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1.

Circle to land
(Circling Approach) Boeing-737.
, Circle to land.
Circle
to land (Circling Approach) Standard Operating Procedures,
Boeing-737
Circle to land (Circling Approach).
, :
ICAO PANS-OPS (doc. 8168), ATM (doc.4444);
FAA United States Standards for Teminal Instrument Proedures
(TERPS, FAA-H-8260.3B), Instrument Procedures Handbook (FAA-H-826-1A),
Instrument Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-15A);
Boeing Flight Crew Training Manual (FCTM 737), Flight
Crew Operation Manual (FCOM 737);
, Boeing-737 United
Airlines, RyanAir;
From takeoff to landing a look at criteria for the
design of instrument flight procedures, Olle Akerlind, Honeywell.
2. PANS OPS (8168, ICAO) vs. TERPS (FAA)
,
United States
Standards for Teminal Instrument Proedures TERPS (FAA-H-8260.3B).
PANS OPS TERPS ,
, ..
,

.
Cirle to land
PANS OPS TERPS.
ICAO, FAA,
, , .. ,
TERPS (FAA) .
, , ATC
Jeppesen.
3.

, ,
.
.


. [1]
, (VREF),
ICAO, FAA (USA).
ICAO
ICAO
Category

Range of
Speed at
Threshold

C
D

121/140
141/165

Range of
Speeds for
Initial
Approach
160/240
185/250

Range of
Speeds for
Final
Approach
115/160
130/185

Max Speed
for Visual
Maneuvering
(Circling)
180
205

Max Speeds for Missed


Approach
Intermediate

Final

160
185

240
265

FAA (USA)
FAA Category
C
D

Speed
121 knots or more but less than 141 knots
141 knots or more but less than 166 knots

FAA
(straight-in approaches)
, ,
,
.
Circle to land
.
ICAO
( .. Circle to land).
FAA (USA) Boieng-737
C straight-in approach; ICAO Boeing-737
, .. Circle to land.
,
Circle to land (TERPS, USA) ( ..
Non-Normal Conditions), ,
( Circle to land). ,
(
Circle to land
141 knots,
Circle to land, D). [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]
,
Circle to land (ICAO) .
Circle to land 180 knots,
TERPS 140 knots.

4. Circle to land (PANS OPS, TERPS) vs. Visual Approach


Visual
Approach. , Visual Approach
, 1 .
, Visual Approach
, , (IFR),
( ,
USA)
.
,

, ,
.
Visual Approach (charted visual
flight procedure CVFP, USA). ,
, : ;
;
,
Visual Approach. , (
) .
Visual Approach , Visual
Approach . [7], [8]
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
,
. [9]

,
, ,
..
Circle to land (Circle-to-land with
prescribed flight track). ( Visual Approach chart, CVFP)
.
CFIT (Controlled Flight
Into Terrain).
, Circle
to land , ICAO FAA
(USA) . [10]
5. Circle to land (Circling Approach) PANS OPS, ICAO
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
ICAO, ,
,
Circle to land (Circling Approach).

Circle to land (Circling Approach)


,
. [9] ( , , ?)
Visual Maneuvering (Circling)
.
,
.
Visual Maneuvering Area Circle to land (Circling Approach)
,
. (R) :
;
;
Aircraft Category
C
D

Max speed (knots, IAS)


180
205

, 25 knots, ;
20 3
, .

Aircraft Category
C
D

R (nm)
4,20
5,28

, Visual Maneuvering Area


,
,
, Annex 14, volume I instrument approach surfaces.
Circle to land (Circling
Approach) , .

Visual Maneuvering Area Circle to land (Circling Approach)

Visual Maneuvering Area


/ Obstacle Clearance
Altitude/Height (/) . OCA/H
Visual Maneuvering Area
Minimum Obstacle Clearance (MOC).
Aircraft Category
C
D

MOC (ft)
394
394

Lowest permissible OCH (ft)


591
689

OCA/H, , :

MOC ( + MOC),
lowest permissible OCH

, /
Minimum Descent Altitudes/Height MDA/H.
Circle to land (Circling Approach) ,
OCA/H. OCA/H,
.

Circle to land Missed Approach



(..
, )
Circle to land (Circling Approach) MDA/H.
Circle to land (Circling Approach),
,
,
. ,
,
.
, Missed Approach
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
,
.
Circle-to-land (Circling Approach) with prescribed flight track
, ,

Circle-to-land (Circling Approach)
,
, ,
, . , :
,
, ,
;

(
). Missed Approach
Circle-to-land (Circling Approach) with prescribed flight
track.
Circle-to-land (Circling Approach) with prescribed flight
track , (flight
track). .

Aircraft Category
(nm)

C
1,0

D
1,4

,
30 .
,
(, , PAPI, VASI/T, VASI ..)
(,
PAPI VASI/T, VASI).
.[10], [11], [12]
, Circle-to-land (Circling Approach)

. [13], [14], [15], [16]
6. Circle to land (Circling Approach) TERPS (USA)
Circle to land (Circling Approach),
TERPS (USA),
Circle to land (Circling Approach),
PANS OPS (ICAO).
:
25;
Visual Maneuvering Area;
Aircraft Category
C
D

Radius (R), nm
1,7
2,3

Circle to land (Circling Approach) ,


Instrument Approach (Straight-in Approach),
Minimum Obstacle Clearance
(MOC) 300 feet;
Circle to land (Circling Approach), ,
,
, (
Visual Maneuvering Area ,
). [3], [4], [6], [11], [12]
Circle to
land (Circling Approach) TERPS (USA)
, PANS OPS (ICAO).
Instrument Approach Instrument Missed Approach.
,
.

7. Circle to land (Circling Approach) Both Engines



Circle to land (Circling Approach) .
Circle to land (Circling Approach) Both

Engines profile
.
, ,
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
PANS OPS (ICAO), TERPS (USA).
PANS OPS (ICAO). ,
TERPS (USA),
, [TERPS
only] .. Circle to land
(Circling Approach) TERPS (USA).
(Area of Responsibility)
Circle to land (Circling Approach) ,
(Area
of Responsibility): [17]
PF:
;
;
.
PM:
() Check-list;
;
PF;
,
.
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
:
PF:
( ..);
,
(special visual circling aids);
.
PM:
;
;
.
Circle to land (Circling Approach) Briefing
Circle to land
:

,
,
( Airport Diagram,
10-9 Jeppesen);
,
(MDA/H, visibility),
Circle-to-land (TERPS);
(
Circle-to-land with prescribed flight track);
,
;
(track)
;
Missed Approach.

Circle to land (Circling Approach)


.
;
(VOR, VOR/DME, DME etc.); ,
PROG FIX CDU.
PROG:
(offset)
RW extend LEGS, INTC
LEG TO; PROG offset
XTK ERROR (crosstrack distance).
FIX:
/
;
radial, distance circle.


( Airport Diagram, 10-9 Jeppesen).
FMCS
FMCS Accuracy Check (FMC Navigation
Check).[18]
Circle to land (Circling Approach) MDA/H
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
(ATC) , Instrument Approach
MDA/H Circling Approach.
:
Siberia 1885, cleared ILS/VOR/NDB approach RW18, circle-to-land RW36
Instrument ILS Approach RW18
( ) MDA/H,
Circling Approach RW36. ,

Instrument
Missed Approach Procedure, Instrument ILS Approach
RW18.
Circling Approach Instrument ILS(VOR/DME,
VOR etc.) Approach VOR/LOC VNAV (FMCS version 7.1 or
later) V/S. APP ,
MDA/H;
APP A/P.
Circle to land (Circling Approach) Autopilot
Autothrottle (A/P+A/T) Base Turn.
2 NM FAF(FAP) :
Instrument Approach using
VNAV (FMCS U7.1 or later) VNAV;
Gear Down, Flaps 15 + flaps maneuvering speed (
Base Turn) PANS OPS;
Gear Down, Flaps 30/40 + flaps maneuvering speed
(TERPS only).
1 NM FAF(FAP):
MCP
( step-down descent) MDA/H ( stepdown descent).
FAF(FAP):
FAF(FAP) V/S
VNAV PTH.
Circle to land (Circling Approach) BASE TURN
MDA(H):
MDA(H) ALT
ACQ MCP heading selector
45 (/) ;
MDA(H) ALT HOLD;
, (special
visual circling aids) ;
HDG SEL switch;
Go-Around Altitude (Height);
(track) 45
(track) ;
track (wings leveled
) ;
track 20 + ( 10
/ / 1 );
/
PROG CDU.
20 +
;

Circle to land (Circling Approach) ,


.
. offset
1,5 nm.
(Abeam Threshold):
;
(track) Base turn
, 100 ft AFE (Above
Field Elevation Height) 3 . : MDH = 600 ft.
20 . wind correction ( 10
/ / 1 );
, ,
, 45 Base
turn.
Base turn:
MCP heading selector
;
, Base turn
Flaps 30/40 + flaps maneuvering speed;
25;
[TERPS only]
A/P A/T, 500
ft/min, 30;
Landing Check-list;
(visual profile)
A/P A/T;
Go-Around Altitude (Height);
FD (recycle F/Ds)
Final turn:
Final turn
(Aim Point) .
,
Aim Point.
, ,
(
S- );

Circle to land (Circling Approach)


,
. /

.
Missed Approach
Circle to land (Circling Approach) MDA/H ,
, (special visual
circling aids) , PF.
Circle to land (Circling Approach),
Instrument Approach, ,
Missed Approach Instrument Approach,
( ).
,
, ,
Missed Approach Instrument Approach.

,

Missed Approach Procedure. (ATC).
, ,
/ Missed Approach

Procedure, , MAPt (Missed Approach Point)


, , Missed Approach;
Missed Approach

MOC (ICAO, USA). , Circle to land (Circling
Approach), .. ( ) MAPt.
, ,
Circle to land (Circling Approach) .

Go-Around
Gear Up, Flaps 15 (Flaps 1 One Engine) + flaps maneuvering speed
Missed Approach Instrument Approach. [6], [11], [12]
Circle
to land (Circling Approach).
Circle-to-land (Circling Approach) with prescribed flight track ,
,
, .
, Circle-to-land
(Circling Approach) with prescribed flight track
.
Circle-to-land
(Circling Approach) with prescribed flight track, ,
,
.

8. Circle to land (Circling Approach) One Engine Inoperative


Circle to land (Circling Approach)
, Circle to land (Circling Approach) Both
Engines. ,
.
Circle to land (Circling Approach) One Engine Inoperative
:
Circle to land (Circling Approach)
gear up, flaps 10, flaps 10 maneuvering speed (
gear up, flaps 5, flaps 5
maneuvering speed) FAF (FAP) Base
turn;
Base turn, Base turn
gear down, flaps 15, speed VREF15 + wind correction;
MDA/H
(visual profile);
One Engine Go-Around
Circle to land (Circling Approach). [19]
9.

Circle to land (Circling Approach). [20]
,
/
.
,
.
Go-Around .
: .


Flight Safety Foundation.
1000 ft AFE (Above
Field Elevation) (IMC Instrument
Meteorological Conditions) 500 ft AFE
(VMC Visual Meteorological Conditions).
,
:
;
,
;

(IAS) VREF+20 VREF;


;
1000 fpm;
1000 fpm,
;
;
Check-list .

, :
ILS Approach G/S LOC,
LOC (expanded localizer scale);
circling approach final turn
300 ft AFE.
,
,
.
: 1000 ft
AFE IMC, 500 ft VMC Go-Around.
100 ft HAT (Height Above Threshold)
.
( circling approach)
500 ft,
:

;
;
/ ;
.
Circle to
land (Circling Approach)
, .. Circle to land (Circling Approach)
.
,
.
1. ,
, , .
, , IMC VMC
. , ,
(ILS, LOC, VOR/DME, Visual etc) VMC
500 ft AFE.
2. (IAS)
VREF+20 VREF
. (3-5 ) ,

,
.
3. ,
.
,
,


. .
4. Circle to land (Circling Approach) ,
1000 ft IMC/500 ft VMC
:
.. ,
Circle to land
(Circling Approach) 300 ft AFE
Final Turn ( ). .. 300 ft AFE
Visual Maneuvering Area (
Base Turn, Base Turn), 300 ft AFE
;
, 100 ft HAT .
, 100 ft HAT
( )
, 100 ft HAT
.
: ,
500 100 ft Circle to land (Circling
Approach) ,
1000 ft IMC/500 ft VMC ,
Circle to land (Circling Approach).


, VMC

10000 ft
AMSL
10000 ft AMSL
3000 ft AMSL,
1000 ft

,
3000 ft
AMSL, 1000 ft

,

A, B, C, D, E, F, G

8 km

1500 m
1000 ft

A, B, C, D, E, F, G

5 km

1500 m
1000 ft

5 km

1500 m
1000 ft

A, B, C, D, E
F, G

: , ,
Boeing-737 ,
A E. ,
B.
VMC , IMC.


[1] PANS OPS, Doc. 8168, volume I, part III, chapter 1.3
[2] FCTM Boeing-737, Chapter 5, page 5.2-5.3
[3] TERPS, FAA-H-8260.3B
[4] Instrument Procedures Handbook (FAA-H-826-1A), Chapter 5, page 5.7
[5] Instrument Flying Handbook (FAA-H-8083-15A), Chapter 8, page 8.23
[6] United Airlines, Qualification Pilot Training Manual B737, Chapter 1
[7] ATM, Doc. 4444
[8] Instrument Procedures Handbook (FAA-H-826-1A), Chapter 5
[9] PANS OPS, Doc. 8168, volume I, part 1, chapter 1, page 1-2
[10] PANS OPS, Doc. 8168, volume I, part III, chapter 4
[11] FCTM Boeing-737, Chapter 5, page 5.45-5.48
[12] From takeoff to landing a look at criteria for the design of instrument flight
procedures, Olle Akerlind, Honeywell
[13] PANS OPS, Doc. 8168, volume I, part III, chapter 1, page 3-5
[14] PANS OPS, Doc. 8168, volume I, part VI, chapter 3
[15] FCTM Boeing-737, Chapter 1, page 1.22-1.23
[16] FCOM Boeing-737, Chapter SP, Section 16, page 16.12-16.13
[17] FCOM Boeing-737, Chapter NP, Section 11, page 11.2-11.3
[18] FCOM Boeing-737, Chapter SP, Section 11, page 11.12-11.13
[19] FCTM Boeing-737, Chapter 5, page 5.47
[20] FCTM Boeing-737, Chapter 5, page 5.4-5.6


Circle to land (Circling Approach)
Boeing-737

2008