (6.218)
us(,1h) , js(,1h)
. us(,1h) (6.49), (6.50), J = 2w.
,
. 6.1, , ,
. :
us(1) = u0
1

uh( ) = u0

e ikR
,
R

(6.223)

a (1)
e ikR
,
g (1)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )] e ikl (1-cos J )
2
R

(6.224)

a
f
2

(1)

(1)[ J 0 ( ka sin J ) - iJ1 ( ka sin J )] e ikl (1-cos J )

f (1) g(1) . 6.1.2. ,


2w J < p w. W < 2w 2 , ,
.

6.5.6. -
, ,
0 J < 2w (. 6.21), . - (6.174),
(6.175). (1.70), : (1.71) (1.72).
,
(0 J < 2w), . :
us(,0h) u sh =

ikr
inc ikr
1
u inc e - u e ds.

4p S
n r
n r

il

(6.225)

Copyright & A K-C

6.5. : 187


. .
, 1.3.5, . (6.225) , z = l
a.
1.3.4, , , (1.73),
1
u sh = [ us( 0) + uh( 0) ] .
2

(6.226)

us( 0) uh( 0) 6.2.1


. (6.56), (6.57) , , (6.226)
u sh = u0

ia 1 + cos J
e ikR ikl (1-cos J )
.
J1 (ka sin J )
e
R
2 sin J

(6.227)

, . , (J = 0) , ,
u sh = u0

ika 2 e ikR
.
2 R

(6.228)

J = p (6.227) .
(0 J 2w)
(6.227) us(,1h) , js(,1h) (6.47), (6.48).
exp[ikl(1 cosJ)],
, .
, .

6.1. (6.17)
.
6.2. (6.25) (6.26) f (1)(1), g(1)(1), 1 (. 6.3).
6.3. (6.30) (6.31) f (1)(2), g(1)(2), 2 (. 6.4).
6.4. (6.34) (6.35) f (1)(1), g(1)(1), J = 2w (. 6.21).

Copyright & A K-C

188

6.

6.5. - (6.64) , . (1.87) (1.88), (1.96), (1.98), (1.99) .


6.6. (6.86) (6.87) , .
6.7. (6.104), (6.105) , , , (6.108), (6.109)
, .
6.8. (6.148) (6.149) , . , (6.151), (6.152) ,
w p/2 .
6.9. (6.169) (6.170) , . , (6.151), (6.152) , w p/2
.

Copyright & A K-C

( , 1986; et al.,
1987; Ufimtsev, 1989, 1991, 2006 , 2006 b).
,
, :
dus = dEt, u inc ( z ) = E tinc ( z );
duh = dHt, u inc ( z ) = H tinc ( z ).
$
t z.
(0 ,1)
du s(0,1) ( z ) = dE t
(c. 4.3.2).

, .
(),
, . .
u = du( z ).
L

L , z , (d z = dl). , L
, . du(z) .
.
, ,
. , -

Copyright & A K-C

190

7.

.
, j(1)
(k ) (1)
jklin
, , . ,
, , .

7.1.
4 ,
,
, (. 4.4). ,
, . ,
L c E
(. 7.1) , .
, , . ,
(!).
() , . . 7.1 .
,
, B. ,
. ,

. 7.1. L E
. , E
. A B

Copyright & A K-C

7.1.

191

L . ,
, E,
.
, . j(1)
,
( ). j(1) , .
, (Michaeli, 1987; Breinbjerg, 1992; Johansen, 1996).
, 5.1.4.
, , .
,
.
, . ,
(. 7.2).
,
. . . ,
j(1) ,
. ,
, , , , .

. 7.2. .
( ), ,

Copyright & A K-C

192

7.

7.2.
j s(1,h)
, 7.1.
. 7.3.

u inc = u0e ik f

(7.1)

k$ i = f i grad f i . (r, j, z)
u inc = u0e -ikz cos g 0 e -ik1r cos( j -j 0 ) ,

(7.2)

k1 = ksing0, 0 < g0 < p, 0 j0 p, 0 j a. a


1 2 (p a 2p).
: (R, J, j) (R, b1, b2), b1,2 , . . x1,2, , 180
(0 b1,2 p).
r, j, z R,
J, j $ J$ = j).
$ = z$, R
$ ,
($r j
,
j

r
, t
r
z (t$ = z$). , j .
r
r
$
z t ( z$ = t$ = r$ j).

. 7.3. , x1 x2 z

Copyright & A K-C

193

7.2. js(1,h)


, .

2.3 4.3, (7.2)



us (r, j) = u0e -ikz cos g 0 [ v (k1 r, j - j 0 ) - v (k1 r, j + j 0 )] + usgo ( r, j)

(7.3)

go
uh ( r, j) = u0e -ikz cos g 0 [ v ( k1 r, j - j 0 ) + v ( k1 r, j + j 0 )] + uh ( r, j).

(7.4)

, usgo
, h (
), v( k1 r, j j 0 ),
v( k1 r, y ) =

1
e -ik1r cos h
dh,

2a D w( h + y )

(7.5)

p
w(x ) =1- exp i x,
a

(7.6)

D . 2.5.
js(,1h) , .
(1.86), (1.31) (1.11) :
js(1) =

us (r, j) usgo (r, j)


j = 0, a,
n
n

jh(1) = uh (r, j) - uhgo ( r, j)

(7.7)

j = 0, a.

(7.8)

(7.7)
1

1
j = 0
j = a.
=
=n r j
n
r j

(7.9)

v( k1 r, j m j 0 ) :

1
-1
v( k1 r, j m j 0 ) =
e -ik1r cos h
w ( h + j m j 0 ) dh =

j
2a D
j
=

-ik1r cos h

e
1
1
e -ik1r cos h w-1 (h + j m j 0 ) dh =

h
2a D
2a w( h + j m j 0 )

p
- -i
2
-

3p
+ i
2

Copyright & A K-C

194

7.

-ik1r cos h

1
e
2a w( h + j m j 0 )

=-

p
+ i
2
3p
-i
2

ik1 r e -ik1r cos h sin h


dh =

2a D w(h + j m j 0 )

ik1 r e -ik1r cos h sin h


dh.

2a D w( h + j m j 0 )

(7.10)

, D, .

z = z - x1, 2 cos g 0 , r = x1, 2 sin g 0 ,

(7.11)

x1,2 = x1,2,
.
js(,1h) :
js(1) = u0

ik1 -ik ( z -x1 cos g 0 ) cos g 0


e

2a

e -ik1x1 sin g 0 cos h [ w-1 ( h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )]sin hdh,

(7.12)

jh(1) = u0

1 -ik ( z -x1 cos g 0 ) cos g 0


e

2a

e -ik1x1 sin g 0 cos h [ w-1 ( h + j 0 ) + w-1 ( h - j 0 )]dh

(7.13)

1 (j = 0),
js(1) = u0

ik1 -ik ( z -x2 cos g 0 ) cos g 0


e

2a

e -ik1x2 sin g 0 cos h [ w-1 ( h + a - j 0 ) - w-1 ( h + a + j 0 )]sin hdh, (7.14)


D

jh(1) = u0

1 -ik ( z -x2 cos g 0 ) cos g 0


e

2a

e -ik1x2 sin g 0 cos h [ w-1 ( h + a - j 0 ) + w-1 (h + a + j 0 )]dh


D

2 (j = a).
w( h + a + j 0 ) =1- e

p
i ( h+ a+ j 0 )
a

p
i ( h-a+ j 0 )
=1- e a

= 1- e

p
i ( 2a+ h-a+ j 0 )
a

= w( h - a + j 0 )

(7.15)

Copyright & A K-C

7.3.

195

(7.14) (7.15) :
js(1) = u0

ik1 -ik ( z -x2 cos g 0 ) cos g 0


e

2a

e -ik1x2 sin g 0 cos h [ w-1 ( h + a - j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - a + j 0 )]sin hdh,

(7.16)

jh(1) = u0

1 -ik ( z -x2 cos g 0 ) cos g 0


e

2a

e -ik1x2 sin g 0 cos h [ w-1 ( h + a - j 0 ) + w-1 (h - a + j 0 )]dh.

(7.17)

, (7.16) (7.17), js(,1h)


2, (7.12), (7.13) j0 a j0 x1 x2. js(,1h) .

7.3.

:
l z
;
l (d z > 0);
l z z;
r
l z t $ r j t$ = z$ = r$ j,
;
l j ,
7.1.

(1.10).
dus(,1h) , js(,1h) ,
. (1.10) 1 ( j = 0) 2
( j = a). ,
ds1,2 = sing0d zdx1,2.
(1.10) :
dus(1) = du1(1) + du2(1) , duh(1) = dv 1(1) + dv 2(1) ,

(7.18)

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7.

du1(,12)

sin g 0
=- d z
4p

dv 1(,12) = d z

sin g 0
4p

ikr

js(11,)s2

e 1,2
d x1, 2 ,
r1, 2

(7.19)

ikr

e 1,2
d x1, 2 .
r1, 2

jh(11,)h 2 n
0

(7.20)

du1(1) , dv 1(1) du2(1) , dv 2(1) , 1 2, . r1 = (x1 - x1 ) 2 + h12


r2 = (x 2 - x 2 ) 2 + h22
(. 7.4).

(6.616-3) ( Gradshteyn and Ryzhik, 1994)

ikr

i
e 1,2
ip ( x -x )
( )
= e 1,2 1,2 H 01 ( qh1, 2 )dp,
r1, 2
2 -

(7.21)

q = k 2 - p 2 , Im(q) 0 h1, 2 = y12, 2 + z12, 2 0. q . ,


(p): Re(p) k k Re(p) . (7.21)
p = k,
p = k. ,
.

ikr

ikr

ikr

ikr

e 1,2
e 1,2
e 1,2
e 1,2
=
=
y$1, 2 =-
y$1, 2 =y1, 2 r1, 2
n r1, 2
r1, 2
r1, 2
=

iy1, 2

e ip ( x

2h1, 2 -

1, 2 -x1, 2 )

qH1(1) (qh1, 2 )dp.

(7.22)

. 7.4. (x1, y1, z1) x1 z1, 1 (j = 0); y1 1 ( y$1 = n$).


(x2, y2, z2) x2, z2 2 (j = a); y2
( y$ 2 = n$)

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7.3.

197

, () (). y1,2 (R, J, j)


y1 = R sin J sin j,

y2 = R sin J sin( a - j),

(7.23)

h1,2 (R, b1, b2)


h1 = R sin b 1 , h2 = R sin b 2 .

(7.24)

7.2 js(,1h) , :
( )
du11 = u0e -ikz cos g 0 d z

k sin 2 g 0
I u ( x1 , h1 , j 0 ),
16pa

(7.25)

dv 1(1) = u0e -ikz cos g 0 d z

i sin g 0 sin J sin j


I v (x1 , h1 , j 0 ),
sin b 1
16pa

(7.26)

I u ( x1 , h1 , j 0 ) = e ikx1 cos

g0

dx1

e -ikx1 sin

g 0 cos h

e ip ( x -x ) H 0(1) (qh1 )dp


1

[ w-1 ( h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )]sin hdh,

(7.27)

I v (x1 , h1 , j 0 ) = e ikx1 cos


0

e -ikx1 sin

g 0 cos h

g0

dx 1

e ip ( x -x ) qH1(1) (qh1 )dp


1

[ w-1 ( h + j 0 ) + w-1 ( h - j 0 )]dh

(7.28)

( )
du21 = u0e -ikz cos g 0 d z

k sin 2 g 0
I u ( x 2 , h2 , a - j 0 ),
16pa

( )
dv 21 = u0e -ikz cos g 0 d z

i sin g 0 sin J sin( a - j)


I v ( x 2 , h2 , a - j 0 ). (7.30)
sin b 2
16pa

(7.29)

, (7.29) (7.30) ,
2, (7.25) (7.26) 1
:
(7.31)
x1 x 2 , h1 h2 , b 1 b 2 , j 0 a - j 0 , j a - j.

du1(1) , dv 1(1) . du2(1) , dv 2(1) (7.31).

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198

7.

, Iu, Iv. .

7.4.

(7.27), (7.28):
Iu =

e ipx H 0(1) (qh1 )dp


1

[ w-1 ( h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )]sin hdh e -ix1 ( p2 + k 2 cos h ) dx1 ,


Iv =

(7.32)

e ipx qH1(1) (qh1 )dp


1

[ w-1 ( h + j 0 ) + w-1 ( h - j 0 )]dh e -ix1 ( p2 + k 2 cos h ) dx1 ,


D

(7.33)

p2 = p - k cos 2 g0 ,

k 2 = k sin 2 g 0 .

(7.34)

x
Im(p2 + k2cosh) < 0, .
:
Iu =

[ w-1 (h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )]sin h


1
( )
dh,
e ipx1 H 01 ( qh1 )dp

p2 + k 2 cos h
i -
D

(7.35)

Iv =

[ w-1 (h + j 0 ) + w-1 ( h - j 0 )]
1
e ipx1 qH1(1) (qh1 )dp
dh.

i -
p2 + k 2 cos h
D

(7.36)

D ( h = p)
Im(k2cosh) < 0, . h = p)
p k ,
, k = k + ik , k > 0 0 < k = 1. - . (7.35) (7.36)
. , h = p p p = k,
(p). (p)

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7.4.

199

, p ,
p = p+ i p, p= k p= Im( p) < 0. ,
x1 Im(p) < 0.

D. . ,
h1 = j0 h2 = j0, w 1 ( h m j 0 ). ,
h3 = s h4 = s, p2 + k2cosh,
cos s =-

p2
p2
s = arccos
-
.
k2
k2

(7.37)

,
s = p - arccos( p2 / k 2 ), |p2| k2,

(7.38)

, 0 arccos(x) p.
|p2| k2 p kcos(2g0) p k. 0 s p.
s |p2| k2, . (7.37)
p
1 is
(e + e -is ) =- 2 .
k2
2

(7.39)

eis = t
s = i ln

- p2 p22 - k 22
k2

(7.40)


p22

- k 22 .

p2 = k2. ,
(p) ( p2 k2
k2 p2 ) ,

p22 - k 22 0

() () .
(7.40),
: s = p p2 = k2 s = 0 p2 = k2. s :
s = i ln

- p2 + p22 - k 22

ln(1) = ip ln(1) = 0.

k2

(7.41)

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200

7.

(7.41) ,
s = p + i ln

p2 - p22 - k 22
k2

p2 k2

(7.42)

s = i ln

- p2 + p22 - k 22
k2

p2 k2.

(7.43)

p2 , (7.42)
(7.43) , , ln(0) = , ln(1) = 0 ln() = +.
s (h) p (7.35) (7.36).
p = p = kcos(2g0), h3 = s
(h) Im(h) h = +i h = 0.
p p = kcos(2g0) p = k, h3 = s Re(h) h = 0 h = p. p p = k
p = +, h3 = s h = p
h = p i. h3 = s (h)
. 7.5 .
h4 = s.
D, F+ F (. 7.5), Im(h) = A Im(h) = A, .
(A ? 1) C = D + F+ + F .

. 7.5. (h)

Copyright & A K-C

7.4.

201

, F+ F
(A ).
J u (C ) =

w-1 ( h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )
sin hdh,
p2 + k 2 cos h

(7.44)

J v (C ) =

w-1 ( h + j 0 ) + w-1 ( h - j 0 )
dh.
p2 + k 2 cos h

(7.45)

.
Ju, Jv .
Ju ,
C = D + F+ + F , ,
4

J u (C )= 2pi Res m .

(7.46)

m=1

Res1 Res2 h1 = j0 h2 = j0,


Res 1 = Res 2 =

e(j 0) sin j 0
a
,

ip p2 + k 2 cos j 0

(7.47)

1, 0 x p,
e( x ) =
0, p < x,

(7.48)

Res 3 =

1 -1
[w (s - j 0 ) - w-1 ( s + j 0 )] ,
k2

(7.49)

Res 4 =

1 -1
[w (-s - j 0 ) - w-1 (-s + j 0 )
k2

(7.50)

h3 h4. ,
Res 3 + Res 4 =

p(s - j 0 )
p(s + j 0 )
i
.
ctg
- ctg

k2
2a
2a

(7.51)

, Res3 Res4 , Im(s) .


, |p| h3
h4 F+ F . , Ju(C)

1
J u (C ) = 2pi Res 1 + Res 2 + ( Res 3 + Res 4 ).

(7.52)

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202

7.

Ju(D) D = C
(F+ + F), F+ F [Im(h) = ].
(7.46) (7.52), :
4

J u ( D ) = 2pi Res m - J u ( F+ + F- ), |Im(s)| < A

(7.53)

m=1

1
J u ( D ) = 2pi Res 1 + Res 2 + ( Res 3 + Res 4 )]- J u ( F+ + F- ), |Im(s)| = A,

2
(7.54)

J u ( F+ + F- ) = J u ( F+ ) + J u ( F- )

(7.55)

J u ( F+ ) =
J u ( F- ) =

-3p / 2+ iA

p / 2+ iA

w-1 (h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )
sin hdh,
p2 + k 2 cos h

(7.56)

3p / 2-iA

w-1 ( h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )
sin hdh.
p2 + k 2 cos h
-p / 2-iA

(7.57)

h3 h4 ,
D + F+ + F , A , Ju(F)
1, Im( h ) +,
(7.58)
w-1 ( h j 0 )
0, Im( h ) -,
w-1 (h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 ) 0, Im(h) ,

(7.59)

i, Im( h ) +,
tg ( h )
-i, Im(h ) -.

(7.60)

, h3 h4 F+ F ,
1

J u ( F+ ) = lim 2pi ( Res 3 + Res 4 ) +


2

s + i
d+ iA -p+ d+ iA
+ lim lim + +
A d 0
p / 2+ iA -d+ iA

-3p / 2+ iA -1


-p-d+ iA

(h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )
sin hdh , (7.61)
p2 + k 2 cos h

J u ( F- ) = lim 2pi ( Res 3 + Res 4 )+


2

s -i
-d-iA p-d-iA
+ lim lim + +
A d 0
-p / 2-iA + d-iA

3p / 2-iA -1

p+ d-iA

(h + j 0 ) - w-1 ( h - j 0 )
sin hdh .
p2 + k 2 cos h

(7.62)

Copyright & A K-C

203

7.5.


Ju(F). (7.59) (7.60)
lim Res 3,4 = 0, Ju(F) .
h i

, h3 h4 ,
Ju(F+ + F) = 0 A . (7.53),
(7.54), :
4

J u ( D )= 2pi Res m ,

(7.63)

m=1

(7.47) (7.49), (7.50).


Jv(D), ,
(7.63), .
(7.32) (7.33):
Iu =

4ae(j 0 )sin j 0
1
e ipx1 H 0(1) ( qh1 )
+

i -
p2 + k 2 cos j 0

p(s + j 0 )
p (s - j 0 )
2p
+ ctg
- ctg
dp,

k2
2a
2a
Iv =

(7.64)

4ae(j 0 )
1
( )
e ipx1 qH1 1 (qh1 )+

i -
p2 + k 2 cos j 0

p (s + j 0 )
p (s - j 0 )
2p
+ ctg
dp.
ctg

2a
2a
k 2 sin s

(7.65)

, (7.25), (7.26),
1. .

7.5.
Iu,v
pst. ,
. ,
( )

H 01 ( qh1 ) ~
qh1 ? 1.

2 iqh1-ip / 4
(1)
e
, H1 ( qh1 ) ~
pqh1

2 iqh1-i 3p / 4
,
e
pqh1

(7.66)

Copyright & A K-C

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7.

,
exp[iF(p)] = exp[i(px1 + qh1)]. d F(p)/dp = 0,
x1 k 2 - pst2 - h1 pst = 0.

(7.67)

, x1 = R cos b1, h1 = R sin b1 q > 0 k < p < k, pst = k cos b1.


Iu,v. ,
, .

I0 =

e ipx H 0(1) (qh1 )F ( p)dp,


1

(7.68)

F(p) . ,

( )
I 0 F ( pst ) e ipx1 H 01 (qh1 ) dp,

(7.69)

(7.21)
I 0 -2iF ( pst )

e ikR
,
R

(7.70)

R = x12 + h12 .

I1 =

e ipx1 qH1(1) (qh1 )F ( p)dp =-

~ 2iF ( pst )

d
e ipx1 H 0(1) (qh1 )F ( p)dp ~
dh1 -

h e ikR
d e ikR
e ikR
,
-2F ( pst ) k 1
=-2k sin b 1 F ( pst )
dh1 R
R R
R

(7.71)

kR ? 1.
.
kR ? 1 qst h1 = kRsinb1 ? 1
.
, Iu,v, (7.64) (7.65):
I u =-2

4ae( j 0 )sin j 0

p(s 1 + j 0 )
p (s 1 - j 0 )
e ikR
2p
+ ctg
- ctg

, (7.72)

cos
2
2
R
p
+
k
k
a
a
j
2
0
2
2, st

Copyright & A K-C

7.5.

I v = 2ik sin b 1

205

4ae( j 0 )
e ikR
+
R
p
2, st + k 2 cos j 0

p (s 1 + j 0 )
p (s 1 - j 0 )
2p
ctg
+ ctg
,

k 2 sin s 1
2a
2a

(7.73)

p2, st = pst - k cos 2 g 0 = k (cos b 1 - cos 2 g 0 ),

(7.74)

cos b 1 = sin g 0 sin J cos j - cos g 0 cos J .

(7.75)

s1 (7.38) (7.42), (7.43)


:
cos b 1 - cos 2 g 0
s 1 = p - arccos
, 0 b1 bk,
sin 2 g 0

(7.76)

s 1 = i ln{cos 2 g 0 - cos b 1 + (cos 2 g 0 - cos b 1 ) 2 - sin 4 g 0 }- 2i ln(sin g 0 ), (7.77)


bk b1 p,
2g 0,
0 g 0 p / 2,
b k =
2( p - g 0 ), p / 2 g 0 p.

(7.78)

(7.72) (7.73) (7.25) (7.26),


, 1:
du11 = u0e -ikz cos g 0

d z (1)
e ikR
,
Fs, 1 (J , j)
R
2p

(7.79)

dv 11 = u0e -ikz cos g 0

d z (1)
e ikR
,
Fh, 1 ( J , j )
R
2p

(7.80)

( )

( )

kR ? 1,
Fs,(11) =-U (s 1 , j 0 )sin 2 g 0 ,

(7.81)

Fh,(11) =-V ( s 1 , j 0 )sin g 0 sin J sin j

(7.82)

U ( s 1 , j 0 ) =U t (s 1 , j 0 ) -U 0 ( b 1 , j 0 ),

(7.83)

V ( s 1 , j 0 ) =Vt ( s 1 , j 0 ) -V0 ( b 1 , j 0 ),

(7.84)

U t (s 1 , j 0 ) =

p(s 1 + j 0 )
p(s 1 - j 0 )
,
ctg
- ctg

2a
2a
2a sin g 0
p

(7.85)

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7.

U 0 ( b 1 , j 0 ) =Vt ( s 1 , j 0 ) =
V0 ( b 1 , j 0 ) =

e(j 0 )sin j 0
cos b 1 - cos 2 g 0 + sin 2 g 0 cos j 0

(7.86)

p(s 1 + j 0 )
p(s 1 - j 0 )
, (7.87)
ctg
+ ctg

2a
2a
2a sin g 0 sin s 1
p

e( j 0 )
cos b 1 - cos g 0 + sin 2 g 0 cos j 0
2

(7.88)

Ut, Vt , ( 0)
(1)
jstot
, h = js, h + js, h , U0, V0 , js(,0h) . e(j0) (7.48).
(7.79) (7.80) ,
js(,1h) , 1, j = 0. (7.31),
du2(1) , dv 2(1) ,
2, j = a. ,
, ,
:
dus(1) = u inc ( z )

d z (1)
e ikR
,
Fs ( J , j )
2p
R

(7.89)

1
duh( ) = u inc ( z )

d z (1)
e ikR
,
Fh ( J , j )
2p
R

(7.90)

Fs(1) ( J , j) =-[U ( s 1 , j 0 ) +U ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin 2 g 0 ,

(7.91)

Fh(1) ( J , j) =- [V ( s 1 , j 0 )sin j +V ( s 2 , a - j 0 )sin( a - j)]sin g 0 sin J

(7.92)

U ( s 2 , a - j 0 ) =U t (s 2 , a - j 0 ) -U 0 ( b 2 , a - j 0 ),

(7.93)

V ( s 2 , a - j 0 ) =Vt (s 2 , a - j 0 ) -V0 ( b 2 , a - j 0 ).

(7.94)

kR ? 1,

uinc(z) (7.89), (7.90)


z . s2 (7.76)
(7.77), b1 b2. b2
cos b 2 = sin g 0 sin J cos( a - j) - cos g 0 cos J ,
(7.75) j a j.

(7.95)

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7.6.

207

, (7.87) (7.88), , js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) .


(7.89) (7.90):
dus( t ) = u inc ( z )

d z (t )
e ikR
,
Fs ( J , j )
2p
R

(7.96)

duh( t ) = u inc ( z )

d z (t )
e ikR
,
Fh ( J , j )
2p
R

(7.97)

Fs( t ) ( J , j) =-[U t (s 1 , j 0 ) +U t ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin 2 g 0 ,

(7.98)

Fh( t ) ( J , j) =- [Vt ( s 1 , j 0 )sin j +Vt ( s 2 , a - j 0 )sin( a - j)] sin g 0 sin J . (7.99)


, () (kR ? 1)
, (7.91), (7.92)
(7.98), (7.99). , . .

7.6.
l

, s1,2 Fs,(1h) . , s1,2. , Fs,(1h) ,


.
dus(1) (j0 = 0 j0 = a). , ,
j0 = 0. , (7.85) (7.86), Ut(s1, 0) = 0
U0(b1, 0) = 0. Ut(s2, a) ,
ctg

p(s 2 + a )
p (2a + s 2 - a )
p (s 2 - a )
.
= ctg
= ctg
2a
2a
2a

(7.100)

,
:
. , .

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208

7.

, Ut(s1, j0), Vt(s1, j0) Ut(s2, a j0), Vt(s2, a j0)


s1 = j0 s2 = a j0, .
U0(b1, j0), V0(b1, j0) U0(b2, a j0), V0(b2, a j0) , b1 = b10
s1 = j0 b2 = b20 s2 = a j0,
cos b 10 = cos 2 g0 - sin 2 g 0 cos j 0 ,

(7.101)

cos b 20 = cos 2 g 0 - sin 2 g 0 cos( a - j 0 ).

(7.102)

, Ut, Vt U0, V0 U = Ut U0,


V = Vt V0 .
U(s1, j0) = Ut(s1, j0) U0(b1, j0) V(s1, j0) = Vt(s1, j0)
V0(b1, j0).
(7.37) (7.74),
cos s 1 =

cos 2 g 0 - cos b 1

cos b 1 = cos 2 g 0 - sin 2 g 0 cos s 1 .

sin 2 g 0

(7.103)

, U0(b1, j0)
V0(b1, j0) :

s1 + j 0
s1 - j 0
,
ctg
ctg

2
2
2 sin 2 g 0

(7.104)

s + j0
s - j0
.
ctg 1
+ ctg 1

2
2
2 sin g 0 sin s 1

(7.105)

U 0 ( b1 , j 0 ) =
V0 ( b 1 , j 0 ) =

,
U ( j 0 , j 0 ) = lim [U t (s 1 , j 0 ) -U 0 ( b 1 , j 0 )]=
s 1 j 0

2a sin g 0
2

ctg

pj 0
1
ctg j 0 ,
a
2 sin 2 g 0

V ( j 0 , j 0 ) = lim [Vt (s 1 , j 0 ) -V0 ( b 1 , j 0 )]=U (j 0 , j 0 )/sin j 0 .


s 1 j 0

(7.106)
(7.107)


U (a - j 0 , a - j 0 ) =

p
2a sin g 0
2

ctg

p(a - j 0 )
1
ctg ( a - j 0 ),
a
2 sin 2 g 0

V (a - j 0 , a - j 0 ) =U (a - j 0 , a - j 0 )/sin( a - j 0 ).

(7.108)
(7.109)

, (j0 = 0
j0 = a),
lim U ( j 0 , j 0 ) = lim U ( a - j 0 , a - j 0 ) = 0

j 0 0

j 0 a

(7.110)

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209

7.6.

lim V ( j 0 , j 0 ) = lim V ( a - j 0 , a - j 0 ) =

j 0 0

j 0 a

p 2
1- .
6 sin 2 g 0
a

(7.111)

(7.106), (7.107) (7.108), (7.109) j0 = p j0 = a p. (4.20), (4.21) 7.9, ,


. , (Johansen, 1996).
5.1.4.
, b1 = b10
b2 = b20, (7.101) (7.102), 1 2 ( x1 x2
. 7.3). (7.75) b1 = b10 J = p g0, j = p + j0
J = p g0, j = p j0, , (. 2.7).
(7.95) (7.102) b2 = b20
j = 2a p j0,
, j = a
(. 2.8).
(. 4.4)
J = p g0. (7.37), (7.74), (7.75) (7.95),
cos s 1 =-cos j, cos s 2 =-cos( a - j).

(7.112)

s1,2 0 s1,2 p. ,
p - j 0 j p,
s 1 =
j - p p j 2p,

(7.113)

p - ( j - a) - p a - j 0,

s 2 =p -(a - j) 0 a - j p,

a - j- p p a - j 2p.

(7.114)

, (7.114) (a j 2p). s1,2,


, Fs,(1h)
:
Fs(1) ( p - g 0 , j) = f

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ), Fh(1) (p - g 0 , j) = g (1) (j, j 0 , a )

(7.115)

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7.

(0 j a)
Fs(1) ( p - g 0 , j)=- f

( 0)

(j, j 0 , a ), Fh(1) ( p - g 0 , j)=- g ( 0) (j, j 0 , a ) (7.116)

(a < j < 2p).


,
:
1

( )
( )
Fs, h (p - g 0 , j) + Fs, h (p - g 0 , j) = 0.

(7.117)


Fs( 0) ( p - g 0 , j) = f

( 0)

(j, j 0 , a ), Fh( 0) (p - g 0 , j ) = g ( 0) (j, j 0 , a )

, js(,0h) .
a < j < 2p .
f (1), g(1) (4.14) (4.15). f (0),
g(0) (3.55), (3.56) (3.57):
f

( 0)

( j, j 0 , a ) =

e(j 0 )sin j 0
e(a - j 0 )sin(a - j 0 )
,
+
cos j + cos j 0 cos( a - j) + cos( a - j 0 )

g ( 0) ( j, j 0 , a ) =-

e(j 0 )sin j
e(a - j 0 )sin(a - j)
,
cos j + cos j 0 cos( a - j) + cos( a - j 0 )

(7.118)

(7.119)

e(x) (7.48).
f, g f (0), g(0) , . . j = p j0,
j = 2a p j0. 4.1, , f (1) = f f (0), g(1) = g g(0)
.
, , J = p g0 js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) , . Fs,( ht)
J g0, j j0. 8.
(J = p g0):
f ( 0) ( j, j , a )
dus( 0)
0

e ikR
dz
dus(1) = u inc ( z ) f (1) ( j, j 0 , a )
,
R
2p

dus( t )

f ( j, j 0 , a )

(7.120)

Copyright & A K-C

7.7.
( )
g ( 0) ( j, j , a )
duh0
0

(1)
e ikR
dz
(1)
inc
.
duh = u ( z ) g ( j, j 0 , a )
2p
R
(t )
g ( j, j 0 , a )

duh

211

(7.121)

7.7.
, js(,1h) . Fs,(1h)
. 10 lg| Fs,(1h) | a = 315, g0 = 45 j0 = 45. . 7.6 , (J = 90, 0 j 360).
. 7.7 , . q J:
J
j = a /2,
q =
o
2p - J j = a /2 +180 .
, 0 q 180 j = a/2
, 180 q 360 j = a/2 + 180 .
. 7.6 7.7 , . ,
. , . (1.10), (1.54) (1.59). , (!)
, .
, , . ,
js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) ( ), .
, , ( k ).
. 7.8 , . :

Copyright & A K-C

212

7.

. 7.6. , (1)
js , h , J = 90. 315 j 360

. 7.7. , (1)
js , h , , . 180 q 360

Copyright & A K-C

7.7.

213

. 7.8. , (1)
js , h
(J = p g0, 0 j a)
l

j0 = 45, (j = 0) . Ut(s1, j0),


Vt(s1, j0), U0(b1, j0) V0(b1, j0). U(s1, j0) V(s1, j0) .
, (7.104), (7.105) , 2sin2g0 = 1
g0 = 45.
(7.85) (7.87) :
U (s 1 , j 0 )
V (s 1 , j 0 )

p(s 1 + j 0 )
s + j0
p
ctg
- ctg 1
+ A - B,
a
2a
2

(7.122)

p(s 1 + j 0 )
s + j0
p
1
1
( A - B ),
ctg
ctg 1
a sin s 1
sin s 1
sin s 1
2a
2
(7.123)

s1 j0
p p (s 1 - j 0 )
1 p 3 (s 1 - j 0 ) 3
A=
+
,
a
6a
45
8a 3

B=

s1 - j 0
1 (s 1 - j 0 ) 3
.
+
6
45
8

(7.124)

(7.125)

Copyright & A K-C

214

7.

(J = p g0) :
cos s 1 =-cos j, cos s 2 =-cos( a - j),

sin s 1 = |sin j|, sin s 2 = |sin(a - j)|.

(7.126)

Vt(s1, j0)sin j Vt(s2, a j0)sin(a j),


,
sin j /sin s 1 = sign (sin j), sin( a - j)/sin s 2 = sign (sin( a - j)).
l

(7.127)

,
(315 j 360) Fs,( ht) = Fs,( h0) + Fs,(1h) (J = p g0).

7.8.
, . 7.17.7,
( et al., (1987); Ufimtsev, 1991) ,
. ,
.
, 1
2 (. 7.3), (1.97),
r
r
r ( 0)
(7.128)
j = 2{e(j 0 )[ n$1 H inc ] + e(a - j 0 )[ n$ 2 H inc ]} ,
n$1 n$ 2
r (1) 1 2, .


rj
r
r
r
j (1) = j ( t ) - j ( 0) . j ( t ) , . , . 2.12.4 r
. j (1) ,
1 2 (. 7.3),
7.14 7.15 .
(Ufimtsev, 1998),
.
, , 1 2. , . .
,
r
r
r
r
i
i
(7.129)
E inc = E 0e ikf , H inc = H 0e ikf

Copyright & A K-C

215

7.8.

fi

r (1) (. 8.1). j , ,
. z (kR ? 1)
:
r
r
r
dz r
e ikR
dE (1) = E (1) (J , j)
, dH (1) = [ R dE (1) ]/ Z 0 .
R
2p

(7.130)

Z 0 = m 0 / e 0 =120p , z
, .

r
z$ = t . (dz > 0).

r
r
r
ikf i(z )
(7.131)
E (1) ( J , j) = [E 0t (z )F (1) (J , j ) + Z 0 H 0t (z ) G (1) ( J , j)]e
.
7.2:
r, j, z R,
J, j $ J$ = j).
$ = z$, R
$ ,
($r j
,
j

r
, t
r
z (t$ = z$). , j .
r
r
$
z t ( z$ = t$ = r$ j).

.

E 0t ( z )exp[ ikf i ( z )] H 0t (z )exp[ ikf i ( z )] r


r
, . F (1) G (1)
:
(1)

FJ ( J , j) = [U (s 1 , j 0 ) +U ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin J , Fj(1) (J , j) = 0,
(1)

GJ (J , j) =

sin J cos g 0
sin 2 g 0

(7.132)

[e(j 0 ) - e(a - j 0 )] +

+ (sin g 0 cos J cos j - cos g 0 sin J cos s 1 ) V ( s 1 , j 0 ) - [sin g 0 cos J cos( a - j) - cos g 0 sin J cos s 2 ]V ( s 2 , a - j 0 ),

(7.133)

Gj(1) ( J , j) =-[V (s 1 , j 0 )sin j +V (s 2 , a - j 0 )sin( a - j)]sin g 0 .

(7.134)

Copyright & A K-C

216

7.

, (7.1317.134),
, .
r
r
r
, j ( t ) = j ( 0) + j (1) , :
r
r
r
dz r
e ikR
dE ( t ) = E ( t ) ( J , j)
, dH ( t ) = [ R dE ( t ) ]/ Z 0 ,
2p
R

r
r
r
i
E ( t ) ( J , j) = [E 0t (z )F ( t ) (J , j ) + Z 0 H 0t (z )G ( t ) ( J , j)]e ikf ( z )

(7.135)

(7.136)

(t )

FJ ( J , j) = [U t (s 1 , j 0 ) +U t ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin J , Fj( t ) (J , j ) = 0,

(7.137)

GJ( t ) ( J , j) = (sin g 0 cos J cos j - cos g 0 sin J cos s 1 ) Vt ( s 1 , j 0 ) - [sin g 0 cos J cos( a - j) - cos g 0 sin J cos s 2 ]Vt ( s 2 , a - j 0 ),

(7.138)

Gj( t ) ( J , j) =- [Vt ( s 1 , j 0 )sin j +Vt ( s 2 , a - j 0 )sin( a - j)]sin g 0 .

(7.139)

r
r
r
r
r
r
dE ( 0) = dE ( t ) - dE (1) , dH ( 0) = dH ( t ) - dH (1)

(7.140)

,
.
r ,

t
(J = p g0), F (1, t ) G (1, t ) :
(1)

FJ ( p - g 0 , j) =-

1
f
sin g 0

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ),

(7.141)

1
f (j, j 0 , a ),
sin g 0

(7.142)

Gj(1) ( p - g 0 , j) =

1
g (1) ( j, j 0 , a ),
sin g 0

(7.143)

Gj( t ) ( p - g 0 , j) =

1
g (j, j 0 , a ),
sin g 0

(7.144)

(t )

FJ ( p - g 0 , j) =-

GJ(1) ( p - g 0 , j) = [ e( j 0 ) - e(a - j 0 )]ctg g 0 ,


(t )

GJ ( p - g 0 , j) = 0.
U(s, y) V(s, y) 7.5 7.6.

(7.145)
(7.146)

Copyright & A K-C

217

7.8.

,
, (J = p g0):
0
f ( 0) ( j, j , a )
dE J( ) = Z 0 dH j( 0)
0

(1)
e ikR
dz 1
(1)
inc
(1)
f ( j, j 0 , a )
,
(7.147 a)
dE J = Z 0 dH j =- E t ( z )
2p sin g 0
R

dE J( t ) = Z 0 dH j( t )
f ( j, j 0 , a )

0
g ( 0) ( j, j , a )
dH J( ) =-Y 0 dE j( 0)
0

(1)
e ikR
dz 1
(1)
inc
(1)
g ( j, j 0 , a )
,
(7.147 )
dH J =-Y 0 dE j =- H t ( z )
2p sin g 0
R

dH J( t ) =-Y 0 dE j( t )
g ( j, j 0 , a )

Y0 = 1/Z0, t$
z.
, (7.147 )
(. 4.3.2). :
( 0)

dE J = Z 0 dH j( 0) =-

dz 1
{E tinc ( z ) f
2p sin g 0

( 0)

+Z 0 H tinc [e(j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }


(1)

dE J = Z 0 dH j(1) =

dz 1
{-E tinc ( z ) f
2p sin g 0

(1)

+Z 0 H tinc [e(j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }

( j, j 0 , a ) +

e ikR
,
R

(7.148 )

( j, j 0 , a ) +
e ikR
.
R

(7.148 )

, 1/R2. , :
E J =-E t /sin J , H J =-H t /sin J

(7.149)

dE J =-dE t /sin J , dH J =-dH t /sin J .

(7.150)

J = p g0,
:
( 0)
f ( 0) (j, j , a )
dE t
0

(1)
e ikR
dz
(1)
inc
,
dE t = E t (z ) f ( j, j 0 , a )
2p
R
(t )

dE t
f ( j, j 0 , a )

(7.151 a)

Copyright & A K-C

218

7.
( )
g ( 0) ( j, j , a )
dH t 0
0

e ikR
dz
(1)
.
dH t = H tinc ( z ) g (1) ( j, j 0 , a )
2p
R

(t )

dH t
g ( j, j 0 , a )

(7.151 )

(7.151 ) . :
0

dE t( ) =

dz inc
{E t ( z ) f
2p

( 0)

( j, j 0 , a ) +

+Z 0 H tinc [e(j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }


dE t(1) =

dz inc
{E t ( z ) f
2p

(1)

e ikR
,
R

(7.152 )

e ikR
.
R

(7.152 )

( j, j 0 , a ) -

-Z 0 H tinc [e(j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }

(7.120), (7.121) , :
(7.153)
dE t = du s , E tinc ( z ) = u inc ( z ) ,
(7.154)
dH t = du h , H tinc ( z ) = u inc ( z ) .
(0 ,1)
dE t = du s(0,1) .

, , ,
(Ufimtsev, 1991) ,
, . 810.

7.9.
j0 = p j0 = a p

,
.
(), , . (7.7)
(7.8)
. -

Copyright & A K-C

7.9. j0 = p j0 = a p

219

. 7.9. j0 = p
j = 0.
, j0 = 0 j = p

,
.

(. 7.9), f (1) = f f (0) g(1) = g g(0) (j = 0). f, f (0) (g g(0))
, : j = 0, j0 p, , j0 = p, j 0.
, (1.31) (7.7), (7.8) . , jh(1) , , ,
. , jh( 0)
.
, , j(0).
, j(0) j(1), ,
,
.

7.9.1.
[Ufimtsev (2006 a)].

jh( ,0s)
. , .

Copyright & A K-C

220

7.

1 (. 7.3), j = 0, :
jh( 0) jhhp = 2u0e -ikz cos g 0 e ikx1 cos g 0
2

2
e -p / 4
-e -ikx1 sin g 0 cos j 0

e it dt + e -ikx1 sin
2

j
2kx1 sin g 0 cos 0
2

g 0 cos j 0
,

(7.155)

js( 0) jshp = 2u0e -ikz cos g 0 e ikx1 cos g 0


2

2
e -ip / 4
ik sin g 0 sin j 0e -ikx1 sin g 0 cos j 0

e it dt +

2kx1 sin g 0 cos

j0
2

2
j 0 e -ip / 4 e ikx1 sin g 0
k
+
sin
- ik sin g 0 sin j 0e -ikx1 sin g 0 cos j 0 .
2
2
p
x1

(7.156)

( 2 ) .
j0 p,
jh( 0) = u0e -ikz cos g 0 e ikx1 ,
js( 0) = u0e -ikz cos g 0

2k i ( kx1-p / 4)
,
e
px1

(7.157)
(7.158)

jh( 0) , js( 0)
. jh( ,0s) 2 ( j = a) (7.155) (7.156)
j0 a j0 x1 x2.
jh(1, s)
jh,s ( ) jh( ,0s) jhhp, s
( ). (7.12) (7.13),
aw( h + y ) aw( h + y ) - 2pwhp (h + y ),

(7.159)

whp (x ) =1- e ix / 2 .

(7.160)

Copyright & A K-C

7.9. j0 = p j0 = a p

221

, jh(1, s) , , , . 7.37.5. , , (7.44), (7.45), (7.159).


, , h = j0,
. , ,
(7.89), (7.90) Fh(,1s) , F h(1) :
duh = u inc ( z )

d z (1)
e ikR
,
F h (J , j)
R
2p

(7.161)

dus(1) = u inc ( z )

dz (1)
e ikR
F s (J , j)
R
2p

(7.162)

(1)

F h(1) ( J , j) = {[-Vt (s 1 , j 0 ) +Vt hp ( s 1 , j 0 )]sin j +


+ [-Vt ( s 2 , a - j 0 ) + e( a - j 0 )Vt hp ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin( a - j)}sin g 0 sin J , (7.163)
hp
F s(1) = {[-U t (s 1 , j 0 ) +U t ( s 1 , j 0 )] +

+ [-U t (s 2 , a - j 0 ) + e(a - j 0 )U thp ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]}sin 2 g 0 .

(7.164)

, 0 j0 p, (7.48)
e(x). Vt, Ut (7.87) (7.85). Vt hp U thp , :

s+y
s- y
1
,
(7.165)
Vt hp ( s, y ) =
ctg
+ ctg

4
4
4 sin g 0 sin s
U thp ( s, y ) =

s+y
s- y
.
ctg
- ctg

4
4
4 sin g 0
1

(7.166)

(J = p g0) (7.163)
(7.164) :
F h(1) ( p - g 0, j) = g ( j, j0, a ) - g hp ( j, j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 ) g hp ( a - j, a -j 0 ), (7.167)
F s(1) ( p - g 0 , j) = f (j, j0 , a ) - f

hp

( j, j 0 )- e( a - j 0 ) f

hp

( a - j, a - j 0 ), (7.168)

g f (2.64), (2.62),
p- j- j0
p- j + j0
1
g hp ( j, j 0 ) =- ctg
+ ctg

4
4
4
p + j- j0
p + j + j 0 - 2a
1
,
-e(a - j 0 ) ctg
+ ctg

4
4
4

(7.169)

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222

7.

hp

p- j- j0
p- j + j0
1
( j, j 0 ) = ctg
- ctg

4
4
4
p + j- j0
p + j + j 0 - 2a
1
-e(a - j 0 ) ctg
- ctg

4
4
4

(7.170)

, .
, g f , (2.64) (2.62). :
g (j, j 0 , a ) =-

p- j- j0
p- j + j0
1
ctg
+ ctg
+

2n
2n
2n

+ ctg
f (j, j 0 , a ) =

p + j + j0
p + j- j0
,
+ ctg

2n
2n

(7.171)

p- j- j0
p- j + j0
1
ctg
- ctg
+

2n
2n
2n

+ ctg

p + j + j0
p + j- j0
,
- ctg

2n
2n

(7.172)

n = a/p.
f, g f hp, ghp (j = p + j0, j = p j0, j = 2a p j0), . ,
(1)

F h ( p - g 0 , p - j 0 ) =-

j
j
1
1
ctg 0 + ctg 0 n
2n
4
2

p- j0
p- j0
1
1
+ e( a - j 0 ) ctg
+
ctg
2n
4
2
n

1
1
a- p
a- p
,
- e( a - j 0 ) ctg
ctg
2n
4
2
n

F s(1) ( p - g 0 , p - j 0 ) =-

(7.173)

j
j
1
1
ctg 0 + ctg 0 n
2n
4
2

p- j0
p- j0
1
1
+ e( a - j 0 ) ctg
ctg
2n
4
2
n

1
1
a- p
a- p
,
+ e( a - j 0 ) ctg
ctg
2n
4
2
n

(7.174)

Copyright & A K-C

7.9. j0 = p j0 = a p

j - (a - p) 1
j - (a - p)
1
ctg 0
+ ctg 0
+
2n
4
n
2

(1)

F h ( p - g 0 , 2a - p - j 0 ) =-

1
a- p 1
a- p
ctg
- ctg
2n
n
4
2

F s(1) (p - g 0 , 2a - p - g 0 ) =-

223

a- j0 1
a- j0
1
,
+ ctg
ctg
n
2n
4
2

(7.175)

j - (a - p) 1
j - (a - p )
1
ctg 0
+ ctg 0
2n
4
n
2

1
a- p 1
a- p
ctg
+ ctg
2n
n
4
2

a- j0 1
a- j0
1
.
(7.176)
+ ctg
ctg
n
2n
4
2
, F h(,1s) . ,
(j0 = p, j0 = a p) :
1
p 1 a
(1)
(1)
(7.177)
F h (p - g 0, 0) = F h (p - g 0 , a ) =- ctg + tg ,
n
n 4 2
1 a
(7.178)
F s(1) (p - g 0, 0) = F s(1) (p - g 0 , a ) =- tg .
4 2
, F h(,1s) ,
a = 2p . (7.163) (7.164) Vt =Vt hp , U t =U thp ,
a = 2p.
, , , ,
(0 x1,2 l).
(R ? kl2)
-

duh( 10) =
( )

dz
e ikR
ik sin g 0 sin J sin j
R
4p

dus10 =-

dz
e ikR
sin g 0
R
4p

jh(10) (x1 , j 0 ) e -ikx cos b dx1 ,


1

(7.179)

js(,01) (x1 , j 0 ) e -ikx cos b dx1 .


1

(7.180)

x1, b1, j, j0 x2, b2, a j, a j0,


2 (0 x2 l).
. ,
(j0 = p):
( )
duh10 = u0e ikz cos g 0

d z e ikR sin g 0 sin J sin j ikl (1-cos b1 )


[e
-1] ,
4p R
1- cos b 1

(7.181)

Copyright & A K-C

224

7.

dus10 = u0e -ikz cos g 0


( )

d z e ikR
e i 3p / 4
2
sin g 0
2p R
1- cos b 1
p

kl (1-cos b1 )

e it dt.

(7.182)

(b1 = 0, j = 0) ,
( 0)
duh1
= 0,

dus(10) = u0e -ikz cos g 0

(7.183)
dz e
2kl i 3p / 4
.
sin g 0
e
p
2p R
ikR

(7.184)

, duh( ,0s) .

7.9.2.
[Ufimtsev (2006 b)].

, 7.8, . .
r
r, , j ( 0) j (1)
(j0 = p
j0 = a p). jn(1) , , , , , .
, jn( 0)
. , , , . , r ,
j ( 0, 1) .
r
r
j ( 0) j hp , ,
.

r
rt
r
rt
j (1) = j
- j hp , j
, .
r
, j ( 1)
(7.129)
(. 8.1) r
j (1) . .
z (kR ? 1)

(7.130),
r
r
(7.131) F (1) G (1) .
, 7.8 ( et al., 1987;
Ufimtsev, 1991), , (7.159).
.

Copyright & A K-C

7.9. j0 = p j0 = a p

225

r
, j (1) , :
r
r
r
dz r
e ikR
dE (1) = E (1) (J , j)
, dH (1) = [ R dE (1) ]/ Z 0 ,
R
2p

(7.185)

r
r
r
i
E (1) ( J , j) = [E 0t (z ) F (1) ( J , j) + Z 0 H 0t ( z )G (1) ( J , j)]e ikf ( z )

(7.186)

(1)

F J ( J , j) = [U t (s 1 , j 0 ) -U thp (s 1 , j 0 )]sin J +
+ [U t (s 2 , a - j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 ) U thp ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin J ,
F j(1) ( J , j) = 0,
(1)

G J (J , j) =

(7.187)
(7.188)

1 sin J cos g 0
[ e( j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )] +
2 sin 2 g 0

+ [sin g 0 cos J cos j - cos g 0 sin J cos s 1 ][Vt ( s 1 , j 0 ) -Vt hp ( s 1 , j 0 )]- [sin g 0 cos J cos( a - j) - cos g 0 sin J cos s 2 ]
[Vt (s 2 , a - j 0 ) - e(a - j 0 ) Vt hp (s 2 , a - j 0 )] ,

(7.189)

G j(1) ( J , j) =- [Vt (s 1 , j 0 ) -Vt hp (s 1 , j 0 )]sin j sin g 0 -[Vt ( s 2 , a - j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )Vt hp ( s 2 , a - j 0 )]sin( a - j)sin g 0 . (7.190)
, 0 < j0 p.
(J = p g0) :
(1)

F J ( p - g 0 , j) =-e(a - j 0 ) f
G j(1) ( p - g 0 , j) =

1
[ f (j, j 0 , a ) - f
sin g 0

hp

(a - j, a - j 0 )] ,

hp

(j, j 0 ) -

F j(1) ( J , j) = 0,

(7.191)

1
[g (j, j 0 , a ) - g hp (j, j 0 ) sin g 0

-e(a - j 0 )g hp (a - j, a - j 0 )] ,
1
(1)
G J ( p - g 0 , j) = [e(j 0 ) - e(a - j 0 ) ctg g 0 ] ,
2

(7.192)

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226

7.

f, g f hp, g hp 7.9.1.
(7.167) (7.168) :
(1)

F J ( p - g 0 , j) =G j(1) ( p - g 0 , j) =

1
F (1) ( p - g 0 , j),
sin g 0 s

1
1
F ( ) ( p - g 0 , j).
sin g 0 h

(7.193)

(7.194)

7.9.1 ,
. (J = p g0), , :
(1)

dE t = du s(1) , E tinc ( z ) = u inc ( z ),


(1)
(1)
dH t = du h , H tinc ( z ) = u inc ( z ).

r
r
, j ( 0) j hp
r
, j hp ,
(0 x1,2 l),
(. 7.3). x, y, z x, y, z,
1 2, . x x 1 2 t1 t2.
, 1:
( 0)
hp
jx, 1 jx, 1 = 2H 0 z e -ikz cos g 0 e ikx1 ( cos g 0 -sin
2

e -ip / 4
1
p

g 0 cos j 0 )

e it dt ,
j

2kx1 sin g 0 cos 0


2

j z( ,01) j zhp, 1 =-2e -ikz cos g 0 e ikx1 cos

g0

(7.195)

sin g 0

Copyright & A K-C

7.9. j0 = p j0 = a p

e -ip / 4
Y 0 E 0 z sin j 0e -ikx1 sin g 0 cos j 0

227

e it dt +

2kx1 sin g 0 cos

j0
2

j0
-i 3p / 4

2
2
e
2
+
e ikx1 sin g 0 - sin j 0e -ikx1 sin g 0 cos j 0 +
sin g 0 2pkx1

sin

2
e -ip / 4
+H 0 z cos g 0 cos j 0e -ikx1 sin g 0 cos j 0

e it

dt +

j
2kx1 sin g 0 cos 0
2

j0
-i 3p / 4

2
2

2 e
+
e ikx1 sin g 0 - cos j 0e -ik x1 sin g 0 cos j 0 ,
sin g 0 2pkx1

cos

(7.196)

( 0)
Y0 = 1/Z0 . jx,
2
( 0)
j z, 2 2 (7.195), (7.196),

:
H 0 z -H 0 z , x1 x 2 , j 0 a - j 0 .

(7.197)

, r, ( dA) :
dE j =-Z 0 dH J = ikZ 0 [-dAx, 1 sin j + e(a - j 0 ) dAx, 2 sin( a - j)] ,

(7.198)

dE J = Z 0 dH j = ikZ 0 {-[ dA z, 1 + e( a - j 0 ) dA z, 2 ]sin J +


+ [ dAx, 1 cos j + e( a - j 0 ) dAx, 2 cos( a - j)]cos J }.

(7.199)

, 0 < j0 p. (R ? kl2) :
l
r
dz
e ikR r
-ikx cos b1, 2
dA1, 2 =
sin g 0
j ( x )e 1,2
dx1, 2 .

R 0 1, 2 1, 2
4p
r
j1,( 20) (7.200),

dAx.1 =-

dz
1
e ikR
,
H 0 z e -ikz cos g 0
[B 3 (j, j 0 ) - B1 (j, j 0 )]sin g 0
ik
R
2p

(7.200)

(7.201)

Copyright & A K-C

228

7.

dA z, 1 =-

1 -ikz cos g 0 dz e ikR


e

ik
2p R

j
sin 0

2
Y 0 E 0 z B 3 (j, j 0 )sin j 0 + B 2 ( j)
- B1 ( j, j 0 )sin j 0 +
sin g 0

j
cos 0

2 - B ( j, j )cos j
+H 0 z cos g 0 B 3 ( j, j 0 )cos j 0 + B 2 ( j)
1
0
0 ,
sin g 0

(7.202)

B1 (j, j 0 ) =
B 2 (j) =

e iklF( j, j 0 ) -1
,
F (j, j 0 )

e -ip / 4
p

2
Y (j)

klY ( j )

(7.203)
2

e it dt,

(7.204)

iklF( j, j ) e -ip / 4
1
0
B 3 ( j, j 0 ) =
e
F ( j, j 0 )
p

e it

dt -

j
2kl sin g 0 cos 0
2

j0
1
- + B 2 (j)sin g 0 cos
2
2

(7.205)

F( j, j 0 ) = cos 2 g 0 - sin 2 g 0 cos j 0 - cos b 1 ,

(7.206)

(7.207)
Y (j) =1- cos b 1 .
dAx, 2 dA z, 2 dAx,1
dA z,1 , , :
H0z H0z , j a j, j0 a j0 b1 b2.
r
dA (7.198),
(7.199) ,
(7.130) (7.131):
r
r
r
dz r
e ikR
dE ( 0) = E ( 0) ( J , j)
, dH ( 0) = [ R dE ( 0) ] / Z 0 ,
R
2p
r ( 0)
r ( 0)
r
i
E ( J , j) = [E 0t (z ) F (J , j ) + Z 0 H 0t (z )G ( 0) (J , j )]e ikf ( z ) ,

(7.208)
(7.209)

Copyright & A K-C

229

7.10.

( 0)

= F1J ( j, j 0 , J ) + e( a - j 0 ) F1J ( a - j, a - j 0 , J ), Fj( 0) = 0, (7.210)

G J = G1J ( j, j 0 , J ) - e(a - j 0 )G1J ( a - j, a - j 0 , J ),

( 0)

(7.211)

G j( 0) = G1j ( j, j 0 , J ) + e(a - j 0 )G1j ( a - j, a - j 0 , J ).

(7.212)

FJ

F1J

sin 0

2
( j, j 0 , J ) =B 3 ( j, j 0 )sin j 0 + B 2 ( j )
- B1 ( j, j 0 )sin j 0 sin J,
sin g 0

G1 J

cos 0

2 - B ( j, j )cos j cos g sin J ( j, j 0 , J ) =B 3 ( j, j 0 )cos j 0 + B 2 ( j )


1
0
0
0
sin g 0

- [ B 3 ( j, j 0 )- B1 ( j, j 0 )]sin g 0 cos J cos j,

G1j ( j, j 0 , J ) = [ B 3 ( j, j 0 )- B1 ( j, j 0 )]sin g 0 sin j.

(7.213)

(7.214)
(7.215)

, B1,2,3 , F = 0 Y= 0. ,
(j0 = p) , (J = p g0, j = 0), :
B1 = ikl, B 2 = 2kl

e -ip / 4

1
, B 3 = kl.
2
p

(7.216)

, ,
, .
, , 7.9.1 7.9.2,
.
,
. j0 , 7.17.8.
(Michaeli, 1987;
Breinbjerg, 1992; Johansen, 1996) .

, c
(0 x1,2 l). ,
j(1), , . , .

Copyright & A K-C

230

7.

7.10. ,

.

(Maggi, 1888; Baker & Copson, 1950).
(Rubinowicz, 1917). (Kottler,
1923 b).
( (1896, 1935) ) (Bateman, 1955) (Rubinowicz, 1965).
.
, . 7.10 . , ( ) .
, (Tiberio et al.,1994, 1995, 2004).
(. 7.3). ,
(Johansen, 1996).
(). equivalent edge current (EEC). ,
(Knott and Senior, 1974; Knott, 1985), () .
, , (Michaeli, 1986, 1987; Breinbjerg, 1992; Johansen, 1996). (Johansen,
1996) ,
(EEC).

. 7.10. (
) ( )

Copyright & A K-C

231

,
(), incremental
length diffraction coefficient (ILDC).
(Mitzner, 1974), .
(ILDC) (Tiberio et al., 2004).
, (Wolf, 1967), (Tran
Van Nhieu, 1995, 1996),
.

7.1. (7.3) (7.4) (7.12) (7.13) js jh 1 (. 7.3).


7.2. (7.3) (7.4) (7.16) (7.17) js jh 2 (. 7.3).
7.3. (7.19) (7.20) (7.25) (7.26) .
7.4. (7.19) (7.20), (7.16), (7.17) (7.29), (7.30).
7.5. (7.37) s(p). (7.42) (7.43).
(h) p +.
7.6. (7.35) (7.64).
7.7. (7.36) (7.65).
7.8. (7.64), (7.65)
(7.89), (7.90) .
(1)
7.9. , Fs , h , s1,2 .
7.10. , Fs(1)
(j0 = 0 j0 = a).
7.11. Ut(s1, j0), Vt(s1, j0) U0(b1, j0), V0(b1, j0) s1 = j0. , U = Ut U0 V = Vt V0 . (7.106) (7.107).
7.12. , J = p g0, 0 j a ( (1)
) Fs(1) Fh (1)
(1)
f g , . (7.115).
7.13. , J = p g0, a j 2p ( )
. (7.116). , .

Copyright & A K-C

232

7.

7.14. ,
-ikz cos g 0 - ikr sin g 0 cos (j-j 0 )
,
e
E inc
z = E0 z e
-ikz cos g 0 -ikr sin g 0 cos(j-j 0 )
H inc
e
z = H 0 ze
1 (. 7.3)
:
1
jx(1) =
H e-ikz cos g 0 e-ik1x cos h [w-1 ( h + j0 )+ w-1 ( h - j0 )]dh,
2a 0 z
D

j (z1) =

e-ikz cos g 0

2a sin g 0

{H 0 z cos g 0e-ikz cos g 0 e-ik1x cos h [w-1 ( h + j0 )+ w-1 ( h - j0 )]cos hdh D

-Y0 E0 z e-ik1x cos h [w-1 ( h + j0 )- w-1 ( h - j0 )]sin hdh}.


D

k1 = ksing0, z = z x1cosg0, x = x1sing0, z


, x1 x1 (. 7.3).
:
l , ,
r r
r
r
E = E ( x, y )e-ikz cos g 0 , H = H ( x , y )e-ikz cos g 0 .
l Er,j(x, y), Hr,j
Ez(x, y), Hz(x, y).
(5.04) (, 1962).
l 4,
E z = E0 z e-ikz cos g 0 [v ( k1 r, j- j0 )- v ( k1 r, j+ j0 )] ,
H z = H 0 z e-ikz cos g 0 [v ( k1 r, j- j0 )+v ( k1 r, j+ j0 )] .
r r
r
r (1)
l j
= n$ [ H - H go ], H ,
r
H go . x, y . 7.3.
r
7.15. 7.14 j (1) 2 (. 7.3), . ,
:
1
(1)
jx = - H 0 z e-ikz cos g 0
2a
e-ik1xcos h [w-1 ( h + a - j0 )+ w-1 ( h - a + j0 )]dh,
D

j (z1)

=-

e-ikz cos g 0

2a sin g 0

{H 0 z cos g 0 e-ik1xcos h [w-1 ( h + a - j0 )+ w-1 ( h - a + j0 )]cos hdh +


D

+Y0 E0 z e-ik1xcos h [w-1 ( h + a - j0 )- w-1 ( h - a + j0 )]sin hdh}.


D

k1 = ksing0, z = z x2cosg0, x = x2sing0, z


, x2 x2 (.7.3).
7.16. - dAx(1,)z ,
jx(1,)z , 1

Copyright & A K-C

233

(. 7.3). 7.14.
:
(1)
l (1.89). jx , z , 7.14.
l (7.21) .
l x1 ( ).
l h.
l (7.69) (7.68).
l - ,
.
l (1.92), (1.93) , 1.
l :
H0z H0z, b1 b2, s1 s2, j0 a j0, j a j
, 2.
l , , ,
(7.130).
7.17. 7.9.1 ,
.
l , (J = p g0)
(1)
Fh , s (7.167) (7.168).
(7.173) (7.174) j = p j0.
(7.177) (7.178)
(j0 = p) (j = 0).
7.18. 7.9.2 ,
.
l , (J = p g0)
r
r
F (1) , G (1) (7.191) , (7.192).
l (7.193), (7.!94),
.
l
l

Copyright & A K-C

(Ufimtsev, 1989, 1991).

8.1.
:
u s = E t , u inc ( z ) = E tinc ( z ),
u h = H t , u inc ( z ) = H tinc ( z ),
t$ z.
(0 ,1)
u s(0,1) ( z ) = E t ( z ) .

8.1.1.
L a(z) (. 8.1).
( ) z
u inc ( z ) = u0 ( z ) e ikf ( z )
i

(8.1)

(8.2)
k$ i = f i = grad f i .
, uinc(z) (7.89), (7.90) (7.96),
(7.97) (8.1), ,
. -

Copyright & A K-C

235

8.1.

. 8.1. L z ;
t$ z

, L js(,1h) ,
(7.89) (7.90),
1

us(, h) =

1
e ikF( z )
(1)
$
u
(
)
F
(
,
m
)
dz.
z
z
0 s, h
R (z )
2p L

(8.3)

, js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) ,


(7.96) (7.97),
us(,th) =

1
e ikF( z )
$)
u0 ( z ) Fs,( ht) ( z, m
dz.

R (z )
2p L

(8.4)

$ = R , F = f i + R
m

(8.5)

R z P(x, y, z). ,
(8.2) z ,
(8.5) x, y, z P.
( k ? 1) (, 1966; Murray, 1984),
6.1.2. zst
dF
$ ) t$ = 0.
(8.6)
= F t$ = ( f i + R ) t$ = ( k$ i - m
dz
$ k$ s m,
zst . (8.6)
(8.7)
k$ s t$ = k$ i t$ =-cos g .
0

, k$ s t$ . . 4.4.

Copyright & A K-C

236

8.

Q P Qz zP (. 8.1). , (8.6) , ( ), z . , zst


L .
(8.3)
us(,1h) =

1 inc
e ikR
u (z st )Fs,(1h) ( z st , k$ s)
R
2p

kF( z st )
( z -z st ) 2
2
d z,

(8.8)

F (z st ) = d 2F (z st )/ d z 2 R
zst P.

ix 2

dx = p e

p
4

(8.9)

(8.8)
e ip / 4

e ikR
,
2pkF (z st ) R

1
1
us(, h) = u inc ( z st )Fs,( h) ( z st , k$ s)

(8.10)

F (z st ) = | F ( z st )| e

p
2,

F ( z st ) < 0.

(8.11)

R, J, j (. . 7.3) k$ s J = p g0, 0 j 2p.


Fs,(1h) ( z st , k$ s ) (7.115) (7.116). ,
us(1) = u inc ( z st ) f

(1)

( j, j 0 , a )

1
uh( ) = u inc (z st )g (1) (j, j 0 , a )

e ip / 4

e ikR
,
2pkF ( z st ) R
e ip / 4

e ikR
2pkF (z st ) R

(8.12)

(8.13)

0 j a, ,
us(1) =- u inc ( z st ) f

( 0)

( j, j 0 , a )

1
uh( ) =- u inc ( z st ) g ( 0) ( j, j 0 , a )

e ip / 4

e ikR
,
2pkF ( z st ) R
e ip / 4

e ikR
2pkF ( z st ) R

(8.14)

(8.15)

Copyright & A K-C

237

8.1.

a < j < 2p,


.
us(,th) ,
js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) , (8.12) (8.13), f (1)(j, j0, a), g(1)(j, j0, a)
f(j, j0, a), g(j, j0, a). a < j < 2p ( ) u(1) + u(0) ,
u(1) = u(0) (8.14) (8.15).

, .
:
F =

dF $
= t (f inc + R ) = t$ k$ i + t$ R =-cos g 0 + t$ R ,
dz

(8.16)

F =

dg 0 dR $
dF
dt$
,
= sin g 0
+
t + R
dz
dz
dz
dz

(8.17)

dR $ 1
t = [1- ( t$ R ) 2 ] ,
dz
R

(8.18)

dt$ n$
= .
dz a

(8.19)

n$ L a .
R =-k$ s
t$ R =-t$ k$ s = cos g 0 .
dR $ sin 2 g 0
,
t =
dz
R
R

dt$
k$ s n$
.
=dz
a

(8.20)
(8.21)

(8.168.21),
1
R 2
F (z st ) =
1 +
sin g 0 ,
R
r

(8.22)

$s

1
1
d g 0 - k n$ .
=

r sin g 0 d z
a sin g 0

(8.23)

r , (R = r)
.

Copyright & A K-C

238

8.

,
1

us(, h) = u inc (z st ) (DF ) (DC ) e ikR ,

(8.24)

DF =

1
R |1 + R / r|

(8.25)

,
DC =

sin g 0

p
4

f (1) ( j, j , a )

(1)
2p k

g ( j, j 0 , a )

(8.26)

. R
R + r . eip/4 , F ( z st ) > 0,
F (z st ) < 0. eikR (8.24) , eip/4 .
, , (R =| r|),
(DF ) e ikR

e ikR

(8.27)

e ikR
R

(8.28)


(DF ) e ikR | r|

(R ? r).

us(,th) = u inc (z st )

R (1 + R / r ) sin g 0

p
4

f ( j, j 0 , a ) ikR

e . (8.29)
2pk g ( j, j 0 , a )

, zst.
, (8.12) (8.13)
F (z ) , (8.29), r(z).

Copyright & A K-C

239

8.1.

8.1.2.
(7.130) (7.131) ,
L,
r
r
e ikR ( z )
1
(8.30)
E (1, t ) ( z )
E (1, t ) =
dz

2p L
R (z )

r
H (1, t ) =

1
2p Z 0

r (1, t )
e ikR ( z )
[
(
)
E
(
)]
z
z
R
d z,

R (z )
L

(8.31)

r
r
r
i
E (1, t ) ( z ) = [ E 0t ( z ) F (1, t ) ( z ) + Z 0 H 0t ( z )G (1, t ) (z )] e ikf ( z ) .

(8.32)


exp(ikF(z)), F(z) = R(z) + fi(z) , :
(1)

E J = Z 0 H j(1) =-

1
{E tinc ( z st ) f
sin g 0

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ) e ip / 4

e ikR
,
2pkF ( z st ) R

-Z 0 H tinc ( z st )[ e( j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }
(t )
E J = Z 0 H j( t ) =-

(8.33 )

E tinc ( z st )
e ikR
e ip / 4
,
f ( j, j 0 , a )
sin g 0
2pkF ( z st ) R

(8.33 )

E j(1) =-Z 0 H J(1)


Z 0 H tinc ( z st ) g (1) ( j, j 0 , a )
e ip / 4
e ikR
=
. (8.34)

sin g 0 g ( j, j 0 , a ) 2pkF ( z st ) R
E j( t ) =-Z 0 H J( t )

(8.29):
(1)

E J = Z 0 H j(1) =-

1
sin 2 g 0

{E tinc ( z st ) f

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ) -

-Z 0 H tinc ( z st )[ e( j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }
(t )
E J = Z 0 H j( t ) =-

E tinc ( z st )
sin 2 g 0

f ( j, j 0 , a )

e ip / 4

e ip / 4
2p k

2p k

e ikR
R (1 + R / r )
e ikR

R (1+ R / r )

E j(1) =-Z 0 H J(1)


Z 0 H tinc ( z st ) g (1) (j, j 0 , a ) e ip / 4
=

sin 2 g 0 g (j, j 0 , a ) 2pk


E j( t ) =-Z 0 H J( t )

e ikR
R (1 + R / r )

(8.35 a)

(8.35 )

. (8.36)

Copyright & A K-C

240

8.

(8.33 ) (8. 35 )
.
(7.149),
, :
E t(1) = {E tinc ( z st ) f

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ) -

-Z 0 H tinc ( z st )[ e( j 0 ) - e( a - j 0 )]cos g 0 }
( )

E t t = E tinc (z st ) f (j, j 0 , a )

e ip / 4

e ikR
,
2pkF ( z st ) R

e ip / 4

e ikR
,
2pkF (z st ) R

( )
g (1) ( j, j 0 , a )
Ht 1

e ip / 4
e ikR
.
= H tinc ( z st )

(t )
g ( j, j 0 , a ) 2pkF ( z st ) R
Ht

(8.37 )

(8.37 )

(8.38)

8.1.3.
l

(8.12), (8.13) (8.37), (8.38)


:

us = Et, u inc ( z ) = E tinc ( z ) ,


(8.39)
uh = Ht, u inc ( z ) = H tinc ( z ) .
(8.40)
(0 ,1)
u s(0,1) = E t
.

z .
(7.149) (7.150)
, , , , . ,
(Ufimtsev, 1995).
(8.29), (8.35 ), (8.36) , j ( t ) = j ( 0) + j (1) ,
(Keller, 1962). ,
, ,
. ,
(8.29) ( ) (Rubinowicz, 1924). (Ufimtsev, 1995) , (, ,
)
.

Copyright & A K-C

8.1.

241

, ,

(-, , ).
, (Ahluwalia et al., 1968;
Lee and Deshamhs, 1976; Kouyoumjian and Pathak, 1974; James, 1980;
Borovikov and Kinber, 1994).
(Kouyoumjian and Pathak, 1974; McNamara et al., 1990).
r
r
(8.29), (8.35) (8.36) us(,th) , E ( t ) , H ( t ) J g0, j j0 , , . ,
r
r (J = p g0).
us(,th) , E ( t ) , H ( t ) ( k )
- .
.
r
r
(8.29) us(,th) (8.35), (8.36) E ( t ) , H ( t )
.
. 8.2.
(R = 0 R = r),
. R = 0
. R = r . k$ s , .
, k$ s . , .
F (z st ) > 0 ,
. F (z st ) < 0 ,
, p/2 [ (8.11)].
, 7,
. .

. 8.2. .
( )
. ( )
,

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242

8.

8.2.
. , .

8.2.1
,
(. 8.3). ,
. . 8.1
( ) , z1 z2 L:
u = u0 ( z 1 )

e ip / 4
2pkF (z 1 )

+u0 ( z 2 )

F (z1 )

e -ip / 4
2pk | F ( z 2 )|

e ikF( z 1 )
+
R1
F (z 2 )

e ikF( z 2 )
,
R2

(8.41)

F(z) = fi(z) + R(z) fi(z) z . F(z1,2) (8.41) us(,1h) , js(,1h) ,


us(,th) , js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) .
,
Fs(1) ( z 1, 2 ) = f

(1)

(j1, 2 , j 01, 02 , a 1, 2 ), Fh(1) ( z 1, 2 ) = g (1) ( j1, 2 , j 01, 02 , a 1, 2 )

(8.42)

us(,1h) ,
Fs( t ) ( z 1, 2 ) = f ( j1, 2 , j 01, 02 , a 1, 2 ), Fh( t ) ( z 1, 2 ) = g ( j1, 2 , j 01, 02 , a 1, 2 )

(8.43)

. 8.3. P C

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8.2.

243

us(,th) . , f, g, f (1), g(1) (2.62), (2.64), (4.14), (4.15) (3.553.57). F (z 1, 2 ) (8.22).


(8.41) ,
, , .
L, , , .
.
, , .

(8.3), (8.4),
u=

e ikF
1
$)
$ = gradR .
u0 ( z )F (z, m
d z, m

R
2p L

(8.44)


, z1 z2. ,
. F (z 1, 2 ) 0 (8.41) .
,
, F ( z ) = 0 F ( z ) = 0.
(8.44)
. , . ,
(8.44)
( z ) ,
(8.41).
, ,
, ,
(Chester et al.,
1957). .
l F(z) ,
1
F( z ) = t 3 - mt + y
3

(8.45)

, t2 = m = 0 , .

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244

8.

t(z) (z). ,
t( z 1 ) = t1 = m1/ 2 , t( z 2 ) =- m1/ 2 .

(8.46)

t(z1,2) F[z(t)].
m y (8.45), z = z1 z = z2:
3
1
m 3/ 2 = [F ( z 2 ) - F ( z 1 )], y = [F ( z 1 ) + F ( z 2 )] .
4
2
l

(8.47)

(8.41) . 8.3, F(z) :


v F ( z 1 ) 0 F ( z 2 ) 0. , F ( z 2 ) F ( z 1 ) m 0,
m1/2 0, m3/2 0.
v F ( z ) > 0 z1 < z < z2 F ( z ) < 0 z < z1 z > z2.
v F ( z ) < 0 z 0 = lim z 1, 2 .
PC

(8.45) ,
dz t2 - m
, F ( z ) 0.
=
d t F' ( z )

(8.48)

F(z) (8.46), (dz/dt 0).


dz/dt z1,2,
F (z ) = 0 F (z ) = 0. dz/dt (8.45):
dz
2 m1 / 2
, F ( z 1,2 ) = 0,
=| F (z 1, 2 )|
dt

(8.49)

3/ 2

dz
2
=-
, F ( z 0 ) = F ( z 0 ) = 0,
dt
| F ( z 0 )|

(8.50)

| x| >0 (| x| ) 3/ 2 > 0.
l

t = t(z) (8.44)
,
. (8.46)
t = (t = ), z = (z = ). ,
, dz/dt = |dz/dt|.
(8.44)
u=

1 iky
e G ( t)e
2p
-

t3

ik
3 - mt

dt,

(8.51)

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245

8.2.

dz
u0 (z )
$ ) .
F (z, m
dt
R (z )

G ( t) =
l

(8.52)

G(t)

n=0

n=0

G (t) = pn (t - m) n + q n t(t - m) n .

(8.53)

(8.51),
, k .
(8.53),
G(t) = p + qt,
(8.54)
p = p0 q = q0. t = t1 t = t2,
1
1
(8.55)
p = [G ( m1/ 2 ) + G (- m1/ 2 )], q = 1/ 2 [G ( m1/ 2 ) - G (- m1/ 2 )] .
2
2m
l

(8.54) (8.51)

u ~ k -1/ 3e iky [ pAi(-k 2/ 3 m) - ik -1/ 3 qAi(-k 2/ 3 m)] k , (8.56)

Ai(t ) =

1
e
2p -

x3

i
3 + tx

dx =

x3

1
+ txdx
cos

p 0 3

(Abramowitz and Stegun, 1972)

x3

d
1
dx.
Ai(t ) = Ai( t ) =- x sin
+
tx
3

dt
p 0

(8.57)

(8.58)

,
Ai(-t ) =

d
d
Ai(-t ) =- Ai(-t ).
d (-t )
dt

(8.59)

(8.56) , . , :
u = k -1/ 3 p( z 0 ) Ai(0)e ikF( z 0 ) + O (k -2/ 3 ),

(8.60)

(10.4.4) (Abramowitz and Stegun,


1972),
.
Ai(0) = 3-2/ 3 / G (2/ 3) 035502
.

(8.61)

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246

8.

(8.56) us(,1h) ,
p q:
ps(1)
1
u0 (z 1 ) f (1) (j1 , j 01 , a 1 ) d z ( t1 )

=
+
(1)
R (z1 )
ph
g (1) (j1 , j 01 , a 1 )
dt
2
+

(1)

u0 ( z 2 ) f ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 ) d z ( t 2 )

(
)
1
R (z 2 )
g ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
dt

(8.62)

(1)

q s(1)

1 u0 (z 1 ) f (j1 , j 01 , a 1) d z ( t1 )

=
1/ 2 R ( z )
(1)
(1)
d
t

qh
1
g
(
j
,
j
,
a
)

2m

01
1
1

(1)

u0 ( z 2 ) f ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 ) d z ( t 2 )

,
R (z 2 )
g (1) ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
dt

(8.63)

m (8.47).
f (1), g(1) f, g ( f (0), g(0)) (8.62) (8.63) ps(,th) , q s(,th) ( ps(,0h) , q s(,0h) ),
us(,th) ( us(,0h) ).
(t ? 1)
(Abramowitz and Stegun, 1972):
2
p
Ai(-t ) ~ p -1/ 2 t -1/ 4 sin t 3/ 2 + ,
3
4

(8.64)

2
p
Ai(-t ) ~ - p -1/ 2 t 1/ 4 cos t 3 / 2 + .
3
4

(8.65)

, ,
(k2/3m ? 1) (8.56)
(8.41).

8.2.2.
,
, (Ufimtsev, 1991):
r
pr (1)

qr (1)
E (1)

e
2/ 3
-1/ 3 iky
-1/ 3

r e Ai(-k 2/ 3 m). (8.66)


r ~ k
e r (1) Ai(-k m) - ik
(1)
(
)
1

ph

qh

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247

8.2.

r
r
1 r
1
d z ( t 2 )
,
d z ( t1 )
+ E (1) ( z ) 1
pe(1) = E (1) ( z 1 )

2
2
R ( z 1 ) d t
R ( z 2 ) d t

(8.67)

r
r
1 r (1)
1
d z (t1 )
- E (1) (z ) 1
d z ( t 2 )

q e(1) =
E (z1 )

2
R ( z 2 ) d t
R (z 1 ) d t
2 m

(8.68)

(7.136), (7.141), (7.143) (7.145)


1
(1)
E J (z m ) =
{-E tinc
(z m ) f (1) (j m , j 0m , a m ) +
m
m
sin g 0m
+Z 0 H tinc
(z m )[e( j 0m ) - e(a m - j 0m )]cos g 0m },
m
(1)

E j ( z m ) = Z 0 H tinc
m
m

1
g (1) ( j m , j 0m , a m ).
sin g 0m

(8.69)
(8.70)

m = 1, 2 ,
z1 z2 .
, (8.67) (8.68),
r (1) r (1)

ph r q h .
r (1)
r (1)
E H = [ R E (1) ]/ Z 0 .
f (1), g(1) f, g ( f (0), g(0)) (8.67),
r
r
r
r
(8.68)r

pe(,th) , q e(,th) ( pe(,0h) , q e(,0h) ), r


r
r
E ( t ) , H ( t ) ( E ( 0) , H ( 0) ). , ,
Z 0 H tinc
( z m )[e( j 0m ) - e(a m - j 0m )]cos g 0m (8.69).
m
, f (1) f , f (1)
f (0) , .
r
r
us(,1h) , E (1) , H (1)
( f (1), g(1))
r ( t ) r ( t
(t )
)
us, h , E , H . (j = p j0, j = 2a p j0),
f, g .
(8.56) (8.66) , .
p, q, .
, (8.56) (8.66) , . ,
, . . ,
, ( , 1983).

Copyright & A K-C

248

8.

8.1. , 7.5,
, .

u inc = u0e-ikz cos g 0 e-ikr sin g 0 cos(j-j 0 ) , 0 j0 a p.
, . . (4.48) (4.49).
8.2. , 7.8,
,
.
-ikz cos g 0 -ikr sin g 0 cos(j-j 0 )
e
E inc
z = E0 z e

-ikz cos g 0 -ikr sin g 0 cos(j-j 0 )


,
H inc
e
z = H 0 ze
0 j0 a p. .
(4.48) (4.49).
8.3. , 7.5,
(1)
us , h , (. 6.6).
u inc = u0eikz .
. .
(1)
l us , h .
(6.81) (6.82).
. (6.84) (6.85).
8.4. , 7.8,
Ex(1) , (. 6.6).

Exinc = E0 xeikz .
.
(1)
l E x .
l x = 0. (6.84).
8.5. , 7.8,
(1)
us , h , (y2/a2 + x2/b2 = 1).

u inc = u0eikz .
. .
(1)
l us , h .
l

(6.81) (6.82).
x = 0. (6.84)
(6.85).

Copyright & A K-C

249

8.6. , 7.8,
Ex(1) ,
(y2/a2 + x2/b2 = 1).
Exinc = E0 xeikz .
.
(1)
l E x .
l x = 0. (6.84).
8.7. , (8.56) (8.41) k2/3m ? 1.
8.8. (8.66) .
(8.64), (8.65) .
(8.41) k2/3m ? 1.

Copyright & A K-C


:

(slope diffraction)
9.1.
, , , , .
.
. .
. ,
. , , ,
du/dn = 0 . , . ,
. .
, , . c 9.2.
, ,
, -

Copyright & A K-C

9.2.

251

.
slope diffraction. . slope , f(x) q x, df/dx = tgq.
slope diffraction. ,
. , , ,
, , . , , slope
diffraction, .
slope diffraction . (1958,
1962) , (, ). (1961) . Mentzer et al.
(1975) , ,
(1958).
(Rahmat-Samii and Mitra, 1978) slope diffraction.
, , Boersma RahmatSamii (1980)
[uniform asymptotic theory (UAT) uniform theory of diffraction (UTD)].
Pathak (1988) (UTD) slope diffraction .
slope diffraction , , (Ufimtsev, 1991; Ufimtsev and RahmatSamii, 1995). slope (Ufimtsev, 1989, 1991). , ,
(Ufimtsev, 1989; Ufimtsev, 1991; Ufimtsev and
Rahmat-Samii, 1995).

9.2.

, S1 (. 9.1):
u inc ( z ) H tinc ( z )
uh = Ht,
=
n
n
L1. t$ L1 n$ S1 z.

Copyright & A K-C

252

9. :

. 9.1. . L2 , S1 L1. L1 . L2 . R21 , L2 L1.


(Ufimtsev, 1989) Journal of Acoustical
Society of America

9.2.1.
9.1 , , slope .
L1 L2. S1.
du/dn = 0 S1 S2. L2
, S1. , L1 (L2) L2 (L1).
, ,
. ,
L2, L1
S1. . , L1, L2,
slope diffraction. 9.3.
,
u2inc = v 2 (R 2 , j 2 , j 02 ) e ikR2

(9.1)

L2 S1.
(8.29).
j2 = j02:
u2inc = v 2 ( R 2 , j 02 , j 02 ) e ikR2 +

v 2 ( R 2 , j 02 , j 02 )
( j 2 - j 02 ) e ikR2 + ...
j 2

(9.2)

,
S1,
[v2(R2, j02, j02)/j2 = (const)/j2 = 0]. ,
, ,
v 2 ( R 2 , j 02 , j 02 )
( j 2 - j 02 )e ikR2 ,
j 2

(9.3)

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253

9.2.

. 9.2. , L2,
k$1i = R21 L1. t$1 t$2
L1 L2. (Ufimtsev, 1989)
Journal of Acoustical Society of America

. ,
(9.1)
slope diffraction.
(9.3)
eq

u2 = u02

-ikz1 cos g 01 -ikr1 sin g 01 cos( j1-j 01 )


e
e
j 01

j 01=p

= u02 ikr1 sin g 01 sin j1e -ikz1 cos g 01 e ikr1 sin g 01 cos j1 ,

(9.4)

. r1, j1, z1
L1 (. 9.1). g01 . 9.2,
k$1i = R 21 .
u02

z1 = r1 = 0:
v 2 ( R 2 , j 2 , j 02 ) ikR2
1
e
j 2
R 21 sin g 02

R2 =R21, j 2 =j 02

eq
1 u2
=
r1 j1

(9.5)
z1=r1=0, j1=p.

,
u02 =-

v 2 ( R 21 , j 2 , j 02 ) ikR21
1
j2 = j02
e
ikR 21 sin g 01 sin g 02
j 2

(9.6)

u02 = w02e ikR21 ,

(9.7)

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254

9. :

w02 =-

v 2 ( R 21 , j 2 , j 02 )
1
ikR 21 sin g 01 sin g 02
j 2
j

(9.8)
2 =j 02 .

, , ,
j01, ,
. ,

, , ,
. , , ,
, 2.
, , j01
(2.27), (2.28) (2.40), (2.41) ,
.
7 ,
(7.2). (9.4)
(7.2). , , (9.4),
, 7,
uinc(z) u02 = w02exp(ikR21). , .
, ,
jh( 0) = 2u inc
. (1.10) ,
, , . ,
, uh( 0) uh(1) uh( t ) .
, , L1, (7.97)
uinc(z) w02(z)exp(ikR21):
duh( t ) =

dz

$)
w02 ( z )
F ( t ) ( z, m
j 01 h
2p
j

01=p

e ik [ R1 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]
.
R1 ( z )

(9.9)

, ,
uh( t ) =

1
$)
w02 ( z )
F ( t ) ( z, m

j 01 h
2p L
j
1

01=p

e ik [ R1 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]
dz.
R1 ( z )

(9.10)

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255

9.2.

, 8.1. :
uh( t ) = w02 (z st )

e ip / 4

R1 (1 + R1 / r 1 ) sin g 01

g (j1 , j 01 , a 1 ) ik ( R1+ R21 )


e
j 01
2p k

j 01=p,

(9.11)
a1 = 2p,

R1 (1+ R1 / r 1 ) >0, (1 + R1 / r 1 ) > 0,

R1 (1+ R1 / r 1 ) =

= i R1 (1+ R1 / r 1 ) , (1 + R1 / r 1 ) < 0. zst, , g01(zst), a1(zst),


j1(zst). r1(zst) (8.23):
$s

1
1
dg 01 - k1 n$ 1 ,
(9.12)
=

r 1 sin g 01 dz
a1 sin g 01


n$ 1 = a1

dt$1
dz

(9.13)

L1 a1 zst. k$1s (9.11), .


(8.7)
(9.14)
k$ s t$ = k$ i t$ =-cos g .
1

01

(9.11)
(8.13):
g (j1 , j 01 , a )
e ip / 4
e ik ( R1+ R21 )
,
(9.15)
uh( t ) w02 (z st )
R1
j 01
2pkF (z st )
F(zst) = R21(zst) + R1(zst). , F ( z) = d 2F / dz 2
, r1(z) (9.11).
, (9.11) (9.15) . j1 = 0, 2p,

j
cos 1

1
2 j 0, 2p.
(9.16)
g( j1 , j 01 , a 1 )
=1
j1
j 01
2
2
j 01=p
sin
2

g(j1, j01, a1) j1 = p j0.

Copyright & A K-C

256

9. :

, (9.8) (9.11) (9.15),


(slope diffraction),
(1/kR21) (8.29),
.

9.2.2.
(Ufimtsev, 1991). , . , ,
L2 L1, r
S1 (E 2tot ^ S 1 ),
H 2totz1 = v 2 (R 2 , j 2 , j 02 )e ikR2 .

(9.17)

L1 ,
(9.4), u2eq = H 2eqz . u02
1
(9.4) (9.6).

eq
H 2 z = w02e ikR21 ,

(9.18)

w02 (9.8). ,
L1, (7.135),
(7.136), E0t = 0 H0t = w02exp(ikR21).
L1, , :
r
r (t )
1
ikR21 G ( z )
E 21 =
Z w ( z )e
2p 0 L 02

j 01
1

ikR1
e
dz 1 ,
R
j 01=p 1

r (t )
G ( z )
1
ikR21
H 21 =
w02 (z)e R1 j
2p L
01

ikR1
e
dz 1 .
R
j 01=p 1

(9.19)

(9.20)


:
r (t )
w ( z ) g ( j1 , p, a 1 ) e ik ( R1+ R21 )+ ip / 4
,
E 21 = e$j1 Z 0 022 st
j 01
2pkR1 (1 + R1 / r 1 )
sin g 01
r (t )
r
H 21 = [R1 E ( t ) ] / Z 0 ,

(9.21)
(9.22)

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257

9.3. (slope diffraction)

e$j1 , j1 (. 9.1). , ,
t

E j( ) =-Z 0 H J 1 = Z 0
1

w02 ( z st ) g ( j1 , p, a 1 ) e ik ( R1+ R21 )+ ip / 4


.
j 01
2pkR1 (1 + R1 / r 1 )
sin 2 g 01

(9.23)

r1 (9.12). (7.149),
t

H J( ) =-H t( ) /sin g 01
1

(9.24)

, ,
( )

H t t = w02 ( z st )
1

1 g ( j1 , p, a 1 ) e ik ( R1+ R21 )+ ip / 4
.
sin g 01
j 01
2pkR1 (1 + R1 / r 1 )

(9.25)

(9.11),
. , , , :
Ht = uh,

H tinc u inc
L1.
=
n
n

(9.26)

9.3.
(slope diffraction)
. 9.1.
, slope diffraction L2 (. 9.1),
:
u inc H tinc
uh = Ht,
L2.
=
n
n
t$ L2 n$ S1.

9.3.1.
,
u ext = u0e ikf 0

(9.27)

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258

9. :

L1 (8.29):
ikR1
u1inc
=
h = v 1 ( R1 , j 1 , j 01 )e

= u0

e ip / 4
sin g 0 2pk

1
R1 (1 + R1 / r 1 )

g ( j1 , j 01 , a 1 ) e ikR1 ,

(9.28)

g0 = p g01, cos g 01 = t$1 f 0 g01 . 9.2. L2 . u1inc


h . g(j1, j01, a1) (2.64), a1 = 2p n = 2. ,
j1 = p L2.
, slope diffraction (9.28) L2. ,
eq

u1 = u01

e ikz 2 cos g 02 e -ikr2 sin g 02 cos( j 2 -j 02 ) =


j 02

=- u01 ikr2 sin g 02 sin( j 2 - j 02 )e ikz 2 cos g 02 e -ikr2 sin g 02 cos( j 2 -j 02 ) . (9.29)
g02 . 9.2.
eq

1 u1
r2 j 2

=
z 2 =r2 =0, j 2 =j 02

u1h
1
R1 sin g 01 j1

(9.30)
R1=R21, j1=p


u01 =-

v 1 (R1 , j1 , j 01 ) ikR
1
e 21
ikR 21 sin g 01 sin g 02
j1

(9.31)

R1=R21, j1=p

u01 = w01e ikR21 ,

(9.32)

w01 =-

v 1 ( R 21 , j1 , j 01 )
1
.
ikR 21 sin g 01 sin g 02
j1
j =p

(9.33)

9.2, , L2, (7.90),


(7.97) j02 uinc(z) (9.32):
duh =

(1)

dz
e ik [ R2 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]

(1)
,
w01 (z )
Fh ( z )
2p
j 02
R 2 ( z)

(9.34)

duh( t ) =

dz
e ik [ R2 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]

.
w01 (z )
Fh( t ) (z )
j 02
R 2 ( z)
2p

(9.35)

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259

9.3. (slope diffraction)

, duh(1) duh( t ) ,
( jh(1) ) ( jh( t ) = jh( 0) + jh(1) ) .
, ,

(1)

uh =

1
e ik [ R2 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]
(1)
z
z
d z,
w
(
)
F
(
)

j 02 h
2p L 01
R 2 (z )

(9.36)

1
e ik [ R2 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]
(t )
w
(
)
F
(
)
z
z
d z.

2p L 01
j 02 h
R 2 (z )

(9.37)

uh( t ) =

:
( )

1
uh = w01 ( z st )

uh( t ) = w01 ( z st )

g (1) ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
e ik ( R2 + R21 )
,
j 02
2p k
R 2 (1 + R 2 / r 2 )

(9.38)

g ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
e ik ( R2 + R21 )
.
j 02
2p k
R 2 (1 + R 2 / r 2 )

(9.39)

e ip / 4
sin g 02

e ip / 4
sin g 02

r2
(8.23)
$s

1
1
- d g 02 - k 2 n$ 2 ,
=
r 2 sin g 02
a 2 sin g 02
dz

(9.40)

n$ 2 = a 2 dt$ / d z L2 a2 zst. k$2s ,


k$2s t$2 = k$2i t$2 = cos g 02 . g(1)(j2, j02, a2)
(4.15).
, (9.40)
(9.12) . (8.16) (8.17), (9.12) (9.40). (8.16) (8.17), (9.12) (9.40)
k$1i t$1 =-cos g 01 k$2i t$2 = cos g 02 . k$1i (k$2i ) , L1 (L2), g01 g02
. 9.2.
, ,
9.2, (9.38), (9.39), slope diffraction, -

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260

9. :

(1/kR21) (8.13), (8.29),


. ,
, slope diffraction, .

9.3.2.
, ,
. (Ufimtsev, 1991).
, L1 L2, .

(t )
H t = v 1 (R1 , j1 , j 01 )e ikR1
1

(9.41)

v1 (9.28), L2.
, L2
, (9.27). ,
H1eqt = w01e ikR21
2

e ikz 2 cos g 02 e -ikr2 sin g 02 cos( j 2 -j 02 )


j 02

(9.42)

w01, (9.33). ,
L2, (7.135)
(7.136) ( j02), E0t = 0 H0texp(ikfi) =
= w01exp(ikR21).
L2

r
r (t ) Z0
G ( t ) ( z ) e ik [ R2 ( z )+ R21 ( z )]
(9.43)
E =
d z,
w01 (z) j
R 2 (z )
2p L
02
2

r (t )
G ( t ) ( z ) e ik [ R2 ( z )+R21 ( z )]
1
H =
w01 (z) R 2 j R (z) d z.
2p L

02
2

(9.44)

:
(t )

E j = Z 0 w01 ( z st )
2

(t )

H q =- w01 ( z st )
2

e ip / 4
sin 2 g 02
e ip / 4
sin 2 g 02

g ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
e ik ( R2 + R21 )
, (9.45)
j 02
R 2 (1 + R 2 / r 2 )
2p k
g ( j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
e ik ( R2 + R21 )
. (9.46)
j 02
R 2 (1 + R 2 / r 2 )
2p k

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261

9.4. :

H J( t ) =-H t( t ) /sin g 02 , (9.46)


2

( )

H t t w01 (z st )
2

g (j 2 , j 02 , a 2 )
e ik ( R2 + R21 )
,
j 02
2p k
R 2 (1 + R 2 / r 2 )

e ip / 4
sin g 02

(9.47)

(9.39)
:
uh = Ht,

inc

u h = H tinc z = zst.
n
n

, (. . slope diffraction).

9.4. :
slope diffraction
, slope diffraction, :
inc

us = Et,
u ( z st ) = E tinc ( z st ) ,
n
n
inc

uh = Ht,
u ( z st ) = H tinc ( z st ) ,
n
n
zst t$
.

9.4.1.
,
u inc = v 0 e

ikRQ

(9.49)

(8.29) , / L. , . .
u = 0 du/dn = 0. . 9.3 9.4.
Q .
, uinc = 0 uinc/n 0 z L. -

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262

9. :

. 9.3. P t$ L, Qz q,
Q rq t$. n$
P. (Ufimtsev and RahmatSamii, 1995) c Annales des Telecommunications

, 9.2 9.3. (9.49)


u eq = u0

-ikzcosg 0 -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 )


e
e
=
j 0

=- u0 ikr sin g 0 sin( j - j 0 ) e -ikz cos g 0 e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 ) .

(9.50)

r, j, z . 9.4. j (0 j a, 0 j0 < p).



u eq
1 u eq
=n
r j

=
z=r=0, j=j 0

u inc
1 u inc
=
n
R Q J Q

=
J Q =0

1 u inc
rq j q

(9.51)
j q =0


ikR

v 0
e Q
u0 =
ikR Q sin g 0 J Q

(9.52)

J Q =0


u0 = w0e

ikRQ

(9.53)

w0 =

v 0
1
ikR Q sin g 0 J Q

.
J Q =0

(9.54)

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9.4. :

263

. 9.4. W , r L, T W,
r
t t T. g0 . P(R, J, j) .
(Ufimtsev and Rahmat-Samii, 1995)
Annales des Telecommunications

, 9.2, ,
L, (8.3)
(8.4) j0 uinc(z) =
= u0(z)exp(ikfi(z)) (9.53). , , js(,1h) ,
ik [ R ( z )+ RQ ( z )]

us(1) =

Fs(1) ( z ) e
1
w
(
)
z
0
j 0
2p L

d z,

(9.55)

uh(1) =

( )
F ( z ) e ik [ R ( z )+ RQ ( z )]
1
w0 ( z ) h
d z,

R
2p L
j 0

(9.56)

, js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) ,


us( t ) =
( )

uht =

F ( t ) ( z ) e
1
w0 ( z ) s

j 0
2p L

ik [ R ( z )+ RQ ( z )]

d z,

(9.57)

Fh( t ) ( z ) e ik [ R ( z )+ RQ ( z )]
1
w
(
)
d z.
z
0
j 0
R
2p L

(9.58)

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264

9. :

, , , 8.1.

(8.12), (8.13) (8.29) ui(zst)
(9.53):
f (1) ( j, j , a )
0

u (1)
j 0
1
e ip / 4
s
ik ( R+ RQ )

= w0 ( z st )
,
e

(1)
(1)
R (1 + R / r ) sin g 0 2pk g ( j, j 0 , a )

uh

j 0

(9.59)

f ( j, j 0 , a )

ip / 4
u(t )
j 0
1
e

e ik ( R+ RQ ) ,
s = w0 ( z st )
(t )

(
j
,
j
,
a
)
g

R (1 + R / r ) sin g 0 2pk

0
uh

j 0

(9.60)

zst (8.7), r = r(zst) (8.23).


(9.54) , slope
diffraction, (1/kRQ) (8.12), (8.13) (8.29).
, (9.559.58) .

9.4.2.

r
r ikR
r
r ikR
E inc = E 0i e Q , H inc = H 0i e Q ,

r
r
E 0i = Z 0 [ H 0i R Q ] .

(9.61)

(9.62)

,
L ri r
E 0 , H 0 , :
r
r
(9.63)
E 0 = 0, H 0i = 0 L,
ri
ri
ri
ri
E 0
H 0
1 E 0
1 H 0
(9.64)
0,
=
0 L.
=
n
R Q J Q
n
R Q J Q

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265

9.4. :

,
L
E teq =-ikrE 0eqt sin g 0 sin( j - j 0 ) e -ikz cos g 0 e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 ) ,

(9.65)

H teq =-ikrH 0eqt sin g 0 sin( j - j 0 ) e -ikz cos g 0 e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 ) ,

(9.66)

j0.
,
( )
:
E teq
E eq
=- t
n
rj

= ik sin g 0 E 0eqt =
z=r=0, j=j 0

H teq
H teq
=n
rj

E 0i t
ikR
e Q
R Q J Q

= ik sin g 0 H 0eqt =
z=r=0, j=j 0

H 0i t
R
e Q
R Q J Q

(9.67)

(9.68)

J Q =0

J Q =0

,
E 0eqt =

H 0eqt =

i
1
ikR E
e Q 0t
ikR Q sin g 0
J Q
i
1
ikR H 0t
e Q
ikR Q sin g 0
J Q

(9.69)

J Q =0

(9.70)

J Q =0

, ,
L, (7.135), (7.136)
j0 E0t(z), H0t(z) (9.69)
(9.70):
ikR ( z )
r
dz r
ikR ( z ) e
,
dE ( t ) = E ( t ) (z ) e Q
2p
R (z )
r
r
dH ( t ) = [R dE ( t ) ] / Z 0 ,

(9.71)
(9.72)

r
r (t )
r (t )
eq
F ( z, J , j) + Z 0 H 0eqt ( z )
G ( z, J , j). (9.73)
E ( t ) ( z ) = E 0t ( z )
j 0
j 0

Copyright & A K-C

266

9. :

, , :
ik [ R ( z )+ RQ ( z )]
r
r (t )
1
e
E
(
)
E (t ) =
d z,
z

R (z )
2p L

r
H (t ) =

1
2p Z 0

[R E ( t ) (z)]
L

(9.74)

ik [ R ( z )+ RQ ( z )]

R (z )

d z.

(9.75)


:
E j( t ) =-Z 0 H J( t ) = Z 0 H 0eqt

(t )
eq
E J = Z 0 H j( t ) =-E 0t

ik ( R+ R )

e ip / 4
sin 2 g 0

Q
g (j, j 0 , a ) e
, (9.76)
j 0
R (1 + R / r )
2p k

e ip / 4
sin 2 g 0

ik ( R+ R )

Q
f (j, j 0 , a ) e
,
j 0
R (1 + R / r )
2p k

(9.77)

z
zst. (7.149),
, t$ (z st ),
( )
E t t = E 0eqt

( )
H t t = H 0eqt

e ip / 4
sin g 0

f (j, j 0 , a ) e ik ( R RQ )
,
j 0
2p k
R (1 + R / r )
+

e ip / 4
sin g 0

(9.78)

g (j, j 0 , a ) e ik ( R RQ )
.
j 0
2p k
R (1 + R / r )

(9.79)

(9.60)

, L:
us = Et,

inc

u (z st ) = E tinc ( z st ),
n
n

(9.80)

uh = Ht,

inc

u (z st ) = H tinc ( z st ),
n
n

(9.81)

zst .

Copyright & A K-C

267

9.1. (9.10) , .
(9.11).
9.2. (9.19) (9.20)
, . (9.23) (9.25).
(9.11) .
9.3. (9.36) (9.37) ,
slope diffraction.
(9.38) (9.39).
9.4. (9.43) (9.44)
, slope diffraction. (9.45), (9.46) (9.47).
(9.47) (9.39). .

Copyright & A K-C

10

, ,
:
uh = Ht, u hinc ( z ) = H tinc ( z ) ,
u sinc ( z ) E tinc ( z )
,
=
n
n
$ () z. t$ (n)
(7.149)
,
.
us = Et,

.
,
. .
, . 10.1. S L1 L
,
, L1
L. , , ,
. .
.
(Ufimtsev, 1989; Ufimtsev, 1991).

Copyright & A K-C

269

10.1.

. 10.1. S / L1 L. t$1 , t$ . t$1 , t$ S t$1 , t$ . r1, j1, z1 r, j, z


. n$
, S R10, t$1 , t$ t$1 , t$.
(Ufimtsev, 1989) c Journal of Acoustical
Society of America

10.1.
, , , (8.29),
u1h (R1 , j1 ) = u01 g ( j1 , j 01 , a 1 )

e ikR1+ ip / 4
sin g 01 2pkR1 (1 + R1 / r 1 )

(10.1)

g(j1, j01, a1) (2.64).


L
lim

j 0 0 2

u1h ( R10 , 0)e -ikz cos g 0 [e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 ) + e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j+ j 0 ) ].

(10.2)


, 8 (8.3) (8.4). C,
u0(z)exp(ikfi) (8.4) (1/2)u1h(R10, 0),
uh( t ) =

1
e ikR ( z )
(t )
$
u
(
)
F
(
,
m
)
d z, u1h ( z ) = u1h (R10 , 0)
z
z
1h h
R (z )
4p L

(10.3)

Copyright & A K-C

270

10.

,
jh( t ) = jh( 0) + jh(1) . ,
jh( 0) = u1h ( R1 , 0).
. (8.29),
uinc(zst) (1/2)u1h(zst)
j0 = 0:
1
e ikR+ ip / 4
,
uh( t ) = u1h ( z st )g (j, 0, a )
2
sin g 0 2pkR (1 + R / r )

(10.4)

u1h ( z st ) = u01 g (0, j 01 , a 1 )

e ikR10 + ip / 4
sin g 01 2pkR10 (1 + R10 / r 1 )

(10.5)

a1, a L1, L
(p a1 2p, p a 2p), r1, r (8.23).
(10.4) (j = p) (10.1), .
(10.4) (10.3), (J = p g0, 0 j a):
uh( t ) = u1h (R10 , 0) Dh ( c, j, g 0 )

e ikR
R (1 + R / r )

(10.6)

Dh ( c, j, g 0 ) =

c
v ( kc sin g 0 , j)e -ikc sin g 0 ,
sin g 0

j
j
p
2
sign (cos )
sin cos
-ip / 4
2
2
N
2 e -is cos j e
v( s, j) = N
e it dt.

j
p
p
j
cos - cos
2s cos
2
N
N
N c
R R
N = a / p, c = 10
sin g 0 .
R10 + R

(10.7)

(10.8)

(10.9)


1
v( s, p m 0) = m e is
2

(10.10)

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271

10.2.

r = r 1 + R10 j = p,

(10.11)

u ( j1 = 0, j = p):
1
(10.12)
uh( t ) = m u1h (R10 + R , 0).
2
(t)

(uh( t ) + u1h ) . ,
.

[ sign( x )]

e it dt ~ -

e ix
| x | ? 1,
2ix

(10.13)

, (10.6)
(10.4) ,
j
2kc sin g 0 cos ? 1.
2

10.2.
. 10.1. ,
u1s (R1 , j1 ) = u01 f ( j1 , j 01 , a 1 )

e ikR1+ ip / 4
sin g 01 2pkR1 (1 + R1 / r 1 )

(10.14)

L1 S
j1 = 0 L. , f(0, j01, a1) = 0
(2.62). , (10.14)
L slope diffraction , , , 9.
, ,
(10.14),
e -ikz cos g 0 [e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 ) - e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j+ j 0 ) ] ,

(10.15)

. ,
useq = u0eq e -ikz cos g 0

[e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j-j 0 ) - e -ikr sin g 0 cos( j+ j 0 ) ]


j 0
j

=-u0 2ikr sin g 0 sin j e -ikz cos g 0 e -ikr sin g 0 cos j .


eq

=
0 =0

(10.16)

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272

10.

u0eq
u1s (R1 , j1 )
1
j 1
R10 sin g 01
R =R
1

10 , j1=0

1 useq
r j

(10.17)
z=r=0, j=0


eq

u0 =-

u1s ( R1 , j1 )
1
i2kR10 sin g 01 sin g 0
j1
R =R
1

(10.18)

10 , j1=0

, 9, ,
slope diffraction (10.16), (8.4) u0(z)exp(ikfi)
u0eq :
us( t ) =

1
e ikR ( z )
$)
u0eq (z )
Fs( t ) ( z, m

dz .

j 0 =0
2p L
j 0
R (z )

(10.19)

(8.29),
uinc(zst) u0eq ( z st ):
us( t ) = u0eq ( z st )

f ( j,0, a )
e ikR+ ip / 4
.
j 0
sin g 0 2pkR (1 + R / r)

(10.20)

(j = p).
(10.19),

(J = p g0, 0 j a):
us( t ) =

e ikR
i u1s (z st )
,
Ds ( c, j, g 0 )
n
k
R (1 + R / r )

(10.21)

u1s ( z st )
u1s ( R1 , j1 )
1
=
n
R10 sin g 01
j 1
R =R
1

Ds ( c, j, a ) =-kc
c=

R10 R
sin g 0 .
R10 + R

(10.22)

10 , j1=0

c
w( kc sin g 0 , j)e -ikc sin g 0 ,
sin g 0

(10.23)
(10.24)

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273

10.3.

w(s, j) =-

2 2
N2

j
j
p
sin cos 2
j e i ( s-p / 4)
N
N
2 F
2s cos
,
2
2
ps

j
p
cos - cos

N
N
sin

(10.25)

N = a/p
F(x ) =1 + i2xe -ix
2

sign ( x )

e it dt.

(10.26)

, | x | ? 1,
F( x )

i
2x 2

(10.27)

j
p
sin
e i ( s+ p / 4)
N
N
.
w( s, j) - 2
2
3/ 2
N
j p (2s)
p
cos - cos

N
N
2

sin

(10.28)

, u1s ( R1 , j1 ) + us( t )
(j1 = 0, j = p). ,
j
? 1, (10.21)
2kc sin g 0 cos

2
(10.20).
(Molinet, 2005)
,
.

10.3.
, L1,
, . . Ht Et.
, L,
H tinc , E tinc . H tinc (10.1) ,
, L ,
(10.1). E tinc , , (10.14) , ,
L ,
(10.14).

Copyright & A K-C

274

10.

:
1
e ikR+ ip / 4
,
E j( t ) =-Z 0 H J( t ) = Z 0 H tinc ( z st )g ( j,0, a ) 2
2
sin g 0 2pkR (1 + R / r )
(t )
eq
E J = Z 0 H j( t ) =-E t ( z st )

f ( j,0, a )
e ikR+ ip / 4
,
j 0
sin 2 g 0 2pkR (1 + R / r )

(10.29)

(10.30)

H tinc ( z st ) = u01 g (0, j 01 , a 1 )

E teq ( z st ) =-

e ikR10 + ip / 4
sin g 01 2pkR10 (1 + R10 / r 1 )

E tinc ( R1 , j1 )
1
i2kR10 sin g 01 sin g 0
j1

E tinc = u01 f ( j1 , j 01 , a 1 )

(10.31)

(10.32)

R1=R10 , j1=0

e ikR10 + ip / 4
sin g 01 2pkR10 (1 + R10 / r 1 )

(10.33)

(7.149),
, L zst:
1
e ikR+ ip / 4
,
H t( t ) = H tinc ( z st ) g ( j,0, a )
2
sin g 0 2pkR (1 + R / r )
E t( t ) = E teq ( z st )

f ( j,0, a )
e ikR+ ip / 4
.
j 0
sin g 0 2pkR (1 + R / r)

(10.34)

(10.35)

(10.4) (10.20) , :
uh = Ht, uhinc = H tinc ,

us = Et,

usinc E tinc
.
=
n
n

(10.36)

(10.37)

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275

,
(J = p g0, 0 j a), (10.6) (10.21):
(t )
E j( t ) =-Z 0 H J = Z 0 H tinc ( z st )Dh ( c, j, g 0 )

(t )

E J = Z 0 H j( t ) =

e ikR
sin g 0 R (1 + R / r )

E tinc (z st )
1
e ikR
.
Ds ( c, j, g 0 )
ik sin g 0
n
R (1+ R / r )

(10.38)

(10.39)

t , , L, j ( t ) = j ( 0) + j (1) . , L1, .
, (j = p).
j
( kc sin g 0 cos
? 1) (10.38), (10.39) 2
(10.29), (10.30).
(10.38), (10.39), Et Ht, (10.6), (10.21) (10.36), (10.37)
.

(t )

10.1. , u1 h + uh
(t )
(j = p). u1h uh (10.1) (10.6), .
10.2. , (10.6)
(10.4).
10.3. , u1 s + us(t )
(j = p). u1s us(t )
(10.14) (10.21), .
10.4. , (10.21)
(10.20).
10.5. , (j = p) (10.38)
(10.34).
10.6. , (j = p) (10.39)
(10.35).

Copyright & A K-C

11




, , (Ufimtsev, 1989; Ufimtsev,
1991; Ufimtsev and Rahmat-Samii, 1995).

11.1.
. 11.1, ,

u inc = u0e ikf ,
i

(11.1)

. 11.1. , Q.
z. (Ufimtsev, 1989)
Journal of Acoustical Society of America

Copyright & A K-C

11.1.

277

z
. P . ,
, , . . 7.6 8.1,
f g.
(2.62) (2.64) , js(,th) = js(,0h) + js(,1h) ,
.
.
, , (z < 0),
,
. us(,mh)
, m = 2, 3, ... .
, . . (primary) ,
(11.1), (8.4), L . , (8.4) ,
:
uspr
f (j, j 0 , a )e ikR

ikf i
.
u
a

0
g ( j, j 0 , a ) R
uhpr

(11.2)

a ,
a . kR ? 1.
us(,mh) m = 2, 3, ... , ,
, (10.3)
(10.19), Fs,( ht)
f g. , ,
(10.4) (10.20), g0 = p/2, R = 2a r = a.
,
(p/2), ,
1 / 1 + R / a =1 / 1- 2a / a =-i.
.

Copyright & A K-C

278

11.

11.2.
(10.3) , m + 1,
+1)

uh( m

(P ) =

1
e ikR
g ( y,0, a )
4p
R

uh( m) (z)d z =
L

e ikR
a
.
g ( y,0, a ) uh( m)
2
R

(11.3)

uh( m) m, z , m + 1.
, uh( m) m
z. ,
i
1
e i ( 2ka-p / 4)
(1)
,
uh uhpr = u0e ikf g ( a, j 0 , a )
2
pka

-1)

uh( m) = uh( m

g (0,0, a )

e i ( 2ka-p / 4)
4 pka

(11.4)

, m = 2, 3, 4, ... .

(11.5)

,
m

( )
uh m

= u0e

ikf i

2g ( a, j 0 , a )[g (0,0, a )]

e i ( 2ka-p / 4)

, m = 1, 2, 3, ...
4 pka

m-1

(11.6)

pr
m
uhew (P ) = uh (P ) + uh ( P ) =
( )

m=2

= u0e lkf a
i

e i ( 2ka-p / 4)
g (j, j 0 , a ) + g (y,0, a ) g (a, j 0 , a )
+
R
4 pka
ikR

+ g ( y,0, a ) g ( a, j 0 , a ) [g (0,0, a )]
m=3

m-1

e i ( 2ka-p / 4)

4 pka

m-2

(11.7)

.
.
, ,
, .

(6.187) (z < 0)
(6.228) (z > 0).
,

Copyright & A K-C

279

11.3.


. , (6.187)
.
(11.7) . uinc = eikz
s h, s =

4p
(t )
Im (uh, s Re -ikR ),
k

(11.8)

uh( ,t s) , (y = p/2
. 11.1). :
l , (6.228),
u0 = 1.
l ,
jh(1, s) (6.41), (6.42), u0 = 1.
l , .
uh( t ) (11.8) :

sin[m(2ka - p / 4)]
2 p
, (11.9)
s h = 2pa 21 + g ,0, ag ( a, j 0 , a ) [g (0,0, a )]m-1
m
m
/
2

4 (pka )
ka 2

m=1

, . ,
(11.9) 2ka p/4 = lp (l = 1, 2, 3, ...).
(11.9)
.

11.3.
, (11.1), (11.2). slope diffraction ,
. (10.19).
m + 1, ,

us( m+1) ( P ) =

1 f ( y,0, a ) e ikR
R
2 p j 0

us( m) d z = aus( m)
L

f ( y,0, a ) e ikR
.
j 0
R

(11.10)

us( m) ,
m, z

Copyright & A K-C

280

11.

z = z pa. (10.18), (10.20),


g0 = g01 = p/2, R = 2a r = a.
us(1) =-u0e ikf
us( m) = us( m-1)

f ( a, j 0 , a ) e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)
,
j
8ka pka

(11.11)

2 f (0,0, a ) e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)
,
j j 0 8ka pka

(11.12)

m-1

us( m)

=-u0e

ikf i

f ( a, j 0 , a ) 2 f (0,0, a )

j
j j 0

e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)

.
8ka pka

(11.13)

(11.10)
us( m+1) ( P ) =-u0e ikf a
i

e ikR

R
m-1

f (y,0, a ) f (a, j 0 , a ) 2 f (0,0, a )

j 0
j
j j 0

e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)

.
8ka pka

(11.14)

usew ( P ) = uspr ( P ) + us( m) ( P ) = u0e ikf a


i

m=1

e ikR
f
R

m-2

2
f ( y,0, a ) f ( a, j 0 , a )
f (0,0, a )

j 0
j
j j 0
m=2

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ) m-1

e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)

8ka pka

(11.15)

.
(11.15) . uinc = eikz
(11.8),

us( t ) = u sh + us(1) + us( m) .

(11.16)

m=2

ush (6.228), u0 = 1.
us(1) = a f

(1)

( j, j 0 , a )

e ikR
R

(11.17)

, js(1) .

Copyright & A K-C

281

, , (11.16) ,
. ,

2 f ( p / 2, 0, a ) f ( a, j 0 , a )

s s = 2pa 21j 0
j
ka

m-1

2 f (0,0, a )

jj 0
m=1

sin[ m(2ka + p / 4)]


.
(8ka ) m ( pka ) m/ 2

(11.18)

, (11.15) (11.18) , 11.2.


(11.18) 2ka + p/4 = lp (l = 1, 2, 3, ...).
(11.18)

.

11.1. (11.411.6) ,

(. 11.1). , ,
, .
11.2. (11.1111.13)
,
(. 11.1). , ,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

12

, , (Ufimtsev, 1989; Ufimtsev, 1991;


Ufimtsev & Rahmat-Samii, 1995).
,
, (. 12.1). ,
, ,
( ) ,
. , . , z = 0.
(1.10) ,
ussc (- z ) = ussc ( z ), uhsc (-z ) =-uhsc ( z ).

(12.1)

,
e ikr
e ikr
e ikr
d e ikr
d e ikr
=
n$ =-
n$ =(r n$ ) =( r$ n$ ),
dr r
n r
r
r
dr r

(12.2)

r$ (- z ) n$ =-r$ ( z ) n$.
. 12.1.
uinc = eikz. P z, .

12.1.
, , (11.2), u0exp(ikfi) = 1. -

Copyright & A K-C

12.1.

283

. 12.1. yOz ( ) ( ). j y = 2p j
P

m + 1 (11.3),
,
+1)

uh( m

(P ) =

e ikR
1
( m, t )
( m, t )
z
j
0
a
z
y
[
u
(
)
g
(
,
,
)
+
u
(
)
g
(
,
0,
a
)]
dz=

r
4p L l
R

a ( , )
e ikR
, m = 1, 2, 3, ....
= [ul m t g (j,0, a ) + ur( m, t ) g (y,0, a )]
R
2

(12.3)

a , y = 2p j, a = 2p. ul( m, t )
m, z
,
ul( m, t ) = ull( m) + url( m) .

(12.4)

ull( m) m z
, (z pa)
m 1, . ,
url( m) m z,
m 1
(z pa), .

ur( m, t ) = ulr( m) + urr( m) .

(12.5)

(12.1),
ul( m, t ) =-ur( m, t ) , ull( m) =-ulr( m) , urr( m) =-url( m) .

(12.6)

, (2.64),
g (y,0, a ) =-g ( j,0, a ) =

1
cos

j
2

(12.7)

Copyright & A K-C

284

12.

(12.3)
uh( m+1) ( P ) = aul( m, t ) g ( j,0, a )

e ikR
,
R

(12.8)

e ikR
.
R

(12.9)

+1)

uh( m

( P ) = aur( m, t ) g ( y,0, a )

ul(1, t ) ul pr ur(1, t ) urpr , z


. (8.29), g0 = p/2, R = 2a, r = a g = g(0, p/2, a) ul pr ,
g = g(a, p/2, a) urpr . ull( m) , ulr( m) , url( m) m = 2, 3, ..., g ,
g = g(0, 0, a) = 1. :
ul pr =-urpr = g (0, p / 2, a ) l =- 2 l,
-1, t )

ul( m, t ) =-ul( m

(12.10)

l = (-1) m 2 lm ,

(12.11)

l=

e i ( 2ka-p / 4)
2 pka

(12.12)

,
+1)

uh( m

( P ) = a 2g (j,0, a )(-1) m lm

e ikR
,
R

(12.13)

2g (j,0, a ) (-1) m lm ]

uhew ( P ) = a[g (j, p / 2, a ) +

m=1

e ikR
.
R

(12.14)

g(j, p/2, a) j = p/2 j = 3p/2. -:

uhsc = uh( 0) + uhfr + uh( m) .

(12.15)

m=2

uh( 0) =

3p / 2
ika 2 e ikR
j =
2 R
p / 2

(12.16)

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12.2.

285

, jh( 0) ,
, .
uhfr = ag (1) ( j, p / 2, a )

e ikR
R

(12.17)

g(1)(p/2, p/2, a) = g(3p/2, p/2, a) = 1/2 , jh(1) ,


. (12.14)
(12.15) , jh(1) , .
(12.15) (11.8), :

sin[ m(2ka - p / 4)]


2
.
s h = 2pa 21 +
(-1) m

m
m
1
2
/

2
(pka )
ka m=1

(12.18)

, ( ka )
. (Witte and Westpfahl, 1970),
, (12.18).

12.2.
,
uinc = exp(ikz), , (11.2):
uspr = af (j, p / 2, a )

e ikR
,
R

(12.19)

a = 2p

1
1
1
.
+
f (j, j 0 , a ) = j- j0
j + j0
2
cos

cos

2
2

(12.20)

js( t ) = js( 0) + js(1) .


,

Copyright & A K-C

286

12.

js(1) , (12.1),
f f (1):
f

(1)

( j, j 0 , a ) = f ( j, j 0 , a ) - f

( 0)

( j, j 0 ) =

( 0)

(j, j 0 ).

(12.21)

sin j 0
.
cos j + cos j 0

(12.22)

, , , slope
diffraction .
, ,
(10.19). 11.3.
.
(10.19), , m + 1,
us( m+1) ( P ) =

ikR
1 ( m, t ) f ( j,0, a )
( m, t ) f ( y,0, a ) e
+
u
u
d z,

r
j 0
j 0 R
2p L l

(12.23)

dz = adq L c a. . 12.1. j y
y = 2p j. ,
(12.23) :

f (y,0, a ) e ikR
f (j,0, a )
.
+ ur( m, t )
us( m+1) ( P ) = a ul( m, t )

j 0 R
j 0

(12.24)

ul(, mr , t ) ,
m, z z = z pa , l r. (12.1), ,
ul( m, t ) = ur( m, t ) .

(12.25)

,
f ( y,0, a ) f ( j,0, a )
=
=
j 0
j 0

sin

j
2

j
2 cos
2
2

(12.26)

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287

12.2.

us( m+1) ( P ) = 2aul( m, t )

f ( j,0, a ) e ikR
.
j 0
R

(12.27)

ul( m, t ) = ull( m) + url( m) =2ull( m)

(12.28)

. ull( m)
m z.
m 1 z = z pa, . url( m) m
z . m 1 z = z pa,
.
.
ull( m) ul( m, t ) (10.18) (10.20),
g0 = g01 = p/2, R = 2a r = a. :
ul(1, t ) ul(1) = m

f (0, p / 2, a )
e i ( 2ka+ p / 4)
, m =
j
8ka pka

(12.29)

-1, t )

ul( m, t ) = 2 mul( m

2 f (0, 0, a )
, m = 2, 3, 4, ...
jj 0

(12.30)

ul(1, t ) = ul(1) , ,

. ,
m-1

ul( m, t ) = 2 m-1 m m

f (0, p / 2, a ) 2 f (0,0, a )

j
j j 0

us( m+1) ( P ) = a2 m

f (0, p / 2, a ) 2 f (0,0, a )
m

j
jj 0

(12.31)

m-1

f ( j,0, a ) e ikR
,
j 0
R

(12.32)

m = 1, 2, 3, ...
f (0, p / 2, a )
2 f (0,0, a ) 1
1
=
,
= .
4
j
j j 0
2

(12.33)

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12.

, ,
usew ( P ) = a

e ikR
f (j, p / 2, a ) +
R
m-1

f (0, p / 2, a ) f ( j,0, a )
e im( 2ka+ p / 4) 2 f (0,0, a )
+
2m

j
j 0
(8ka pka ) m jj 0
m=1

(12.34)

(11.8), us( t ) , (j = 3p/2).


us( t ) = a

e ikR ka
i + f
R 2

(1)

(3p / 2, p / 2, a ) +
m-1

f (0, p / 2, a ) f (3p / 2, 0, a )
e im( 2ka+ p / 4) 2 f (0,0, a )
+
2m

j
j 0
(8ka pka ) m jj 0
m=1

, (12.35)

(1)

1 f (3p / 2, 0, a )
1
.
=
(3p / 2, p / 2, a ) = ,
j 0
2
2

(12.36)

(12.35) (11.8),
:

sin[m(2ka + p / 4)]
2
.
s s = 2pa 21 +

m
m
1

(8ka pka )
ka m=1 2

(12.37)

,

.
(14.54) (Bowman et al., 1987), , (ka)4. (12.37),
cos(2ka - p / 4) cos(4ka )

-11/ 2
.
+
+
O
[
s s = 2pa 21 +
(
ka
)
]
4 p (ka ) 5/ 2
64p (ka ) 4

(12.38)

,
. , (12.18)
(12.37) ,
.

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12.3.

12.3.

E xinc = Z 0 H yinc = e ikz

(12.39)

(. 12.1). , .
, .
, (m = 2, 3, ...) , Ej-
Hj-. Ej- (Hj-) ,
() .
, z
(z ? kR2). , Ej-
Hj-,

e im( 2ka+ p / 4)
a
E x( e ) = Z 0 H y = e ikz 4m m/ 2
z
p ( ka ) 3m/ 2
m=1 2

[Ej-]

(12.40)

a
e im( 2ka-p / 4)
E x( h ) = Z 0 H y = e ikz (-1) m m
z
2 (pka ) m/ 2
m=1

[Hj-].

(12.41)

r
, j ( 0)
r
( ) j (1) ( ):
E x( 0) = Z 0 H y( 0) =

ika 2 e ikz
,
z
2

(12.42)

(3p / 2, p / 2, 2p ) + g (1) (3p / 2, p / 2, 2p)]

e ikz
. (12.43)
z

1
(3p / 2, p / 2, 2p ) =-g (1) (3p / 2, p /2, 2p ) =- ,
2

(12.44)

a
E x(1) = Z 0 H y(1) = [ f
2

(1)

(1)

E x(1) (E x(1) = H y(1) = 0).

Copyright & A K-C

290

12.

, :
e ikz ika
e im( 2ka-p / 4)
+ (-1) m m
+

z 2
2 (pka ) m/ 2
m=1

E x( t ) = Z 0 H y( t ) = a

m=1 2

e im( 2ka+ p / 4)
4m

m/ 2

( ka )

3m/ 2

(12.45)

(11.8), ( u(t) E x( t ) ), :

sin[ m(2ka - p / 4)]


2
+
s = 2pa 21 +
(-1) m

2 m (pka ) m/ 2
ka m=1

sin[ m(2ka + p / 4)]


2
.

4
m
m
/
2
3
m
/
2
ka m=1 2 p (ka )

(12.46)

,
1
s = (s h + s s )
2

(12.47)

(12.18) (12.37) .

12.1. (12.14) , ,
. , , .
12.2. (12.34) , , . , ,
.
12.3. (12.40) ,
Ej-,
. ,
, .
12.4. (12.41) ,
Hj-,
. ,
, .

Copyright & A K-C

13

13.1.
. 13.1.
u inc = u0e ik ( y sin g + z cos g ) , 0 g p/2.

(13.1)

L = 2l d = 2a.
, . .
J = p g, j = 3p/2, .

13.1.1.
(1.37), ,
.
.

. 13.1. yOz. 1, 2, 3 , p/2 < J < p

Copyright & A K-C

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13.

, ()
. (1.37),
uh(

0) disk

ik
e ikR
cos J e i 2kl cos J
R
2p

= u0

2p

rdr e i 2kr sin J sin j dj,

(13.2)

J = p g. (6.55)
uh(

0) disk

= u0

ia cos J
e ikR
.
J1 (2ka sin J ) e i 2kl cos J
R
2 sin J

(13.3)

, (1.37) ,
,
uh( 0) cyl = u0

ika
e ikR
sin J
R
2p

2p

-l

e -i 2kz cos J dz e i 2ka sin J sin j sin jdj.

(13.4)

, p j 2p p/2 + 0 J p 0.
, J = p,
(0 j 2p) . (13.4)
, sin J.
,
uh( 0) cyl = 0, J = p.

(13.5)

(13.4) z .
2ka sinJ ? 1 j (, 1966; Murray, 1984). 6.1.2 8.1. jst = 3p / 2
d
2ka sin J sin j= 2ka sin J cos j= 0.
dj

(13.6)


2p

e i 2ka sin J sin j sin jdj ~ p

p
e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4 .
ka sin J

(13.7)

, 2ka sinJ ? 1 uh( 0) cyl


uh(

0) cyl

~ -u0

ia sin J
e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4 e ikR
.
sin(2kl cos J )
R
2 cos J
pka sin J

(13.8)

(13.5) (13.8), , p/2 J p. ,

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13.1.

, 6.1.4. , , :
e -i 2x+ ip / 4
px
e -i 2x+ ip / 4
px

J 0 (2x ) - iJ1 (2x ),


1
[ J1 (2x ) - iJ 2 (2x )]
i

(13.9)
(13.10)

e -i 2x+ ip / 4
px

e -inp / 2 [ J n (2x ) - iJ n+1 (2x )], n = 0, 1, 2, 3, ....(13.11)


p/2 J p. , (13.9)
(13.10). ,
:
( )

uh,01 = u0
-

ia e ikR cos J

J (2ka sin J ) e i 2kl cos J 2 R sin J 1

sin J
sin(2kl cos J ) [ J 0 (2ka sin J ) - iJ1 (2ka sin J )]

cos J

(13.12)

( )

uh,02 = u0
+i

ia e ikR cos J

J (2ka sin J ) e i 2kl cos J +


2 R sin J 1

sin J
sin(2kl cos J )[ J1 (2ka sin J ) - iJ 2 (2ka sin J )].

cos J

(13.13)

, ,
uh( 0) cyl , J = p , , (13.5).
s (1.26).
s norm = s / s d ,

(13.14)

sd = pa 2 ( ka ) 2

(13.15)


(J = p). . 13.2 13.3.
O-1 O-2 (13.12) (13.13), .

Copyright & A K-C

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13.

. 13.2.
. -1 -2 (13.12) (13.13),

. 13.2 (13.12)
(13.13). ,
(d = 2a = l). 2p.
O-1 O-2 ,
d = 3l, . 13.3.
(13.12). (13.12). (13.22) (13.23) ,
j (1) . .

. 13.3.
. -1 -2 (13.12) (13.13),

Copyright & A K-C

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13.1.

13.1.2. , j ( 1)

(1)
j (1) . j
(), (
(1)
) . j
,
,
. (1)
jdif
, .

.
j (1)
(1)
, . , ,
j
(1)
, ,
jdif
(1)
j . ,
, .
, , (z = l,

us(,1h) left

a i 2kl cos J e ikR


e
= u0
R
2p

x 2 + y 2 = a). (8.3)
2p

Fs,(1h) (j)e i 2ka sin J sin j dj.

(13.16)

J = p Fs,(1h) f (1) g(1),


(7.115). ,
4.1. ,
ikR
f (1)
us(1) left

-i 2kl e
, (J = p).

=
e
u
a

0
R
g (1)
uh(1) left

(13.17)

J, 2kasinJ ? 1, (13.16) . , jst, 1 = p / 2 jst, 2 = 3p / 2.


Fs,(1h) f (1) g(1).
(13.16) :
us(1) left = u0
[ f

(1)

a i 2kl cos J e ikR


e
R
2

(1) e i 2ka sin J -ip / 4 + f

1
pka sin J
(1)

(2) e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4 ]

(13.18)

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13.

uh(1) left = u0

a i 2kl cos J e ikR


e
R
2

1
pka sin J

[ g (1) (1) e i 2ka sin J -ip / 4 + g (1) (2) e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4 ].

(13.19)

f (1), g (1) 1 (jst, 1 = p / 2),


f (1)(2), g(1)(2) 2 (jst, 2 = 3p / 2). . 13.1.
p/2 J p,
, 6.1.4 13.1. ,

(1)

(1)

e i 2ka sin J -ip / 4


pka sin J

J 0 (2ka sin J ) + i J1 (2ka sin J ),

e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4
pka sin J

J 0 (2ka sin J ) - i J1 (2ka sin J )

(13.20)
(13.21)

(13.18), (13.19)
p/2 J p:
us(1) left = u0
{f
+f

a i 2kl cos J e ikR


e

R
2
(1)

(1)

(1)[ J 0 (2ka sin J ) + i J1 (2ka sin J )] +

(2)[ J 0 (2ka sin J ) - i J1 (2ka sin J )]}

(13.22)

uh(1) left = u0

a i 2kl cos J e ikR


e

R
2

{g (1) (1)[ J 0 (2ka sin J ) + i J1 (2ka sin J )] +


+ g (1) (2)[ J 0 (2ka sin J ) - i J1 (2ka sin J )]}.

(13.23)

, (13.17),
J p. ,

p/2 J p.
( p/2 J p) (z = +l,
x 2 + y 2 = a)
us(,1h) right = u0

a -i 2kl cos J e ikR


e
R
2p

2p

Fs,(1h) (j) e i 2ka sin J sin j dj,


p

(13.24)

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297

13.1.

(13.16).
u s(1) right

= u0
(1) right
uh

(1)
a f (3) e-i2 ka sin J +ip / 4 -i2 kl cos J e ikR
,
e
(1)
2 g (3) pka sin J
R

(13.25)

2kasinJ ? 1, f (1)(3), g(1)(3) 3


(jst,3 = 3p / 2), . 13.1. (13.21), p/2 J p:
u s(1) right = u0

a
f
2

(1)

(3) [ J 0 (2 ka sin J ) - iJ1 (2 ka sin J )] e-i2 kl cos J

e ikR
R

(13.26)

(1) right

uh

= u0

a (1)
e ikR
.
g (3) [ J 0 (2 ka sin J ) - iJ1 (2 ka sin J )] e-i2 kl cos J
2
R

(13.27)

(1)
, , j
, :

u s(1) = u0
+[ f
(1)

a e ikR
{f
2 R

(1)

u h = u0

(1)

(1) [ J 0 (2 ka sin J ) + iJ1 (2 ka sin J )] e i2 kl cos J +

(2) e i2 kl cos J + f

(1)

(3) e-i2 kl cos J ][ J 0 (2 ka sin J ) - iJ1 (2 ka sin J )]},

(13.28)

a e ikR
{ g (1) (1) [ J 0 (2 ka sin J ) + iJ1 (2 ka sin J )] e i2 kl cos J +
2 R

+ [ g (1) (2) e i2 kl cos J + g (1) (3) e-i2 kl cos J ][ J 0 (2 ka sin J ) - iJ1 (2 ka sin J )]}.

(13.29)

f (1) g(1) . 4.1:

sin
1
1
n
(1)

+ 1 cos J ,
f (1) =
p
p
p - 2J 2 sin J
n
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(13.30)

sin
1
1
n
- 1 cos J ,
+
g (1) (1) =
p
p
p - 2 J 2 sin J
n
cos - 1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(13.31)

sin
1
1
n
(1)

- 1 cos J - 1 sin J , (13.32)


f (2) =
2
p
p
J
2 sin J 2 cos J
n
cos - 1 cos - cos

n
n
n

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13.

sin
1
1
n
+ 1 cos J + 1 sin J , (13.33)
g (1) (2) =
+
2J 2 sin J 2 cos J
p
p
n
cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

sin
1
1
n
+ 1 sin J ,
f (1) (3) =
p
p
p + 2J 2 cos J
n

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(13.34)

sin
1
1
n
(1)

- 1 sin J ,
+
g (3) =
p
p
p + 2J 2 cos J
n

cos -1 cos - cos

n
n
n

(13.35)

n = 3/2.

J = p/2 J = p, ,
f (1), g(1) . J = p/2
:

(1)

(1) = 0,

(1)

(2) = f

(1)

1
p
sin
n
n + 1 ctg p ,
(3) =
p
2n
n
cos -1
n

(13.36)

2
p
1
p
sin
sin
n , g (1) (2) = g (1) (3) = n
n - 1 ctg p . (13.37)
g (1) (1) = n
p
p
2n
n
cos -1
cos -1
n
n
J = p :
1
p
sin
n + 1 ctg p ,
f (1) (1) = f (1) (2) = n
p
2n
n
cos -1
n

(1)

(3) = 0,

(13.38)

1
p
2
p
sin
sin
n - 1 ctg p , g (1) (3) = n
n . (13.39)
g (1) (1) = g (1) (2) = n
p
p
2n
n
cos -1
cos -1
n
n
f (1)(4) g(1)(4),
4 (. . 13.1), J = p/2 J = p. f (1)(4) g(1)(4)

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13.1.

,
2
p
sin
n .
f (1) ( 4) = 0 g (1) ( 4) = n
p
cos -1
n

(13.40)

4
, (13.28)
p/2 J p. (13.29) , , p/2 + 0 J p 0,
4 . 4 , , 1/ka ( 1/kl) , J = p ( J = p/2). .
us(,1h) .

13.1.3.

us(,th) = us(,0h) + us(,1h) ,

(13.41)

us( 0) =-uh( 0) , uh( 0) , us(,1h) (13.12), (13.28)


(13.29). , (13.14) (13.41). , us(,0h) -

. 13.4. . (13.46),
( Ex-)

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13.

. 13.5. . (13.70),
( Hx-)

js(,0h)
. us(,1h) js(,1h)
, .
( ).
: () d = 2a = l, L = 2l = 3l; () d = 3l, L = 9l. d , L .

. 13.6. . (13.46),
( Ex-)

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13.2.

301

. 13.7. . (13.70),
( Hx-)

13.413.7. , js(1) , . , .
, jh(1) , . ,
, , ,
.

13.2.
, , (,
1958 a, 1962). , .

13.2.1. E-

E xinc = E 0x e ik ( z cos g + y sin g ) , E yinc = E zinc = H xinc = 0.

(13.42)

(1.97), ,
jx( 0) disk = 2Y 0 E 0x cos ge -ikl cos g e ikr sin J sin y ,
j y( 0) disk = j z( 0) disk = 0

(13.43)

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13.

(. 13.1),
jx( 0) cyl =-2Y 0 E 0x sin g sin ye ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,
j y( 0) cyl = 2Y 0 E 0x sin g cos ye ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,
j z( 0) cyl = 2Y 0 E 0x cos g cos ye ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y )

(13.44)

(l z l, p y 2p).
Y0 = 1/Z0 r ().
E x( 0) , j ( 0) ,

r
r (1.92)
(1.93), Ajm, J , j m =-[ n$ E ]= 0

. r
j (1) (z = l) (z = l)
. E x(1) , ,
, 7.8.
E x = E x( 0) disk + E x( 0) cyl + E x(1) left + E x(1) right .

(13.45)

,
E x( 0) disk = us( 0) disk , E x( 0) cyl = us( 0) cyl .

(13.46)

us( 0) disk us( 0) cyl


13.1, (1.37)
u0 = E0x. , . 13.4 13.6
.
E x(1) left E x(1) right ,

x = acosy, y = asiny.
R, J, j , r, q, f.
, J, y.
, :
r left = R + a sin J sin y + l cos J , r right = R + a sin J sin y - l cos J, (13.47)
r$ left r$ right R$ =- y$ sin J + z$ cos J

(13.48)

(x = 0, y = RsinJ, z = RcosJ) (R ? ka2,


R ? kl2).
q$ = x$ q x + y$ q y + z$ q z , f$ = x$ f x + y$ f y + z$ f z

(13.49)

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13.2.


R$ q$ = 0, q$ [R$ t$ ]= 0, t$ q$ =- 1- sin 2 J cos 2 y , f$ = R$ q$ , (13.50)
t$ = x$ sin y - y$ cos y ( , ). ,
q x =-

sin y
1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

qz =
f x =-

, qy =

cos y sin J cos J


1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

cos y cos J
1- sin J cos y
2

1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

(13.51)

, f y =-

sin y sin J

f z =-

cos y cos 2 J

1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

sin y cos J
1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

(13.52)

q
R$ t$ = cos q = sin J cos y.

(13.53)

f f0 ,
, t$ . R$ =- y$ sin J + z$ cos J Q$ =-k$ i =- y$ sin g - z$ cos g
,
cos J

sin f =-

1- sin J cos y
2

, cos f =

sin J sin y

(13.54)

1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

sin f 0 =

cos g
1- sin J cos y
2

, cos f 0 =

sin g sin y

(13.55)

1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

(z = l),
sin f =-

sin f 0 =-

sin J sin y
1- sin J cos y
2

, cos f =-

sin g sin y
1- sin J cos y

(z = l).

, cos f 0 =

cos J
1- sin 2 J cos 2 y
cos g
1- sin 2 J cos 2 y

(13.56)

(13.57)

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13.

. 7.8 :
2p

E x(1) left = E 0x

a e ikR i 2kl cos J


e
2p R

+ cos J cos y

( )
[Gq1 ( y, q, f ) q x

{sin y Fq(1) (y, q, f ) q x +


0

( )
+ Gf1 (y, q, f ) f x ]}e i 2ka sin J sin y dy, (13.58)

E y(1, )zleft = H x(1) left = 0

(13.59)

E x(1) right = E 0x

a e ikR -i 2kl cos J


e
2p R

2p

{sin y Fq(1) (y, q, f) q x +


p

( )
( )
+ cos J cos y [Gq1 ( y, q, f ) q x + Gf1 (y, q, f ) f x ]}e i 2ka sin J sin y dy, (13.60)

E y(1, )zright = H x(1) right = 0.

(13.61)

(13.59) (13.61) , (
x = 0) . J = p 0, ,
:
a
E x(1) left = E 0x f
2

p p 3p e ikR -i 2kl
p 3p
,
, - g (1) , ,
e
2 2 2
2 2 2 R

p
(1)

a
E x(1) right = E 0x f
4

3p
3p e ikR i 2kl
0,0, - g (1)0,0,
e .

2
2 R

(1)

(13.62)

(13.63)


(13.45). , (13.58), (13.60), . , , (13.22), (13.23) (13.26), (13.27).
. (kasinJ ? 1) (13.58) (13.60) :
a
1
[ f (1) (1) e i 2ka sin q-ip / 4 +
E x(1) left = E 0x
2 pka sin J
+f

(1)

(2) e -i 2ka sin q+ ip / 4 ]

e ikR i 2kl cos J


e
R

(13.64)

E x(1) right = E 0x

a
f
2

(1)

(3)

e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4 e ikR -i 2kl cos J


.
e
R
pka sin J

(13.65)

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13.2.


(13.18) (13.25) , :
E x(1) = us(1) , u0 = E0x.

(13.66)

, (13.62)
(13.17) .
(ka)1 E 0(x0) disk , (). (13.28), ,
(ka)1. (13.28)
u0 E0x us(1) E x(1) .

13.2.2. H-

inc
H xinc = H 0x e ik ( z cos g + y sin g ) , H yinc
, z = Ex = 0

(13.67)


j y( 0) disk =-2H 0x e -ikl cos g e ikr sin g sin y ,

jx( 0) disk = j z( 0)disk = 0

(13.68)

(. 13.1)
j z( 0) cyl =-2H 0x sin ye ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,

jx( 0) cyl = j y( 0) cyl = 0

(13.69)

(l z l, p y 2p). ,

H x( 0) = uh( 0)

(13.70)

uh( 0)

u0 = H0x,
13.1 , . , . 13.5 13.7
.
, (z = l)
(z = l) , H x(1) = H x(1) left + H x(1) right , . 7.8 :
H x(1) left = H 0x

a e ikR i 2kl cos J


e

2 R

2p

{sin y[Gq(1) ( y, q, f ) f x - Gf(1) ( y, q, f ) q x ]0

- cos J cos y Fq 1 (y, q, f ) f x }e i 2ka sin J sin y dy


( )

(13.71)

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13.

a e ikR -i 2kl cos J

e
2 R

H x(1) right = H 0x
2p

{sin y[Gq(1) ( y, q, f ) f x - Gf(1) ( y, q, f ) q x ]p

- cos J cos y Fq 1 ( y, q, f ) f x }e i 2ka sin J sin y dy.


( )

(13.72)

, , . . H y(1, )z = 0. q, f
13.2.1.
(J = p 0) :
a p p 3p
H x(1) left = H 0x g (1) , , - f
2 2 2 2

p
(1)

a
3p
H x(1) right = H 0x g (1)0,0, - f
4
2

3p e ikR i 2kl
0,0,
e .

2 R

p 3p e ikR -i 2kl
,
e
2 2 2 R
,

(13.73)

(1)

(13.74)

H x(1)
H x(1) left = H 0x

a
2

1
pka sin J

[ g (1) (1) e i 2ka sin J -ip / 4 +

+ g (1) (2) e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4 ]

e ikR i 2kl cos J


e
R

(13.75)

H x(1) right = H 0x

a
2

1
pka sin J

g (1) (3) e -i 2ka sin J + ip / 4

e ikR -i 2kl cos J


.
e
R

(13.76)

, 13.1.2 uh(1) .
Hx-
, (13.29). (13.29)
u0 H0x, uh(1) H x(1) . , , (13.75) (13.76).
(ka)1
.

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13.1. (13.20), (13.21)


(13.22), (13,23) (13.18), (13.19).
13.2. (13.43) r jx(0) disk . (1.92), (1.93)
- E (0) disk r
. E (y0,)zdisk = 0. E (0) disk us(0) disk , [. . 13.1 (1.37)]. .
13.3. , (13.22) (13.23) (13.17)
(13.18), (13.19).
13.4. (13.47) .
13.5. (13.50) (13.51) (13.52)
$
q$ , f.
13.6. (13.54) (13.55) f, f0 , (z = l).
13.7. (13.56) (13.57) f, f0 , (z = +l).
13.8. (7.130), (7.131)
(13.58) , .
13.9. (7.130), (7.131)
(13.60) , .
(1)

(1)

13.10. Fq , Gq , f
(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

(1)

Fq ( p - y ) = Fq ( y ), Gq ( p - y ) = -Gq ( y ), Gf ( p - y ) = Gf ( y ).
(13.59),
.
13.11. (13.58), (13.60)
(13.64), (13.65) , (. 13.1). . 13.1.2.

.
13.12. d = 2a = 2l, L = 2l = 4l.
g = 45. 13.1.3.
13.13. (13.68) . (1.92) (1.93) H x(0) disk , J = p g, j = p/2 R ? ka2. (13.3) .
.

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13.

13.14. (13.69)
r . (1.92) (1.93) H (0) cyl ,
J = p g, j = p/2 R ? ka2.
H (y0,)zcyl = 0. H x(0) cyl
(13.4) . .
13.15. (7.130), (7.131)
(13.71) , (. 13.1).
13.16. (7.130), (7.131)
(13.72) , (. 13.1).
13.17. (7.130), (7.131)
H (y1,)zleft , (13.71). H (y1,)zleft = 0 (J = p g,
j = p/2) R ? ka2.
13.18. (13.71), (13.72)
(13.73), (13.74).
13.19. (13.71)
(13.75). (13.19) .

Copyright & A K-C

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14.1.
. 14.1. d = 2a,
L = 2l.

u inc = u0e ik ( y sin g + z cos g ) , 0 < g < p/2.

(14.1)

yOz (j = p/2 j = 3p/2). Q (0 Q 2p),


J
, j = p /2,
Q =
2p - J , j = 3p / 2,

(14.2)

J (0 J p)
(R, J, j). Q q, -

. 14.1. yOz. 1, 2 3

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14.

, z . r, q, f ,
13.2.1.

14.1.1.
(14.1) js(,0h) ()
(p y 2p) . (1.32). :
0

us(, h) = u0F (s, h) (Q, g )

e ikR
,
R

(14.3)

F (s0) = ika 2 cos g


( 0)

F h = ika 2 cos Q

J1 ( p) iq ikal
sin q 2p ip sin y
e sin g
sin ydy,
e
p
p
q p

(14.4)

J1 ( p) iq ikal
sin q 2p ip sin y
e sin Q
sin ydy,
e
p
p
q p

(14.5)

p = ka (sin g - sin Q ), q = kl(cos Q - cos g ).

(14.6)

F (s,0h) , J1(p),
, () ,
, () .
, ,
. 14.2 14.4.
,
s tot
s, h =2 A,

(14.7)

A = pa 2 cos g + 4al sin g

(14.8)

, .
(14.4) (14.5), (13.14)
2
2
0
0)
s (norm
(Q, g ) = 2 | F (s, h) (Q, g )| .
ka

(14.9)

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311

. 14.2. . (14.62), (
) ( Ex-)

. 14.3. . (14.62),
( )
( Ex-)

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14.

. 14.4. . (14.75), (
) ( Hx-)

. 14.5. .
(14.75), ( ) ( Hx-)

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14.1.

. . 14.214.5 , g = 45.
14.2 14.4 .

14.1.2.
1.3.4 , . , , ,
.
,
1.3.5. ,
, ,
(1.73),
1
ush = [ us( 0) + uh( 0) ] ,
2

(14.10)

us( 0) uh( 0) , . . 14.6 , . -

. 14.6.

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14.

(14.9) . ,
(0 < Q < 90)
(forward
scattering). (14.62), (14.75) (1.1001.102), , .

14.1.3. ,
.
. ,
( jh( 0) ) ( jh(1) ) , . ,
jh( 0) , ,
.
, jh(1) ,
(fringe component). .
, jh(1) , (), 7. :
uh(1) = uh(1) left + uh(1) right ,

(14.11)

1) left

uh(

= u0

2p

a e ikR ikl (cos Q-cos g )


e
Fh(1) left (y, q, f) e ip sin y dy,
2p R
0

uh(1) right = u0

(14.12)

2p

a e ikR -ikl (cos Q-cos g )


e
Fh(1) right (y, q, f) e ip sin y dy.
2p R
p

(14.13)

p = ka(sing sinQ), Q (0 Q 2p) (14.2). uh(1) left uh(1) right , , . (14.1),


(14.13) p 2p.
Fh(1) left, right ( y, q, f ) (7.91) (7.92). 13.2.1 , g0, q, f f0 (J = p g). yOz.

cos g 0 = sin g cos y, cos q =-sin Q cos y

(14.14)

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14.1.

.
cos g

sin f 0 =

1- sin 2 g cos 2 y

sin f =-

cos Q
1- sin Q cos y
2

sin g sin y

, cos f 0 =

1- sin 2 g cos 2 y

, cos f =-

sin Q sin y
1- sin 2Q cos 2 y

(14.15)

(14.16)

:
sin f 0 =sin f =

sin g sin y
1- sin g cos y
2

sin Q sin y
1- sin 2Q cos 2 y

, cos f 0 =

, cos f =-

cos g
1- sin 2 g cos 2 y
cos Q

1- sin 2Q cos 2 y

(14.17)

(14.18)

, (13.14), L = 3d = 3l L = 3d = 9l.
(14.1) g = 45. 14.7 14.9
, jh( 0) jh(1) .
. 14.8 14.10.

. 14.7. . (14.75),
( Hx-)

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14.

. 14.8. . (14.75),
( Hx-)

. 14.9. . (14.75),
( Hx-)

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14.1.

. 14.10. . (14.75),
( Hx-)

,
jh(1) . , ,
.
, .
(, 2007 )
, , 35
. , - (14.12)
(14.13).

:
(1) left , right
l F
(7.82), (7.84), (7.87), (7.88),
h
(7.92) (7.94) Vt(s1, f0) Vt(s2, a f0),
1/sins1,2. ,
s1,2 0 s1,2 p. s1 0 Vt .

Vt ( s 1 , f 0 ) =

cos

4
9 sin g
2

s1
3

2f
2s
s
4
1- sin 2 1 cos 0 - cos 1
3
3
3
3

(14.19)

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14.

s1 s2 f0 a f0,
Vt(s2, a f0), ,
s2 0.
, s1,2 p. Vt(s1, f0)sinf Vt(s2, a f0)sin(a f0).
s1,2 p, sinf/sins1 = sign(sinf)
sin(a f)/sins2 = sign[sin(a f)].
V(s2, a f0), ,
y = 0, p, 2p Q = g.
,
(4.21). (14.12). (14.12),
V(s2, a f0). V(s1, f0)
(14.12) 0 y 2p.
, , 7.9
,
,
.
, , , s1 f0 s2 a f0,
(7.107) V(f0, f0) (7.109)
V(a f0, a f0).

14.1.4.
, . F(Q, g)

u sc = u0F (Q, g )

e ikR
.
R

(14.20)

:
l Q = p g. , (. 14.1).
(14.4) (14.5),
J1(p). Q = p g
1
1
F beam
=-F beam
=
s
h
l

ika 2
cos g e -i 2kl cos g .
2

(14.21)

Q = 2p g.
, -

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14.1.

(. 14.1).

(14.4) (14.5):
2
= ikal sin g
F beam
s

sin q
q

2 -ip ip / 4
,
e e
pp

(14.22)

sin q
q

2 -ip ip / 4
.
e e
pp

(14.23)

2
= ikal sin Q
F beam
h

Q = 2p g
2
2
F beam
=-F beam
=l
s
h

ka sin g -i 2ka sin g i 3p / 4


.
e
e
p

, p = ka(sing sinQ) q = kl(cosQ cosg).


Q = g. (14.4) (14.5).
. beam
. beam
F shad
= F shad
=
s
h

ika 2
i2kal
cos g +
sin g.
2
p

(14.25)

, js(,1h) , (.14.1). Q = p g
(14.21). (14.12)
Fh(1) Fs(1) . Q = p g

F sfr. beam1 =
.

F hfr beam =
l

(14.24)

2p

a -i 2kl cos g
e
f
2p
0

( y, p - g )dy,

(14.26)

a -i 2kl cos g
g (1) left ( y, p - g ) dy.
e

2p
0

(14.27)

(1) left

2p

, js(,1h) ,
(.14.1). Q = g
. (14.11). Q = g
F sfr. shad . beam =
.

F hfr shad beam =

a
f
2p 0
2p

(1) left

2p

( y , g ) dy + f
p

(1) right

( y, g )dy ,

2p
2p

a
(1) left
( y, g )dy + g (1) right ( y, g )dy .
g
2p 0

(14.28)

(14.29)

Copyright & A K-C

320

14.

,
.
, js(,0h) + js(,1h) .

(14.4), (14.5) (14.11). c (8.12) (8.13), f (1), g(1) f, g. :
l 1
F ray
s (1) =
F ray
h (1) =

2p| p |
a
2p| p |

f (1) e i ( p+ q ) e m ip / 4 ,

(14.30)

g (1) e i ( p+ q ) e m ip / 4

(14.31)

1 (.14.1). 0 Q < g, g < Q < p g, p g < Q 3p/2. exp(ip/4) p, exp(+ip/4) .


2
F ray
s (2) =
F ray
h (2) =

a
2p| p |
a
2p| p |

f (2) e i ( q- p ) e ip / 4 ,

(14.32)

g (2) e i ( q- p ) e ip / 4

(14.33)

2.
p/2 Q < p g, p g < Q < 2p g 2p g < Q 2p.
exp(+ip/4) p, exp(ip/4) .
3
F ray
s (3) =
F ray
h (3) =

a
2p| p |
a
2p| p |

f (3) e -i ( q+ p ) e ip / 4 ,

(14.34)

g (3) e -i ( q+ p ) e ip / 4

(14.35)

3 (. 14.1).
0 Q < g, g < Q p/2, p Q 2p g 2p g < Q 2p.
exp(+ip/4) p, exp(ip/4) .

Copyright & A K-C

321

14.1.

f, g f (1), g(1) 2, 3 4. :
f (m) = f ( f m , f 0m , a ), g ( m) = g ( f m , f 0m , a ),
f

(1)

(m) = f

(1)

( f m , f 0m , a ), g

(1)

(m) = g

(1)

(f m , f 0m , a ),

(14.36)
(14.37)

m = 1, 2, 3. a = 3p/2
f 1 = 3p / 2 - Q, f 01 = p / 2 - g ,

(14.38)

f 2 = Q - p / 2, f 02 = p / 2 + g ,

(14.39)

f 3 = Q - p, p Q 2p,

(14.40)

f 3 = p + Q, 0 Q p / 2,

(14.41)

f 03 = g .

(14.42)

[f(y), f0(y), a], g


[f(y), f0(y), a] f, f0 f
(14.15) (14.16), f (1)right[f(y), f0(y), a],
g(1)right[f(y), f0(y), a] (14.17), (14.18).
(+p/2 p/2),
Q = g Q = p g,
.
(1)left

(1)left

14.1.5. ,

, Q = 2p g
(. 14.1). . , .
(Ufimtsev, 1989).
, j(0) j(1) ,
. , j(1), (1)
() . j
.
(1)
jdif
. dif , .
(1)
j ( 0) j
. (1)
( 0)
jdif / j 1/ka. (1)
jdif

. (Ufimtsev, 1979, 1981, 1989) , , (l z l, y = 3p/2, kl ? 1) Q = 2p g

Copyright & A K-C

322

14.

(ka)1/2, , (1)
j
. ,
. .
, (Ufimtsev, 1979, 1981, 1989) ,
(ka)1/2 .
.
.
,
, , (1)
. jdif
.
F(Q, g) (14.20).
Q = 2p g. j ( 0) (14.4) (14.5).
, .
3p/2 < Q < 2p 2 (. 14.1) . ,

F s( 0) =( 0)
F h =-

cos g
sin q 2p ip sin y
ikal
e i ( q- p ) sin ydy, (14.43)
sin g
e
q p
p
2pp sin g - sin Q

ae i p / 4
ae i p / 4

sin q
cos Q
ikal
e i ( q- p ) sin Q
p
q
2pp sin g - sin Q

2p

e ip sin y sin ydy,

(14.44)

p = ka(sing sinQ), q = kl(cosQ cosg).


:
F s( 0) =-

sin q 2p
ikal
3 -ip+ ip / 4

,
sin g
-1 + i
e
8 p
p
q
p

( 0)
F h =-

cos g
e i ( q- p )+ ip / 4 Q
sin
sin
g
2p p
a

(14.45)

cos Q
e i ( q- p )+ ip / 4 2pp sin g - sin Q
a

sin q 2p
ikal
3 -ip+ ip / 4

.
sin Q
-1 + i
e
8 p
p
q
p

(14.46)

Copyright & A K-C

323

14.1.
(1)
, j
, . 14.1.4:

F (s1, ) =

2p p
a

F h(1, ) =

(3) e -iq ]e -ip+ ip / 4 ,

(14.47)

[g (1) (2) e iq + g (1) (3) e -iq ]e -ip+ ip / 4 .

(14.48)

[f

2p p

(1)

(2) e iq + f

(1)

f (1) = f f (0), g(1) = g g(0) 2, 3 4. (14.3814.42).


(1)
jdif
,
, (Franz and Galle, 1955)
. , .
)
js(,1dif
= u0

)
jh(1, dif
= u0

1
a sin 2 y

e ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,

i
ka sin g sin 3 y

e ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) .

(14.49)
(14.50)

, ,
(1.16), (1.17) (14.20):
1

)
F (s, dif
=-

F h( , )dif =

l sin q
2p q

2p

e ip sin y

sin 2 y

dy ~ -

l sin Q sin q
2p sin g q

2p

e ip sin y

l sin q 2p -ip+ ip / 4
,
e
2p q
p
l sin Q sin q 2p -ip+ ip / 4
e
q
p

sin 2 y dy ~ 2p sin g
p

(14.51)

(14.52)

p ? 1.

F tot = F

(0)

1)
1)
.
+ F (
+ F (dif

(14.53)


(ka)1/2 ( kl ka )-1 . Q = 2p g

F (s0) =
( 0)

F h =-

3 l 1
ikl sin g +
- ctg g e -i 2ka sin g +ip / 4 ,

16 a 4
pka sin g
a

3 l 1
ikl sin g +
+ ctg g e -i 2ka sin g +ip / 4 ,

16 a 4
pka sin g
a

(14.54)

(14.55)

Copyright & A K-C

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14.

F (s,1)

-1
1 1
2( p - 2g )

+
= + cos
3

pka sin g
3 2

+
F h(1, )

(14.56)

-1

2( p - 2g )
1 1

= + cos
3

pka sin g
3 2

1
- ctg g e -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4 ,

3 3 4
1

1
- ctg g e -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4 ,

3 3 4
1

)
F (s, dif
= F h( , )dif =-

l -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4
.
e
pka sin g 2a

(14.57)
(14.58)

, :
-1

2( p - 2g )

3 l
1 1
ikl sin g +
- + cos
Fs =
16 a
3

3 2
pka sin g

1
3 3

l -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4
,
e
2a

(14.59)

-1

2( p - 2g )

3 l
1 1

-ikl sin g - + cos


Fh =
+
16 a
3

3 2
pka sin g

1
3 3

l -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4
.
e
2a

(14.60)


.

.
,
(1)
. j
(1)
, jdif
,
.
, ,
1 2 (. 14.1), 3p/2 < Q 2p. -

Copyright & A K-C

325

14.2.

, , 10. (ka)3/2
(ka)1 .
(14. 59), (14.60) , ,
.
,
, (Ufimtsev,
1981) , 14.2.3.

14.2.
14.2.1. -
(. 14.1)
inc
E xinc = E 0x e ik ( z cos g + y sin g ) , E yinc
, z = Hx =0

(14.61)

(13.43) (13.44). ,
, (1.92) (1.93). yOz
(j = p/2 j = 3p/2) , (14.3), (14.4) :
E x( 0) = [E 0x / u0 ] us( 0) .

(14.62)

, , . 14.2 14.3
, , ( Ex-)
.
r (1)
, j
,
. 7.8:
E x(1) = E x(1) left + E x(1) right ,

(14.63)


2p

E x(1) left = E 0x

a e ikR iq
(1) left
(y, q, f ) q x e {sin yFq
2p R
0
(1) left

-cos g cos y [Gq

(1) left

( y, q, f ) q x + Gf

( y, q, f ) f x ]}e ip sin y d y

(14.64)

, ,
E x(1) right = E 0x

2p

a e ikR -iq
(1) right
( y, q, f ) q x e {sin yFq
2p R
p
(1) right

-cos g cos y[Gq

(1) right

( y, q, f ) q x + Gf

( y, q, f ) f x ]}e ip sin y d y

(14.65)

Copyright & A K-C

326

14.

, . p = ka(sing sinQ),
q = kl(cosQ cosg). , (14.1514.18) f, f0 ( ), (13.51),
$ f$ ( ).
(13.52) q,
(Q = g),
,
E x(1) left = E 0x
+

a e ikR
2p R

cos 2 g cos 2 y
sin 2 g 0

E x(1) right = E 0x
+

2p

sin 2 g 0

(1)

( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) +

sin g cos g sin y cos 2 y


d y, (14.66)
2

sin g 0

g (1) ( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) +

a e ikR
2p R

cos 2 g cos 2 y

sin 2 y
sin 2 g f
0
0

2p

sin 2 y
sin 2 g f
p
0

(1)

( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) +

g (1) ( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) +

sin g cos g sin y cos 2 y


d y. (14.67)
2

sin g 0

, f, f0, E x(1) left


E x(1) right , .
, (14.66)
(, , a = 2p)
E x(1) = E 0x

p
1 + cos 2 g
, sin g g
cos
2
K

cos g
p sin 2 g
a

p
e ikR
, (14.68)
E , sin g
2
R

(, 1962; et al., 1987).


K (p / 2, x ) =

p/2

dy
1- x cos y
2

, E (p / 2, x ) =

p/2

1- x 2 cos 2 y d y

(14.69)

(Gradshteyn and Ryzhik,


1994).

, ,
( 0)
(1)
E x = E x( 0) + E x(1) = E 0x [F ex
+ F ex
]

e ikR
e ikR
, (14.70)
= E 0x F ex (Q, g )
R
R

(14.20) . (14.62),

Copyright & A K-C

327

14.2.

, 14.1.4
us( 0) :
F (ex0) (Q, g ) = F (s0) (Q, g ).

(14.71)

E x(1) us(1) , 14.1.4:


F (ex1) (Q, g ) = F (s1) (Q, g ).

(14.72)

, (1)
, j
:
F (ex1) beam (Q, g ) F s(1) beam (Q, g ).

(14.73)

14.2.2. -
(. 14.1)
inc
H xinc = H 0x e ik ( z cos g + y sin g ) , H yinc
, z = Ex = 0

(14.74)

(13.68) (13.69).
(1.92), (1.93). yOz (j = p/2
j = 3p/2) , (14.3),
(14.5) :
H x( 0) = [H 0x / u0 ] uh( 0) .

(14.75)

, , . 14.414.10
, , ( Hx-)
.
r (1)
, ( j
), . 7.8.
H x(1) left = H 0x

2p

a e ikR iq
1
e {cos g cos y Fq( ) left ( y, q, f ) f x +
2p R
0

(1) left

+sin y[Gq

(1) left

(y, q, f ) f x - Gf

( y, q, f ) q x ]}e ip sin y d y (14.76)

, ,
H x(1) right

= H 0x

(1) right

+sin y[Gq

2p

a e ikR -iq
1
e {cos g cos y Fq( ) right (y, q, f ) f x +
2p R
p
(1) right

( y, q, f ) f x - Gf

( y, q, f ) q x ]}e ip sin y d y(14.77)

Copyright & A K-C

328

14.

, . p = ka(sing sinQ),
q = kl(cosQ cosg). , (14.1514.18) f, f0 ( ), (13.51),
$ f$ ( ).
(13.52) q,
(Q = g),
,
H x(1) left

= H 0x

a e ikR
2p R

sin 2 y
sin 2 g 0

H x(1) right = H 0x

sin 2 y
sin 2 g 0

2p

cos 2 g cos 2 y

sin g 0
2

(1)

g (1) ( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) a e ikR
2p R

2p

cos 2 g cos 2 y

sin 2 g 0

sin g cos g sin y cos 2 y


d y,
2

sin g 0

g (1) ( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) -

( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) +

(1)

(14.78)

( p + f 0 , f 0 , 3p / 2) +

sin g cos g sin y cos 2 y


d y.
2

sin g 0

(14.79)

, f, f0, H x(1) left


H x(1) right , .
, (14.78)
(, , a = 2p)
H x(1) = H 0x

1 + cos 2 g p

p
e ikR
, sin g - 2 cos g K , sin g
,
E

2
R
p sin 2 g cos g
a

(14.80)

(, 1962; et al., 1987), E(p/2, x) K(p/2, x)


(14.69).

, ,
H x = H x( 0) + H x(1) = H 0x [F (hx0) + F (hx1) ]

e ikR
e ikR
,
= H 0x F hx (Q, g )
R
R

(14.81)

(14.20) . (14.75),
, 14.1.4 uh( 0) :
F (hx0) (Q, g ) = F (h0) (Q, g ).

(14.82)

Copyright & A K-C

329

14.2.

,
(1)
H x(1) uh :
1

F (hx) (Q, g ) = F (h ) (Q, g ).

(14.83)

Q = g Q = p g,
(1)
j
, H x(1) uh(1) :
F (hx1) beam (Q, g ) F (h1) beam (Q, g ),

(14.84)

. ,
. 14.7 14.9 :
(1)
l d = l L = 3l F
h
( 0) beam
18 - F h
Q = g Q = p g 28
Q = 2p g.
(1)
l d = 3l L = 9l F
h ( 0) beam
28 - F h
Q = g Q = p g 35 Q = 2p g.
, (,
, )
[ yOz (.14.1)] .

14.2.3. ,

14.1.5.
. Q = 2p g j = 3p/2.
(, 1981).
14.2.1 14.2.2 :
)
)
E x = E x( 0) + E x(,1
= [ E 0x / u0 ] us = [ E 0x / u0 ] [ us( 0) + us(,1
],
1

)
= [ H 0x / u0 ] uh = [ H 0x / u0 ] [uh( 0) + uh( , ) ] .
H x = H x( 0) + H x(,1

(14.85)
(14.86)

kasing ? 1 kl ? 1. 0 , (j(0)) . E x,(1) , H x,(1) ,


(1)
us,(1) uh, , (1)
, .
j

Copyright & A K-C

330

14.

, E x(1)
, dif
(1)
, jdif
,
.
14.1.5 , ( Q = 2p g) , , (1)
j
.
(1)
(1)
E x, dif H x, dif .
r (1)
j
.
(Franz and Galle, 1955),
(Bowman et al., 1987). , . ,
, .
, .
r (1)
jdif
:
H x(1)
, dif

)
jx(, dif
=-Y 0 E 0x

i cos y

)
j y( , dif
= Y 0 E 0x

ka sin y
3

e ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,

e ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,

i cos g cos y

)
j z( , dif
= Y 0 E 0x

ka sin y
2

ka sin g sin 3 y

e ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y )

(14.87)

(14.88)

(14.89)

E-,
1

)
j z( , dif
= H 0x

i
ka sin g sin 2 y

e ik ( z cos g + a sin g sin y ) ,

jx(,1y), dif = 0

(14.90)

H-. (1.91) .
z . y .
(1.92), (1.93)
:
1

)
E x(, dif
= E 0x F (ex), dif (Q, g )

e ikR
,
R

)
H x(,1dif
= H 0x F (hx1), dif (Q, g )

e ikR
,
R

(14.91)
(14.92)

Copyright & A K-C

331

14.2.

(1)
F ex
, dif (Q, g ) = l

sin q e -ip+ ip / 4
,
q
2p p

F (hx), dif (Q, g ) =-l

(14.93)

sin Q sin q e -ip+ ip / 4


,
sin g q
2p p

(14.94)

p = ka(sing sinQ), q = kl(cosQ cosg).


(14.51), (14.52) ,
.

E xtot = E 0x F tot
ex (Q, g )

e ikR
,
R

(14.95)

e ikR
,
R

(14.96)

H xtot = H 0x F tot
hx (Q, g )

(1)
( 0)
(1)
F tot
ex = F ex + F ex, + F ex, dif ,

(14.97)

( 0)
(1)
(1)
F tot
hx = F hx + F hx, + F hx, dif .

(14.98)

(14.85) (14.86),
(1)
(1)
F (ex0) = F s( 0) , F ex
, = F s, ,

(14.99)

F (hx0) = F (h0) , F (hx1), = F (h1, ) ,

(14.100)

F (s,0h) , F (s,1h) , , 14.1.5.


Q = 2p g

F tot
ex

-1

2( p - 2g )

3 l
1 1
=
ikl sin g +
- + cos
16 a
3

3 2
pka sin g
a

F tot
hx =

1
3 3

l -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4
,
e
2a

(14.101)
-1

2( p - 2g )

3 l
1 1

-ikl sin g - + cos


16 a
3

3 2
pka sin g
a

1
3 3

l -i 2ka sin g + ip / 4
.
e
2a

(14.102)

Copyright & A K-C

332

14.


.

.
,
(1)
j
. (1)
, jdif
,
.
, Q = 2p g .

14.1. (1.33) (14.4) , . .


6.2 13.1.1.
14.2. (1.34) (14.5) , . .
6.2 13.1.1.
14.3. (1.53), (14.4) (14.7)
.
14.4. (1.53), (14.5) (14.7)
.
14.5. (14.4) (14.9) d = 2a = l L = 2l = 3l.
g = 45 . , . 14.2. , ,
.
14.6. (14.5) (14.9) d = 2a = l L = 2l = 3l.
g = 45 . , . 14.4. , ,
.
14.7. (14.4), (14.5) (14.9) (14.10) d = 2a = l L = 2l = 3l. g = 45
.

Copyright & A K-C

333

, . 14.6.
,
, .
14.8. (14.1) (. 14.1).
(7.90) (14.12)
(1)
, jh , .
(1)
Fh Vt(s1, j0), V0(b1, j0),
Vt(s2, a j0), V0(b2, a j0 ) s1,2, b1,2.
14.9. g0, q. (14.14) . $ t$ t$, k$ i . R$ R,
yOz, t$ k$ i
.
14.10. f, f0. (14.15), (14.16) . R$ = y$ sin Q + z$cos Q Q$ = - k$ i = - y$ sin g - z$cos g , t$. ,
(7.131).
14.11. (14.4),
(14.5) (14.22), (14.23) , (. 14.1).
14.12. (14.12)
, (14.31) ,
1 (. 14.1).
14.13. , (13.42) () (. 13.1) (13.43). (1.91), (1.92), (1.93) yOz. Ex-
(14.3), (14.4), . (14.62).
14.14. , (13.42) (13.44)
()
(. 13.1). (1.91), (1.92), (1.93) yOz . Ex-
(14.3), (14.4), . (14.62).
14.15. (13.50) (13.51), (13.52) $ f.
$
q,
14.16. (7.130), (7.131). , (7.131). f, f0, q, . 13.2.1, (14.64) ,
(. 14.1).
14.17. (14.64) (14.66) (Q = g).

Copyright & A K-C

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14.

14.18. , (13.67) (13.68)


() (. 13.1).
(1.91), (1.92), (1.93)
yOz. Hx- (14.3), (14.5).
(14.75).
14.19. , (13.67) (13.69) () (. 13.1).
(1.91), (1.92), (1.93)
yOz. Hx- (14.3), (14.5). (14.75).
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A. C. Polycarpou, C. A. Balanis, and C. R. Bitcher (May-June 1995): Radar cross section of
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Copyright & A K-C

fringe component 15, 93, 314


fringe waves 45
(1)
js , h , 194
slope diffraction 22, 251253, 256259,
261, 264, 267, 271, 272, 279, 286
11, 18,
24, 30, 37, 50, 94, 95, 116, 124, 132135,
155, 170, 172, 248, 250, 261, 269, 282,
283, 300, 314, 316, 332
11, 18,
24, 30, 34, 50, 94, 95, 115, 124, 155, 170,
172, 248, 261, 271, 299, 300, 332
189, 210, 218, 226,
234
19, 29, 230,
240
45, 53, 65,
67, 69, 71, 72, 78, 79

15, 189, 318, 330


218, 242, 243, 246, 247,
249
67, 74, 87, 93, 140, 148, 152,
154, 177, 180, 182, 218, 234, 235, 237,
239, 240, 241, 243, 246, 248, 249,
255257, 259, 260, 264, 266, 267,
270275, 277, 307, 308, 327, 329
6772, 76, 77
72, 73, 75, 105, 182, 243,
251, 271, 275
321, 329
182
22
66

180, 181
(1)
us , h 148

55, 56, 60, 78, 148, 150, 180,


181, 293, 294, 304, 310, 322
25
20, 29, 43, 45, 60, 90,
157, 181, 232, 314

15, 1820, 23, 28, 29, 34,


39, 48, 49, 53, 54, 78, 79, 87, 90, 97, 105,
113, 121, 131, 137, 146, 150, 167, 172,
173, 189, 190, 192, 194, 196, 198, 200,
202, 204, 206, 208, 210, 212, 214220,
222, 224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 242,
247249, 252, 256, 257, 260, 261, 264,
267, 268, 275, 289291, 293, 295, 297,
299, 305307, 309, 311, 313, 315, 317,
319, 321, 323, 325332, 335
13, 53, 66, 77,
146, 189, 237, 241
260
22, 111, 112,
250, 276279, 281, 282, 284286, 288,
290
289
15, 1820, 23, 25,
28, 29, 34, 38, 39, 4649, 53, 54, 78, 79,
87, 94, 95, 101, 102, 105, 113, 115, 116,
121, 131, 132, 133, 136, 137, 146, 151,
155, 162, 163, 166, 167, 170173, 189,
190, 192194, 196, 198, 200, 202, 204,
206, 208, 210, 212, 214218, 220, 222,
224, 226, 228, 230, 232, 234, 239, 242,
246249, 251, 256, 260, 264, 268, 273,
275, 290, 300, 301, 303, 305307, 311,
312, 315317, 325, 326329, 331333,
335
12, 15, 18, 21,
22, 97, 195, 197, 198, 207, 211215, 217,

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229, 230, 241, 247, 254, 256, 258, 265,


278, 307, 314, 333
203, 205, 211,
213
, 57
276, 286

25, 34
19, 22, 28, 29,
75
19, 21, 22, 28, 63,
64, 66, 75, 219, 224
, .
, 21, 42, 67, 69, 70, 71, 75, 76,
88, 89, 93, 104, 112, 128, 182, 184, 185,
241, 295
, 82, 148,
150, 196, 326
56, 59, 60
15, 2427, 31, 32, 46, 47, 49,
51, 52, 95, 96, 106, 107, 110, 117, 118,
133, 134, 135, 136, 139, 146, 156, 165,
187, 217, 223, 227, 284, 302, 307, 330
18, 24, 230, 337

268
15, 19, 20, 40, 42,
72, 76, 77, 80, 87, 88, 97, 100, 102, 106,
116, 134, 144, 148, 149, 151, 152, 186,
192, 207, 230, 237, 238, 242, 243, 245,
247, 250, 264, 271, 277, 308
19, 20, 2224,
105

112, 128, 218, 250, 252,


278, 279, 285, 287, 289, 317
22, 149, 150, 152, 282,
285287, 289, 290
20, 53, 60, 65, 76, 77, 79, 80,
82, 84, 8690, 98, 230, 254, 269
137, 139,
141, 143, 145, 147
22, 113, 117
121, 123,
125, 127, 129, 131
313, 318, 324
105, 106, 108, 110,
112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124, 126,
128, 130, 132, 134, 136
250252, 256, 257, 259, 267

347

321, 329, 332


53, 60, 61, 63
24, 55,
59
60, 82, 222
12, 54, 77,
78, 79, 87, 94, 214, 224, 248
12, 30, 50, 51, 80, 81, 89,
90, 96, 97, 100, 102, 111, 126, 139, 152,
154, 156158, 164, 206, 214, 221, 225,
226, 227, 229, 232, 237, 240, 242, 254,
277, 285, 294, 295, 301, 302, 314, 317,
323, 325, 327, 330, 333
, 15,
19, 20, 22, 25, 31, 78, 80, 89, 90, 9497,
100, 102, 105, 106, 111, 112, 116, 118,
121, 129, 135, 137, 139, 140, 143, 146,
150, 152, 154, 155158, 160, 164, 166,
175, 181, 186, 192, 193, 210, 211, 218,
230, 231, 237, 263, 317, 319, 320, 324,
332, 333
148
180
181
15, 19, 20,
25, 26, 31, 32, 43, 50, 80, 106, 111, 121,
126, 150, 156, 230, 295, 301, 314, 315,
321, 324, 332

137, 139, 141, 143, 145, 147
22, 291, 292,
294296, 298, 300, 302, 304, 306,
308310, 312, 313, 314, 316, 318, 320,
322, 324, 326, 328330, 332, 334
15, 100, 156159, 161, 162, 163,
169, 188, 235
13, 101, 189, 190,
209211, 213, 214, 216, 217, 218, 221,
225, 226, 229, 230, 231, 233, 241, 255,
268, 270, 272, 275, 277, 326, 328

201, 233
62, 84, 200, 231
12, 15, 18, 2022, 39, 45,
53, 6567, 77, 94, 95, 97, 106, 107, 109,
111, 112, 114, 120122, 124, 125129,
131, 133, 134137, 144, 146, 189, 190,
195, 197, 198, 203, 205, 207, 209,
211215, 217, 229, 237, 241, 243, 247,
250, 251, 254, 258, 260, 263, 265, 268,
273, 276284, 286, 288, 290, 317, 324

Copyright & A K-C

348

53, 146,
189, 237, 241
268, 269
268

65, 87, 144


1113, 16, 21, 39, 45,
6567, 71, 75, 100, 101, 144, 151, 180,
182, 185, 190192, 209, 238, 240243,
251, 252, 255, 257, 261, 264, 266, 268,
276, 277, 282, 305, 319, 320
112
65
80, 90, 97103, 323,
330
18, 24, 230
15, 163,
164, 165, 167, 169, 171, 173, 176, 187
j(1) 90, 97,
112, 146, 156, 191, 219, 229, 321
21, 29, 33, 34, 39, 79, 186,
187, 247, 278, 295
72, 73, 75, 77
198, 199, 201,
304
33, 47, 51, 52, 108,
123, 127, 335
16, 21, 28, 41, 42, 50,
112, 166, 178, 180, 182, 185, 186, 209,
210, 226, 247, 278, 295, 318, 321, 323,
324, 332
12, 27, 43, 48,
64, 75, 90, 113, 193, 207, 222, 271, 282
15, 167172, 188
167, 169, 171
, 25
182
11, 12, 22, 27, 32, 43, 48,
50, 60, 64, 65, 67, 71, 74, 75, 7780, 87,
90, 93, 97101, 103, 113, 135138, 190,
191, 193, 207, 219, 222, 224, 232, 234,
250, 253, 254, 265, 269, 271, 279, 280,
282, 289, 291, 313, 323, 330, 332, 333
58, 60, 80
19, 21, 25, 26,
31, 50, 78, 80, 91, 97, 98, 106, 109, 111,
115118, 122, 126, 129, 133, 139, 143,
150, 164, 166, 210, 230, 231, 237, 259, 263

15, 20, 22,


43, 80, 89, 90, 9496, 100, 105, 109, 112,
118, 121, 126, 135, 137, 140, 146, 152,
154, 155158, 160, 175, 181, 186, 192,
193, 211, 218, 317, 319, 321, 324, 332,
333
1113, 29, 4345,
219
12, 30, 50, 51, 80, 81, 89,
90, 96, 97, 100, 102, 111, 126, 139, 152,
154, 156158, 164, 166, 181, 186, 191,
206, 214, 221, 225227, 229, 232, 237,
240, 242, 254, 277, 285, 294, 295, 301,
302, 314, 317, 321, 323, 325, 327, 330,
333
12, 21, 31, 38, 42, 48, 51, 52, 80,
86, 91, 100, 102, 104, 106, 122, 127,
133135, 150, 152, 156, 167, 177, 180,
182, 184, 186, 285, 289, 293, 299, 301,
307, 308, 310, 313, 314, 315, 317, 322,
324, 332
13, 19, 22, 45, 129, 135, 136,
154, 156, 181, 182, 186, 187, 230, 284,
314, 321, 322
105, 106, 108,
110, 112, 114, 116, 118, 120, 122, 124,
126, 128, 130, 132, 134, 136
13, 20, 24, 25, 30, 34, 50, 58,
60, 69, 71, 75, 77, 79, 90, 91, 109, 110,
112, 119, 126, 127, 129, 154, 156, 166,
173, 187, 206, 210, 211, 214, 218, 229,
231, 232, 237, 240, 241, 247, 275,
278280, 283, 284, 288290, 293, 297,
299, 302, 313, 314, 323, 324, 328, 330,
331
22, 47, 113, 120,
131, 132, 154, 155, 160, 161, 162, 166,
169, 170, 172, 174, 175, 293, 299, 307,
315, 332
27, 28, 42, 108, 109, 113,
310, 313
27, 28, 29, 42
21, 32, 33, 39, 42, 47, 51, 52,
108, 112, 134, 160, 279, 280, 281, 285,
288, 290, 310, 332
21, 32, 33, 42, 49,
105, 106, 108, 121, 122, 177, 291, 310
11, 12, 15, 19, 21, 22,
29, 3133, 38, 39, 42, 43, 47, 48, 51, 52,
80, 82, 84, 8691, 97, 98, 100102, 106,
114, 115, 122, 124, 125, 132134,
150152, 155, 156, 158, 160162, 164,
167, 169172, 174, 177, 180, 181, 184,

Copyright & A K-C

349

189, 214, 234, 240, 279, 285, 291, 293,


294, 301, 307, 308, 310, 311314, 326,
328, 329, 332
114,
129, 154, 159, 169, 174, 181, 186
11, 12, 15, 19,
20, 30, 31, 43, 44, 45, 47, 50, 80, 90, 91,
102, 105, 109, 112, 118, 122, 126, 150,
156, 164, 166, 181, 206, 214, 216,
218220, 223, 224, 226, 229, 270, 271,
299, 301, 305, 310, 314, 321, 325, 327
53
10, 12, 13, 15, 16, 18, 2022, 27,
29, 32, 33, 38, 39, 42, 43, 47, 5052, 95,
108, 112, 113, 115, 116, 120, 131, 137,
154157, 159, 161, 162, 169, 170, 173,
175, 216, 224, 229231, 233, 235,
279282, 285, 288, 290, 293, 299, 310,
313, 315, 317, 321, 325, 329, 333, 335
22, 27, 28, 108, 109, 113,
129, 132, 176, 229, 309, 310, 312, 314,
315, 316, 318, 320, 322, 324, 326, 328,
330, 332, 334
149, 151, 153, 155, 157, 160,
188, 248, 326, 328
39, 121, 132134, 155,
161, 248, 281, 291, 300, 301, 305, 312,
314, 315, 316, 327, 332
39, 132, 134, 155, 248,
281, 291, 300, 302, 311, 332
27, 31, 32, 38, 41, 42, 47, 48,
49, 109, 112, 121, 124, 129, 132, 133,
152, 157, 159, 160, 162, 163, 165167,
169175, 187, 291, 294, 299302,
305308, 314
137
121, 126, 131, 163
25, 31, 138
11, 15, 16, 19, 2022,
2528, 3234, 3739, 42, 43, 45, 5052,
80, 86, 87, 91, 106, 107, 109113,
115117, 121129, 131, 133, 134136,
140, 149151, 154, 156, 165169,
171174, 176, 178, 179, 181189, 191,
195, 205, 218, 219, 221223, 230, 231,
235, 241, 243, 278, 279, 282, 284286,
288, 292, 295, 296, 299, 301, 302, 304,
305, 307310, 313315, 318, 320334
, 53, 60, 61, 63
29

20, 95, 129,


209, 219, 223, 224, 226, 229, 233
209, 218, 219, 221, 223, 225,
227, 229, 318, 320
79, 129, 207, 208,
223, 224, 229, 231, 233, 250, 254
15, 172174, 188
65, 68, 73, 75, 92, 95, 141,
252
15, 22, 50, 137, 138, 149,
163, 165, 167, 169, 171, 173, 176, 177,
187, 188, 276, 286
16, 21, 34, 3643,
4951, 123, 127, 157, 186, 278, 280, 313,
319, 332, 333, 335
11, 16, 19, 21, 29, 3234, 36, 39, 42,
49, 64, 67, 71, 72, 78, 79, 93, 135, 136,
146, 157, 186, 187, 243, 247, 270272,
273, 275, 278, 295, 310, 313
21, 39, 40,
157, 187, 313

35, 211
29

120
114
15, 20, 121, 123,
125, 127, 129, 131, 133
198
198, 199, 201
116, 133
24, 55, 59
- 32, 42, 43,
80, 81, 83, 85, 106
11, 12, 15, 19, 22, 29,
31, 33, 35, 37, 39, 4143, 47, 80, 81, 98,
106, 150, 155, 160, 170, 171, 214, 234,
279, 291, 294, 310
10, 11, 13,
15, 18, 22, 23, 29, 30, 34, 43, 335
, .
, 29, 45
147, 148, 154, 156, 166,
188, 285, 286, 288290
70, 71, 73, 76, 77, 118,
184
, .
116, 126, 129, 137,
166, 167

Copyright & A K-C

350

- 115, 116, 135, 136,


181, 317

f (1), 95, 97
g(1), 95, 97
50, 51, 52, 55, 56, 58,
96, 99, 117, 133136, 203
81
, .
15, 18, 21, 22, 189191, 193, 195,
197, 206, 207, 209211, 214218, 221,
224, 226, 230, 231, 233235, 239241,

248, 249, 251, 256, 259, 266, 301, 302,


304, 306308, 314, 315, 318
46, 47, 49, 79,
151, 239, 246, 256, 260, 264
E- 301, 303, 305, 325, 327,
329, 331
H- 305, 327
189, 193, 214,
215, 217, 218, 224, 226, 239
21
190196, 203,
205, 206, 214, 220, 226, 230, 231, 232

Copyright & A K-C




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