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20 - Amino acids and their characteristics

Non- polar R group


Neutral (No charge at neutral pH)
Non-essential
glycine - gly

alanine - ala

Essential
phenylalanine - phe

proline - pro

tryptophan - trp

O
H2N

CH C

H2N

OH

CH C

C OH

OH

CH3

H2N

CH C

H2N

OH

CH C

H2N

CH2

CH2

OH

H2N

CH CH3

HN

Chiral C = 1
Aliphatic

CH C

Cyclic
Chiral C = 1
Aliphatic
-ve Ninhydrin test

Chiral C = 1
Aromatic

CH3

Chiral C = 1
Aromatic

leucine - leu

Chiral C = 1
Aliphatic

CH C

methionine - met
O

OH

HN

Chiral C = 0
Aliphatic

isoleucine - ile

valine - val

H2 N

OH

CH C

OH

CH CH3

CH CH3

CH2

CH2

CH3

CH3

Chiral C = 2
Aliphatic
isomer of leucine

H2N

CH C

OH

CH2
CH2
S
CH3

Chiral C = 1
Aliphatic
Isomer of isoleucine

Sulphurcontaining
Chiral C = 1

Polar R group
Neutral
No Charge at neutral pH
asparagine
serine - ser
- asn

CH C

OH

CH2
C

cysteine - cys

glutamine - gln

threonine - thr

NH2

Amidic
Chiral C = 1

H2N

CH C
CH2
OH

H2N

O
OH

H2N

CH C

OH

H2N

CH C

CH2

CH2

CH OH

SH

C O

CH3

Sulphur-contai
Chiral C = 1

Amidic
Chiral C = 1

Non-Essential

Composed by: Dr. Dildar Ali and Rizwan Chaudry (For MCAT)

histidine - his

lysine - lys

OH

CH C
CH2

OH
H2N

CH C

H2N
OH

CH2

Essential

Aromatic
Chiral C = 1

CH C
CH2
CH2
CH2

OH

Hydroxylic
Chiral C = 2

arginine - arg

Chiral C = 1

OH

H2N

CH C

OH

CH2
CH2
CH2
NH

CH2

NH2

NH2

Chiral C = 1

Acidic
Negative Charge at neutral pH
aspartic acid
glutamic acid
- asp
- glu

NH

NH2

Hydroxylic
Chiral C = 1

H2N

CH C OH
CH2

tyrosine - tyr
O

O
H2N

Basic
Positive Charge at neutral pH

NH

Chiral C = 1
Non-Essential

O
H2N

CH C OH
CH2
C O
OH

Chiral C = 1

O
H2N

CH C

OH

CH2
CH2
C

OH

Chiral C = 1

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