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SI 56

514 - 518

ICS2009 (Proceedings)

Portugal

ISSN 0749-0258

of Standing Waves and Steady Streaming

F. Hajivalie and A. Yeganeh-Bakhtiary

Dept. of Civil Engineering

yeganeh@iust.ac.ir

Iran University of Science and

Technology, Tehran

16844, Iran

f_hajivalie@iust.ac.ir

ABSTRACT

Hajivalie, F. and Yeganeh-Bakhtiary, A., 2009. Numerical study of breakwater steepness effect on the

hydrodynamics of standing waves and steady streaming. Journal of Coastal Research, SI 56 (Proceedings of the

10th International Coastal Symposium), 514 518. Lisbon, Portugal, ISSN 0749-0258.

A 2D numerical model based on Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations has been developed to

study the effect of breakwater steepness on standing waves and steady streaming. Turbulence effect was

described by using a k- turbulence closure model and free surface configuration was tracked by Volume of

Fluid (VOF) technique. The results of numerical model have been compared with experimental results of Xie

(1981) for standing waves in front of a vertical breakwater. Three individual simulations were set up for three

different breakwaters, a vertical wall, 1:2 and 2:1 sloped breakwater. From the model results it is concluded that

the milder slope cause a secondary steady streaming recirculating cell over the toe of breakwater which could be

in charge of scouring near the toe of sloped breakwater.

ADITIONAL INDEX WORDS: k-, RANS, Recirculating cells, Sloped breakwater , Vertical breakwater, VOF

INTRODUTION

When an incident wave impinges on an impermeable

breakwater, a reflected wave moves back to the offshore, the

superposition of these two waves results in a standing wave. The

standing wave can produce a field of steady streaming which

consists of top and bottom recirculating cells as illustrated in Fig.

1; the formation of bottom cells is a function of boundary layer

over the bed.

Carter et al. (1973) were the first who noticed the effect of

standing waves on formation of parallel pattern of

scour/deposition in sand bars near the shorelines. Xie (1981)

experimentally studied the scour pattern in sand bed in front of

vertical breakwater under action of standing waves. His

experiments concluded of relatively fine and relatively coarse

sands, the results indicated that there are two different pattern of

scour/deposition for these two sediment size. This difference is

breakwater, Sumer and Fredse(2000)

coarse and fine sands which respectively transport in bed load and

suspension load as pointed out by Fredse and Sumer (1997).

Sumer and Fredse (2000) experimentally studied the scouring

in front of a rubble-mound breakwater and compare it with the

scouring in front of a vertical breakwater. They deducted that the

key mechanism in the scour process at rubble-mound breakwater

is the steady streaming caused by partially standing waves, the

same as in case of vertical breakwater. They also observed that the

scour just at the breakwater has a non-zero value in the case of

rubble-mound breakwater contrary to the vertical breakwater case.

Therefore they suggested that there must be a difference between

steady streaming resulted by fully standing waves in front of

vertical breakwater and partially standing waves in front of sloped

breakwater. Another key parameter which changes fully standing

waves to partially standing waves is the overtopping of wave over

the breakwater.

Shaosong et al. (2001) experimentally studied the effect of

overtopping on the kinematic and dynamic characteristics of

partially standing waves include maximum horizontal velocity of

water particles near the node of standing waves. They indicated

that maximum horizontal velocity of water particles decrease

slightly in case of partially standing waves.

Lee and Mizutani (2008) experimentally studied the effect of

overtopping on the scour occurred at a vertical impermeable

submerged breakwater under action of partial standing waves.

They indicated that the location of maximum scour is the same as

vertical breakwaters; though it slightly decreases mainly depend

on the reflection coefficient of the submerged breakwater.

The complexity of the interaction of waves and breakwater and

the limitation in experimental apparatus have directed researcher

to use the numerical simulation as an alternative approach.

Gislason et al. (2000) employed a two-dimensional Navier-Stokes

model to simulate the standing waves pattern in front of a vertical

514

Numerical study of breakwater steepness effect on the hydrodynamics of standing waves and steady streaming

define the free surface motion. They reported some early results

on the steady streaming velocities at some fixed points by period

averaging for an Airy wave case, but no further results was

reported by them.

Bing (2007) established a two-dimensional numerical wave

flume based on an arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE)

description of the Navier-Stokes equations, to simulate the local

scour in front of vertical breakwater. The morphologic

development was obtained by solving the equation of continuity

for sediment. Although the model could simulate the steady

streaming cells with a good approximation, the model could just

simulate the clockwise recirculating cells.

Hajivalie et al. (2008a) presented a numerical model based on

RANS equations, to simulate the standing waves in front of a

vertical breakwater. The free surface configuration was tracked by

Volume Of Fluid technique proposed by Hirt and Nichols (1981).

To validate this model, the model results have been compared

with the experimental data of Xie (1981). To study the effect of

bed slope on the pattern of standing waves Hajivalie et al. (2008b)

developed their model using a k- turbulence model. It was

evident that bed slope changes the size of steady streaming

recirculating cells during the shoaling effect. This also indicated

that the turbulence parameters are much higher near the slope bed

than near the flat bed.

To clarify the effect of breakwater steepness on the

hydrodynamic characteristics of standing waves we have

employed Hajivalie et al. (2008b) numerical model. Three

simulations were set up with the same hydrodynamic situation for

three different breakwaters, vertical, 1:2 or mild and 2:1 or steep

sloped breakwater. The pattern of steady streaming, orbital

velocities and the maximum horizontal velocity have been studied

in these simulations.

U

W

x

t

x

z x

t

2

C1 Pr C 2

z

z

k

k

(5)

U 2 W 2 U W 2

p r t 2

x

x z z

(6)

t C

U W

0

x

z

U

U

U

1 P

U

W

t

x

z

x

U W

x

z z

W

W

W

1 P

U

W

g

t

x

z

z

U

2

x

x

U W

W

x z

x z

z

k

k

k k

U W t

t

x

z x k x

t k

pr

z k z

(1)

, t

(7)

C

C1

C2

k

0.09

1.44

1.92

1.0

1.3

The initial flow motion is specified with the zero mean

velocities and hydrostatic pressure. The initial conditions of the

turbulence field are set according to Lin (1998) as follows:

1 2

u t , u t c i , 0.0025

2

Cd

k2

, t , 0.1

(8)

(9)

coefficient and and are constant values.

Boundary conditions at the free surface, bottom, inlet and outlet

have to be defined. The free surface motion is tracked by the VOF

technique of Hirt and Nichols (1981), which satisfies both the

kinematic and dynamic free surface conditions, the conservation

of F or the volume fraction of fluid is expressed as follows:

F

F

F

U

W

0

t

x

z

(2)

(3)

(stream-wise) and z (vertical) direction; P is the mean pressure; g

is the acceleration of gravity; is the fluid density; and t are

respectively kinematic and kinetic eddy viscosity; k is the

turbulence kinetic energy; pr is the production of turbulence

kinetic energy and is the turbulence dissipation rate. The model

constants are set according to Launder and Spalding (1974):

MATEMATICAL FORMULATION

The RANS equations, which describe the mean flow field, in

closure with a k- turbulence model are applied to simulate the

turbulent flow in front of a vertical breakwater. The governing

equations consist of the continuity, momentum and the k-

equations in two-dimensional coordinates as follow:

k2

(10)

hence the vertical flux of k and on the free surface and near the

solid boundaries should reach to zero:

k

0

n

0

n

(11)

condition was used:

(4)

Un 0

U s

0

n

(12)

velocities. At the inlet boundaries Neuman continuative boundary

condition are assumed.

515

have simulated from Xies experiments. In the numerical

simulations, the computational domain has total length of 14.5 m

to reduce the calculation time and a height of 0.7 m with the

incident wave being generated at inlet boundary; the Airy wave

theory was used in the inlet boundary. The length of

computational domain is shortened than the experimental flume to

reduce the computation times.

Table 2: Numerical simulation condition based on Xie (1981)

experiment

H(m)

T(s)

d(m)

L(m)

Test No. 1

0.05

2.41

0.45-0.3

4.00

Test No. 2

0.065

1.53

0.45-0.3

2.40

Test No. 3

0.06

1.86

0.45-0.3

6.00

Figure 2. Schematic sketch of numerical domain

1, j 2, j , i

max 1 , j

imax 2 , j

(13)

generating-absorbing boundary condition, introduced by Petit et

al. (1994) is implemented. By imposing this condition, waves can

be generated while the reflected waves from the vertical

breakwater simultaneously can be absorbed. This prohibits the

collision (intermixing) of the generated and reflected waves that

propagate in the direction opposite the zone of interest as follow:

Rr

R

Cr r 0

t

x

(14)

Rr Rt Rin

(15)

where Cr is the celerity of reflected wave; Rr, Rt and Rin are the

variable associated with the reflected, computed and the

theoretical wave values represents velocity, pressure, and free

surface displacement and Rin is the calculated by the Airy or

Stokes second order theory, Figure (2) shows the schematic sketch

of numerical domain for vertical and sloped breakwater.

Model validation

To assess the accuracy of the numerical model, the model

results have been compared with the experimental data of Xie

(1981) for standing waves in front of vertical breakwater. Figure

(3) depicts the experimental set up near vertical breakwater by Xie

(1981). The experiment was conducted in a 38 m long, 0.8 m wide

and 0.6 m deep wave flume. The water depth was equal to 0.45 m

in the beginning of the flume and reached to 0.3 at the flat bed

near the breakwater by a 1:30 slope. The incident waves varied

from 5.0 to 9.0 cm and the wave period varied from 1.17 to 3.56m.

sections, near the first node of standing waves and halfway of

node and antinode. Figure (4) presents the comparison between

the numerical the model results and Xies experimental data for

Test No. 1, from the results it is evidence that there is a very good

agreement between the numerical results and the experimental

data.

experimental data

Numerical simulation

As it was mentioned before, Sumer and Fredse (2000)

experimentally studied the scour process in front of rubble-mound

breakwaters and compared their results with Xies (1981)

experiments on local scouring in front of vertical breakwater.

From this comparison they concluded that although the key

mechanism of scour is the same in both cases, there are significant

differences between scour pattern in front of a vertical and sloped

breakwater as:

at the close vicinity of breakwater while it has a nonzero value in case of sloped breakwater.

is about 25% smaller than vertical breakwater.

They justify the differences with the difference between the

pattern and strength of steady streaming in front of vertical and

sloped wall breakwater; however they mentioned that these

differences had not been studied since their experiments.

In order to explore the effect of the breakwater steepness on the

dynamic characteristics of standing waves, three different

simulations were set up in front of vertical, 1:2 or mild and 2:1 or

steep sloped breakwater. All hydrodynamic characteristics

including the wave height, wave period and water depth were the

same in these three simulations as they are summarized in table

(3).

516

Numerical study of breakwater steepness effect on the hydrodynamics of standing waves and steady streaming

breakwater

Test

Breakwater

T (s) L (m) H (m) d (m)

No.

slope

1

2.41

4.0

0.06

0.3

Vertical

2

2.41

4.0

0.06

0.3

2:1

3

2.41

4.0

0.06

0.3

1:2

The simulations took place in a numerical domain with 6m

length and 0.7m height, water depth was equal to 0.3m and the

distant between wave generator and breakwater was 4m equal to

one wave length. The simulation took place for 12.05 s equal to 5

wave periods. By starting the simulation, the incident waves

started to develop into the numerical domain and reflect after

impacting to the breakwater. For the vertical breakwater, from the

second wave period standing waves started to produce in front of

vertical breakwater and at the same time partially standing waves

occur in front of sloped breakwater. Fig. 5 shows the standing and

partially standing waves amplitude for the three simulations. The

figure indicates that for the standing waves in front of vertical

breakwater the feature of maximum and minimum water free

surface is almost symmetric, but this symmetry starts to be

disturbed as the breakwater steepness increase.

The steady streaming patterns of the three tests have been

explored sophistically near breakwaters in great details. Figure (6)

plots the steady streaming pattern generated by standing waves in

front of breakwaters, in which the orbital velocity of water

particles has been averaged during a wave period after the

standing waves have been completely developed. Formation of

clock wise and anti-clock wise recirculating cells in front of all

three breakwaters is displayed in this figure. The figure indicates

that there is not any noticeable difference between the steady

streaming pattern in front of vertical wall and steep sloped

breakwaters. In other words in both cases the steady streaming

recirculating cells have almost regular and symmetrical form,

while in front of mild sloped breakwater this regularity is

disturbed.

Near the mild slope breakwater, however the pattern of

recirculating cells is more complicated and it seems that a

secondary recirculating cell has been formed near the toe of

breakwater which is more visible in Figure (7). As it is illustrated

in this figure, an anti-clock wise recirculating cell is produced near

the toe of breakwater under the main clock wise recirculating cell

which is not observed in front of vertical wall breakwater. This

situation can strongly justify the reason of occurrence of scour just

at sloped breakwaters, mentioned by Sumer and Fredse (2000).

The maximum of horizontal velocity have been compared for

three cases in Figure (8). The plotted velocities were measured at

distant between breakwater toe and the first node of standing

waves (=L/4) and at 0.02m from the bed. This figure emphasis

517

horizontal velocity in front of vertical and sloped breakwater

near sloped and vertical breakwater and at the node of standing

waves

that the maximum horizontal velocity near the breakwater is much

higher in case of mild sloped breakwater since the situation

changes with getting space from the breakwater, thus the

horizontal velocity at the node of standing waves is higher in case

of vertical breakwater that justify the deeper scour hole in front of

vertical breakwater as pointed out by Sumer and Fredse (2000).

The figure also indicates that the difference between steep sloped

and vertical breakwater is negligible.

Figure (9) compares the variation of horizontal velocity just

near the breakwater and at the node of standing waves during a

wave period. This figure declare that during a wave period in case

of mild sloped breakwater the horizontal velocity is higher than

the vertical breakwater case since at the node it is less than the

vertical breakwater.

CONCLUSION

In this paper a two-dimensional numerical model based on

Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations with

closuring a k- turbulence model has been developed to study the

effect of breakwater steepness on the hydrodynamic

characteristics of standing waves. The free surface distribution

was tracked by Volume Of Fluid, VOF method. First the

numerical model has been validated using the experimental data of

Xie (1981); then three different simulations were set up in front of

vertical, mild and steep sloped breakwater with the same

hydrodynamic situation. From the numerical results the following

conclusions can be derived:

recirculating cell forms near the toe of breakwater that

could be in charge of scouring occurs just at the

breakwater.

The orbital velocities are stronger at far vicinity of

vertical breakwater, but just at the close vicinity of the

breakwater, they are less than mild sloped breakwater.

The difference between hydrodynamic situation in front

of vertical and steep sloped breakwater is negligible.

LITERATURE CITED

BING, C., 2007. The numerical simulation of local scour in front of

a vertical-wall breakwater. Journal of Hydrodynamics, Ser. B.,

Vol. 18, Issue 3, pp. 134-138.

CARTER, T.G, LIU, L.F.P. and MEI, C.C., 1973. Mass transport by

waves and offshore sand bedforms. Journal of Waterway

Harbors and Coastal Engineering, ASCE, Vol. 99, No. WW2,

pp. 165-184.

FREDSE, J. and SUMER, B.M., 1997. Scour at the round head of a

rubble-mound breakwater. Journal of Coastal Engineering,

Vol. 29, 231-262.

HAJIVALIE, F., YEGANEH BAKHTIARY, A. and HASHEMI JAVAN, A.,

2008a: The simulation of standing wave in front of a vertical

caisson breakwater. NCCE Conference, Tehran, Iran, (in

Farsi), pp.703-707.

HAJIVALIE, F., YEGANEH BAKHTIARY, B. and GOTOH, H., 2008b. A

comparison between standing wave pattern in front of vertical

breakwater with horizontal and slope bed. ICOPMAS 2008,

book of extended abstracts, 10205-en.

HIRT, C.W. and NICHOLS, B.D., 1981. Volume of fluid (VOF)

method for the dynamics of free boundaries. Journal of

Computational Physics, 39, 201-225.

LAUNDER, B.E. and SPALDING, D.B., 1971. The numerical

computation of turbulent flow. Journal of Computational

Mechanic in Application of Mechanic and Engineering, No. 3,

pp. 269-289.

LEE, K. and MIZUTANI, N., 2008. Experimental study on scour

occurring at a vertical impermeable submerged breakwater.

Journal of Applied Ocean Research, Vol. 30, Issue 2, pp. 9299.

LEMOS, C.M., 1992. Simple numerical technique for turbulence

flows with free surfaces. International Journal for Numerical

Methods in Fluids, Vol. 15, Issue 2, pp. 127-146.

LIN, P., 1998. Numerical modeling of breaking waves, PhD thesis,

Cornell University.

PETIT, H.A.H, VAN GENT, M.R.A. and VAN DEN BOSCJ, P., 1994.

Numerical simulation and validation of plunging breakers

using a 2D Navier- Stokes model. Proc. 24th Int. Conf. on

Coastal Eng. ASCE, Kobe, Japan, pp. 511 524.

SUMER, B.M. and FREDSE, J., 2000. Experimental study of 2D

scour and its production at a rubble-mound breakwater.

Journal of Coastal Engineering, Vol. 40, pp. 59-87.

XIE, S.L., 1981. Scouring pattern in front of vertical breakwaters

and their influence on the stability of the foundation of the

breakwaters. Report, Department of Civil Engineering, Delft

University of technology, Delft, Netherlands, September, 61 p.

518

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