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According to the video, it introduces the principle of the Lumped circuit element
wherein the power consumed by element. It also introduces the principle of V = IR
where voltage is directly proportion to the current and resistance. It acts as an
review where KVL and KCL are discussed, the series parallel combination of the
resistances. And also there are also comparison between the old solution the new
procedures to apply.


In this lecture it discusses the fundamental of the circuit analysis. These are the
method Node analysis: 1. Select reference node (ground) from which voltages are
measured. 2. Label voltages of remaining nodes with respect to ground. These are
the primary unknowns. 3. Write KCL for all but the ground node, substituting device
laws and KVL. 4. Solve for node voltages. 5. Back solve for branch voltages and
currents. Also conductance is similar to solve just follow the steps and remember
that conductances is just reciprocal of the resistance.


Lecture 3 talks about the circuit theorem where the fundamentals circuits analysis is
very essential. In this topic it covers the circuit theorems of Superposition, Norton
and Thevenin. Superposition is a method wherein you will use only one source at a
time replacing all other independent voltage sources with a short circuit and
replacing all other independent current sources with an open circuit, Norton is you
are simplifying the circuit using a current source together with a parallel resistance
while Thevenin is you are simplifying the circuit using an equivalent voltage in a
desired node together with a series resistance.


The Digital Abstraction is the topic in this chapter. Discretive value is 0, 1. Static
discipline meets voltage thresholds. Previously it was digital signal processing but
nowadays analog signal processing is the most useful signal processor and it is
using the principle of superposition for computation. Also we encounter noise that
makes the signal distorted. Systems follow static discipline: if inputs to the digital
system meet valid input thresholds, then the system guarantees its outputs will
meet valid output thresholds. For combinational gate abstraction it adheres to static
discipline, its outputs are a function of inputs alone. Digital logic designers do not
have to care about what is inside a gate.

According to the video Ive watched, Professor Anant Agarwal taught about
Dependent Sources and amplifiers. Why we should amplify a signal when it will pass
to any medium channel? He exampled a 1mv will pass through a cable and he also
tells that it would have a problem due to noise, so it is necessary to amplify the
signal up to 100mv so it can supressed some noise. Amplification is the key to noise
tolerance during communication. In the digital communication, the input part of the
amplifier has an input high and input low voltage and in the output part of the
amplifier it has output low and output high voltage in which it is higher than the
input voltage to satisfy the principle of amplifier. It has minimum amplification
needed where the difference of the output high voltage and output low voltage
divided by the difference of the input high voltage and input low voltage. Types of
Dependent Sources are voltage controlled current source (UCCS) and current control
current sources (CCCS). According to the video using dependent sources we could
build an amplifier together with a formula:

v o =v s

( v 1 ) R L
2 1

for v1

1 and


is equal to amplification.

This equation could predict the behaviour of the dependent source.

In the introduction the professor told that we could build an amplifier using
dependent sources. Illustrating a circuit with a voltage source as an input voltage
that can produce input current together with a load resistance. Where the formula
of the dependent current source is:

i d= ( v i 1 )2

At the end of the circuit you could connect a parallel terminal so we could measure

the output voltage. With a condition of Vi

1 and = 0. The formula for V is:


V o=V si d R L
The professor illustrates a key device, a voltage control current source (VCCS), and
then he talks about the MOSFET device where the voltage in the gate and source
are the input and the voltage in the drain and source are the output together with
dependent current source downwards as the I DS downwards. In the graphical
analysis he shows VGS vs IDS if VDS is greater than VT also if VGS is less than VT it acts as
a short circuit in terms of an open MOSFET. In the presentation I see that a MOSFET

behaves like a current source if VDS

VGS VT. According to the video to ensure

the MOSFET operates as a VCCS, it must operate it in its saturation region only. To
do so, it promise to adhere to the saturation discipline then to ensure the MOSFET
operates as a VCCS, it must operate it in its saturation region only. It promises to

adhere to the saturation discipline. The switch current source (SCS) shows the
graph of the saturated MOSFET, as Vgs increases it saturate the MOSFET where:

Before it enters to the saturation region it is under the triode region.

In the introduction the professor review large signal analysis, the MOSFET
amplifier and the region of operation one is saturation region, output voltage versus
the input voltage and lastly the amplification together with a noise where it has a
sinusoidal form but with the noise it is sinusoid but with a triangular wave. When
following the saturation discipline the condition must be in saturation so we could
apply the formula of VO:

k ( V i V t ) R L
Small signal model must operate on some bias, V I, VO & IDS. Superimpose small
signal input voltage on the top of big signal input voltage. We must have a response
from small signal applied to make it linear.
In the video, as input voltage goes up and down the output graph goes no linear
then in the presentation the professor shrink the input voltage and it forms a
triangular wave form output. In the discussion someone ask a question that how you
could amplify a small signal with a big signal then another student answered use
another amplifier to amplify the amplified signal. The condition must be v i << VI in
able to call it an amplifier. The small signal model notation:
Incremental input:

v t =V I + v i

; Total = DC Bias + Small Signal

v o =V O + v t

The output voltage or the VO of the amplifier is:

v o =V s

v I V T )

Substituting vt = VI + vi where vi << VI

In the video the professor simplify it in this equation:

K is a MOSFET parameter.

and simplifying more,

vo = -gmRLvi
vo = -A vi
Also how to choose the bias point?
1) Gain, VI , RL
2) Range (distortion)
3) Valid input range