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INTERNSHIP REPORT ON “GREEN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF CITI BANK, N. A.

Supervisor:

Dr. Sabnam Jahan

Associate Professor

Prepared by:

Maeen Uddin ID: 18-123

  • 4 th Year, 8 th Semester

Batch: 18 th , BBA Program

INTERNSHIP REPORT ON “GREEN HUMAN RESOURCES MANAGEMENT PRACTICES OF CITI BANK, N. A. ” Supervisor: Dr.

Department of management Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka

Date: 28 th February, 2016.

Letter of Transmittal

Date: 28 th February, 2016

Dr. Sabnam Jahan Associate Professor Department of management Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka

Subject: Submission of Internship Report.

Ma‟am, This is my pleasure to present my internship report entitled “Green Human Resources Management Practices of Citi Bank, N. A.”, I have conducted my internship program in Human Resource Department, Citibank, N. A., Gulshan-8, Gulshan-1, Laila Tower, Gulshan Avenue, Dhaka-1212.

I believe that the knowledge and experiences I have gathered during the internship period will be helpful in my future professional life. I will be grateful to you if you accept the report. I will be available for defense on this report any time.

Your support in this regard will be highly appreciated.

Thanking you.

Sincerely yours‟

____________

Maeen Uddin ID: 18-123

  • 4 th Year, 8 th Semester

Batch: 18 th , BBA Program

Letter of Certification

This is to certify that, Maeen Uddin bearing ID: 18-123, a student from Batch: 18, Department of Management, has successfully completed his Internship assignment at Citi Bank N. A. under my supervision as part of the completion of his B.B.A. Program. I hope that, the experiences he achieved through this endeavor will be helpful to him in the days to come.

I wish him success in future.

---------------------------

Dr. Sabnam Jahan Associate Professor Department of Management Faculty of Business Studies University of Dhaka

Acknowledgement

Thanks to the Almighty Allah at first, A Research study can‟t be completed without the guidance, assistance, inspiration and cooperation from various quarters. This study also bears the inspiration of many persons. This study required hard work, sincerity and devotion which I tried my best to put in and in turn gained a lot of knowledge and confidence from this study. I am deeply grateful to my internship supervisor guide Dr. Sabnam Jahan who has helped me in completion of this report. She has been a constant guiding force and source of illumination for me. It entirely goes to her credit that this research has attained its final shape.

I am thankful to the honorable Head of Human Resources of Citibank, N. A. of Gulshan Branch Mr. Asif Jaman and all the pupils I met there namely Mr. Salahuddin Ahmed, Ms. Trisha regardless of posts for providing me with valuable information during my internship period although their busy work schedule.

I am also thankful to all the respondents (bank employees) who spared their valuable time for filling up the questionnaire and helped me out with this report. Finally, I would like to thank my parents and all my friends, who provided me with their constant support and took the pain to help me in completing the report.

Table of Contents

Chapter

Serial

Title

Page No.

Number

 

Letter of Transmittal

2

 

Letter of Certification

3

 

Acknowledgement

4

 

Table of Content

5

 

Executive Summary

6-7

Chapter 1

1.1

Introduction

8

 

1.2

Problem Statement

8

 

1.3

Literature Review

9-13

 

1.4

Objectives of the Study

13

 

1.5

Scope of the Study

13

 

1.6

Significance of the Study

13

 

1.7

Limitations of the Study

14

Chapter 2

2.1

Research Design

14

 

2.2

Data Collection

15

 

2.3

Data Analysis Method

15

Chapter 3

3.1

About Citibank

16

 

3.2

Organizational Structure

17

 

3.3

Work Ethics

17

 

3.4

Types of Work

18

 

3.5

Performance Evaluation and Employee Promotion

18

Chapter 4

4.1

Meaning of Green

18

 

4.2

What is Green HRM

19

 

4.3

Why Green HRM

19

 

4.4

Making HRM functions Green

19

 

4.5

Green HRM practices at Citi

21-22

Chapter 5

Findings and Analysis

23-27

Chapter 6

Conclusion and Recommendations

28-29

Appendices and Bibliography

 

30

Appendix A (Questionnaire)

31-32

Appendix B ( Abbreviations and Elaborations)

33

Executive Summary

Today, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) has become a key business strategy for the significant organizations where Human Resource Departments play an active part in going green at the office. The research largely focuses upon the various Green Human Resource Practices pursued by the organizations all over the world and, explains the simplified meaning of GHRM. The Green Human Resources Management (Green HRM) has emerged from companies engaging in practices related to protection of environment and maintaining ecological balance. The source of such initiatives, referred to as green management, is the green movement with its agenda of Protection of Environment and saving the planet Earth from future man-made disasters. Green HRM encompasses all activities aimed at helping an organization carry out its agenda for environment management to reduce its carbon footprint in areas concerning on boarding and acquisition of human resources, their induction, performance management, learning and development and compensation and reward management. Green HRM can play a useful role in business in promoting environment related issues by adopting and following Green HR policies and practices. Green HRM can enhance corporate image and brand. Green HR will play an important role in making the employees aware of and concerned for preservation of natural resources and contribute in pollution control, waste management and manufacture of eco- friendly products.

Understanding about why green is (mentioned above) indicates the importance of green HRM. If reiterated in another form, greening is essential for the following:

1)

To avoid or minimize global warming.

2) To avoid or minimize natural disasters such as acid rains, red rains, tsunamis, flooding, hurricanes, droughts etc. owing to informal, harmful and greedy usage of natural resources for production and consumption.

3)

To avoid or minimize health diseases owing to pollution.

4)

To avoid or minimize harms to animals and other natural creatures.

5) To ensure appropriate balance of relationships among plants, animals, people, and their

6)

environment. To ensure survival of humans and business organizations for a prolonged period of time.

In order to achieve organizational environmental goals or greening, green human resource requirements need to be identified. What are the green human resource requirements for greening or corporate environmental management? There are four categories of green human resource requirements, i.e. green competencies, green attitude, green behaviors and green results. Though

these major types of green human requirements are related they can be distinctly treated. Figure

  • 3 shows these requirements and relevant dimensions.

 

Green HR Requrements

 
 

Green attitude

Green behavor

 

Green

cognititve aspect

Green

Green interpersonal

competencies

(believing in greening)

organizational citizenship bahavor

Green results

Knowledge and

Affective aspct

Green innovations

skills about

greening

Behavioral aspect (intention to behave

citizenship behavior

Green official

Green outcomes

positively)

behavior

 

Figure 1: Green Human Resource Requirements.

Green ideas and concepts are beginning to gather pace within the HR space, often complementing existing sustainability-based initiatives. Increasingly they are delivering tangible benefits to the business, rather than simply adding a gloss to brand and reputation. These new processes, policies, products and tools are actually helping to ensure compliance and improve productivity too. In this regard, the study, thus brings out how the HRM function, by its policies and practices, can contribute to environmentally sustainable business. And with legislation now in place to effectively formalize the need for a new corporate approach to the environment, it is time for HRM to embrace the green agenda. Adopting environmental practices help companies save money, find new sources of business and avoid trouble. Green companies believe that it is more economical to go green than it is to continue endangering the environment in general. Going green also helps companies enhance their public relations and image which also impacts profits.

CHAPTER: 1

1.1 Introduction

We are entering a green economy-one in which consumer and employee expectations and future environmental change will require business to address “green” issues. Environmental conscious organizations will become increasingly prominent as we re-enter into a period of growth. Green HR is a not just a strategy used primarily for reducing the carbon footprint of each employee and talent retention. Green HR has two essential elements: environmentally friendly HR practices and the preservation of knowledge capital.

Most people will say that Green HRM involves reducing your carbon footprint via less printing of paper, video conferencing and interviews, etc. The most important definition to remember in terms of our current economic situation is there claiming of top talents of the organization. Companies are quick to layoff when times are tough before realizing the future implications of losing that knowledge capital. Green HR initiatives help companies find alternative ways to cut cost without losing their top talent; furloughs, part time work, etc. More employees are becoming more concerned about the environment and climate change. HR departments are seeing Green HR as a cutting edge way to keep top talent in house. Top talent is considered the industry‟s most valued asset, yet many corporations have been treating them as expendable. As knowledgeable, experienced professionals become harder to find and retain, companies must continue to be creative at finding ways of keeping these highly skilled workers. This is a win/win scenario for the employee and the employer. First and foremost, it helps the environment. The employer gets to hold onto top talent, while increasing productivity because those employees are happy to be there. A happy employee is a productive one. The employer has to be willing to provide strong leadership, care for their employees, offer opportunities for professional growth, offer opportunities for more responsibility, offer flexibility, and last they must offer perks. The main environment focus of many business was paced on reducing waste and optimizing resources. However, HR is never going to have a truly significant impact on a business through the improvement of HR processes alone so the greater opportunity is to contribute to the green agenda to the business as a whole.

1.2 Problem Statement

Environmental sustainability is generating increased concern among business executives, governments, consumers, and management scholars. Amidst the stakeholders‟ struggle and the challenges and opportunities from environmental concerns, HRM function joins the ongoing discussions and debates. The business domain sees the genesis of Green HRM with the expanding role of the HRM function in pursuit of environmentally sustainable business. Are HRM (or simply, HR) policies and practices getting transformed to incorporate a new way of work for people? The „green‟ way? In view of this, the study intends to explain the concept of

Green Human Resource Management, the companies‟ approach towards green HRM, its advantages, policies and practices. The study discusses the current trends of green HRM practices in companies based on findings from a few studies, survey reports and secondary data from the bank‟s resources. It also brings out the role of HRM function towards creating a „green‟ culture in companies.

1.3 Literature Review

Gill Mandip (2012) in his research on “Green HRM: People Management Commitment to Environmental Sustainability”, has found that Green human resources refer to using every employee touch point/interface to promote sustainable practices and increase employee awareness and commitments on the issues of sustainability. It involves undertaking environment- friendly HR initiatives resulting in greater efficiencies, lower costs and better employee engagement and retention which in turn, help organizations to reduce employee carbon footprints by the likes of electronic filing, car-sharing, job-sharing, teleconferencing and virtual interviews, recycling, telecommuting, online training, energy-efficient office spaces etc. In this green world the green HR or people management function has sustainability at its core as part of its people management and talent management focus and organizations engage with the society by aligning their agendas with it. Communities, customers and contractors all become equal stakeholders along with employees and shareholders. Refer Figure 2.

 

Green HR or People and Society Function

 
 

People

   

People

Society

Engagement

Shared

Services

Sustainability

Engagement

Green Human Resource Managem ent, the companies‟ approach towards green HRM, its advantages, policies and practices.

Figure 2: Green HR for people and society function.

A. Anton Arulrajah, Prof. H.H.D.N.P. Opatha, Dr. N.N.J.Nawaratne ( 2015), in their research

work on “Green Human Resource Management Practices: A Review” found that, to a significant

extent, inherent capacity of HRM functions in greening employees and organizational operations. From job design function to employee relations, HRM has gigantic potential in greening organization and its operations. The key challenge in front of HR professionals is to understand the scope and depth of green HRM in transforming their organizations as green entities. This effort ultimately leads to better environmental performance of the organization. In other words, greening of HRM functions will reduce negative environmental impacts of the organization and improve the positive environmental impacts of the organization. In improving organization‟s environmental performance, people factor is one of the key factors. To create, practice and maintain environmental related innovative behaviors of employees coupled with right attitude of greening, green HRM practices are critical. Without proper green HRM practices, it is difficult to create and maintain sustainable environmental performance. Hence, we assert that by understanding the scope and depth of green HRM practices organizations will have a capability of performing in more environmentally friendly manner than ever before.

Jacob Cherian & Jolly Jacob (2012), in International Journal of Business and Management; Vol.

7, No. 21; 2012, explained on “A Study of Green HR Practices and Its Effective Implementation

in the Organization: A Review”, and found that the importance of green HRM practices is vital to promote employee morale and this may help in arriving at a great deal of benefit for both the company and the employee. For example some of the benefits that an organization can attain as a result of introducing green HRM principles in EMS include:

  • Improvement in retention rate of employee

  • Improvement public image

  • Improvement in attracting better employees

  • Improvement in productivity and sustainability

  • Reduction in environmental impact of the company

  • Improved competitiveness and increased overall performance

Apart from this it is to be identified that employees who are actively involved in environment management principles may play a vital role in arriving at better environmental strategies to be implemented. Employees may feel empowered to adopt specific environment management principles as a resulted of promoted human resource policies which present better opportunities for improvements related to reduction of waste and promotion of lean manufacturing. This also may help in arriving at greener products and green savings from waste elimination. The promotion of such values will also indirectly improve consumer satisfaction. Today most consumers look for companies which adopt environmental standards. Through this article the

author has highlighted the importance of green “HR” principles which an organization should

adopt during implementation of an environment management program. In specific different implications can be arrived at for managers and supervisors.

H.H.D.N.P Opatha & A. AntonArulrajah (2014) have found on their research entitled “Green human resources management: simplified general reflections” that Green HRM is referred to all the activities involved in development, implementation and on-going maintenance of a system that aims at making employees of an organization green. It is the side of HRM that is concerned with transforming normal employees into green employees so as to achieve environmental goals of the organization and finally to make a significant contribution to environmental sustainability. It refers to the policies, practices and systems that make employees of the organization green for the benefit of the individual, society, natural environment, and the business. The purpose of green HRM is to create, enhance and retain greening within each employee of the organization so that he or she gives a maximum individual contribution on each of the four roles, i.e., preservationist, conservationist, non-polluter, and maker.

Dr. Douglas Renwick, Professor Tom Redman, Dr. Stuart Maguire (April 2008), in their research paper entitled Green HRM:A review, process model, and research agenda” have explained that, There is a growing need for the integration of environmental management into Human Resource Management (HRM) Green HRM research practice. A review of the literature shows that a broad process frame of reference for Green HRM has yet to emerge. A concise categorization is needed in this field to help academics, researchers and practitioners, with enough studies in existence to guide such modeling. This article takes a new and integrated view of the literature in Green HRM, using it to classify the literature on the basis of entry-to-exit processes in HRM (from recruitment to exit), revealing the role that HR processes play in translating Green HR policy into practice. The contribution of this article lies in drawing together the extant literature in this area, mapping the terrain in this field, and in proposing a new process model and research agenda in Green HRM.

Kathak Mehta, Pawan Kumar Chugan ( 2015) in their research on “Green HRM in Pursuit of Environmentally Sustainable Business” have discussed that, Environmental sustainability is generating increased concern among business executives, governments, consumers, and

management scholars. Amidst the stakeholders‟ struggle and the challenges and opportunities

from environmental concerns, HRM function joins the ongoing discussions and debates. The business domain sees the genesis of Green HRM with the expanding role of the HRM function in

pursuit of environmentally sustainable business.

Michael Muller-Camen, Susan E. Jackson, Charbel J. C. Jabbour,Douglas Renwick (2010) have found on their research entitled „Green Human Resource Management‟ that During the past two

decades, a worldwide consensus has begun to emerge around the need for proactive environmental management. In response, scholars from management functions as diverse as accounting, marketing and supply-chain management have been analyzing how managerial practices in these areas can contribute to environmental management goals. In contrast, with some exceptions, such as a very early 1996 edited book by Wehrmeyer (Greening People:

Human Resources and Environmental Management), there is a scarcity of research linking the field of human resource management (HRM) and environmental management. This is surprising, as any organizational responses to environmental concerns must involve decisions and behavior

by an organization‟s employees. Fortunately, the potential role of HRM practices is beginning to

be recognized. For example, at the 2009 Annual Meeting of the Academy of Management, which

had as its theme “Green Management Matters”, papers were presented that linked HR functions

such as performance management and recruitment to environmental management. Studies designed to improve our understanding of environmentally-friendly employee attitudes and behaviors also have begun to appear. A 2008 review from the University of Sheffield (Renwick

et al, „Green HRM: A Review, Process Model and Research Agenda‟) as well as a Green HRM

AOM Connect Group established in 2009 suggest that the term “Green HRM” could become the

umbrella term for this research.

Prasad, Apeejay (2013), in their research topic entitled “Green HRM - Partner in Sustainable Competitive Growth”, has found that The Green Human Resources Management (Green HRM)

has emerged from companies engaging in practices related to protection of environment and maintaining ecological balance. The source of such initiatives, referred to as green management, is the green movement with its agenda of Protection of Environment and saving the planet Earth from future man-made disasters. Green HRM encompasses all activities aimed at helping an organization carry out its agenda for environment management to reduce its carbon footprint in areas concerning on boarding and acquisition of human resources, their induction, performance management, learning and development and compensation and reward management. Green HRM can play a useful role in business in promoting environment related issues by adopting and following Green HR policies and practices. Green HRM can enhance corporate image and brand. Green HR will play an important role in making the employees aware of and concerned for preservation of natural resources and contribute in pollution control, waste management and manufacture of eco-friendly products.

Shoeb Ahmad (2015), has found in his research paper entitled “Green Human Resource Management: Policies and practices”, Recently, there has been observed an increasing awareness within business communities on the significance of going green and adopting various environment management techniques. As the corporate world is going global, the business is experiencing a shift from a conventional financial structure to a modern capacity-based economy which is ready to explore green economic facets of business. Today, Green Human Resource Management (GHRM) has become a key business strategy for the significant organizations where Human Resource Departments play an active part in going green at the office. The paper

largely focuses upon the various Green Human Resource Practices pursued by the organizations all over the world and, explains the simplified meaning of GHRM. The study also adds to the extant literature by discussing future direction of some GHRM functions. Finally, the paper suggests some potentially prolific HR initiatives for Green organizations.

According to Ken Peattie (1995), green was a buzz word that was used by marketers in the 1980 as a consequence of the increased awareness of the sustainability issues in politics, mass-media and financial groups. More than often the resulting products or services had little to do with marketing and even less with the environment and were just an opportunistic way to respond to consumer needs.

  • 1.4 Objective of the Study

The broad objective of the study is to determine the practices of Green Human Resources Management Practices of Citi Bank, N.A. and explain the elements that might lead to motivating employees to be more eco-friendly, environment-conscious. A careful review of those areas led to the identification of following specific research objectives:

  • 1. To what extent and how HR policies and practices can improve the environmental performance of organizations.

  • 2. The Role of the HR professional in environmental management

  • 3. Changing attitudes and behaviors related to environmental issues in the workplace.

  • 1.5 Scope of the study

The report has been prepared from everyday working experience, discussion with the concerned officers of Human Resource Department of Citibank, N. A. and the theoretical learning from library and journal reference. In order to collect information on this emerging issue Green HRM, I had to contact with most of the employees who were available at Citibank N.A, Gulshan Head Office (regardless of posts) to fill the questionnaire up.

  • 1.6 Significance of the study

In the last decade, sustainability has become an increasingly integral part of doing business in any industry. Sustainability seeks to balance and simultaneously optimize environmental, social and financial concerns. For companies to balance their financial, social and environmental risks, obligations and opportunities, „sustainability‟ must move from being an add-on to „the way

things are done‟. It has been recognized that organizational culture plays a fundamental part in

the shift toward sustainability. Organizational culture is considered a key determinant and indicator of the success or failure of environmental management programs at companies. An

organization‟s culture embodies the main assumptions, values, symbols and activities within an

organization that reflect what the employees and top management think about environmental sustainability issues. There has been recognition of the strategic link between HRM practices and

policies in helping to create, reinforce and change organizational cultures; to act as the messenger or change agent.

HRM plays a critical role in embedding sustainability strategy of the organization for creating the skills, motivation, values and trust to achieve a triple bottom line. It ensures long term health

and sustainability of both the organization‟s internal and external stakeholders. Thus there is a

growing need for the integration of environmental sustainability into human resource management (HRM) Green HRM.

  • 1.7 Limitations of the study

Every study has certain limitations. In my study, also there were certain limitations, which I could not able to solve.

  • 1. The presence of Close-ended Questions refused personal opinion.

  • 2. Time constraints on part of the respondents.

  • 3. The respondents mostly in careless manner filled the questionnaire, so it was difficult to make them hold for time.

  • 4. Very limited set of people were included so results are shown in percentage form to make it presentable.

CHAPTER: 2 RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

  • 2.1 Research Design

Step 1: Define the problem and research objectives

At first, I have defined the problem in connection with the objectives of the report. It was not too broad or short in nature. It was important to make the respondents understand on the topic in a precise manner.

Step 2: Develop the research plan

Designing the research plan calls for decisions on data sources, choice of research design, research approaches, research instruments, sampling plan, and contact methods. Keeping in mind all these issues, I developed my research plan on how, when, and whom to knock.

Step 3: Collect the information

I have collected the information over a period of 1 and half month from the employees of Citibank, N. A. of different posts.

Step 4: Analyze the information

After the process of gathering information was completed, I tabulated the data and developed graphical representations and tried to extract the findings from the survey.

Step 5: Present the findings

Finally, I have prepared the research report on the survey and along with I have also presented the recommendations.

2.2

Data collection

The task of data collection begins after problem has been identified. While deciding the method of data collection to be used for the study, the researcher should keep in mind two types of data viz, primary data and secondary data. The primary data are those which are collected a fresh and first time and thus happen to be original in character. The secondary data are those which have already been collected by someone else and which have already passed through statistical process.

Primary Data

 

Since primary data are to be originally collected, I have used the following ways to collect

primary data:

 
 

1.

Observation method

2.

Interview method

3.

Through questionnaires

Secondary Data

 
 

Manuals of Citibank, N. A.

Website of Citibank, N. A.

Various publications of Citibank, N. A.

Various reports collected from internal bodies and library.

Many papers and documents collected from different wings and desks.

2.3

Data Analysis Method:

To analyze data, I chose the tools that fit my research purpose best. In this case, I found the following tools easier and reliable enough to analyze my data. The analysis was conducted maintaining the following procedures:

  • a) Editing and proofreading survey data.

  • b) Developing and providing instructions for coding data for analysis.

  • c) Selection and description of data analysis method.

  • d) Application of graphical representation tool, Bar Diagram and short description.

CHAPTER: 3 COMPANY OVERVIEW

 
Public Company Founded 1812 New York City, United states Citigroup “ Citi Never Sleeps ”
Public Company Founded 1812 New York City, United states Citigroup “ Citi Never Sleeps ”

Type

Public Company

Founded

1812

Headquarters

New York City, United states

Parent

Citigroup

Slogan

Citi Never Sleeps

3.1 About Citibank

Citi bank is the leading global financial services company which has about 200 million customer accounts and has operations in more than 160 countries. Citibank delivers a collection of banking services which includes lending and investment services to customers, small businesses, large companies and governments. Citibank has shown growth and prosper in those areas where it has

operated and its leaders have brought success to different places. Citibank is regarded as the

World‟s Global Bank.

Citibank is the consumer and corporate banking division of leading financial services company

Citi group. The bank has its headquarter in new York. Citibank focuses substantial resources on

growth in emerging markets. Citibank is one of the world‟s leading financial services company.

In Asia the bank has more than 33 million customer accounts across 12 different markets which comprised of more than 600 branches and more than 2,500 ATMs.

Citi’s mission

Citi works diligently to serve individuals, communities, institutions and nations. With 200 years of experience meeting the world‟s toughest challenges and seizing its greatest opportunities, we strive to create the best outcomes for our clients and customers with financial solutions which are simple, creative and responsible. An institution connecting over 1000 cities, 160 countries and millions of people, we are your global bank, we are Citi.

About Citibank, N.A Bangladesh

Citibank, N.A is a multinational bank started its operations on 24 June, 1995 after obtaining license from Bangladesh bank in January 1995. The bank had its representative office established on the year 1987 but it launched its complete operations in 1995 in the capital city Dhaka.

Since 1987 Citi‟s operations include mostly on Corporate and commercial banking services under the Institutional clients group (ICG). The services provided by Citibank include treasury management, transaction services, foreign exchange and structured finance to corporate clients, governments and financial institutions. The has been proving its clients the highest standards of financial services backed by advanced technology and innovative product solutions. The bank also provides remittance services to the foreign employees throughout the world.

Citibank‟s operations include Corporate banking, global transaction services, Financial

Institutions and sales and training (Treasury) under the global corporate and investment banking (CIB) umbrella. Other departments are Operations and technology (O&T), Credit administrations, Trade and Operations, Financial Control, Human Resources Compliance.

  • 3.2 Organizational Structure

Organizational culture

Citibank, N.A. is one of the leading multinational banks in Bangladesh. Over the years, it has been very consistent in its performance as it has been able to satisfy its clients by fulfilling the

clients‟ needs. This would not been possible without the loyal and dedicated workforce of the bank, which is one of the major assets of Citibank, N.A. Bangladesh.

Citibank, N.A. pursues the Open-desk- policywhere subordinates and the supervisors sit in the

same floor and in the same areas. This strategy encourages the dedication and motivation of employees as the employees or the subordinates think that they are given importance by their bosses or superiors. Citibank, N.A. also allows empowerment by encouraging opinions from

different members of the workforce. The bank also maintains „clean desk policy‟ which states

that employees should leave no papers or documents on the desk while leaving their workplace. This is a vital strategy which is being implemented by Citibank, N.A. as they want to secure the privacy of their clients.

  • 3.3 Work ethics

Citibank, N.A. gives greater emphasis to employees to show ethics in their work. The supervisors allow the subordinates to confess if the subordinates have done any mistakes or not. However, in here there is less number of employees who rarely possesses such work ethic. Majority of the employees in the Citibank, N.A. tries to maintain the work ethic and they do reveal to their supervisors if they have made any mistakes so that there is a mutual understanding between the supervisors and the subordinates.

Understanding among departments, colleagues and supervisors

The bonding among the subordinates, entry level officers or the mid-level managers is very good

across different departments at Citibank, N.A.

  • 3.4 Types of work

Most of the task in the Citibank, N.A. involves clerical work. Performing the same clerical work

sometimes leads to monotony in the minds of the employees. Nonetheless, the monotony does not remain long as the supervisors have to meet the deadlines from Bangladesh bank which is a challenge. The supervisors or the heads of different units rarely engages in clerical tasks s they have to setup strategies , make decisions and engage in meetings with clients as well as with the representatives of Bangladesh bank. Moreover, the Relationship Manager rarely engages in

clerical tasks as they work in „front office‟ so they have to interact with customers frequently so

they are able to satisfy the needs of the customers. Also, the employees working in other departments like Human resources compliance, Corporate and Investment banking have to use their interpersonal, analytical communication and appraisal skills to complete their tasks.

  • 3.5 Performance evaluation and Employee promotion

Employee performance is assessed by the unit head and the head of the department. The performance is a big factor while evaluating an employee. However, in Citibank, N.A. promotion is not completely based on individual performance; it also depends on the performance of the unit where the employee is working as well as how effectively the employee is communicating with the unit head and the department head. There are cases where employees get promotion as they maintain good connection with their bosses and department head.

CHAPTER 4: GREEN HRM

  • 4.1 Meaning of Green

What do you mean by the term green? The term „green‟ is used as an adjective and a noun in the

normal context of our usage. The New Oxford Thesaurus of English (2000) presents several meanings such as verdant (grassy, grass-covered, leafy, verdurous, rural, pastoral (opposite:

barren); environmentally friendly; unripe; unseasoned; raw; inexperienced; naive; vivid;

vigorous; and pale (in combining form) to the term green. The same defines “green as a noun” as environmentalist, conservationist, preservationist, nature-lover, or eco-activist. Thus, the term

„green‟ has different meanings. However, mostly it means something relevant to nature or

natural environment. Green means environmental. „Green‟ or „Greening‟ has at least four meanings in the context of managing people at work/human resource management (HRM). 1) Preservation of the natural environment: all the things in the world which are neither caused nor controlled by human beings and they include land, forests, plants, animals, and other natural phenomena are referred to as the natural environment. To keep it in its original form and protect it from harm, loss, or negative change.

2) Conservation of the natural environment: to be very careful in the way of using it in order to let it last as long as possible, to use it at the minimum level so that future generations will be able to utilize it.

3) Avoidance or minimization of environmental pollution: to stop contaminating the water, air, atmosphere, etc. through unpleasant and poisonous substances and wastes. To guard against outcomes that will ultimately endanger the planet/earth where humans and non-humans are living.

4) Generation of gardens and looking-like natural places: to create parks and places which have plants, trees, and grass.

  • 4.2 What Is Green HRM?

Green HRM is referred to all the activities involved in development, implementation and on- going maintenance of a system that aims at making employees of an organization green. It is the side of HRM that is concerned with transforming normal employees into green employees so as to achieve environmental goals of the organization and finally to make a significant contribution to environmental sustainability. It refers to the policies, practices and systems that make employees of the organization green for the benefit of the individual, society, natural environment, and the business. The purpose of green HRM is to create, enhance and retain greening within each employee of the organization so that he or she gives a maximum individual contribution on each of the four roles, i.e., preservationist, conservationist, non-polluter, and maker.

  • 4.3 Why Is Green HRM?

Four specific reasons are given below for Green HRM:

1) The organization gets natural resources including materials, people and water from the environment in which it is operating. Hence it has to show gratitude to give something to protect and improve the environment.

2) The organization causes to pollute the environment (air, sand, noise etc.). The polluted environment will be a danger to the organizational members in future. Environmental pollution will threaten the survival of all. Hence it needs to be stopped, or at least minimized by various CSR activities.

3) The people of the society and the government will make demands to the organization to conserve resources for future generation, to protect and improve prevailing conditions of the environment where all citizens live.

4) Through Green HRM activities an organization can enhance its image as a good corporate citizen which will make people appreciate the organization and consequently customers will become loyal and employees will become loyal. Also the organization will be able to attract

more suitably qualified applicants for its job vacancies. Investor preference generates. Eventually the organization can reap an increased profit from a generally improved society.

4.4 Making HRM Functions Green

In order to make sure that the organization gets right employee green inputs and right employee green performance of job, it is indispensable that HRM functions are adapted or modified to be green. Traditionally there are 18 functions of HRM including job design, job analysis, human resource planning, recruitment, selection, hiring, induction, performance evaluation, training and development, career management, pay management, incentives management, welfare management, management of employee movements, discipline management, health and safety management, grievance management and labor relations. Making a HRM function green involves inclusion of policies, procedures, and practices which ensure right employee green inputs and right employee green performance of job. Ideally it is possible to make each function green. An attempt is made to show how to make some major HRM functions green in this study.

HRM Functions

Green policies, procedures, or practices

Job analysis

  • To include environmental dimension as a duty in job description.

  • To include green competencies as a special component in job specification.

Recruitment

  • To include environmental criteria in the recruitment messages.

  • To communicate the employer‟s concern about greening

through recruitment efforts.

Selection

  • To select applicants who are sufficiently aware of greening to fill job vacancies.

  • To select applicants who have been engaging in greening as consumers under their private life domain.

Induction

  • To make new employees familiar with greening efforts of the organization.

 
  • To develop induction programs showing green citizenship behavior of current employees.

Training

  • To impart right knowledge and skills about greening (the four green roles) to each employee through a training program exclusively designed for greening.

  • To do training needs analyses to identify green training needs of employees.

Performance evaluation

  • To evaluate employee‟s job performance according to

green-related criteria.

  • To include a separate component for progress on greening in the performance feedback interview.

Rewards management

  • To give financial incentives to employees for their good green performance of job.

  • To give non-financial rewards such as praises and recognitions to employees for their greening.

Discipline management

  • To formulate and publish rules of conduct relating to greening.

  • To develop a progressive disciplinary system to punish employees who violate the rules of green conduct.

Source: International Business Research Vol. 7, No. 8; 2014.

4.5 Green HRM practices at Citi

Citibank, N.A. is very much conscious bout keeping its activities in the level that is very much eco-friendly and that do no harm to the environment. They are adopting Green policies regardless of departments across different countries it is operating. Among various initiatives to go green movement, the most important one that Citibank is adopting is to be much more technology orientation. In case of recruiting employees, they are doing every steps through on- line from job analysis to vacancy fulfillment, Citibank is adopting both intranet and extranet that reduces the use of paper a lot.

But sometimes it is very difficult to do some tasks without paper-pencil, as it a banking institution. Several different trainings are arranged by Citibank from time to time in order to orient the employees to reduce paper work and encourage them to be Green-minded. In Citi culture health is considered as an important issue and to keep a sound and fit health various poster work, health cautions are also provided from time to time. In Citi, it‟s like growing as a family in a healthier way towards achieving its goals maintaining a continuous policy which is updated from time to time incorporating Green Human Resources Management.

Citi bank already follows the following policies in order to bring about a green environment for its betterment now and future.

Steps

Policies

Job Analysis

Citi includes environmental obligations of employees are a must in order to fulfill the vacancies.

Selection

Citi Bank tries to select those applicants who are environment conscious.

Induction

Citi has a rich culture to make the employees acquainted with the green movement followed by it.

Training

Citi Bank arranges periodical training in order to make employees more motivated to Green movement.

Performance

Citi always tries to evaluate the performance of employees in green

Evaluation

related criteria to encourage the employees to be more eco-friendly.

Rewards

Citi follows the policy that it gives extra incentives to the employees

Management

who contribute to the organization in a green way.

Discipline

Citi always tries to follow the rules and policies set by the Government

Management

of host country towards greening the environment.

CHAPTER: 5 FINDINGS AND ANALYSIS

Summary of Findings

By condensing the responses of all the respondents, I have derived to the conclusion that, Green Human Resources Management (GHRM) policies, being not so widely accepted term in our country, are getting popularized day by day. Most of the dynamic organizations are now well aware of it. Organizations are now adopting Green HRM policies soon after they realized its benefits. Most of the employees are motivated to make a shift from traditional paper-based policies to Go-green policies. Organizations motivate their employees to take initiative to Greening, in order to leave a safe, happy and Green environment to the generations to come.

As I have conducted my Survey based on Citibank, N.A. I have seen a lot more initiatives taken by the HR towards go green policies. The employees are very much aware of Green HRM. Most of the employees I contacted there provided me with information congenial to Green HRM policies. As a Global organization, Citibank, N. A global has been adopting this Go-green policies in most of the countries it is operating. In Bangladesh, there is no exception at all.

According to my survey, about 70% employees are aware of Green HRM, they are not only aware of it, rather they are already implementing Green HRM policies in their organization- Citibank, N.A. the other 30% employees who are not playing any proactive role towards green HRM, they are not barrier to the implementation to Green HRM policies. It will take some more time to change the attitude of people towards green HRM policies. We are eagerly waiting for those days, when every organization will show proactive attitude towards Green HRM.

Analysis

Sample size: 30 employees .

Q1. Do you know about green HRM ?

I.

Yes

 

II.

No

III.

(Not sure) May be heard from someone

 

25

25
25
   

20

15

10

Series1

5

0

 

Yes

No

Heard from

 

someone

Data Interpretation: 24 respondents knew about GREEN HRM. Only 2 were not aware. This shows that people are aware about the term but are not aware about its practical application.

Q2. To what extent green HR policies can improve environment and make name for organization?

I.

Great

II.

Average

III.

Low

IV.

No impact

 

20

20
20
   

15

10

Series1

5

0

 

Great

Average

Low

No Impact

Data Interpretation: Most of the respondents believe that, Green HR policies can improve environment and make name for the organization, and very few think otherwise. So Green HR policies are welcomed by most of the employees at Citibank, N.A.

Q3. Role of HR in environment management

I.

High

II.

Medium

III.

Low

 

20

20
   

15

10

10 Series1

Series1

5

 

0

 

High

Medium

Low

Data Interpretation: HR policies are having a big role if organization wants to make the GREEN theme hit. 5 respondents feel that HR policies are having no role at all as there are other things which one go for rather HR policies as it is difficult task to implement these policies successfully at every level.

Q4. Best practice for going green can be

 

I.

Eliminating excess use of paper

II.

Computerized training.

III.

Vehicle sharing

IV.

Any other

15 10 5 Series1 0
15
10
5
Series1
0

Data Interpretation: Most of the respondents are concerned with the use of paper at offices and at the same time thinks that this problem could be reduced to a greater extent by implementing Green movement in offices. And a major portion thinks about other issues which would also contribute a lot to Green HRM movement.

Q5. How you are contributing to the place you work or spend maximum time?

I.

Recycle, reduce, reuse

 

II.

Motivating others to participate

III.

Doing basics like switching lights and monitors off when not required.

IV.

Don’t know

 

25

25
 

20

15

10

10 Series1

Series1

5

 

0

 

Recycle,

Motivating

Doing

Don't know

reduce,

others to

basics

reuse

participate

Data Interpretation: Most of the employees I questioned on this issue contribute to the reduction of paper use and Green movement through recycle, reduce, and reuse. Some of them are also motivating others to contribute to this movement directly or indirectly.

Q6. Why Green HRM?

 

I.

Trend now a days

II.

Need of hour

III.

Necessity forever

5 0 25 20 15 10 Trend now a days Need of hour Necessity forever
5
0
25
20
15
10
Trend now a
days
Need of hour
Necessity
forever

Series1

Data Interpretation: Green HRM is not something for very transitional purpose, rather it is the most important issue for not only the time being but also for future. To build a world of happy, affluent, and green the importance of Green HRM is very crucial. That‟s why most of the respondents replied that the importance of Green HRM is forever.

Q7. How many Bangladeshi organizations are promoting Green HRM?

I.

Very Much

II.

Average

III.

Very Less

 

15

15
   

10

 
Series1

Series1

 

5

 

0

 

Very much

Average

Very less

Data Interpretation: This is a true scenario that, the number of the organizations following Green HRM policies is very low. But as the time passes, most of the organizations re coming towards this noble movement for their own betterment and for the betterment of the earth as well. Most of the respondents suggested that, it is important to let the organizations know about the benefits of Green HRM movement, and then they will be motivated to take initiative towards it.

Q8. At what level more improvement is needed to spread HR policies in the organization efficiently?

I.

At organization level

 

II.

At HR level

III.

At employee level

IV.

Every level

10 15 0 5
10
15
0
5

Series1

Data Interpretation: Although there are some levels of organizations who need to take the major initiative to Green movement but it can never be accomplished without the support and guidance from other departments as well.

CHAPTER: 6 CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

Conclusion

Green ideas and concepts are beginning to gather pace within the HR space, often complementing existing sustainability-based initiatives. Increasingly they are delivering tangible benefits to the business, rather than simply adding a gloss to brand and reputation. These new processes, policies, products and tools are actually helping to ensure compliance and improve productivity too. And with legislation now in place to effectively formalize the need for a new corporate approach to the environment, now's the time for HR to embrace the green agenda Here are several areas where companies can incorporate more environmentally conscious strategies like the use of internet or teleconferencing to cut down on business travel, putting employee manuals, policies or other company information. The companies can promote the reduction of paper usage and focus on storage of paperwork electronically, providing recycling trash bins for paper around the and for bottles and cans in the break area. The companies are focusing on telecommuting/work from home programs. Institute Ride/Share programs are also successful to introducing greening of business. Research has shown that employee involvement in green programs dramatically increases when organizations appoint one employee to lead the efforts. At most organizations, earth-friendly perks emerge from an overall effort to green the business. As companies begin recycling, upgrade to energy- efficient heating/air conditioning systems and seek production efficiencies that save energy or reduce carbon emissions, it's natural to consider green benefits. It is high Time to make environmental management an integral part of their way of doing business so HR professional can provide a constant calendar of activities.

Recommendations

Specifically the functional areas where HR can have a green approach and which can have a bearing on acquisition, development and retention of human capital could be the following.

A. The on boarding process

With the use of new and advanced technology, organizations need less paper in all aspects of

recruitment and selection process. Resumes are submitted online, company websites are used by candidates to search for jobs and resumes are invited online, which helps to substantially reduce waste created from printing and mailing resumes. This process is not only completely paperless,

but also makes one‟s career more accessible and easily shared with potential hirers.

  • B. Sourcing and Acquisition of Human Resources

To start with, HR Department can make Green/EM (Environmental Management) job descriptions for employees. As higher level executives have to take greater responsibility for

green initiatives, green goals should be included in managerial job descriptions. While developing the competency model for talent, an organization can include environmental consciousness as one of the core competencies required of employees.

  • C. Induction

Employee orientation programs should be designed in such a way as to facilitate the integration

of new employees into a culture of green consciousness. Induction programs should highlight an

organization‟s concern for green issues of employees like their health, safety and green working

conditions.

  • D. Performance management and appraisals

Performance management systems should be developed to include 'green' targets in the key performance areas (KPA). This can be translated into Green performance standards and Green behavior indicators which should serve as yardsticks in performance appraisal of employees at all levels. Green targets, goals and responsibilities should be established for managers and achievement of managers in accomplishing Green results should include in appraisals.

  • E. Learning and Development Training

Development and learning plans should include programs, workshops and sessions to enable employees to develop and acquire knowledge in environment management ,green skills and attitude. Job rotation in green assignments should become an essential part of career

development plans of talented green managers of the future. Training contents should be developed to increase employee competencies and knowledge in Environment.

  • F. Compensation and Reward management

Compensation and reward management should recognize contributions in green management. Compensation packages should be customized to reward green skills acquisition and achievements by employees. Monetary- based, nonmonetary based and recognition- based rewards can be used for green achievements of employees. Monetary-based rewards for contributions in environment management can be allocated in the forms of salary increase, cash incentives and bonuses while non-monetary rewards may include sabbaticals, special leave and gifts to employees and their family members. Recognition-based awards can highlight green contributions of employees through wide publicity and public praise and appreciation of green

efforts by CEO or top management executives.

APPENDICES AND BIBLIOGRAPHY

List of References

  • a. Prasad, Apeejay (2013), Green HRM - Partner in Sustainable Competitive Growth, Journal of Management Sciences And Technology 1 (1), Oct 2013.

  • b. Suhaimi, Sudin (2011), Strategic Green HRM: A proposed model that supports Corporate Environmental Citizenship, 2011 International Conference on Sociality and Economics Development, IPEDR vol.10 (2011) © (2011) IACSIT Press, Singapore.

  • c. H.H.D.N.P. Opatha & A. Anton Arunrajah (2014), Green Human Resources Management: Simplified General Reflections, International Business Research; Vol. 7, No. 8; 2014 ISSN 1913-9004 E-ISSN 1913-9012, Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.

  • d. H.H.D.N.P. Opatha & A. Anton Arunrajah, Dr. N.N.J Nawaratne (2015), Green Human Resource Management Practices: A Review, Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management, Vol.5, No.1, 2015.

  • e. Jacob Cherian & Jolly Jacob (2012), A Study of Green HR Practices and Its Effective Implementation in the Organization: A Review, International Journal of Business and Management; Vol. 7, No. 21; 2012 ISSN 1833-3850 E-ISSN 1833-8119, Published by Canadian Center of Science and Education.

APPENDIX A QUESTIONNAIRE

[The following questionnaire pertains to a project entitled “Green HRM Practices of Citi Bank, N. A.The intent of the study is to better understand the Green HRM practices at this particular bank.]

Part: A Introduction

Name

Age

Gender

Male

 

Female

Post

Contact No.

Part: B Questions set

[For the next several questions please select the option that best match with your opinion]

Q1. Do you know about green HRM ?

IV.

Yes

V.

No

VI.

(Not sure) May be heard from someone

Q2. To what extent HR policies can improve environment and make name for organization?

V.

Great

VI.

Average

VII.

Low

VIII.

No impact

Q3. Role of HR in environment management

IV.

High

V.

Medium

VI.

Low

Q4. Best practice for going green can be

V.

Eliminating excess use of paper

VI.

Computerized training.

VII.

Vehicle sharing

VIII.

Any other

Q5. How you are contributing to the place you work or spend maximum time?

V.

Recycle, reduce, reuse

VI.

Motivating others to participate

VII.

Doing basics like switching lights and monitors off when not required.

VIII.

Don’t know

Q6. Why Green HRM?

IV.

Trend now a days

V.

Need of hour

VI.

Necessity forever

Q7. How much Bangladeshi organizations are promoting Green HRM?

IV.

Very Much

V.

Average

VI.

Very Less

Q8. At what level more improvement is needed to spread HR policies in the organization efficiently?

V.

At organization level

VI.

At HR level

VII.

At employee level

VIII.

Every level

Thanks a lot

APPENDIX B

ABBREVIATIONS AND ELABORATIONS

GHRM: Green Human Resources Management.

HR: Human Resources (Department).

N. A. : National Association.

KPA: Key Performance Areas.

CIB: Corporate and Investment Banking.

O & T: Operations and Trade.

EM: Environmental Management.

CEO: Chief Executive officer.

ICG: Institutional Clients Group.

ATM: Automated Teller Machine.