2016 IEEE Conference on Control Applications (CCA)
Part of 2016 IEEE MultiConference on Systems and Control
September 1922, 2016. Buenos Aires, Argentina
Adaptive QuasiSliding Mode Control Based on a Recursive Weighted
Least Square Estimator for a DC Motor
Juan D. Valladolid1 , Juan P. Ortiz1 , Member, IEEE and Luis I. Minchala, Member, IEEE
RWLSQSMC is the possibility to operate the dc motor in
nonlinear zones of its dynamics, with good results.
This paper is organized as follows: Section II presents the
model of the dc motor. Section III presents the algorithm of
the RWLS estimator. Section IV presents the methodology
of design of the QSMC. Section V presents the details on the
implementation and results of the RWLSQSMC. Section VI
presents the conclusions.
Abstract This paper presents the methodology of design of
a discretetime adaptive quasisliding mode controller (QSMC)
based on a recursive weighted least square (RWLS) estimator
for a dc motor. The proposed control scheme allows handling
the classic problem of a QSMCs, which is the steadystate error
due to the use of a saturation function instead of a switching
function in the sliding mode control (SMC) algorithm. The use
of linear and nonlinear signal references helps to show the
closedloop performance of the control system and its tracking
capabilities. Experimental results show a better performance of
the RWLSQSMC algorithm applied on the speed control of a
dc motor than a classic SMC.
II. DC MOTOR MODEL
A timevariant ARX model is used to represent the motor
dynamics by using the statespace approach:
I. INTRODUCTION
SMC is a powerful controller that offers good performances in systems, linear and nonlinear, with uncertainties
in their models. Many researches of SMC applied to the
energy field have been reported in literature [1][4] . Additional applications of SMC for unmanned aerial vehicles are
reported in [5], [6]. Further studies of SMC applied to an
engine cooling system [7], congestion control in communication networks [8], and the regulation of an electrohydraulic
system [9] are also analyzed.
The implementation of SMC seems limited, sometimes,
for the theoretical requirement of a switching control signal.
The signal discontinuity due to such switching requirement
causes the chattering phenomenon. This issue has been
studied, and a solution where a saturation function is used
instead of the switching function is proposed under the name
of QSMC [10][12]. Although, the use of the saturation
function typically causes steadystate error.
Diminishing the steadystate error caused by the QSMC
is typically done by the introduction of an integral term in
the sliding surface [13][15]. This paper proposes a discrete
QSMC based on a RWLS estimator. The RWLS estimator
algorithm [16][18] allows the reduction of the steady state
error by adapting the parameters of an autoregressive model
with exogenous input (ARX) of the system to be controlled.
The proposed controller (RWLSQSMC) is tested in the
speed regulation of a dc motor. The results show a good
performance of the system in the regulation and tracking of
linear and nonlinear references. One of the strengths of the
x (k + 1) = A (k) x (k) + B (k) u (k)
y (k) = C (k) x (k)
(1)
where x (k) <n is the state vector, y (k) <m is the
output vector, u (k) <r is the input vector, A (k) <nn
is the state matrix, B (k) <nr is the input matrix and
C (k) <mn is the output matrix.
Without loss of generality, the dc motor is represented by
a second order model where n = 2, m = 1 and r = 1,
which was adjusted from data measured from the system by
applying a pseudorandom binary signal.
III. RECURSIVE WEIGHTED LEAST SQUARE
ESTIMATOR
The ARX model to be used by the RWLS estimator is:
yk = a1 yk1 + a2 yk2 + b0 uk1 + b1 uk2
(2)
where y(k) is the system output, and u(k) is the control
signal. The time delay of the system is one sample, d = 1;
therefore b0 = 0.
The RWLS algorithm to be used in this work is presented
in [18][19], and summarized here as follows:
1) Select initial values of the weighting factor (a), the
forgetting factor (), and the number of samples (N )
2) Obtain the covariance matrix,
1
QN = TN WN N
where
This work was supported by the Transportation Engineering Research
Group (GIIT) of the Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Cuenca, Ecuador.
1 The
authors are with the Department of Automative
Engineering, Universidad Politecnica Salesiana, Cuenca, Ecuador
WN
jvalladolid@ups.edu.ec; jortizg@ups.edu.ec
Luis I. Minchala is with the Department of Electrical, Electronic and
Telecommunications Engineering, Universidad de Cuenca, Cuenca, Ecuador
ismael.minchala@ucuenca.edu.ec
9781509007547/16/$31.00 2016 IEEE
886
a N nm
0
..
.
0
0
0
a N (nm+1)
..
.
...
...
..
.
0
0
..
.
0
0
...
...
a
0
0
0
..
.
0
a
B. Chattering reduction
y2
y3
..
=
.
yN 2
yN 1
y1
y2
..
.
u0
u1
..
.
yN 3
yN nm
uN (nm+1)
uN nm
Some methods have been proposed to mitigate the chattering effects in the SMC. As stated previously, the switching
function (sgn (s)) is to be replaced by the saturation function
in Eq. (9) [12]:
1 for s <
1
s for s
(9)
sat (s) =
1
for s >
3) Compute the estimator values by the use of weighted
least squares (WLS) for the first N samples,
N = QN N WN YN
This modification makes
the control
variable to get values
in the continuous range p p . Fig. 1 shows the behavior of the saturation function.
(3)
4) Obtain new values of uk and yk
T
5)
k =
yk1 ykna uk1d uknbd
6) c = a1 + Tk Qk1
k i
h
1
7) k = c + Qk1 k
8) Update the estimator values
i
h
(4)
k = k1 + k yk Tk k1
1

1
Fig. 1. Function sat (s)
k =
a1
9) Update the matrix Qk =
10) k = k + 1
11) Go to step 4
a2
h
Qk1
b1
T
k Tk Qk1
C. Adaptation Criterion
Fig. 2 shows the block diagram of the control system. The
adaptation law guarantees the convergence of the output of
the system, y(k), to the desired value, yd (k). The canonical
form of the state matrix and input matrix, are:
0
0
1
, B (k) =
(10)
A (k) =
1
a2 a1
IV. ADAPTIVE QUASISLIDING MODE
CONTROLLER DESIGN
A. QuasiSliding Mode Controller
Firstly, the error vector has to be defined:
yd (k) y (k)
x
(k) =
y d (k) y (k)
The input matrix B(k) = B is a constant matrix, while the
state matrix A is updated online by the recursive estimation
of the parameters a1 and a2 . Therefore, the control signal
of the QSMC adapts to model changes and assures error
convergence to zero.
Fig. 3 shows the adaptation criterion algorithm. The parameters of the system are updated by the RWLS only if the
system experiments a variation in its parameters (a1 and a2 )
of more that 2% from the previous estimation. This strategy
optimizes the processing time in the microcontroller, and
liberates resources to assure a constant sampling time in the
control loop.
The adaptive control law for the RWLSQSMC can be
obtained from Eqs. (8)  (10), as follows:
1 T
(k)
u (k) = cT B
c
A (k) cT + qT cT x
+T sat cT x
(k)
(11)
(5)
The sliding surface is defined as:
s (k) = cT x
(k)
(6)
where c <n is a constant vector arbitrarily chosen to keep
the system stable.
The reachability condition must be satisfied [11]:
s (k + 1) s (k) = qT s (k) T sgn (s (k))
(7)
where T > 0 is the sampling time, s (k) = cT x
(k) = 0 is
the sliding plane, q and are controller parameters to satisfy
the conditions 1 qT > 0, > 0 and q > 0.
The control law that satisfies the conditions of Eq. (7) is
defined as [11]:
1 T
(k)
u (k) = cT B
c A
cT + qT cT x
+T sgn cT x
(k)
D. Controller Stability Analysis
The system model and the control law shown in Eq. (1)
and Eq. (8) respectively. The stability analysis is performed
at the equilibrium point
0
e=
x
(12)
0
(8)
887
x(k+1)=A(k)x(k)+B(k)u(k)
y(k)=C(k)x(k)
Adaptation
Criterion
QSMC
yd (k)
Update
model
a 1 a 2 b1
RWLS
System
Identification
y(k)
e(k)
u(k)
Plant
Fig. 4. The setup of experiment
Fig. 2. Blocks diagram
V. EXPERIMENTAL IMPLEMENTATION AND
RESULTS ANALYSIS
POWER ON
Inicialize estimation
parameters ( =0.99, a=1)
A. Experimental setup
An Arduino DUE board and MATLAB perform the data
acquisition of the motor speed. The sampling time is set
at 20ms. Fig. 4 shows the experimental setup of the control system. The communication setup between the humanmachine interface (HMI) developed in a computer, and
the real time control system is developed through a serial
communication with a speed of 115200 baud. The PWM
signal for controlling the speed of the dc motor is generated
with a frequency of 500 Hz.
The parameters configured for the RWLSQSMC, Eq.
(11), are the following:
T = 20ms, = 50, q = 0.8
and cT = 1 0 . The saturation function of Eq. (9) varies
depending on the parameter 10 < < 60, which depends
on the reference signal and the calculation performed by the
adaptation criterion.
Compute the WLS
algorithm for the
first 10 samples
Run RLWS to
calculate new model
QSMC
Adjust controller
parameters
A(k) and B(k)
New samples
y(k) and u(k)
Adaptation
Criterion
Variation 2% of the
Previous model vs.
Current model
NO
YES
B. Results analysis
To compare the advantages of the proposed controller, the
experiments performed in the dc motor considered an SMC
algorithm and the RWLSQSMC algorithm. Fig 5 shows
the system response by using these two algorithms, and
the same testing conditions in both of them to compare
their performance. Fig. 5a shows a considerably amount of
chattering, since a standard SMC where used. Fig. 5b shows
the result of implementing an SMC with RWLS, where
clearly the chattering effect is still present. Fig. 5c shows a
significant improvement by the implementation of the QSMC
algorithm, although there is steady state error. Fig. 5d shows
the result of the RWLSQSMC; the first ten seconds show
the convergence of the RWLS, and afterwards the system
does not present steadystate error, as it was proposed in the
methodology of design of the controller.
Fig. 6 shows a comparison of the QSMC and the RWLSQSMC under a reference change (tracking). After a convergence time (approximately ten seconds), the RWLSQSMC
eliminates the steadystate error of the system, compared
with the QSMC that presents a slight steadystate error.
Fig. 7 shows the results of the system when tracking linear
Update Model
Fig. 3. Flowchart of the adaptation criterion
By considering the Lyapunov candidate function
T
V (x) = x (k) Px (k)
T
T
V (x) = x (k + 1) Px (k) + x (k) Px (k + 1)
(13)
where P is a symmetric positive definite matrix.
Let R be the set of point for which
V (x) = 0
(14)
and M be the largest invariant set in R. This particular
case,
T
e = 0 0
.
M is composed by the equilibrium point x
Therefore, considering the invariant set theorem [20] attributed to la Salle, we can conclude that the closedloop
control system is stable.
Additionally, by noting that V (x) as ke
xk ,
the equilibrium point is globally asymptotically stable.
888
250
250
200
150
300
Speed [rps]
300
Speed [rps]
200
10
20
Output
Reference
100
0
30
10
20
Time [s]
(a)
(b)
300
300
250
250
200
150
100
0
20
30
100
0
10
20
Time [s]
(c)
(d)
15
20
25
QSMC
RWLSQSMC
10
15
Time [s]
20
30
25
30
Fig. 7. Tracking nonlinear and linear path respectively
Output
Reference
Time [s]
10
Reference
200
150
10
300
200
Output
Reference
100
0
30
Speed [rps]
Time [s]
Speed [rps]
Speed [rps]
100
0
200
100
0
150
Output
Reference
30
300
u(k) [PWM]
Speed [rps]
300
Fig. 5. Closeloop step response: (a) SMC with function sgn(s), (b) SMC
with RWLS and function sgn(s), (c) QSMC with function sat (s), (d)
QSMC with RWLS and function sat (s)
200
100
0
0
and nonlinear references (trajectories), where it is possible
to see the good performance of the proposed algorithm in
reducing the steadystate error while adapting its response
to the dynamic changes through the RWLS estimator. The
control effort is also smaller in the proposed controller over
the QSMC, as it shown in Fig. 8. Fig. 9 shows the errors
of the trajectory tracking from Fig. 7, where it is possible
to note the enhanced performance of the RWLSQSMC over
the QSMC.
10
15
20
QSMC
RWLSQSMC
25
30
10
25
30
25
30
25
30
u(k) [PWM]
300
200
100
0
0
15
Time [s]
20
Fig. 8. Control signal u(k) for Fig. 7
300
e(k) [rps]
60
40
20
0
20
0
200
10
QSMC
15
20
RWLSQSMC
60
150
e(k) [rps]
Speed [rps]
250
Reference
QSMC
RWLSQSMC
100
0
10
15
Time [s]
20
25
30
Fig. 6. Step response
40
20
0
20
0
10
15
Time [s]
20
Fig. 9. Error signal e(k) for Fig. 7
889
VI. CONCLUSIONS
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This paper shows the methodology of design and the
implementation results of an RWSLQSMC to diminish the
steadystate error that is typically present in QSMC designs.
The experimental results show good performance in the
regulation of the speed of a dc motor compared with other
SMC techniques. A trajectory tracking is also analyzed,
which offered also better results than a nonadaptive QSMC,
in both the steadystate error and the control effort. The
RWSLQSMC shows an adaptation time, which depends on
the design of the RWSL estimator, and particularly on the
forgetting factor (), and the number of samples (N ).
VII. ACKNOWLEDGMENTS
The authors are thankful to the Transportation Engineering
Research Group (GIIT) of the Universidad Politecnica Salesiana and Department of Electrical, Electronic and Telecommunications Engineering of the Universidad de Cuenca for
the support provided during this research.
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