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7 Thermo of flow process

7 Thermodynamic of flow processes

Equation of Balance

Control surface

X T

dX cv
dt
dt
X G

(system) X
(surroundings)
X
T
T

= net
X
T

instantaneous rate of
transport of X into
control volume
At control surface

(7.1)

= net instantaneous rate of generation of X within control volume

X
G

dX cv
= instantaneous time rate of change of X within control
dt
Balance statement:

Net rateof Net rateof Time rateof

transport of X generation of X changeof X

inntocontrol within control within control

volume volume volume
dX
X T X G cv
dt

(7.2)

(balance equation dalam bentuk rate)

Balance equation dalam bentuk diferensial:
dX T dX G dX cv

(7.3)

where

96

dX T X T dt
dX X dt
G

(7.4a )
(7.4b)

dX
dX cv cv dt
dt

(7.4c)

Balance equation dalam bentuk integral dari t1 ke t2:

X T X G X cv

where

(7.5)

t
XT 2 X
T dt
t1

(7.6a)

t
XG 2 X
G dt
t1

(7.6b)

t X
X CV 2 CV dt X CV ( t 2 ) X CV ( t1 )
t1 dt

(7.6c)

Pada (7.5) LHS mempunyai karakter yang berbeda dengan RHS:

LHS merefleksikan sebab (causes) sedangkan RHS merefleksikan akibat (effects).
dX cv
X T dan X G merupakan laju proses (process rate) sedangkan
dt

akumulasi (accumulation rate).

X T dan X G jika diintegrasikan dalam kurun waktu tertentu menghasilkan jumlah X

dX cv
jika diintegrasikan dalam kurun waktu tertentu
dt
menghasilkan perubahan jumlah X di dalam control volume.
(amount of X) sedangkan

Law of Conservation:
Mass is conserved; energy is conserved.
When the conservation principle applies to quantity X then the generation term X G is zero.
Also no generation of X can occur in the surrounding.
dX
Conservation law X G total 0
dt

(7.7)

97

Mass Balance

u2

Control
volume

V, U, H

u1

Recall

dX
X T X G cv
dt

Case: mass balance

m T m G

Ws

(7.2)

dm cv
dt
=> m T

G =0
Mass is conserved m

dm CV
dt

dm CV
m fs 0
dt

(7.8)

fs= flowing stream; = selisih antara titik masuk dan keluar sistem

uA
m

u=velocity

A=cross section

dm CV
uA fs 0
dt

(7.9)

(Continuity Equation)
Case: Steady State: => accumulation = 0
Case: steady state, 1 inlet, 1 outlet:

uA fs 0

m in m out

const 2 u 2 A 2 1u1A1
m

Volum specific V=1/

(7.10)

u A
u A
uA
2 2 1 1
m
V2
V1
V

2 u 2 A 2 1u1A1 0

(7.11)

98

7 Thermo of flow process

Energy Balance
X T 3

X T 2

Control
volume

dX cv
dt
dt

X T 4

X T 1

Transport term = energi = (heat + shaft work + pressure work + total energy)

u2 P2,V2, U2, H2

Control
volume
d ( mU )CV
dt

u1

Ws

PV m
fs U u 2 zg m

X T Q W
2
fs

Recall H=U + PV

H u 2 zg m

X T Q W

2
fs

d (mU) CV

dt

`(7.12)

1 2

H u zg m
QW
2

fs

d (mU) CV
W

) fs Q
(Hm
dt

(7.13)
(7.14)

99

Recall

d (mU) CV

dt

1 2

H u zg m
QW
2

fs

H u 2 zg m
Q Ws
2
fs

H u 2 zg m
Q
s
2

(7.15)
(7.16)

W
1

Q
H u 2 zg s Q Ws

2
m

m
H

u 2
gz Q Ws
2

(7.17)

100

7 Thermo of flow process

Example 7.2
Vol 1.5 m3, m=500 kg

70oC, m=750 kg
H

Hv
Water
100oC, 101,33 kPa

Agar P &T tidak berubah oleh

penambahan air dingin tentukan Q

Hl

Q
d (mU) CV

H u 2 zg m
QW
dt
2

fs

Recall energy balance:

u2 = z = 0 and W=0
out 0 ,
m

in m
let m
',

d(mU) CV
0
H) out (m
H)in Q
(m
dt

Hin=H

Energy balance :

d(mU) tan k
' 0
H' m
dt

Mass balance:

'
m

Combination of A and B:

dm tan k
dt

d (mU) tan k
dm
H' tan k Q
dt
dt

Multiplication by dt:

( mU) tan k H ' m tan k Q

Recall definition of U:

H = U + PV U = H - PV

(mU) tan k (mH) tan k (PmV) tan k

mV = volume tank = konstan

(PmV) tan k 0

(7.13)

Q (mH) tan k H' m tan k

( m 2 H 2 m1H1 ) tan k H' m tan k

D
E

101

mtank = 750 kg (air yang masuk tank)

From steam table:
H ' 293.0 kJ kg 1 ; saturated liquid at 70 o C

(inside tank)

H v 2,676.0 kJ kg 1 ; saturated vapor at 100 o C

(inside tank)

Initial condition:
Vol vapor = (vol tank vol of 500 kg liquid water).
Vol liq water = (mass x specific volume of water)
Specific vol of liquid water at 100 oC = 0.001044 m3/kg
vol vapor

v
Mass of vapor = m1 specific vol of vapor

Specific vol of water vapor at 100 oC = 1,673 m3/kg

v 1.5 ( 500 )( 0.001044 ) 0.5846 kg
m1
1.673

Total enthalpy in the tank:

l Hl m vH v
( m1H1 ) tan k m1
1
1 1

211,114 kJ

At the end of the process (state 2), from mass balance:

m total, state 2 = m2= (m vapor + m liquid)2

v ml
m2
2

= (m vapor + m liquid)1 + m added water

= (500 + 0.5846) + 750 =1250.5846 kg
1250.5846 =

v ml
m2
2

102

7 Thermo of flow process

Also:
Total volume = (vol vapor + vol liquid water)state 2
= (specific vol vapor x mass vapor)2+ (specific vol vapor x mass vapor)2
v 0.001044 m l
1.5 1.673 m 2
2

Recall

1250.5846 =

v ml
m2
2

2 equation with 2 unknowns:

m l2 1,250.4683 kg
v 0.116 kg
m2

Total enthalpy inside the tank at state 2:

vH v
( m 2 H 2 ) tan k m l2 H l2 m 2
2

(m 2 H 2 ) tan k

l
H l2 H1

and

v Hv
H2
1

vH v
m l2 H l1 m 2
1

Recall eq E,

103

7 Thermo of flow process

Example 7.3
water 10 oC, 0,2 kg/s
T1= 60 oC
Electric
heater

190 kg

Find elapse time

Let H1 = enthalpi of water entering the tank at T=T1

H = enthalpi of water leaving the tank at, T=T
m cv

Energy balance:

dU
W

(H H1 ) Q
m
dt

m cv

dU
( H H1 ) 0
m
dt

Water = incompressible fluid Cv=Cp=C

dU
dT
C
dt
dt

Substitute B into A:

m cv C

T1 = constant dt
Plug in numbers:

and

(A)
dU = CdT

H H1 C(T T1 )

dT
C(T T1) 0
m
dt

m cv d (T T1)

(T T1 )
m
t

& dH = CdT

dt

(B)
m cv dT
T T1
m

m cv T T1

ln

m
To T1

(C)

190kg
35 10
ln
658.5 s
0.2kg / s 60 10

104

Entropy Balance

Q
Tcs

( Sm )

Control
volume

dScv
dt

( Sm )

Q
Tcs

dS
S T S G cv
dt

Q
j

Transport by heat transfer : T

cs, j
j
) fs
Transport by flowing stream: ( Sm

S
T

Transport term:

Q
j

j Tcs, j

) fs
(Sm

Q
j

d (mS) cv
) fs S
(Sm
G
dt
j Tcs, j

(7.18)

Tcs sulit ditentukan => Gunakan T lingkungan (T)

Mathematical identity:

Q
j

j Tcs, j

Q
j

j T, j

Q
j

j T, j

Q
j

j Tcs, j

Q
j

j T, j

j T, j

T, j Tcs, j

Q
j
j

T, jTcs, j

T, j Tcs, j

Q
j
j

d (mS) cv
(Sm
) fs S
G

T, jTcs, j
dt

Q
j

S
' d ( mS) cv
) fs S
(Sm
G
G
T
dt
j , j

Q
j

T
Tcs, j
, j

dimana S 'G Q
j

T T
j

, j cs, j

irreversibility)
S
' S
'
S
G
G
G , total

Q
j

d ( mS) cv

) fs S
(Sm
G , total
dt
j T, j

(7.19)

105

Q
j

j T, j

) fs
(Sm

Q
j

j T, j

) fs
(Sm

Q
j

T
j

Limiting case:

Q
j

j T, j

d (mS) cv

S
G , total
dt

, j

d ( mS) cv
0
dt

) fs
(Sm

) fs
(Sm

d ( mS) cv
dt

d (mS) cv
dt

Q
j

d (mS) cv

) fs S
(Sm
0
G , total
dt
j T, j

Q
j

) fs
(Sm
T
j

, j

Qj

j T, j

S
G , total

(7.20)

SG , total

(7.21)

106

7 Thermo of flow process

Example 7.4
T=200oC
Q=?
Uap air jenuh 100 oC,
1 kg/menit

Air 0oC
ALAT

H1=2676 kJ/kg
S1=7,3554 kJ/kg.K

H2=0; S2=0,0
Q=676 kJ/menit
T=0oC

Q' Q H

(A)

Q' Q

SG , total
T' T

Max heat rejection terjadi jika reversible => SG,total=0

Q' Q

S
T ' T
Q'

H H 2 H1 2676 kJ kg 1

Q'

(B)

T'
( H T S) (C)
T 'T
S S 2 S1 7 ,3554 kJ kg 1 K 1

473,15
( 2676 273,15 7 ,3554 ) 1577 ,7 kJ kg 1
200

107

7 Thermo of flow process

Example 7.5

n=3 mol/s
T=400K

.n =1 mol/s

.n =2 mol/s
B

CV

TA=600K

TB=450K
Tsurrounding= 300K

Q
Find heat transfer rate and entropy generation rate
Solution:

H u 2 zg m
Q Ws
2
fs

(7.15)

Replace mass rate by mole rate:

n H
Q
out n H in
n H (n A H A n B H B )

(A)

n H n A H A n B H B

Note that: n H n A H n B H

substitute into A

n H n H n H n H )
Q
A
B
A A
B B
B (H H B )
n A ( H H A ) n
n A C P (T TA ) n B C P (T TB )
1

7
7
8.314 ( 400 600) 2 8.314 (400 450)
2
2

8,729.7 J s 1

Entropy balance:

) fs
(Sm

Q
j

j T, j

S
G , total

Q
S G, total n S n A S A n BS B
T

Note that: n S n AS n BS

S G , total n A C P ln

(B)

substitute into B and rearrange

Q
S G , total n A (S SA ) n B (S SB )
T

Recall dS=Q/T=CpdT/T

(7.20)

S=CplnT2/T1

(C)
substitute into C

T
T
Q
n BC P ln

TA
TB T

108

400
400 8,729.7
7

1 8.314 ln
2 8.314 ln

600
450
300
2

109

Duct Flow of Compressible Fluids

2
u1

u2

horizontal, tanpa shaft work
2

(7.17)

=> H u 0
2

dH u du

Dalam bentuk diferensial:

(7.22)

u A
uA
uA
2 2 1 1
Recall continuity equation m
V2
V1
V

(7.11)

d (u A / V) 0

0
Karena laju massa konstan dm

dV du dA

0
V
u
A
dH T dS V dP

Recall fundamental property relation:

(7.23)
(6.8)

Consider V=V(S,P)
V

dV S

V
dP
P S

dS

V
V T

S P T P S P

1st, tulis mathematical identity:

1 V

Recall V T

C
T
P
T
S P

dan

VT

S C

P
P

Dari ilmu fisika, kecepatan suara c dalam suatu fluida dinyatakan sebagai:
P

V S

c 2 V 2

=>

V2
V

2
P S
c

110

7 Thermo of flow process

Recall

V
V
dS
dP
S P
P S

dV

VT

Substititusi S C dan

V
V2
2
P S
c

diperoleh

kemudian bagi dengan V

dV T
V

dS
dP
V
CP
c2

(7.24)

Pers. (7.22), (7.23), (6.8) dan (7.24) adalah 4 ekspresi yang menghubungkan 6 diferensial
dH, du, dV, dA, dS dan dP. Kita dapat memperlakukan dS dan dA sebagai independent
variable dan mengembangkan persamaan-persamaan yang menyatakan hubungan 4 variabel
lainnya sebagai fungsi dari dS dan dA.
Recall

dH T dS V dP

dan dH u du , combine:
T dS V dP u du

Bagi dengan u2:

Substitusi pers tersebut dan (7.24) ke (7.23):

(7.25)
du
1

T dS V dP
u
u2

dV du dA

0 kemudian disusun ulang

V
u
A

diperoleh:

1 u

2
2

VdP 1 u TdS u dA 0

C P
A

(7.26)

Pers (7.25): T dS V dP u du dan (7.26) digabung untuk menghilangkan VdP:

u 2

M2
CP

u du

u2

dA 0
1 M2 A

1 M2

T dS

(7.27)

Relates du to dS and dA. Bila gabung dengan (7.22) dH= - udu, pers (7.27) relates dH
dengan dS dan dA. Bila digabung dengan (7.23)

dV du dA

0
V
u
A

maka (7.27)

111

7 Thermo of flow process

Pers diferensial diatas menyatakan perubahan pada fluida saat fluida mengalir sepanjang
suatu jarak deferential dx. Jika pers (7.26) dan (7.27) dinyatakan dalam per satuan jarak
maka pers tersebut masing-masing dibagi dengan dx diperoleh:

u 2
dP
T 1

dx
CP

V 1 M2

dS u 2 dA

0
dx
A dx

(7.28)

dan
u

u 2

M2
CP

du
T
dx

dS
1

dx 1 M 2

1 M2

u 2 dA

0
A dx

(7.29)

Menurut Hk II, irreversibility karena friksi fluida mengakibatkan entropi meningkat sejalan
dengan arah aliran, dengan kasus pembatas laju peningkatan sama dengan nol bila aliran
mendekati reversibility. Statement tersebut dapat dituliskan:
dS
0
dx

Pipe Flow

2
1 u

CP
dP
T

dx
V 1 M2

dS
dx

u 2

M2
CP

du
T
dx

dP
0
dx

dS
dx

1 M2

du
0
dx

and
Nozzles

dP
u2
1 dA

dx VA 1 M 2 dx

du
u
1

dx
A 1 M2

dA

dx

u du V dP
P2
2
u2
2 u1 2 P1 V dP

1 /
P
2 P1 V1

1 2
1
P1

(7.30)

V S

c2 V 2

112

7 Thermo of flow process

P
P

V
V S
c 2 P2 V2
P2 2

P1 1

/ 1

(7.31)

Throttling Process
H 0
H 2 H1
H 2 H1 3,052.1 kJ kg 1

113

7 Thermo of flow process

Turbines (Expanders)
1
H

P1

2
2

WS

Turbine

(H)s

P2
S

m
H
W
S

(7.32)

WS H

(7.33)

WS (isentropic) H S

(7.34)

WS
WS (isentropic)

H
H S

(7.35)

Compressors

WS (isentropic)
WS

H S
H

T2
P2
S Cig
P ln T R ln P
S
1
1
P
T'2 T1 2
P1

H S

R / C' P S

(5.18)
(7.37)

Ws

(7.36)

Ws (isentropic)

(7.38)
(7.39)

114

7 Thermo of flow process

CP

T2 T1

C' P

CP

P
T'2 T1 2
P1

C' P

(T2 T1 )

H
CP

(7.40)
H

CP

R / CP

WS (isentropic) C P (T '2 T1 )
R / CP

P2

WS (isentropic) C P T1

1
P1

(7.41)

T2 T1

(7.42)

T ' 2 T1

R CP CV 1

CP
CP

WS (isentropic)

RT1
1

P2

P1

1 /

Pumps

dH V dP

(const S)

WS (isentropic) H S P 2 V dP
1
P

WS (isentropic) H S V ( P2 P1 )

dH C P dT V (1 T )dP
dS C P

dT
V dP
T

H C P T V (1 T ) P

T
S C P ln 2 V P
T1

(7.43)
(6.27)
(6.28)
(7.44)
(7.45)

115