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ATTACHMENT 2

PILOT DEMONSTRATION ACTIVITY


Application Form

Activity Title: Pilot testing of Aerial/Lidar and USV Survey Data for Irrigation Asset
Management
Proposer (Name, Organization): Directorate of Operation and Maintenance, Directorate
General of Water Resources (DGWR), Ministry of Public Works and Housing (MPWH)
Request Date: August 2016
Country: Indonesia
Region: Indramayu and Kuningan Districts
Activity Proposed Start Date: 30 August
Activity Proposed Duration: 3 months
2016
Cost Estimate: $50,000
Implementing Organization Contact:

1.

Background and Rationale:

Boosting rural incomes and improving food security are significant concerns in Indonesia.
Poverty is still predominantly rural, with rural poverty rates 1.7 times higher than those in urban
areas.1 Despite positive trends in agricultural production over the last 10 years, Indonesia still
faces rising food imports, higher domestic food prices, and sporadic food shortages.2 With most
of the grain crops coming from irrigated areas, water resources and irrigation management play
an important role in the countrys efforts to increase agricultural output. However, water
availability to the farm community is erratic in many parts of the country. The Ministry of Public
Works and Housing (MPWH) estimates that only 55% of the nations irrigation system is
functioning at full capacity because irrigation systems are in bad need of repair, limiting yields
and reducing cropping intensity.3
Since 2006, the Government has introduced several reforms to improve water delivery and
operation and maintenance (O&M) services by applying participatory irrigation management
(PIM) and by establishing water user associations (WUAs) and irrigation commissions. In 2010,
the Directorate General of Water Resources (DGWR), MPWH, established a directorate
dedicated to O&M for water resources. Asset management and needs-based budgeting (NBB)
processes have been introduced to address the long-term sustainability of the infrastructure. In
2015, the DGWR further refined asset management processes to improve sector performance.
The DGWR also updated its regulations to institutionalize reforms introduced under the ADBfinanced Participatory Irrigation Sector Project (PISP).4 This provides a robust regulatory
framework and well defined set of processes for irrigation infrastructure improvement,
management, and O&M.

14.8% of the countrys rural population are extremely poor, living below $0.81 (Rp9,889) per capita per
day at 2014 prices. Central Bureau of Statistics (BPS) poverty data, 2014.
2
Production has been growing by about 2% annually over the last ten years mainly due to increases in
irrigated area and productivity.
3
Ministry of Public Works and Housing. 2014. Irrigation Systems Rapid Assessment. Jakarta.
4
ADB. 2003. Report and Recommendation of the President to the Board of Directors: Proposed Loan to
the Republic of Indonesia for the Participatory Irrigation Sector Project. Manila. (Loans 2064/2065-INO).

However, effective implementation is lacking. Budget for maintenance is inadequate, resulting in


under functioning infrastructure and lost production. For effective planning of O&M, a sound
irrigation asset management registry is needed. Towards this end, and to support needs-based
budgeting for O&M, the DGWR developed an irrigation asset management information system
(IAMIS). However, the IAMIS software still has shortcomings.5 Field survey and manual data
entry processes also constrain the updating of the IAMIS.6 To improve asset registry and related
processes, newer technologies are required, such as: (i) web-based geospatial interface for the
IAMIS to allow accessible and easy updating of data sets; (ii) use of tablets to replace paper
forms for field verification; and (iii) use of aerial survey (Light Detection and Ranging - LIDAR,
high resolution photography) and software for interpretation and automatic digitalization of
assets to ensure a systematic and quality inventory of assets, including their dimensions and
conditions.
The IAMIS software is being upgraded to a web application with spatial mapping capabilities
and compatible with tablet, under TA6498 REG: Knowledge and Innovation Support for ADB's
Water Financing Program. Under the proposed Integrated Participatory Development and
Management of Irrigation Program (the Program), the upgraded IAMIS will be introduced and
capacity of water resources agencies (WRAs) be strengthened to ensure proper asset
management. Aerial surveys (using LIDAR and drone technology) for irrigation assets
covering 2.5 million hectares of irrigation systems - will also be introduced to reduce costs and
improve the quality of the asset registry. Following consultations with research centers and
technology providers, a methodology to use aerial surveys for irrigation assets has been
developed. In order to finalize this methodology and to adjust technical specifications for the
surveys to be financed under the program, a field testing is required. Therefore, it is proposed to
pilot test this aerial/Lidar and drone approach in four irrigation schemes in the Indramayu and
Kuningan districts where the upgraded IAMIS software will also be tested.
2.

Goals & Objectives:

The key objective of the pilot demonstration activity (PDA) is to confirm the approach and
methodology for surveying irrigation asset using aerial technology. The results of the PDA will
enable to adjust and finalize the technical specifications as a basis for upscaling under the
proposed program.
3.

Scope and location of Work / Description of Activities:

Under this PDA the reliability of several key-parameters as surveyed by automated sampling will
be tested. This covers both aerial surveys (Lidar) to survey the condition of the water
infrastructure and unmanned surface vehicles (USV) pilots (by small boats) to survey the
sediment load. The Aerial/Lidar survey will be made for the four pilot areas selected using 2
types of aircraft, viz drones and Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) for 5 groups of data sets as
listed in attachment 1.
The scope of the work is as follows:
5

This includes (i) no geographic information system (GIS) capability, difficulty in exchanging and/or
consolidating district data at provincial and national level; (ii) inability to receive inputs from Excel files:
(iii) a difficult graphical user interface (GUI); and (iv) no possibility of update via internet connection.
6
The Directorate General of Water Resources estimates that the current IAMIS cover capture assets for
only 20% of the national schemes irrigation area or equivalent to 6.7 % of the total irrigated area.

a. Conduct an aerial (Lidar and USV) survey. The aerial photography must have a
horizontal resolution of 10 cm or less. The Lidar survey should produce at least 5
points per m2. The vertical accuracy of the altitude measurements of the lidar points
should be 2-3cm. This will require the use of Differential Global Positioning System
(DGPS) for accurate positioning as well as using known accurate ground control
points. The USV depth measurement should be have a depth accuracy of 1.5 cm or
less;
b. Data processing and digitization of the results; and
c. Inform the amount and type of field work for establishing the maintenance condition
of primary and secondary irrigation canals and all other identified structures and
support structures.
Location of the project
The aerial surveys will be carried out in the following 4 irrigation schemes:
a. Indramayu District
i. DI Cipanas 2,855 Ha
ii. DI Lebiah 217 Ha
b. Kuningan District
i. DI Lame 1,011 Ha
ii. DI Citanggulun 873 Ha
The USV sedimentation surveys will be carried out only in DI Cipanas in Kab. Indramayu
over a length of 1km with 100m interval along the waterflow in primary canal, and 500m with
100m interval along the water flow in selected secondary canal.
Description of activities
a. Conduct the aerial / Lidar and the USV surveys
b. Data processing including digitalization of infrastructure for migration to the
IAMIS
c. Interpret the condition of the primary and secondary canals and where possible
the other irrigation assets
d. Deliver ortho-rectified detailed photography;
e. Deliver raw and interpreted Lidar data (as a #D data model;
f. raw and interpreted USV data; and
g. The processed results as ESRI shape files in the format specified by IAMIS in
appendix 1, 2 and 3.
The DGWR supported by the TA6498 REG team will:
a. Provide guidance to the WRAs for field surveys to complement the aerial
surveys;
b. Adjust and finalize the methodology - including technical specifications and
costing - for the entire data collection process for the IAMIS.
4. Implementation Schedule, Institutional Management Arrangements, and Proponent
Qualifications:
Implementation Arrangement

The aerial surveys will be procured by ADB using the shopping method for goods in accordance
with ADBs Procurement Guidelines (2015, as amended from time to time).
Implementation Schedule
The activities are expected to be implemented in a 3 months period from 1 September to
end of November with the following milestones:
1.) Surveys completed at the end of Month 1
2.) Data processing including digitization of aerial survey results completed by end of
month 2
3.) Imagery interpretation of infrastructure conditions by month 2.5
4.) Final delivery of data by month 3
5. Expected Results (outputs/outcomes/effects/impacts):
The expected direct results of the aerial surveys are:
1. Detailed ortho-rectified aerial photography;
2. Raw and the interpreted Lidar data as this can be useful for rehabilitation planning;
3. Raw and interpreted USV data;
4. The deliverable for group 1 objectives consists of 2 ESRI shape files with point and line
representation of the canals and structures identified in group 1, including data on
dimensions. The format and data fields are described in appendix 1;
5. The deliverable for group 2 consists of 2 ESRI shape files with point and line
representation of the damage observed to the canals and the structures identified in
group 1, but now with observed damage assessment data. The format and data fields
are described in appendix 2;
6. The deliverable for group 3 consists of 2 ESRI shape files with polygons that represent
the location and coverage of the irrigated areas and one with the areas with severe
water logging. The format and data fields are described in appendix 3;
7. The deliverable for group 4 (longitudinal slope and flow capacity) is to fill in the fields
longitudinal slope and discharge capacity (m3/s) in the subruas.dbf file for the canals as
specified in group 1 (see subruas.dbf definition in appendix 1)
8. The deliverable for group 5 consists of an ESRI line shape file with lines that represent
the location of the sediments and the type and thickness. The format and data fields are
described in appendix 3.
At the end of the pilot, the aerial surveys will be integrated into the IAMIS and complemented by
field surveys. The expected further results from the pilot are:
1.) Data as specified will be imported into the IAMIS. This includes the irrigation scheme
weir/intake; the irrigation scheme primary and secondary irrigation canals and all
other irrigation assets under DGWR responsibility.
2.) Interpretation of the maintenance condition of the primary and secondary canals and
where possible the other irrigation assets
3.) Field work guide on what and how to do additional field work needed to complete the
IAMIS data needs
4.) Final IAMIS data collection process and methodology including cost estimates and
technical specifications for upscaling under the program
The outcome of the proposed PDA is improved data collection process for irrigation asset. The
intended impact is improved asset management and operation and maintenance of irrigation
infrastructure.

Results of the pilot and the final methodology will be shared to related government agencies
and to ADB staff through a knowledge sharing session.
6. Measurable Performance Indicators:
The measurable performance indicators are:
Direct aerial/lidar/usv survey results in terms of ortho-rectified photography and raw
and interpreted lidar and usv data.
Processed data and ESRI shape files in the IAMIS format.
Review report that describes the results and in particular draws conclusions on how
best to use aerial surveys in irrigation asset management.
7. Stakeholders Participation:
District WRAs and DGWR are the main institutions involved in this activity. Farmers and
water user associations will be consulted, especially to vet the results. Research centers will
also be consulted on how to best operationalize the proposed aerial approach to optimize
resources.
8. Scope for Replication/Use in Other DMCs:
The results will directly benefit the proposed program, but also the broader government
irrigation improvement program that has a national coverage. The final methodology will be
disseminated through the water sector group for further replication in other DMCs.
9. Cost Estimates:
The cost of the aerial survey and processing by the third party is estimated at US$ 50,000.

Attachment 1: Data set groups


GROUP 1 Location / elevation of irrigation and drainage assets (Aerial/Lidar)
Development of software that interprets and processes the raw aerial/Lidar data into the
following products:
the location and elevation of the irrigation scheme main weir(s) / water intake
the location of all primary, secondary and tertiary irrigation and drainage canals
(comprising of both the canal, the two embankments and the behind the embankment
located ROW (right of way). A canal section is defined as the canal that lies between two
structures that change the flow (splitting or joining water flows).
the location and elevation of irrigation structures in both irrigation and drainage canal
systems.
GROUP 2 Maintenance condition of irrigation assets (Aerial/Lidar)
Development of software that interprets the raw aerial/Lidar survey data to produce the
following products:
The maintenance condition of the canals (of canals as defined in Group 1).
The maintenance condition of all structures.
GROUP 3 Location and condition of irrigated paddy fields land (Aerial/Lidar)
Development of software that interprets the raw aerial/Lidar survey data to produce the
following products:
the geographical location and coverage of the irrigated area of the systems
an assessment whether there are areas with severe water logging
the water supply quality in paddy field areas.
GROUP 4 Discharge capacity of canals (Lidar and/or USV)
Development of software that interprets the raw USV sonar survey and / or Lidar survey
data to produce the following products:
Determine for all canal sections the discharge capacity based on the longitudinal slope
and the crosssections data as obtained in group 1. In conditions that the canals are dry
these surveys are done by Lidar and in conditions that the canals are full of water, these
surveys are to be done using a hybrid solution of USV bathymetry (acoustic depth
measurement) with Drone Lidar mapping and theodolite altitude measurements.
The longitudinal slope and discharge capacity shall be added as fields to the shape file
as specified in Appendix 1.
GROUP 5. Application of USV on under water structure (from USF AR Survey)
Development of software that interprets the raw USV sonar survey data to produce the
following product:
Determine the sediment thickness and type of sediment for the primary and secondary
canals of the DI Cipanas.
It is not expected that the aerial surveys and available software can directly produce all the
above groups of data in a digital form. It is expected that human interpretation (digitization)
and additional field surveys are also needed and that together this will result in the outputs
as described above.

Attachment 2: Specification ESRI shape files IAMIS


The ESRI shape file is a standard GIS file format used in many geographic information systems.
For more information on the file format see for example https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shapefile
and https://www.esri.com/library/whitepapers/pdfs/shapefile.pdf.
A shape file can store one type of geographic feature (object). Therefore for canals and for
structures we will use line and point shape files respectively.
Each shape file consists of a group of files, here we list only the obligatory files according to this
delivery:
.shp shape format; the feature geometry itself
.shx shape index format; a positional index of the feature geometry to allow seeking
forwards and backwards quickly
.dbf attribute format; columnar attributes for each shape, in dBase IV format
.prj projection format; the coordinate system and projection information, a plain text
file describing the projection using well-known text format.
The .shp and the .shx define feature geometry and index. The geographic projection used in the
shape files must be degrees Latitude-Longitude WGS 84. Which means that the .prj file has a
line as follows:
GEOGCS["GCS_WGS_1984",DATUM["D_WGS_1984",SPHEROID["WGS_1984",6378137,298
.257223563]],PRIMEM["Greenwich",0],UNIT["Degree",0.017453292519943295]]
The dBase file contains the scalar data that are linked to the geographic feature. Each line in
the .dbf file contains the data of one geographic feature. The definition of the data needed is
provided per group of data below.
Group 1 shape file for the location of canals and structures
The deliverable shape files are as follows:
bangunan.shp
It contains the location and dimension data of the structures.
The DBF file should contain the following fields:
Field width

Decimals
(if applicable)

Field name

Field type

Explanation

NOREC

10

Record number

IDENT

24

Identifier of the structure

LAT

18

Latitude in degrees

LONG

18

Longitude in degrees

ALTITUDE

12

Altitude in m

DATE

TYPE

10

Type of structure

COMMENT

50

Comments if any

Survey date in format YYYYMMDD

subruas.shp
A canal (saluran) is defined as all canal sections that belong to one group (e.g. primary canal).
Each RUAS (canal section) is defined as from one flow changing structure to the next flow
changing structure. In some cases the canal type and lining change in the RUAS, so we use
SUBRUAS (canal subsection) as the unit where the canal type, dimensions and lining are
identical. In this deliverable for each identified subruas a geographic feature will be added of the
line type to the Shape file.
In SI RP2I-PAI we include the following canal types, lining types and canal dimension data:

Canal types:
Lining types:

Lining tipe-1

Profil tipe-1

Lining tipe-2

Profil tipe-2

Lining tipe-3
Profil tipe-3

Lining tipe-4
The content of the subruas.dbf is as follows (for an
explanation of the dimension field names see profile
tipe 1):

Field name

Field
type

NOREC
IDENT
Bangunan hilir
Tipe profil
Tipe lining
b
H
Hl
m
Li
La
Panjang

C
C
C
C
C
N
N
N
N
N
N
N

Field
width
10
24
24
1
1
12
12
12
12
12
12
12

Decimals
(if
applicable)

Lining tipe-5

Explanation
Record number
Identifier of the subruas
IDENT of downstream bangunan
Number 1,2 or 3
Number 1,2,3,4 or 5
canal bottom width (m)
Height from bottom to embankment top (m)
Height from ground to embankment top (m)
Slope of the canal (-)
Orographic left embankment top width (m)
Orographic right embankment top width (m)
Length of the subruas (m)

3
3
3
3
3
3
3

Group 2 shape files for the damage assessment


bangunan.shp
For the damage assessment per structure we use the same bangunan.shp file, but the data is
stored in additional bangunan.dbf fields as follows:
Field
Field
Decimals (if
Field name
type
width
applicable
Explanation
Bocor/lubang
C
1
1=yes; 0=no
m3 gerusan harus di
Gerusan
N
12
3 perbaiki
m3 sedimen harus di
Sedimen/waled
N
12
3 potong
Penurunan/miring C
1
1=yes; 0=no
Retak/patah/geser C
1
1=yes; 0=no
Longsor/menonjol C
1
1=yes; 0=no
8

Field name
B.Sipil diganti
total
Pintu
karatan/rusak
Pintu perlu diganti
Mesin angkat
rusak
Mesin angkat
ganti
Genset/listrik
rusak
Genset/listrik
ganti

Field
type

Field
width

Decimals (if
applicable

Explanation

1=yes; 0=no

N
N

1 bh
1 bh

Number
Number

1 bh

Number

1 bh

Number

1 bh

Number

1 bh

Number

kerusakan.shp
This is a shape file with lines for
each part of the canal where a
damage is observed. There are
different types of damages for the
embankment and for the canal
itself. The line as the geometry
between start point and end point.
For each damage section the
following data needs to be
recorded in the .dbf file.
1. Type of damage:
1. Leak
2. Crack
3. Hole
4. Landslide
5. Embankment
disappearance
6. Sediment in canal
2. Where it occurs:
1. Left embankment outside
2. Left embankment inside
3. Left embankment both
sides
4. Canal one side
5. Canal both sides
6. Right embankment inside
7. Right embankment outside
8. Right embankment both sides
9. Both embankments
3. Where needed additional data (such as the height of sediment observed in the canal or the
height of embankment disappearance)

To accommodate this the kerusakan.dbf file will consist of


Decimals
Field
Field
Field
(if
name
type
width
applicable) Explanation
NOREC
C
10
Record number
IDENT
C
24
Identifier of the subruas
Tipe
C
1
Tipe kerusakan 1/2/3/4/5
Lokasi
C
1
Lokasi kerusakan 1/2/3/4/5
Kwantitas N
12
3 Amount of material (m3)
Group 3 shape files for the irrigated areas
This concerns 2 shape files with polygons of 1) location and coverage of irrigated areas
irigasi.shp and 2) areas with severe water logging logging.shp. No additional data are needed,
so the .dbf will only have two required fields:
Field name

Field
type

Field
width

Decimals (if
applicable)

NOREC

10

Record number

IDENT

24

Identifier of the polygon

10

Explanation