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2011

517
:
, ...,
. . ;
..-..,
( )
. .

. .

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3: - / . .,
. ., . ., . . . .
. . . : . . .
. . . . , 2011. 151 .
ISBN 978-5-903111-53-4 (.3)
ISBN 978-5-903111-41-1
-
-, .
.
, . .
,
, .

517

c . ., . .,
ISBN 978-5-903111-53-4 (.3)
ISBN 978-5-903111-41-1
. ., . ., 2011
c

. . . .
. . , 2011


V.
14 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.1 . . . . . . . . .
14.1.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.3 . . . . . . . . . .
14.1.4 . . . . . . . . . .
14.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.1 . . .
14.2.2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.2.3 . . . . . . . .
14.2.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
14.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5
5
9
13
17
19
20
24
25
28
29

VI.
15 . . . . . . . . .
15.1 . . . .
15.1.1 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.1.2 . . . . . . . . .
15.1.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2 . . .
15.2.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.2.2

40
40
40
43
44
49
49
51

15.2.3 . . . . . . . . .
15.2.4 . . . . . . . .
15.3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.2
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.3.4 . .
15.4 . . . . . . . . . . . . .
15.4.1 . . . . . . . . .
15.4.2 . . .
15.5 . . . . . . . . . . .
15.6 . . . .

54
60
67
67
71
74
77
81
81
83
84
89

VII.
16 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
92
16.1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92
16.1.1 , .
- . . . . 92
16.1.2 . . . . . 95
16.1.3 99
16.2 . . . . . . 110
16.3
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
16.3.1 .
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120
16.3.2 . . . . . . . . . . 126
. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

130

14

14.1


a1 + a2 + + an + =

+
X

an ,

n=1

a1 , a2 , . . . , an , . . . , n N,
an = f (n) .
Sn = a1 + a2 + . . . + an n- .
, ,
lim Sn = S,

n+

. , .

14.1.1

1.

+
P

an ,

n=1

m- ) .
2.

+
P

n=1

S.

+
P

an (

n=m+1

an S ,

+
P

n=1

an

14.

3.

+
P

an ,

n=1

+
P

bn S -

n=1
+
P

(an + bn ) S + .

n=1

4. .

+
P

an -

n=1

, lim an = 0. , lim an 6= 0,
n+
n+
.



+
X

aq n1

n=1

n q
a(1 q n )
.
Sn =
1q
lim Sn |q| < 1 ,
n+

a
. S = 1q
.

14.1.
.

+
P

n=0

3
52n

. q = 12 , . a = 53
a
S = 1q
= 56 .

14.1.

+
X
(f (n + 1) f (n)).
n=1

Sn = f (n+1)f (1), ,
S = lim (f (n + 1) f (1)).
n+

+
P 1
14.2.
n(n+1)
n=1
.
1
1
1
= n1 (n+1)
, Sn = 1 n+1
.
. n(n+1)
lim Sn = 1, 1.
n+

14.3.
+ 
X


n+22 n+1+ n
n=1

.
. :

( 3 2 2 + 1) + ( 4 2 3 + 2) + ( 5 2 4 + 3) +

+ ( 6 2 5 + 4) + + ( n + 2 2 n + 1 + n) + .

Sn = 1

2 + n + 2 n + 1.

lim ( n + 2 n + 1) = lim
= 0.
n+
n+
n+2+ n+1

lim Sn = 1 2.
n+
1 2.
, .
+
P 2n+1
14.4.
n2 (n+1)2
n=1
.

14.

. S1 = 43 , S2 = 89 , S3 = 15
16 .
2
1
, , Sn = (n+1)
(n+1)2 .

2(n + 1) + 1
(n + 1)2 1
+
=
Sn+1 =
(n + 1)2
(n + 1)2 (n + 2)2
(n + 1)2 (n + 2)2 (n + 2)2 + 2n + 3
=
=
(n + 1)2 (n + 2)2
(n + 1)2 (n + 2)2 n2 2n 1 (n + 1)2 (n + 2)2 (n + 1)2
=
=
=
(n + 1)2 (n + 2)2
(n + 1)2 (n + 2)2
(n + 2)2 1
=
.
(n + 2)2
, , . . Sn =
lim Sn = 1. 1.

(n+1)2 1
(n+1)2 ,

n+

, ,
, .
+
P n
14.5.
10n+1 .
n
lim 10n+1
n+

n=1
1
10 .

.
=
, , .

, :
14.1.
14.2.
14.3.

+
X

n=1
+
X

n=1
+
X

n=2
+
X

1
.
(2n 1)(2n + 1)
1
.
n(n + 3)
1
.
n2 + n 2

1
14.4.
.
arctg
2
2

n
n=1

14.5.

+ n
X
3 + (4)n
n=1

12n

+ 
X


14.6.
n+2 n .
n=1

14.7.

+
X
n=1

3n
.
n5 + 2n

14.1.

14.1.2

1. .
+
+
P
P

an ,
bn . n=1

n=1

N, N = 1, 2, . . . an 6 bn , n > N ,
+
+
P
P
an , bn

+
P

n=1

an

n=1
+
P

bn .

n=1

n=1

2. .
an
n+ bn

lim
+
P

= k, k 6= 0,

+
P

an ,

n=1

bn . (

n=1

+
P

n=1

an

+
P

bn ).

n=1

,
( ).
:
+
X

aq n1 ,

n=1

+
X
1
,

n
n=1

+
X

aq n1 ,

n=1

+
X
1
,

n
n=1

|q| < 1,

> 1.

|q| > 1,

6 1.

10

14.
+
P

+
P

1
n

n
n=1
n=1
.

,
.
0 n
( ), .
. x 0 :
sin x arcsin x tg x arctg x x,
ex 1 x, ln(x + 1) x, (x + 1) 1 x


14.6.

+
P

n=1

1
n+4n

<

1
n+4n
1
4n


1 n
.
4

, , .
14.7.

+
P

n=1

n+3
n2 +2n5

+
P

n=1


1 n
4

n(1 + n3 )
n+3
1
lim 2
=
lim
=
lim
.
n+ n + 2n5
n+ 2n4
n+ 2 n5 ( 1 3 + 1)
(2n
, n +
1
n+3

n2 + 2n5
2n4
+
+
P 1
P n+3


n2 +2n5
2n4 n=1
n=1
, , .

14.8.

+
P

n=1

ln n+3
n+2 .

11

14.1.
.

n+3
n+2

=1+

1
n+2 ,

n +

1
1
n+3

.
n+2
n+2
n
, , , .
ln

:
14.8.

+
X

1
.
2n + 3n

+
X

2n
.
n2n + 3

n=1

14.9.

n=1

14.10.

+ 2
X
n + 10
n=3

14.11.

14.12.

+
X
1+ n
.
14.15.
2 + ln n
n
n=1
14.16.

n=1

+
X

n3 + 4

.
3
3n2 + n8 1

1+n
.
2 + n3

2
+ 
X
1 + n3
n=1

1 + n4

+
X

n=1

+
X

n=1

14.13.

n4 2

+
X
ln n

14.14.
.
3
4
n
n=1

14.17.

+
X

sin

n=1

14.18.

n=1

14.19.

+
X
n=1

3. .
+
P
an lim

n=1

+
X

an+1
n+ an

n+1
n

tg

.
n(n + 3)

n+1
.
n2 + 2

1
.
n2 n ln n

= q, q < 1

, q > 1 .

4. .
+
P

an lim n an = q, q < 1

n=1

, q > 1 .

n+

12

14.
5. .
+
P

an , an = f (n) ,
n=1

+
r

f (x)dx, f (x) -

, x > 1.


14.9.

+
P

n=1

1
n!

an+1
n!
1
= lim
= lim
= 0.
n+ an
n+ (n + 1)!
n+ n + 1
lim

.
+
P 3n
14.10.
n4 .
n=1

3n+1 n4
n4
an+1
= lim
= 3 lim 4
lim
n+ (n + 1)4 3n
n+ n (1 +
n+ an

1
n4 )

= 3.


P
n+1 n
14.11.
.
3n2
n=1

n+1
1 + 1/n 1
n
an = lim
= lim
= .
n 3n 2
n+ 3 2/n
n+
3
lim

.
+
P
1
.
14.12.
(n+1) ln2 (n+1)
n=1

. :
f (x) =

1
,
(x + 1) ln2 (x + 1)

13

14.1.
+
w
1



dx
dx
= u = ln(x + 1), du =
=
x+1
(x + 1) ln2 (x + 1)
+
w du  1  +
1

=
=

.
=
u2
u ln 2
ln 2
ln 2

, .

:
14.20.

+ 4
X
n +2
n=1

3n

14.23.

n=1

+ n
X
2 +4
14.21.
.
10 + 3
n
n=1

14.22.

+ n
X
2
n=1

n!

+ n
X
n

14.24.

+
X

n!

n tg

n=1

14.25.

2n+1

+
X
(n!)2

2n2

n=1

:
2n


X
X
1
3n 1
n2
14.26.
.
(1 + 1/n) .
14.27.
n
n
3
4n
+
2
n=1
n=1
:
14.28.
14.29.

+
X

n=2
+
X
n=2

14.1.3

.
n2 + 1 ln n
1
n+1
ln
.
n n1

14.30.

+
X

n=1

+
P

n=1

an .

14

14.
1. .
+
+
P
P

|an | ,
an , n=1

n=1

+
P

an ,

n=1

+
P

|an |
n=1
.
+
+
P
P

|an | ,
an ,
n=1
n=1
.
+
P
(1)n1 cn , cn > 0

n=1

( ) .

2. .

n1

c1 c2 + c3 c4 + + (1)

+
X
cn + =
(1)n1 cn , cn > 0
n=1

, lim cn = 0 cn > cn+1 , n = 1, 2, . . . ( n+

).

+
P

an , -

n=1

, , . .

+
P

n=1

|an |.

, , .
+
P
|an | , , -

n=1

, . , , .


14.13.

+
P

n=1

cos n
n2

15

14.1.
. | cos

+
P

1
n2

n| 6 1 n,


cos n

6 1.
n2 n2

,
+
P cos n

n2 , , .

n=1

n=1

14.14. 1+ 12 31 41 + 15 + 61 . . . .
. , , , , .
, :
+
X
1 1 1
1
1 + + ... =
,
(1)n+1
3 5 7
2n

1
n=1
+

X
1
1 1 1
+ + ... =
(1)n+1 ,
2 4 6
2n
n=1

,
.
+
P
2
14.15.
(1)n 3nn2 2 .
n=1

+
P n2
. ,
3n2 2
n=1
:
n2
1
n2
=
lim
=
.
lim
n+ n2 (3 2/n2 )
n+ 3n2 2
3
, , , , , .
+
P
2
(1)n 3nn4 2 .
14.16.
n=1

. ,
.

n2
n2
1
= 4
2
4
4
3n 2 n (3 2/n )
3n
n +.

16

14.

+
P

n=1

1
3n2

, ,

+
P

n=1

n2
3n4 2

, , .

P
ln n
14.17.
(1)n 3n2
.
n=2

. n ,

ln n
3n2

ln n
3n .

n=1
r

,
.
. lim

ln n
3n

ln x
x+ x

ln n
3n dx.

ln n
=
n+ 3n
ln3nn

= 0, lim

= 0.
n +. ln3xx x > 2:


ln x
3x

1 ln x
.
3x2

x > 3 , , , ,
( n = 3). , .

:
14.31.

+
X
sin 2n
n=1

14.32.

+
X

n2

n+1

(1)

n=1

14.33.

+
X

n+1

(1)

n=1

14.34.

+
X

n+1

(1)

n=1

14.35.

+
X
n=1

n+1

(1)

+
3
X
n+1 n
14.36.
(1)
.
n
2
n=1

1
.
ln(n + 1)
1
.
2n 1
n
.
n3 + 2
2n + 1
.
3n2 + n 1

14.37.

+ n
X
3 + 2n
n=1

14.38.

(5)n

+ 2
X
n +4
n=1

(3)n

+
X
(4)n+1
.
14.39.
2 4n 1
n
n=1

+
X
1
14.40.
(1)n+1 arcsin .
2n
n=1

17

14.1.

14.41.
14.42.

+
X
(1)n+1 n3

n=1
+
X

4n n2

+
X

n+1 2 n
14.43.
(1) n e
.

n=1

1/ n

e
1
.
(1)n+1
2+3
n
n=1

14.1.4

()
, ,
+
P
. S =
an .
n=1

Sn S rn , . . |S Sn | = |rn |,
+
P
rn =
ak . n, k=n+1

|rn | < . S
Sn . , |rn |
n.

1. ,
, .
. .,
+
X
S=
(1)n1 cn , cn > 0,
n=1

|rn | < cn+1.


2. , . . +
+
+
P
P
P
bn
bn , , |an | 6 bn ,,
an

n=1

n=1

n=1

, |rn | < n , n
+
P
bn .
n=1

3.
+
P
an , an = f (n)
, . .
n=1

18

14.
+
r

f (x)dx,

rn <

+
w

f (x)dx.


14.18. S =

+
P

(1)n+1 n215n

n=1

0,001.
. ,
1
|rn | <
< 0,001.
(n + 1)2 5n+1
1/5 1/100 + 1/1125 . . .. , |r2 | <
< 0,001. S 0,19.
+
P 1
14.19. S =
5n +1 = 0,001.
n=1

1
1
<
.
5n + 1 5n

+
P

n=1

1
5n

51 , , ,
+
P 1
.
5n . . .
n=1

rn <

5n+1

5n+2

1
45n

5n+3

1/5n+1
1
+ ... =
=
.
1 1/5 4 5n

< 0,001 n > 4.

S 1/6 + 1/26 + 1/126 + 1/626 = 0,215.


14.20. S =
0,0001.

+
P

n=1

1
(3n1)4

19

14.2.

. , 
 +
r 1

1
= 1/24. ,
(3x1)4 dx = 3(3x1)3
1

, :
+
w
1
1
rn <
dx
=
.
4
3
(3x

1)
9(3n

1)
n

1
< 104 .
3
9(3n 1)
, n > 4.

S 1/16 + 1/625 + 1/4096 + 1/11979 =


= 0,0625 + 0,0016 + 0,00024 + 0,00008 = 0,0654.
, , ,
0,0001.

0,001:
14.44.
14.45.

+
X
(1)n+1

n=1
+
X
n=1

14.2

(2n)!

14.46.

+
X
n=1

1
.
(3n)!

1
.
n6 + 1

f1 (x) + f2 (x) + . . . + fn (x) + . . . =

+
P

fn (x), -

n=1

x, n N,
n
P
fk (x) .
. Fn (x) =
k=1

X x, , , lim Fn (x) = F (x)


n+

20

14.

. x X,
+
P
fk (x)
F (x) = Fn (x) + 3n (x), 3n (x) =
k=n+1

lim 3n (x) = 0.

n+


X, > 0 N () ,
n > N () x X |3n (x)| < .

14.2.1

fn (x)
, |fn (x)| 6 cn ,
.

+
P

+
P

fn (x) cn , -

n=1

cn ,

n=1

+
P

fn (x)

n=1


14.21.
+
X

lnn x.

n=1

. , q = ln x . | ln x| < 1. , X 1/e < x < e.


14.22.
+
X
n=1

1
.
1 + xn

. , x
.

1, |x| < 1,

1
0, |x| > 1,
=
lim
n+ 1 + xn

1 , x = 1.
2

21

14.2.

, |x| < 1 x = 1 . |x| > 1



+
X
1


1 + xn
n=1

.


1 + xn
1/|1 + xn+1 |
=
lim
= lim
n+ 1/|1 + xn |
n+ 1 + xn+1


n
x 1/xn + 1
= 1 .
= lim n+1
n+ x
1/xn+1 + 1 |x|

, |x| > 1 .

14.23.

X
(x 2)n

.
n
+
1
n=1

. :



(x 2)n+1 / n + 2
= |x 2| lim n + 1 =

lim
n+
n+ (x 2)n / n + 1
n+2
p
n 1 + 1/n
= |x 2|.
= |x 2| lim p
n+
n 1 + 2/n

, , |x 2| < 1,
1 < x 2 < 1,
1 < x < 3.

an+1
n+ an

, , lim

= 1, -

|x 2| = 1, . . x = 1, x = 3.
+
+
P 1
P 1

1
1 ,

x = 3
.

n
n+1
n+1
n+1
n=1

n=1

, . . .
+
P (1)n

, x = 1
n+1

() .

n=1

22

14.
, 1 6 x < 3.
14.24.
+
X
3n
.
2 2nx
n
n=1

. :
3n+1 /(n + 1)2 2(n+1)x
3
n2
=
lim
=
n+
3n /n2 2nx
2x n+ (n + 1)2
2
2


3
3
3
n
1
= x lim
= x.
= x lim
2 n+ n + 1
2 n+ 1 + 1/n
2
lim

, 3/2x < 1. x >


=
> log2 3. , , lim aan+1
n
n+

= 1, x = log2 3.
. , x > log2 3.
14.25. ,

n=1

x.
.

+
P

sin2 nx
n2

1
n2 ,

+
P

n=1

1
n2

+
P

n=1

sin2 nx
n2

1
n2 ,


x.
14.26.
+
X
n=1

x
[(n 1)x + 2](nx + 2)

0 < x < +.
.
x
1
1
=

.
[(n 1)x + 2](nx + 2) (n 1)x + 2 nx + 2
1
, F (x) =
Fn (x) = 21 nx+2
1
= lim Fn (x) = 1/2, 3n (x) = nx+2 .
n

23

14.2.

lim 3n (x) = 1/2, , x0

x (0, +).
, .
+
P (1)n+1
14.27.
x+n n=1

0 6 x < +.
.
x. ,
, . .
1
1
< .
x+n+1 n
 
> 0 N = 1 , n > N
|3n (x)| < x, 0 6 x < +. ,
.
|3n (x)| <

( ) :
+
X
lnn x
.
14.47.
n
+
3
n=1

14.48.

+ n
X
2 cosn x
n=1

14.49.

+
X
n=1

14.50.

+
X
n=1

n2 + 2

.
n(x + 3)n

x
14.51.
sin n .
4
n=1
x
14.52.
xn tg n .
3
n=1

en x .

n=1

xn
.
1 + xn

+
X

+
X

14.53.

+
X

14.54.

n
+ 
X
nx + 1
n=1

2
+
X
nxn
14.55.
.
2+1
n
n=1

14.56.

+
X
(1)n+1
n=1

nln |x|

+
X
(1)n
14.57.
.
2n
n
+
x
n=1


n
+
X
3x
1
.
14.58.
2+2
n
x
n=1

24

14.

:
14.59.

+ n
X
x
n=1

14.60.

+
X
n=1

14.2.2

, x [1, 2].
n

x2
, x > 0.
(1 + x2 )n1

14.61.

+
X
n=1

14.62.

1
, x > 1.
(1 + x2 )n1

+
X
(1)n+1
n=1

x + 2n

, x > 0.


+
X
n=0

an (x c)n = a0 + a1 (x c) + a2 (x c)2 + . . .

.
R, 0 6 R < +, ,
|x c| < R c R < x < c + R.
R = 0, x = c, R = + .
.
.


14.28. +
P xn

n3n .
n=1

.
n+1

x /(n + 1)3(n+1) x
n
= lim
=
lim

n+
xn /n3n
3 n+ (n + 1)
x
x
1


= lim
= .
3 n+ 1 + 1/n
3

|x/3| < 1, 3 < x < 3,


+
P 1
x = 3.
n , n=1

. x = 3 ,

25

14.2.

( ). ,
R = 3 3 6 x < 3.

:
14.63.

+
X

+ n
X
2 n n
14.69.
x .
n + n2
2
n=1

(3n + 2)x .

n=1

14.64.

+
X
n=1

xn
.
3n + 2

14.70.

n=1

+
X
n 3 xn
14.65.
.
n+1
5
n=1

14.66.

+
X
n=1

14.67.

n=1

14.71.

n + 21

14.72.

+
X
n=1

n
xn .
3
n
1+n +2
n
n3 2n

xn .

n!(x 1)n .

+
X
ln n n
x .
14.73.
3+2
n
n=1

x .

n
+ 
X
1
n1 n

14.68.
x .
25
2
n
n=1

14.2.3

+
X
n=1

en
xn .
2
n +1

+ n
X
3 +n

+
X

n n
+ 
X
n
14.74.
x .
n
+
1
n=1


+
P xn
x2
xn
x
1. e = 1 + x + 2! + . . . + n! + . . . =
n! , < x < +.
n=0

+
P

2. cos x = 1

x2
2!

x2n
+ . . . + (1)n (2n)!

3. sin x = x

x3
3!

x
+ . . . + (1)n (2n+1)!
+ ... =

+... =

n=0

2n+1

< +.

4. ln(x + 1) = x

2n

x
, < x < +.
(1)n (2n)!

x2
2

n
+ . . . + (1)n+1 xn

+
P

2n+1

x
, < x <
(1)n (2n+1)!

n=0

+... =

+
P

(1)n+1 xn , 1 < x 6 1.

n=1

26

14.
5.
(x + 1) = 1 + x +

(1) 2
2! x

+ ... +
=1+

(1)(n+1) n
x + ...
n!
+
P (1)(n+1) n
x ,
n!
n=1

=
|x| < 1.

,
,
.
, .

14.29. ex ,
.
+
P xn
2
n
. ex = 1 + x + x2! + . . . + xn! + . . . =
n! 3

x x3 , ex = 1 x3 +

x
2!

+ ... =

n=0

3n

(1)n xn! ,

n=0

< x < +.

14.30. ln x x = 2 (. . (x 2)), .
. y = x 2 x = y + 2
,
ln x = ln(y + 2) = ln 2(1 + y/2) = ln 2 + ln(1 + y/2).
ln(x + 1) =
+
P

+
P

(1)n+1 xn x y/2.

n=1
n

(1)n+1 2yn n , 1 < y/2 6 1 2 < y 6

n=1

6 2. x
ln x = ln 2 +

+
X
n=1

(1)n+1

(x 2)n
2n n

2 < x 2 6 2, . . 0 < x 6 4.

27

14.2.

1
14.31. 1x6x
2 , .
. 1 x 6x2 = (1 3x)(1 + 2x), 1
(13x)(1+2x)
:

1
1
=
(1 3x)(1 + 2x) 5


3
2
.
+
1 3x 1 + 2x

3
13x
3x, |3x| < 1. ,
2
1+2x

2x, | 2x| < 1.

+

X 3n+1 + (1)n 2n+1


2X
3X
1
n
n
(3x) +
(2x) =
=
xn
(1 3x)(1 + 2x) 5 n=0
5 n=0
5
n=0
|x| < 1/3.

,
:
14.75.
14.76.
14.77.
14.78.
14.79.
14.80.

3
14.81.
x x 4.
x
x.
x2 3x + 2
14.82.
1x
ln
x.
1 + 2x
14.83.
1
x.
(2x + 7)3
14.84.
x
sin x.
3
14.85.
1

x
+
1.
x.
(4 x)3

ln(4 + 3x) x.
1
x 2.
x2
x
x.
(1 x)3
cos xx sin x x.
ln(2x2 + 3x + 1) -

28

14.

14.2.4


14.32.

3e

0,001.
2

. ex = 1 + x + x2! + . . . + xn! + . . .
x = 1/3. e1/3
e1/3 = 1

1
1
1
1
+ 2 3 + +
+ .
3 3 2! 3 3!
(3)n n!

1
< 0,001,
3n+1 (n+1)!
. n > 3.

e1/3 1

1
1
16
1
+

=
0,593
3 18 162 27

0,001.

14.33. 3 30

0,001. p

3
3
. 30 =
27 + 3 = 3 3 1 + 1/9 =
= 3 (1 + 1/9)1/3 .
( 1) ( n + 1) n
( 1) 2
x + ... +
x + ...
2!
n!

= 1/3, x = 1/9, 3 3 30

1
5
1
3
30 = 3 +
+
+ ....
9 243 3 94

, . .
395 4 < 0,001. ,
(x + 1) = 1 + x +

30 3 +

1
755
1

=
3,107.
9 243 243

14.34.

r1
0

cos x2 dx 0,001.

29

14.3.
.
4n
x4 x8
n x
cos x = 1
+
+ + (1)
+ .
2!
4!
(2n)!
2



w1 
4n
x4 x8 x12
n x
+

+ + (1)
+ dx =
1
2!
4!
6!
(2n)!
0

 1

x5
x9
x13
1
1
= x
+

+ = 1
+
+ 0,905.
10 216 13 6!
10 216
0

0,001:
14.86. e1/5 .

14.87. ln 1,04.

0,001:
w1
10
ex2 dx.
14.88.
0

1/2
w1 ln(1 + x/6)
w
dx
14.89.
dx. 14.91.

dx.
3
2
x
1
+
x
0
0

14.90.

0,1
w

5x2

dx.

14.3

w1 sin x
dx.
14.92.
x
0


f (x), [a, b]

+
a0 X
+
(an cos nx + bn sin nx),
2
n=1
= 2
T - , T = b a,

b
2w
f (x) cos nx dx,
an =
T a

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

30

14.

b
2w
f (x) sin nx dx,
bn =
T a

n = 1, 2, . . . .

f (x) [a, b] : )
; ) , I , . .
(a, b) f ( 0) = lim f (x)
x0

f ( + 0) = lim f (x),
x+0

[a, b], Ff (x) :


1. Ff (x) = f (x) f (x)
(a, b);
2. (a, b) Ff () = [f ( 0) + f ( + 0)]/2;
3. Ff (a) = Ff (b) = [f (a + 0) + f (b 0)]/2.
f (x) , [, ] [a, b], f (x) , .

n
a0 X
Sn (x) =
+
[ak cos(kx) + bk sin(kx)]
2
k=1

18% ( ).
Ff (x) T .
, u : R R
T ( T -), x R, u(x + T ) =
= u(x).
f (x) [l, l] ,
:
+

a0 X
+
an cos nx,
2
n=1

2w
f (x) cos nxdx,
an =
l
l

= /l,

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

31

14.3.

f (x) [l, l] ,
:
+
X

bn sin nx,

n=1

2w
f (x) sin nx dx,
bn =
l
l

= /l,

n = 1, 2, . . . .



f (x), [0, l], [l, 0)
, , . ,
f (x) = f (x),

l 6 x < 0.


2w
f (x) cos nx dx,
an =
l
l

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . ,

= /l.


f (x) = f (x),

l 6 x < 0.


2w
bn =
f (x) sin nx dx,
l
l

n = 1, 2, . . . ,

= /l.

T = 2l.


+
P
n einx.

n=

32

14.

b
1w
f (x)einx dx,
cn =
T a

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

an , bn
0 =

a0
,
2

n =

a0 = 20 ,

an ibn
,
2

an = n + n ,

n =

an + ibn
,
2

bn = i(n n ),

n = 1, 2, . . . ;
n = 1, 2, . . . .


14.35. f (x) = 1 + x
[1, 1]. S0 , S1 , S2 .
. T = 2 = 2
2 = .
1
1
2w

2
(1 + x)dx = (x + x /2) = 2.
a0 =
1
2
1

1
2w
an =
(1 + x) cos nx dx
2
1

u = 1 + x, dv = cos nxdx, du =
dx, v = (1/n) sin nx
1
1
sin nx
1 w
an = (1 + x)
sin nx dx =

n 1 n
1
1
cos nx
=00+
= [cos n cos (n)] /(n)2 = 0.

2
(n) 1

1
2w
(1 + x) sin nx dx =
bn =
2
1

33

14.3.

1
cos nx 1
1 w
= (1 + x)
cos nx dx =
+
n 1 n
1
1
2 cos x sin nx
cos n 2(1)n+1
=
+
=
.
= 2
n
(n)2 1
n
n

2 X (1)n+1
sin nx.
1+
n=1
n

2
1
2
sin(x), S2 = 1 + sin(x) sin(2x).

. 14.1.
S0 = 1, S1 = 1 +

2
1.5
1
0.5

-1

-0.5

0.5

. 14.1. x + 1 S0 , S1 , S2 .
14.36.
(
6 , 0 < x < 2,
f (x) =
3x , 2 < x < 4 .
. T = 4 =
1w
1w
1
2w
f (x)dx =
6dx +
3xdx =
a0 =
4
2
2
2
4

2
4

= /2.
!
2 3x2 4

= 15.
6x +
0
2 2

34

14.

2w
an =
f (x) cos(nx/2)dx =
4
4

1w
1w
6 cos(nx/2)dx +
3x cos(nx/2)dx.
=
2
2
2


1w
6 cos(nx/2)dx = 3
2
2

 2
sin(n)
sin(nx/2)
=
3
= 0.

(n/2)
(n/2)
0

, u = 3x, dv = cos(nx/2),
du = 3dx, v = sin(nx/2)
(n/2) .
!
4
w4 sin(nx/2)
3x sin(nx/2)
dx =
3
(n/2)
(n/2)
2
2
4 !
6
( cos(nx/2))
=
3
(cos 2n cos n) =

(n/2)2
2 n2
2
6
= 2 2 (1 (1)n ) .
n

1w
1
3x cos(nx/2)dx =
2
2
4

1
2

, n = 1, 3, 5, . . . an = 2/(2 n2 ) , n = 2, 4, 6, . . . an = 0.

2w
6
bn =
f (x) sin(nx/2)dx = .
4
n
4




15 12
x 1
3x
1
5x
+ 2 cos
+ cos
+
cos
+
2

2
9
2
25
2


x 1
6
2x 1
3x
sin

+ sin
+ sin
+ .

2
2
2
3
2
14.37. f (x) = x2 [1, 1].
+
P (1)n+1

n2 .
n=1

35

14.3.

. , . T = 2, l = 1, = .
1 !
1
2w 2
2
x3
a0 =
=
x dx = 2
.
1
3 0
3
0

an , n = 1, 2, . . . ,
2w 2
x cos(nx)dx =
an =
l
0


sin(nx)
=
= u = x2 , du = 2xdx, dv = cos(nx)dx, v =
n
!
1
w

2
1
= 2 x2 sin(nx)/(n) 0
x sin(nx)dx =
n
0


cos(nx)
=
= u = x, du = dx, dv = sin(nx)dx, v =
n
!
1
1
w

x cos(nx)
1
4
cos(nx)dx =

+
=

n
n
n
0
0


4
cos(n)
4(1)n
=

=
.
n
n
(n)2
1

( ),
1 6 x 6 1
+
1
4 X (1)n cos(nx)
2
x = + 2
.
3 n=1
n2

x = 0

+
X
(1)n+1
n=1

n2

2
= .
12

14.38. f (x) = x|x| [, ].


. ,
, . . an = 0, n = 0, 1, 2, . . ..
T = 2, l = , = 1.

36

14.

bn , n = 1, 2, . . . ,
2w 2
x sin(nx)dx =
bn =

0


cos(nx)
2
= u = x , du = 2xdx, dv = sin(nx)dx, v =
=
n
!

w
2

2 x cos(nx)
2
=
+
x cos(nx)dx =

n
n
0
0


sin(nx)
=
= u = x, du = dx, dv = cos(nx)dx, v =
n
!

2
2 cos(n) 2x sin(nx)
2 w
=

+
n2 sin(nx)dx =

n
n2
0
0

 2

 2


2
cos(n) 2 cos(nx)

2
2
2

=
+
= cos(n) n + n3 n3 =

n
n3
0
 2



2
2
2
n
(1)
+ 3 3 .
=

n
n
n


 2


+ 
2X
2
2
n
(1)
Ff (x) =
+ 3 3 sin(nx).
n=1
n
n
n
14.39.
(
f (x) =

2x ,

0 6 x 6 /2,
/2 6 x 6 .

) ; ) .
. [, 0) (.
. 14.2).
l = , = 1. :

2 w
a0 =
(2x )dx = /2.

/2

37

14.3.
3
2.5
2
1.5
1
0.5
-3

-1

-2

. 14.2. f (x) [0, ]

2 w
(2x ) cos(nx) dx =
an =

/2

4
[cos(n) cos(n/2)],
n2

n = 0, 1, 2, . . . .

, ) /2 6 x 6
+

4 X [cos(n) cos(n/2)] cos(nx)


.
2x = +
4 n=1
n2
(. . 14.3).

2 w
(2x ) sin(nx)dx =
bn =

/2

2
[(/n) cos(n) (2/n2 ) sin(n/2)], n = 1, 2, . . . .

)
+

2X
[(/n) cos(n) (2/n2 ) sin(n/2)] sin(nx).
Ff (x) =
n=1
14.40. ex
[, ].

38

14.

. T = 2, = 1, n =
= 0, 1, 2, . . .

h
i
1
1 w x inx
(1in)
(1in)
e e
dx =
e
e
.
cn =
2
2(1 in)

+
h
i
1
1 X
(1in)
(1in)
e
e
einx .
2 n= (1 in)

14.93.
f (x) =

1 ,

6 x 6 0,

2 ,

0<x6

.
14.94.
f (x) =

x + 1 ,

1 6 x 6 0,
06x61.

3
2
1
-3

-2

-1

-1
-2
-3
. 14.3. f (x) [0, ]
[, 0]

39

14.3.
) [1, 1] ;
+
P 1
) ,
(2k1)2 .
k=1

14.95. f (x) = x sin x


[/2, /2].
14.96. f (x) = x3 [1, 1].
14.97.
f (x) =

x + 1 ,
x1

0 6 x 6 1,
16x62.

[0, 2] a) ; ) ; )
.
14.98.
f (x) =

0 6 x 6 1/2,

3 ,

1/2 < x 6 1 .

) ; ) .
14.99.
f (x) =

6 ,

0 < x < 2,

3x ,

2<x<4.

[0, 4] ) ; ) .
14.100. ex
[0, 2].

15

15.1

15.1.1

Oxy D.
f M (x, y) D
z, , D
x, y, z = f (x, y). D
Df .
Ef = {z|z = f (x, y), M (x, y) Df } z = f (x, y).
(x, y, z(x, y)).
(x, y, z) u, ,
u = f (x, y, z). Df M (x, y, z),
. , , .
u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) . Df n (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).

15.1.

41

u, u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) .
Df , Rn (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) = x n ,
x .

p 15.1. z = 9 x2 y 2 .
. ,
, ,
, Df
9 x2 y 2 > 0,

x2 + y 2 6 9.

,
x2 + y 2 = 9. Oxy : . . x2 + y 2 6 9,
. ,
O(0; 0).
, ,
O(0; 0) 3
.
p
z = 9 x2 y 2 x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9. Ef = [0; 3].
15.2. z = x2 + y 2 .
. , ,
x y, ,
Oxy. . Ef = [0; +).
15.3.

z = ln (x 1)(y + 2) .

42

15.
.
(x 1)(y + 2) > 0,

x > 1,
y > 2

x < 1,
y < 2.

, . x = 1 y = 2 , , . . ,
.

15.4.
p
u = 4 1 x2 y 2 z 2
.
1 x2 y 2 z 2 > 0,

x2 + y 2 + z 2 6 1.
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 1
1,
: . .
, , O(0; 0; 0).
x2 +y 2 +z 2 6 1,
.

15.5.
p
z = x y 2 + 1 ln (y x + 1)

.
(x, y),

x y 2 + 1 > 0,
y x + 1 > 0,

15.1.

43

. . , ,
.
x y 2 + 1 = 0 y x + 1 = 0, ,
, , . .
, , O(0; 0), A(3; 0), B(0; 5), C(4; 0)
D(0; 6). , , O(0; 0).
, ,
.
.

15.1.2

z = f (x, y) , Oxy f (x, y) = C,


C Ef . , ,
.
u = f (x, y, z) , f (x, y, z) = C, C Ef ,
, , u = f (x, y, z)
M Df ,
C Ef .


15.6. z = y 2x.
.
y 2x = C, C Ef = (; +).
y = 2x + C, C R.
15.7. z = y 2x,
M0 (1; 3).
. ,
y = 2x+C. C, M0 , C = 1.

44

15.

, , M0 (1; 3),
y = 2x + 1.
15.8.
u = z 2x2 4y 2 .
. z 2x2 4y 2 = C, z = 2x2 + 4y 2 + C, C Ef = (; +).

Oz (0; 0; C).

15.1.3

u = f (x) Df Rn .
b u = f (x) a,
> 0, () > 0, x D(f ) : 0 < (x, a) < () |f (x) b| < ,
:
lim f (x) = b.

xa

, x
a.

.
u = f (x) a,
lim f (x) = f (a).

xa

,
: u = f (x) a,
. , z = f (x, y)
M0 (x0 , y0 ),

f (x0 + x, y0 + y) f (x0 , y0 ) = 0.
lim
z = 0
lim
x0, y0

x0, y0

,
.
- , . , .

15.1.

45


15.9. , O(0; 0)
y 2 x2
.
f (x, y) = 2
y + x2
. , M (x, y) O(0; 0) y = kx,
k 6= 0.
y 2 x2
k 2 x2 x2
x2 (k 2 1) k 2 1
lim
=
lim
= lim 2 2
= 2
.
x0, y0 y 2 + x2
x0 x (k + 1)
x0, y=kx0 k 2 x2 + x2
k +1
, k , , O(0; 0) .
15.10. f (x, y) = sinxxy x 0,
y 5.
. , , y:
y sin xy
sin xy  0 
=
= 5 1 = 5.
= lim
lim
x0, y5
x0, y5
x
0
xy
,
sin
lim
= 1.
0

= xy 0 x 0, y 5.
15.11.

3 xy + 9
.
lim
x0, y0
xy
. , , x 0, y 0.
, , :



3 xy + 9 3 + xy + 9
3 xy + 9  0 

.
=
= lim
lim

x0, y0
x0, y0
xy
0
xy 3 + xy + 9

46

15.

:
1
xy
1
 = lim

= .

x0, y0 xy 3 +
x0, y0 3 +
6
xy + 9
xy + 9
lim

15.12. z = x2 y
Oxy.
. Oxy.
M (x, y) Oxy:
z = f (x + x, y + y) f (x, y) = (x + x)2 (y + y) x2 y =

= x2 + 2x x + (x)2 (y + y) x2 y =
= x2 y + 2xy x + 2x xy + y(x)2 + (x)2 y.

x 0, y 0:
lim

x0, y0

z =

lim

x0, y0


x2 y +2xy x+2x xy +y(x)2 +(x)2 y = 0.

M (x, y) z = x2 y Oxy, , .
15.13.
z = cos

1
.
x2 y 2 1

.
, .
.
x2 y 2 = 1.
Oxy ,
z = cos x2 y1 2 1 .
15.14.
u = cos

1
.
z xy

. z = xy, . . z = xy,
.

15.1.

:

15.1. z = ln 2y x2 y 2 .
p
15.2. z = x2 xy.
p
15.3. z = ln(1 y) + 4 y x2 .

15.4. z = ln 1 x2 4y 2 .
p
p
15.5. z = (x 2)(x 5) + (y + 1)(y 3).

x+y5
15.6. z =
.
y
4x
15.7. z = ln
.
5y
x
y
15.8. z = arcsin + arccos .
4
3
y2 1
15.9. z = arccos
.
x2

xy
15.10. z =
.
9 x2 y 2

15.11. z = ln x2 y 2 .
p
15.12. z = x 4y ln(x + y).
1
.
15.13. u = p
4 4x2 y 2 4z 2
p
15.14. u = z x2 y 2 + ln (9 x2 y 2 z 2 ).

 p

15.15. u =
x + y + z 1 3x y 2z.
p

15.16. z = x 4 + y + 5 + z.

:
15.17. z = x y.

15.18. z = x2 y.

15.19. z = x2 + y 2 .

15.20. z = x2 y 2 .
x2 y 2
+ .
15.21. z =
25
9
2
15.22. z = 4x 9y 2 .

47

48

15.

, M0 (x0 , y0 ):
15.23. f (x, y) = ln(x + y 2 ),

M0 (1; 1).

15.24. f (x, y) = tg(x2 y),


p
15.25. f (x, y) = 3x 4y,

M0 (2; 4).

15.26. f (x, y) =

M0 (1; 1).

1
,
3 + x2 y 2

M0 (2; 2).

:
15.27. u = x + y + z.
15.28. u =

x y
+ z.
2 3

15.29. u = x2 + y 2 + z 2.

x2 y 2 z 2
+
+ .
4
9
25
x2
15.31. u =
y2 z 2.
4
15.32. u = z + x2 y 2 .

15.30. u =

:
15.33.

lim

x1, y3

xy .

x2 + y 2
.
15.34.
lim
x2, y1 x2 y 2
15.35.

2x y
.
x1, y2 4x3 4x2 y + xy 2
lim

p
1 x2 y + 1
.
15.36.
lim
x0, y0
x2 y
 1
15.37.
lim 1 + x3 + y 3 x+y .
x0, y0

15.38.

sin 3xy
.
x0, y1 xy 2
lim

Oxy:
15.39. z = x + y.
15.40. z = xy.

15.41. u = x + y z.

15.42. u = x2 + y 2 + 2z.

:
15.43. z =

x+y+2
.
x2 + y 2

15.44. z =

3
.
y 2x

15.2.
p

x2 + y + 1
.
xy
1
15.46. z =
.
9 x2 y 2

15.47. z = sin 2
.
y x
15.45. z =

15.49. u =
15.50. u =

x2

1
.
+ z 2 25

3x y
.
x2 + y 2 z 2

15.51. u = cos

x2 + y 2
15.48. u =
.
x+y+z1

y2

49

1
.
x2 + y 2 + z 2 1

15.52. u = ctg(x2 + y 2 + z 2 ).

15.2

15.2.1

u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) ,
, .
:
u
xk u
= lim
,
xk xk 0 xk

k = 1, 2, . . . , n,

xk u = f (x1 , . . . , xk + xk , . . . , xn ) f (x1 , . . . , xk , . . . , xn )

xk . n n .
:
u
,
xk

uxk ,

f
,
xk

f (x1 , . . . , xn ).
xk


15.15.
x
f (x, y) = x2 y + y 3 x4 + 2x .
y

50

15.

. f (x, y)
x y
x:
x 
1
f
= x2 y + y 3 x4 + 2x x = 2xy + 4y 3 x3 + 2x ln 2 .
x
y
y

y x:
f
x 
x
= x2 y + y 3 x4 + 2x y = x2 + 3y 2 x4 + 2 .
y
y
y

15.16.
u(x, y, z) = z cos (2x + yz).
.
. ux x, y z :


ux = z cos (2x + yz) x = z sin (2x + yz) 2 = 2z sin (2x + yz).
uy , x z:


uy = z cos (2x + yz) y = z sin (2x + yz) z = z 2 sin (2x + yz).

uz x y, :


uz = z cos (2x + yz) z = zz cos (2x + yz) + z cos (2x + yz) z =

= 1cos (2x + yz)+z sin (2x + yz) y = cos (2x + yz)yz sin (2x + yz).
15.17.
u = x esin(yz)
M0 (1; 3; 0).
. M (x, , y, z) Df :
u
= esin(yz) ,
x

u
= xz cos(yz) esin(yz) ,
y

15.2.

51

u
= xy cos(yz) esin(yz) .
z
M0 :
u
= esin 0 = 1,
x M0

15.2.2

u
= 1 0 cos 0 e0 = 0,
y M0
u
= 1 3 cos 0 esin 0 = 3.
z M0

M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ). u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) M ,
u = f (x1 + x1 , . . . , xn + xn ) f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

u = 1 x1 + 2 x2 + . . . + n xn + ,

f(x1 + x1 , x2 + x2 , . . . , xn + xn ),
M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) M
. .
q
f| = x2 + x2 + . . . + x2n .
|M M
1

1 x1 + 2 x2 + . . . + n xn , ,
du. 1 , 2 , . . . n
M , . .
du =

u
u
u
x1 +
x2 + . . .
xn .
x1
x2
xn

. M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )

52

15.

u = f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) ux1 , ux2 , . . . uxn M


, M , . .

u = du + ,
q

x21 + x22 + . . . + x2n 0.


2
2
2
x1 + x2 + . . . + xn

u = du + u du,
:
f (x1 + x1 , . . . , xn + xn ) f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn )
u
u
u
x1 +
x2 + . . .
xn .
x1
x2
xn

M (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ).
M0 (x0 , y0 ) :
f (x1 , x2 , . . . , xn ) +

f (x, y) f (x0 , y0 ) + fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ).


15.18.
z=

x + 2y
.
y

. :
z
1
= ,
x y

z
x
= 2.
y
y

:
dz =

z
z
x + y.
x
y

:
1
x
dz = x 2 y.
y
y

15.2.

53

15.19.
z

u = xctg y e x
M (e; 2 ; 0).
.
:
du = ux x + uy y + uz z.
:


z
= x
e x = ctg y x
e +x
e 2 ,
x


z
z 
1
ex ,
uy = xctg y e x y = xctg y ln x 2
sin y
z
z 
1
uz = xctg y e x z = xctg y e x .
x
M , x = e, y = 2 , z = 0:
ux

ctg y

z
x

ctg y1

ux = 0,
,

uy = 1,

z
x

ctg y

z
x

1
uz = .
e


1
du M = y + z.
e

15.20.
0,9783,014 .
. f (x, y) =
= xy . x0 = 1, y0 = 3 : f (1; 3) =
= 13 = 1. f f (x, y) = xy ,
x x0 = 1 x0 + x = 0,978 y y0 = 1
y0 + y = 3,014. x = 0,022, y = 0,014.
M0 (1; 3):
f (x, y)
= y xy1
x

f (1; 3)
= 3,
x

f (x, y)
= xy ln x
y

f (1; 3)
= 0.
y

54

15.

:
f (x, y) f (x0 , y0 ) + fx (x0 , y0 )x + fy (x0 , y0 )y.
,

15.2.3

0,9783,014 1 + 3 (0,022) + 0 0,014 = 0,934.

u = f (x, y, z), x = x(s, t), y = y(s, t), z = z(s, t),


u = f (x(s, t), y(s, t), z(s, t))
s t. x, y z . s t
:
u f x f y f z
=

+
,
s
x s y s z s
u f x f y f z
=

+
.
t
x t
y t z t
u = f (x, y, z), x ,
y z x, . . y = y(x), z = z(x). x,
du
(
, dx
u
x ):
du u u y u z
=
+

.
dx x y x z x
u = f (x, y, z)
M . : dx = x, dy = y, dz = z.

f
f
f
dx +
dy +
dz,
du =
x
y
z
.
, , x,
y z . ,

15.2.

55

u = f (x, y, z) s
t, . . u = f (x(s, t), y(s, t), z(s, t)),
. , dx,
dy dz :
x
x
ds +
dt,
dx =
s
t
y
y
dy =
ds + dt,
s
t
z
z
dz =
ds + dt.
s
t


15.21. z = ln (3x + 5y), x =
cos t, y = sin t. dz
dt .
. ,
. . z = f (x(t), y(t)). t ( ):
dz
f dx f dy
=

+
.
dt
x dt
y dt
,

f
3
f
5
=
,
=
,
x 3x + 5y
y
3x + 5y
dy
dx
= sin t,
= cos t.
dt
dt

dz
dt :

dz
3 sin t
5 cos t
5 cos t 3 sin t 5 cos t 3 sin t
=
+
=
=
.
dt
3x + 5y 3x + 5y
3x + 5y
3 cos t + 5 sin t
, z
t z(t).
z
z
y
.
15.22. z = e5t , t = x2 + y 3 . x
. z t, x y, . .
z = f (t(x, y)).
:
dz t
z
=

,
x
dt x

56

15.
z
dz t
=
.
y
dt y
:

dz
= 5e5t,
dt

t
= 2x,
x

t
= 3y 2 .
y

,
z
2
3
= 5e5t 2x = 10x e5(x +y ) ,
x
z
2
3
= 5e5t 3y 2 = 15y 2 e5(x +y ) .
y
z
15.23. z = sin xy , y = ex. x
dz
.
dx
. z x
y. y , x, . .
x , .

dz
z z dy
=
+
.
dx x y dx
z
z
x
x. ,

z
1
x
= cos ,
x y
y

z
x
x
= 2 cos ,
y
y
y

dy
= ex .
dx

, z x :
1
x
x
x
dz
= cos 2 cos ex
dx y
y y
y

dz
1x
x
=
cos
.
dx
ex
ex
p
15.24. u = x4 + 2y 3 z 2, x = 2s + 3t,
u
y = t s, z = st . u
t s .
. u x, y z, s t, . . u s t: u = f (x(s, t), y(s, t), z(s, t)).

57

15.2.

u s t
u u x u y u z
=

+
.
s
x s y s z s
:
2x3
u
=p
,
4
3
2
x
x + 2y z

3y 2
u
=p
,
4
3
2
y
x + 2y z

z
u
=p
,
4
3
2
z
x + 2y z

y
z
t
x
= 2,
= t,
= 2.
s
s
s
s

:


3y 2
z
t
u
2x3
2+ p
t p
2 .
=p
s
s
x4 + 2y 3 z 2
x4 + 2y 3 z 2
x4 + 2y 3 z 2

1
u
=q
s
(2s + 3t)4 + 2t3 s3

t2
s2

t2
3
3 2
4(2s + 3t) + 3t s + 3
s

u
t :

u u x u y u z
=

+
.
t
x t y t z t
,
:

x
= 3,
t

y
= s,
t

z
1
= ,
t
s

2x3
u
3y 2
z
=p
3+ p
s p

t
x4 + 2y 3 z 2
x4 + 2y 3 z 2
x4 + 2y 3 z 2

u
1
=q
t
(2s + 3t)4 + 2t3 s3

t2
s2

t
6(2s + 3t) + 3t s 2
s
3

2 3

 
1
.
s

58

15.

p
z
z
15.25. x
y
z = (x + sin y)xy x2 + y 2 .
. x y.

p , , u = x + sin y, v = xy, w = x2 + y 2 . z = uv w.

z u z v
z w
z
=

.
x u x v x w x
:
z
= v uv1 w,
u

z
x ,

z
= uv ln u w,
v

z
= uv ,
w

v
u
= (x + sin y)x = 1,
= (xy)x = y,
x
x


p

x
w
=
.
x2 + y 2 = p
x
x
x2 + y 2

p
p
z
xy
xy1
2
2
= xy(x + sin y)
x + y + (x + sin y) ln (x + sin y) y x2 + y 2 +
x
x
.
+(x + sin y)xy p
x2 + y 2
:


p
z
xy
x
= (x + sin y)xy x2 + y 2
+ y ln (x + sin y) + 2
.
x
x + sin y
x + y2

z
y

z u z v
z w
z
=

.
y
u y v y w y

u v w
y , y , y :

u
= cos y,
y

v
= x,
y

w
y
=p
.
y
x2 + y 2

:
p
p
z
= xy (x+sin y)xy1 x2 + y 2 cos y+(x+sin y)xy ln(x+sin y)x x2 + y 2 +
y

59

15.2.

y
+(x + sin y)xy p
.
x2 + y 2

p
z
= (x + sin y)xy x2 + y 2
y

y
xy cos y
+ x ln (x + sin y) + 2
x + sin y
x + y2


15.26. z = sin x2 3y 2 , x =

= xy, y = uv . ; . .
.
dz =

z
z
dx +
dy.
x
y

x y:
z
= 2x cos(x2 3y 2 ),
x

z
= 6y cos(x2 3y 2 ).
y

, :
dz = 2x cos(x2 3y 2 )dx 6y cos(x2 3y 2 )dy.
:
dz =

z
z
du +
dv.
u
v


z = z x(u, v), y(u, v) u v:
z
z x z y
=

=
u x u y u
r
1
v
= 2x cos(x2 3y 2 )
6y cos(x2 3y 2 ) v uv1 ,
2 u
z x z y
z
=

=
v
x v y v
r
1 u
2
2
6y cos(x2 3y 2 ) uv ln u.
= 2x cos(x 3y )
2 v

60

15.

:
r

v
1
dz = 2x cos(x2 3y 2 )
6y cos(x2 3y 2 ) v uv1 du+
2
u
r

u
1
2
2
6y cos(x2 3y 2 ) uv ln u dv.
+ 2x cos(x 3y )
2
v
, ,
:
r
r
1
1
v
u 
dz = 2x cos(x2 3y 2 )
du +
dv
2 u
2 v

6y cos(x2 3y 2 ) v uv1 du + uv ln u dv .
, x y:
r
r
1 v
1 u
dx =
du +
dv,
2 u
2 v
dy = v uv1 du + uv ln u dv.

:
dz = 2x cos(x2 3y 2 ) dx 6y cos(x2 3y 2 ) dy,
, ,
dz =

z
z
dx +
dy.
x
y

, .

15.2.4

z x y, F (x, y, z) = 0, z.
x y , z.
, z , x y ,
F (x, y, z(x, y)) 0 x y.

15.2.

61

F (x, y, z) Fz (x, y, z) 6= 0, z(x, y) :


z
F (x, y, z)
= x
,
x
Fz (x, y, z)

Fy (x, y, z)
z
=
.
y
Fz (x, y, z)

m , n , m n (m < n). ,

F (x, y, z, u) = 0,
(x, y, z, u) = 0
, . . (, x y) - ,
z u,

F (x, y, z(x, y), u(x, y)) = 0,
(x, y, z(x, y), u(x, y)) = 0.
z(x, y) u(x, y), ,
x, x .


15.27. z = z(x, y) z 3
z
z
xyz 2 1 = 0. x
y
.
.
Fx (x, y, z)
z
=
,
x
Fz (x, y, z)

Fy (x, y, z)
z
=
,
y
Fz (x, y, z)

F (x, y, z) = z 3 xyz 2 1. :
yz 2
yz
z
= 2
=
,
x
3z 2xyz
3z 2xy

z 6= 0,

z
xz 2
xz
= 2
=
, z 6= 0.
y
3z 2xyz
3z 2xy
,
F (x, y, z(x, y)) = 0
x, y:

z 3 xyz 2 1 x = 0,

62

15.

3z 2 zx y x z 2 + x 2z zx = 0.

zx :
zx =
zy :

yz
,
3z 2xy

z 6= 0.


z 3 xyz 2 1 y = 0,

3z 2 zy x y z 2 + y 2z zy = 0.
zy =

xz
,
3z 2xy

z 6= 0.

15.28. z = z(x, y)
sin z xyz + x2 = 0, M (1, 0, ).
.
:
z
z
dz =
dx +
dy.
x
y
, :
yz + 2x
yz 2x
z
=
=
,
x
cos z xy
cos z xy
z
xz
xz
=
=
.
y
cos z xy
cos z xy
:
dz =

yz 2x
xz
dx +
dy.
cos z xy
cos z xy

M , :


dz = 2 dx + dy.
M

15.29. z(x) y(x)


(
x2 + 2y + ln z = 0,
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 4.

15.2.

63

dy
dz
dx
dx
.
.
x:
F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y + ln z, (x, y, z) = x2 + y 2 + z 2 4.

x, , z y
x:

2x + 2y + 1 z = 0,
x
z x
2x + 2y y + 2z z = 0
x

2y + 1 z = 2x,
x
z x
y y + z z = x.
x
x

yx zx , :
yx =

x (1 2z 2 )
,
2z 2 y

zx =

2xz (y 1)
.
2z 2 y

:
15.53. z = x2 y 3 + 5x + ln y.
15.54. z = xy .
15.55. z = x3 y 2 + 2x ln y + y x .
arccos x
15.56. z = p
.
y2 + 1
y
.
15.57. z =
x+2
15.58. z = arcsin(xy).
p
15.59. z = x 4 y 2 .

15.60. z = arccos(x + y).

5
3
15.61. z = x y + y y x3 .
1
.
15.62. z = arcsin
1 x2 y 2

15.63. z = 3cos x ln (2x + 3y).


p
15.64. z = arctg x + y 2 .
15.65. z = x ey+2x .

15.66. u = 6xyz 2 + 5x2 z xy.


x + y + 2z
15.67. u =
.
z1
xy z
15.68. u =
+ .
z
x

z  x1
.
15.69. u = 1 +
y
z
15.70. u = xy .
15.71. u = xy tg2 z.
15.72. u = (x + y 2 + z 3)z .

64

15.

:
15.73. f (x, y) = x2 cos y, M0 (1, 0).
x
15.74. f (x, y) = 2 y , M0 (9, 1).
2 3
15.75. f (x, y, z) = e x+y +z , M0 (1, 2, 4).
15.76. f (x, y, z) = z

x+y

, M0 (1, 3, e).

15.77. f (x, y, z) = xsin(zy) , M0 (e, 1, 2 ).


x + z2
15.78. f (x, y, z) =
, M0 (1, 2, 3).
y+1
:
r
x+y
15.79. f (x, y) =
.
ln y
cos(x + 2y)
.
3x 4y
tg x
.
15.81. f (x, y) =
1 + xy

15.80. f (x, y) =

15.82. f (x, y) = ln(x2 + 5y 3 ).

15.83. f (x, y) = y sin3 (x + y x).

15.84. f (x, y) = (x + lg y)x .


15.85. f (x, y) = y arccos(x + y).

15.86. f (x, y, z) = x3 yz + 6 xy.


xy
15.87. f (x, y, z) =
.
x+y+z
xyz
15.88. f (x, y, z) = 2
.
x + y2
p
15.89. f (x, y, z) = z x tg 3y.

15.90. f (x, y, z) = tg(x3 + 2y 3 xz).


p
15.91. f (x, y, z) = arctg(2z) 1 + xy.
p
15.92. f (x, y, z) = arcctg z x tg 5y.

15.93. f (x, y, z) = tg(x3 + 2y) arcsin xz.

:
15.94. f (x, y) = 2x xy , M0 (1, 1).

15.95. f (x, y) = (xy) y , M0 (1, 4).


15.96. f (x, y, z) = (y)z ln x , M0 (e, e, 1).
15.97. f (x, y, z) = (ln y)x + 3x+z , M0 (e, e, 1).

15.2.
= 0,001:
p
15.98.
(0,97)2 + (2,02)2 .
p
15.99.
(4,05)2 + (2,93)2 .

15.100. 1,032,03 .
1,03
15.101. arctg
.
0,94

:
15.102. z = x4 y 3 , x = ln t, y = cos t, dz
dt =?

15.103. z = x2 cos y, x = et , y = t, dz
dt =?
x
15.104. z = , x = arctg t, y = sin 2t, dz
dt =?
y
15.105. z = 2x y 2 , x = log2 t, y = t2 2,
15.106. z = arcsin t, t = x3 y 2 ,

z z
x , y

dz
dt

=?

=?

z z
15.107. z = cos2 t, t = x+1
y+2 , x , y =?
p
z z
15.108. z = t2 + 1, t = 23x+y , x
, y =?

15.109. z = ln t, t =

xy 2 z z
2x , x , y

=?

z dz
15.110. z = arctg (7x + y), y = sin x, x
, dx =?

4x + 2y
z dz
, dx =?
15.111. z =
, y = sin 3x, x
x
x
z dz
, dx =?
15.112. z = arcsin , y = 3x , x
y

z dz
15.113. z = x ln(xy), y = x2 + 2, x
, dx =?

15.114. z = y cos x , y =

1 , z , dz
x x dx

15.115. z = xxy , y = tg x,

z dz
x , dx

=?
=?

15.116. z = sin(u3 + v 2 ), u = x sin y, v = y cos x,


z z
15.117. z = eu+2v , u = x4 + y 3 , v = xy, x
, y =?

z z
, y =?
15.118. z = u arctg v, u = y, v = xy , x

z z
x , y

=?

65

66

15.

15.119. z = x cos(uv), u = yx2 , v =

x + y,

z z
x , y

u2 v
z z
15.120. z =
, y =?
, u = x y, v = xy , x
cos x
15.121. u = x2 + 2y 3z, x = t es, y = t2 s3 , z = st2 ,
15.122. u = x sin(yz), x = t ln s, y = t3 e2s , z = st ,

=?

u u
s , t

u u
s , t

=?

=?

t t t
15.123. t = arctg(uv), u = x + 2y + 3z, v = xyz, x
, y , z =?

t t t
15.124. t = u cos v, u = tg(3x + yz), v = xyz , x
, y , z =?

15.125. t = u v u , u =

xy
z ,v

sin

xz t t t
, x , y , z

=?

, :
xy

15.126. z = xy e x2 +y2 ,

z z
x , y

=?

15.127. z = (x2 y 2 ) cos(x2 + y 4 )x

y 2

z z
x , y

=?

xy

(x3 + y 3 ) z z
15.128. z =
, x , y =?

xy
 x+y
x
x z z
15.129. z =
, y =?
sin , x
y
y
e

; :
15.130. z = cos x sin y, x = u ev , y = uv.

15.131. z = ln(x2 + y 2 ), x = u cos v, y = v sin u.


15.132. z = x3 y x , x = uv , y = uv.
15.133. z = ln(ex + ey ), x = 2u + 6v, y = 3u v.

:

z
x

z
y

z = z(x, y), -

15.134. z 4 x + z y 2 + xy = 0.

15.136. xz + xy z + 1 = 0.

15.135. x y z + arctg z = 0.

15.137. x ez + z ey = 5.

15.2.
15.138. y sin z = zx + 2.
15.139. z + (x + y)z = 7.
2

15.140. ez 5z cos(xy) = 0.

67

15.141. sin 3z x2 y 3 z 4 = 4.
15.142. z 3 x y 2 = 5 tg z.
15.143. ln z = xy + y z .

z = z(x, y)
:
15.144. z 2 2xy + 3zx = 0, M0 (1, 2, 0).
15.145. z x2 + ey+z = 0, M0 (2, 0, 0).
15.146. ln z = xyz, M0 (2, 3, 1).

15.147. 2x + 3y + 4z = ez , M0 (5, 4, 0).


15.148. z arctg z = xy 3 , M0 (2, 1, 1).
15.149. y sin z = z + x, M0 (3, 2, 2 ).

,
:
(
x3 + 2z 3 6y 3 = 5x,
15.150.
x2 2z 4 + y 3 = 0.
(
x5 2z 3 y 3 6z = 0,
15.151.
3x + z 2 5y 2 + 19 = 0.

15.3

15.3.1

z = f (x, y) f
x
f
y . ( ):
 
 
2f
f
f
2f
,
,
=
=
x2
x x
xy
y x

68

15.
2f

=
yx x

f
y

2f
=
y 2
y

f
y

: fxx
, fxy
, fyx
, fyy
.

fxy , fyx .
M0 (x0 , y0 ) z = f (x, y)

fxy
fyx
, M0 ,
:

2f (x0 , y0 ) 2 f (x0 , y0 )
=
.
xy
yx
z = f (x, y) . ,
:

fxxx
,

fxxy
,

fxyx
,

fyxx
,

fxyy
,

fyyx
,

fyxy
,

fyyy
.

z = f (x, y)
:
d2 f = d(df ).
z =
f (x, y) :
2f 2
2f
2f 2
df=
dx + 2
dx dy + 2 dy .
x2
xy
y
2

z =
= f (x, y) :
d3 f = d(d2f )

3f 3
3f
3f
3f 3
2
2
df=
dx + 3 2 dx dy + 3
dx dy + 3 dy .
x3
x y
xy 2
y
3


15.30. z = arccos(xy) y x . .

69

15.3.

.
:
z
y
y x ln y,
= p
x
1 x2 y 2
x
z
x y x1 .
= p
y
1 x2 y 2

=
yx y

z
x

y:

y
y x ln y
p
1 x2 y 2

p
2
1 x2 y 2 y 2x y2
2

1x y 2

x y x1 ln y

1 x2 y 2
1
y x1 (x ln y + 1).
=
2
2
3/2
(1 x y )


2z

=
xy
x

z
x

z
y

z
y

yx
=
y

x:

x y x1
p
1 x2 y 2

p
2
1 x2 y 2 x 2xy 2
2

x2 y 2

1x y 2

y x1 x y x1 ln y =

1
y x1 (1 + x ln y).
2
2
3/2
(1 x y )
, ,
=

2z
2z
=
.
yx xy
2

z
15.31. x
2,
2
2
z z
2
2
2
xy , y 2 d z z = x ln(x + y ).
. :

2x2
z
2
2
= ln(x + y ) + 2
,
x
x + y2

70

15.
z
2xy
= 2
.
y
x + y2
:


2
2x
2z
=
= ln(x2 + y 2 ) + 2
2
x
x + y2 x

2x
4x(x2 + y 2 ) 2x2 2x 2x(x2 + 3y 2 )
= 2
+
=
.
x + y2
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2
z
x y
:
2z
=
xy

2xy
x2 + y 2

2z
y 2

2y(x2 + y 2 ) 2xy 2x 2y(y 2 x2 )


=
.
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2

y -

z
y 2 :

2z
=
y 2

2xy
x2 + y 2

2x(x2 + y 2 ) 2xy 2y
2x(x2 y 2 )
=
=
.
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2

, :
2z
2z
2z
d2 z = 2 dx2 + 2
dx dy + 2 dy 2 .
x
xy
y
,
d2 z =

2x(x2 y 2 ) 2
2x(x2 + 3y 2 ) 2 2y(y 2 x2 )
dx
+
dx
dy
+
dy .
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2

15.32. u =
= x2 y ln(2z + 1) M0 (2, 1, 1).
.
3u
3u
3u 3
3u 3
2
2
d u = 3 dx + 3 2 dx dy + 3
dx dy + 3 dy .
x
x y
xy 2
y
3

, :
u
= 2xy ln(2z + 1),
x

u
= x2 ln(2z + 1),
y

u
2x2 y
=
.
z
2z + 1

15.3.

71

:
2u
= (2xy ln(2z + 1))x = 2y ln(2z + 1),
2
x
3u
= (2y ln(2z + 1))x = 0.
3
x
, , 2
y xu2 :
3u

=
(2y
ln(2z
+
1))
y = 2 ln(2z + 1).
x2 y
,
3

2u
y 2

= 0, -

u
u
xy
2 y 3 .
,

d3 u = 3

3u
dx2 dy = 6 ln(2z + 1) dx2 dy.
2
x y

, M0 :

3
d u = 6 ln 3 dx2 dy.
M0

15.3.2

z = f (x, y), x = x(u, v), y =


= y(u, v). u v :
f x f y
z
=
+
,
u x u y u
z
f x f y
=
+
.
v
x v y v

u v
zu zv , ,
fx fy . ,
, .

72

15.


15.33. z = x3 + 3y 2 5, x = sin t, y = et .
2
ddt2z .
. dz
dt
dz
z dx z dy
=
+
.
dt
x dt y dt
:

dz
= 3x2 cos t + 6y et .
dt
t, , x
y t.
dz
= 3(x, y, t).
dt

d3(x, y, t) 3 dx 3 dy 3 dt
d2 z
=
=
+
+
.
dt2
dt
x dt
y dt
t dt

d3
= 6x cos2 t + 6e2t 3x2 sin t + 6y et .
dt
, x = sin t, y = et, :
d2 z
= 6 sin t cos2 t + 12 e2t 3 sin3 t.
dt2
15.34. z = e2x+y , x = uv, y =
= u2 + v 3 . d2z.
. . ,
.
d2 z:
2z 2
2z
2z 2
d z = 2 du + 2
du dv + 2 dv .
u
uv
v
2

u
v:
z
z x z y
=
+
= 2 e2x+y v + e2x+y 2u = 2 e2x+y (v + u),
u x u y u

73

15.3.
z
z x z y
=
+
= 2 e2x+y u + e2x+y 3v 2 = e2x+y (2u + 3v 2 ).
v
x v y v
:
z
= 3(x, y, u, v),
u

z
= (x, y, u, v).
v


2z
u
2:
3 3 x 3 y 3 u 3 v
2z
=
=
+
+
+
=
u2
u
x u y u u u v u
= 4 e2x+y (v + u) v + 2 e2x+y (v + u) 2u + 2 e2x+y 1 + 2 e2x+y 0 =
= 2 e2x+y (4uv + 2v 2 + 2u2 + 1).

, x = uv, y = u2 + v 3 , :
2z
2uv+u2 +v 3
=
2
e
(4uv + 2v 2 + 2u2 + 1).
2
u
v z
2z
u
uv
. ,
3 3 x 3 y 3 u 3 v
2z
=
=
+
+
+
.
uv
v
x v y v u v v v
:
2z
= 4 e2x+y (v + u) u + 2 e2x+y (v + u) 3v 2 + 2 e2x+y 0 + 2 e2x+y 1 =
uv
= 2 e2x+y (2u2 + 2uv + 3v 3 + 3uv 2 + 1).
x = uv, y = u2 + v 3 , :
2z
2
3
= 2 e2uv+u +v (2u2 + 2uv + 3v 3 + 3uv 2 + 1).
uv
2

z
v
2

z
v

x y u v
2z
=
+
+
+
.
2
v
x v
y v u v
v v

v:

74

15.

:
2z
= 2 e2x+y (2u + 3v 2 ) u + e2x+y (2u + 3v 2 ) 3v 2 + 2 e2x+y 0 + 6v e2x+y 1 =
2
v
= e2x+y (4u2 + 12uv 2 + 9v 4 + 6v).
:
2z
2uv+u2 +v 3
=
e
(4u2 + 12uv 2 + 9v 4 + 6v).
2
v

:
d2 z = 2 e2uv+u

+v 3

(4uv + 2v 2 + 2u2 + 1) du2 +

+ 4 e2uv+u

+v 3

(2u2 + 2uv + 3v 3 + 3uv 2 + 1) du dv+


+ e2uv+u

15.3.3

+v 3

(4u2 + 12uv 2 + 9v 4 + 6v) dv 2.

z(x, y), F (x, y, z) = 0, :


F
z
= x ,
x
Fz

Fy
z
= .
y
Fz

z
x
2 , x,
Fx
= 3(x, y, z(x, y)).
Fz

,
2z
d3 3 x 3 y 3 z
=
=
+
+
.
x2
dx
x x y x z x

x
= 1,
x

y
= 0,
x

z
Fx
= .
x
Fz

75

15.3.
2

z
xy

3(x, y, z(x, y)) y, .


Fy
z
= = (x, y, z(x, y)),
y
Fz
2

z
y
2 y (x, y, z(x, y)).
, ,
,
.


15.35. z(x, y) z =
= sin z + x2 y 2 . d2 z.
.
:
d2 z =

2z
2z 2
2z 2
dx
+
2
dx
dy
+
dy .
x2
xy
y 2

:
F (x, y, z) = z sin z x2 y 2 .
z(x, y):
z
2xy 2
Fx
2xy 2
= =
=
,
x
Fz
1 cos z
1 cos z
Fy
z
2yx2
2yx2
= =
=
.
y
Fz
1 cos z
1 cos z

2xy 2
z
=
= 3(x, y, z),
x 1 cos z
2yx2
z
=
= (x, y, z).
y
1 cos z

76

15.

z(x, y) :
2z
d3
2z
d3
2z
d
=
,
=
,
=
,
x2
dx
xy
dy
y 2
dy
:
2z
3 x 3 y 3 z
=
+
+
=
x2
x x y x z x
=
,

2xy 2 sin z
2xy 2
2y 2

.
1 cos z (1 cos z)2 1 cos z

2z
2y 2
4x2 y 4 sin z
=

.
x2
1 cos z (1 cos z)3
,
2z
d3 3 x 3 y 3 z
=
=
+
+
=
xy
dy
x y y y z y

2xy 2 sin z
2yx2
4xy
4x3 y 3 sin z
4xy

.
1 cos z (1 cos z)2 1 cos z
1 cos z (1 cos z)3
,
=

x
= 0,
y

(x, y, z):

2z
y 2

y
= 1,
y

z
2yx2
=
.
y
1 cos z

d x y z
2z
=
=
+
+
=
y 2
dy
x y
y y
z y
2x2
2yx2 sin z
2yx2
2x2
4x4 y 2 sin z
=

.
1 cos z (1 cos z)2 1 cos z
1 cos z (1 cos z)3

:


2 4
2
4x
y
sin
z
2y
d2 z =

dx2 +
3
1 cos z (1 cos z)


4xy
4x3 y 3 sin z
+2

dx dy+
1 cos z (1 cos z)3


4x4 y 2 sin z
2x2

dy 2 .
+
3
1 cos z (1 cos z)

77

15.3.

15.3.4

z = f (x, y)
(x0 , y0 ) . f (x, y)
(n + 1) , :
n
X
1 k
f (x, y) = f (x0 , y0 ) +
d f (x0 , y0 ) + Rn (x, y),
k!
k=1


Rn (x, y) =

1
dn+1 f (x0 + dx, y0 + dy),
(n + 1)!

dx = x x0 ,

dy = y y0 ,

0 < < 1.


15.36. ,
f (x, y) = x3 2xy 2 + 4xy M0 (0, 1).
. , x y
, Rn (x, y) n > 3 .
:
f (x, y) = f (x0 , y0 ) + df (x0 , y0 ) +

1
1 2
d f (x0 , y0 ) + d3 f (x0 , y0 ).
2!
3!

M0 (0, 1) . df :
df =

f
f
dx +
dy = (3x2 2y 2 + 4y) dx + (4xy + 4x) dy.
x
y

, dx = x 0, dy = y 1,
M0 :
df (0, 1) = 2(x 0) + 0(y 1) = 2x.

78

15.


2f
2f 2
2f 2
dx + 2
dx dy + 2 dy .
df=
x2
xy
y
2

:
M0 :

d2 f = 6x dx2 + 2 (4y + 4) dx dy 4x dy 2.
d2 f (0, 1) = 0.


3f
3f
3f 3
3f 3
2
2
dx + 3 2 dx dy + 3
dx dy + 3 dy .
df=
x3
x y
xy 2
y
3

,
d3 f = 6 dx3 + 3 0 dx2 dy + 3 (4) dx dy 2 + 0 dy 3 = 6x3 12x (y 1)2 .
:
f (x, y) = 2x +


1
6x3 12x (y 1)2 = 2x + x3 2x (y 1)2 .
6


:
15.152. z = arcsin(xy) + x ey .
15.153. z = x 5x+y .

15.154. z = xy + sin(3x 2y).


p
x
15.155. z = x2 + y 2 .
y

:
15.156. z = y arccos 2x (ln y)x .
15.157. z = x y x .
x

15.158. z = cos(x y) sin .


y

15.159. z = y 3 arctg 2x .

x ln y
15.160. u =
.
sin z

15.161. u = xy 2 arctg 3z 1.

15.3.

79

d2 z:
15.162. z = exy + ln(xy).
15.163. z = x sin2 y 2xy .

15.164. z = arctg xy + x lg y.

15.165. z = cos2 (7x + 4y).


15.166. z = x 4y + y log4 x.

d3 z:
15.167. z = x4 y 4 + x3 y 3 .
15.168. z = 10x2 y 2 5x4 1.

15.169. z = 7 x6 y 5 + yx4 .

15.170. z = xy 5y 7 7x5 + x6 y 6 .

d2 z M0 (x0 , y0 ):
15.171. z = x arccos y + exy , M0 (0, 2).

15.172. z = cos xy + xy, M0 (1, ).


p
15.173. z = x2 + y 2 + 10x+y , M0 (3, 4).

15.174. z = x ctg y + x2 y, M0 (0, 4 ).



: ; :
15.175. z = 6x4 y 7y + 2x.
p
15.176. z = 4x + 3y.

15.177. z = exy .
15.178. z = sin (5x + y).

d2 z
dt2 :

15.179. z = cos x + 2y, x = ln t, y = et .


15.180. z = y x, x = sin t, y = cos t.

15.181. z = y sin x, x = t2, y = t.


15.182. z = ex+y , x = 1t , y = t + 2.

80

15.
2z
2z 2z
u2 , uv , v 2

d2 z:

15.183. z = x2 y 2 , x = u + 3, y = v 2.

15.184. z = 2x + cos y, x = u + v, y = u v.

15.185. z = x ln y, x = u2 + v, y = u + v 3 .
15.186. z = ln(x + y), x = u2 v 4 , y = uv .

15.187. z = x + y, x = u4 v 2 , y = uv.

15.188.

2u
vt ,

u =

15.189.

2z
vt ,

15.190.

2z
vt ,

z = sin(2vx 3y), x = tv, y =

15.191.

2w
vt ,

15.192.

2z
vt ,

x
y+4t ,

x = tv 2 , y =

v
t3 .
1
t3

2v.

z = tg(2v 3xy), x = t v, y = 4t + 2v.


w = 3xy y 2 cos t, x = tv, y = t2 + 2v.
z = x sin(y 2 xt), x = t + 6v, y =

1
t

2v.

, :
15.193. e2u = x + 2y u + ln 3, uxx =?
w

15.194. ln = x w + 5, wxy
=?
y
15.195. et = cos2 x 2y t, tyy =?
y
15.196. u 3x + arctg 3 = 0, uxy =?
u

zxx
, zxy
, zyy
z = f (x, y), :

15.197. ln z + x = z y.

15.198. cos z xy + xz 2 + 1 = 0.

15.199. z xy 3 + sin 3z = 0.

15.200. x + arctg z = yz.

z = f (x, y) x x0 ,
y y0 M0 (x0 , y0 ):
15.201. f (x, y) = x2 y y 1, M0 (1, 1).

15.202. f (x, y) = x3 xy + y, M0 (1, 0).

81

15.4.

15.4

15.4.1

u = f (x, y, z), M0 Df l ,
. M0

l , M (x, y, z),
M0 .

u = f (x, y, z) l :
u
f (M ) f (M0 )
.

= Mlim
M
|M
M
|
0
0
l

u = f (x, y, z) l
:

0
u

M = gradu(M0 ) l ,
l 0

gradu = fx (x0 , y0 , z0 ) i + fy (x0 , y0 , z0 ) j + fz (x0 , y0 , z0 ) k

; l 0 .
. , . . .

15.37. u = (tg y + 1) x x ln z
M0 (1, 0, e).
.
M (x, y, z) Du :

u
u
u
i +
j +
k.
gradu(x, y, z) =
x
y
z
:
i
h

x
gradu(x, y, z) = (tg y + 1) ln(tg y + 1) ln z i +
2 x

82

15.

+ x(tg y + 1) x1

1
x
j k.
2
cos y
z

M0 (1, 0, e):


1
gradu(1, 0, e) = i + j k .
e
15.38. u = x2 +y 2 2z 2



M0 (1, 1, 1) l = i 5 j +3 k ;

M1 M2 , M1 (0, 2, 1), M2 (6, 0, 4); .


. u(x, y, z):

gradu(x, y, z) = 2x i + 2y j 4z k .
M0 (1, 1, 1):

gradu(1, 1, 1) = 2 i + 2 j + 4 k .

l 0 :

0
l
l =
.
|l|
,

i 5j +3k
5
3
1

l =
= i j + k.
35
35
35
12 + 52 + 32
M0

l :

0
5
3
4
u
1

M = gradu(M0 ) l = 2 2 + 4 = .
35
35
35
35
l 0

, M1 M2 , :

M1 M2 = (6 0) i + (0 (2)) j + (4 1) k = 6 i + 2 j + 3 k ,

0 6 i + 2 j + 3 k
6
2
3
= i + j + k.
M1 M2 =
7
7
7
62 + 22 + 32

15.4.

83

M0

M1 M2 :

0
2
3
u
6
+
2

+
4

= 4.
=
gradu(M
)

M
M
=
2


0
1
2

7
7
7
M1 M2 M0

, , :

gradu(M0 )
1
2
1
2 i +2j +4k

= i + j + k.
=

6
6
6
22 + 22 + 42
|gradu(M0 )|

u
:

1
12
1
1
2 + 2 + 4 = = 2 6.
6
6
6
6

, M0


l , M1 M2 gradu , .

15.4.2

M , M .
,
M .
, M , .
, , .
F (x, y, z) = 0
M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) ,
M0 :
Fx (x0 , y0 , z0 )(x x0 ) + Fy (x0 , y0 , z0 )(y y0 ) + Fz (x0 , y0 , z0 )(z z0 ) = 0.
M0 :
y y0
z z0
x x0
=
=
.
Fx (x0 , y0 , z0 ) Fy (x0 , y0 , z0 ) Fz (x0 , y0 , z0 )

84

15.


15.39. u = x2 +y +z 2 M0 (1, 2, 1) , M0 ,
M0 .
. , M0 (1, 2, 1), , M0
,
:
x2 + y + z 2 = C
=
C = 4.
, , M0 (1, 2, 1), :
x2 + y + z 2 = 4.
M0 :

N = gradu = 2 i + j + 2 k .

:
2(x 1) + 1(y 2) + 2(z 1) = 0,

2x + y + 2z = 6.

N
:
x1 y2 z1
=
=
.
2
1
2

15.5

f (x, y) Df . .
M0 (x0 , y0 ) Df M (x, y) Df f (x0 , y0 ) 6 f (x, y) , , f (x0 , y0 ) > f (x, y), M0 (x0 , y0 )
. .

15.5.

85

( ). f (x, y) M0 (x0 , y0 ) ,
, , .
, , .
.
( ).
2

= fxx
(x0 , y0 ) fyy
(x0 , y0 ) fxy
(x0 , y0 ) > 0
f (x, y) : ,

fxx
(x0 , y0 ) < 0 ; , fxx
(x0 , y0 ) > 0.


15.40. z =
x + y 2 4y + 4 .
. .
2

f
x
f
y

=0 ,
=0 .

2x = 0,
2y 4 = 0.

(0; 2). , :
2z
2z
2z
= 2;
= 0; 2 = 2.
2x
xy
y

2z 2z
= 2 2
x y

2z
xy

2

= 2 2 0 2 = 2 > 0.

86

15.

, , 2
, (0; 2) . 2 xz = 2
( ), :
zmin = 02 + 22 4 2 + 4 = 0.
15.41.
z = x2 + xy y 2 + 1, x + y = 2 .
.
z = f (x, y) = x2 + xy y 2 + 1 3(x, y) = x + y 2 = 0, .
, x + y = 2.
. (x, y) = f (x, y) + 3(x, y),
. (x, y) . x y , . ,
. ,
(x, y) = x2 + xy y 2 + 1 + (x + y 2).
:

(x, y) = 2x + y + = 0,

x
y (x, y) = x 2y + = 0,

x + y 2 = 0.

, = 1, x = 1, y = 1.
(1, 1),
, = 1:
2
2
2
= 2;
= 0; 2 = 2.
2x
xy
y

2 2
= 2 2
x y

2
xy

2

= 2 (2) 0 = 4 > 0.

, (1, 1) , , 2
, 2x = 2 < 0.

15.5.

87

1.
.
2. 3(x, y) = 0
, , y = h(x) , z = f (x, y) ,
z = f (x, h(x)) .
.

grad u(M0 ) :
p
15.203. u = x 3 y 2 + z 2, M0 (2; 0; 1).

15.204. u = cos(x y) + xyz, M0 ( ; ; 0).
2 3
p
15.205. u = ln z x2 + y 2 , M0 (0; 1; e).

15.206. u = z ln(x2 + y 2 ), M0 (1; 0; 2).


p
15.207. u = ln(2z + x2 + y 2 ), M0 (4; 3; 2).
15.208. u = x2 y 2 z ez , M0 (1; 1; 1).

u(x, y, z) M0 l:

2
2
15.209. u = x + ez +y , l = 2i j + k, M0 (1; 0; 1).
x3 p 2
15.210. u =
+ y + 2z 2 , l = j k, M0 (2; 1; 0).
3
p

15.211. u = xy + 4 z 2 , l = 2i + 2j k, M0 (1; 1; 0).


1
15.212. u = ln(2 x2 ) + xyz 2 , l = i + 2j 2k, M0 (1; 0; 1).
2
u(x, y, z) M0 M0 M :
15.213. u = x2 y 2 + xy + z 2 , M0 (1; 2; 4), M (1; 0; 3).
x2
2
15.214. u = xy + , M0 (1; 2; 1), M (1; 0; 0).
z
2 2 2
15.215. u = x y z + lg(x 1), M0 (2; 1; 1), M (1; 0; 2).
15.216. u = z arctg (xy), M0 (0; 1; 1), M (2; 5; 1).

88

15.

u(x, y, z) M0 : )
M0 M ; ) .
15.217. u = x3 + y 2 yz + 2zy, M0 (1; 0; 2), M (1; 1; 0).
15.218. u = 2x2 + 2y 2 xyz, M0 (1; 1; 0), M (3; 2; 1).

15.219. u = y ln(x + y) + xz, M0 (1; 0; 1), M (2; 2; 3).

15.220. u = xyz + zxy , M0 (1; 1; 1), M (0; 1; 0).


F (x, y, z) = 0 M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ).
15.221. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 49, M0 (6; 2; 3).
1
15.222. z 2 = 9 6x2 4y 2 , M0 (1; ; 2).
2
15.223. 12x + 3y 2 + 7z = 0, M0 (2; 1; 3).
15.224. x = 3y 2 + z 2, M0 (11; 2; 1).

15.225. 2x2 + 3y 2 5z = 0, M0 (1; 1; 1).

15.226. x2 2y 2 + 3z 2 2 = 0, M0 (2; 1; 0).

x2 y 2 z 2
11
15.227.
+
+
= 1, M0 (1;
; 2).
4
4
9
3
15.228. y 2 x2 = z, M0 (1; 2; 3).
u(x, y, z) , M0 (x0 , y0 , z0 ) M0 .
15.229. u = x2 + y 2 z, M0 (2; 1; 5).

15.230. u = 2x2 + y 2 z 2 , M0 (1; 2; 3).

2 1 3
15.231. u = x2 + y 2 + z 2 2z, M0 ( ; ; ).
2 2 2
2
y
z, M0 (1; 2; 3).
15.232. u = 2x2 +
4
15.233. x2 +2y 2 +3z 2 = 21
, x + 4y + 6z = 0.
15.234. , x + 2y ln z + 4 = 0 x2 xy 8x +
z + 5 = 0 (. . )
M (2; 3; 1).

15.6.

89

.
15.235. z = x2 + y 2 + 1.
15.236. z = x2 xy y 2 + x + y.
15.237. z = x2 y 2 + 6y 9.
15.238. z = x3 + y 3 3xy.

15.239. z = x2 + y 2 2x + 1.

15.240. z = x2 + xy + y 2 + x y + 1.
.
p
15.241. z = x2 + y 2 + 1, x + y = 1.

15.242. z = x2 + xy + 3y 2 + 5, x + y = 4.
x y
15.243. z = + , x2 + y 2 = 1.
3 4
p
15.244. z = x2 + y 2 , x y 2 = 1.

15.6

. P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0


,
u = u(x, y):
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy =

u
u
dx +
dy.
x
y

u
P (x, y) = x
Q(x, y) = u
y .
,
P (x, y)dx + Q(x, y)dy = 0 ,

P (x, y) Q(x, y)
=
.
y
x
u(x, y) = C, C .

90

15.


15.42.
(ey + 3x2 y 2 + 2)dx + (xey + 2yx3 1)dy = 0.
. , , ,
P (x, y) Q(x, y)
=
.
y
x

Py (x, y) = (ey +3x2 y+2)y = ey +6x2 y, Qx (x, y) = (xey +2yx3 1)x = ey +6x2 y.
, , . .
u
= P (x, y),
x
y , x:
u(x, y) =

P (x, y)dx =

3x3 y
(e + 3x y + 2)dx = e x +
+ 2x + 3(y).
3
y

3(y) ( x, y.
y
u(x, y) = ey x + x3 y + 2x + 3(y):
u(x, y)
= (ey x + x3 y + 2x + 3(y))y = ey x + x3 + 3 (y).
y
, ,
u(x, y)
= Q(x, y) = xey + 2yx3 1.
y
3 (y):
ey x + x3 + 3 (y) = xey + 2yx3 1,
3 (y) = 2yx3 x3 1.

15.6.

91

r
3(y) = (2yx3 x3 1)dy = y 2 x3 yx3 y + C.
3(y) u(x, y):
u(x, y) = ey x + x3 y + 2x + 3(y) = ey x + x3 y + 2x + y 2 x3 yx3 y + C.

u(x, y) = ey x + 2x + y 2 x3 y + C.
, :
ey x + 2x + y 2 x3 y = C.

.
15.245. ydx + (x + yey )dy = 0.
15.246. (ey + x)dx + (xey 2y)dy = 0.

15.247. (3x2 + 6xy 2 )dx = (5y 3 + 6x2 y + 5y)dy.


15.248. (yex 2x)dx + (ex + y)dy = 0.

15.249. (1 y cos x)dx + (sin x + y)dy = 0.

15.250. (2x cos y 2e2x )dx x2 sin ydy = 0.

16


16.1

16.1.1

, .
-

f (t) t,
.
:
1. f (t) t:
f (t) = 0, t < 0.
2. f (t) .
3. f (t) , .. M > 0 0 > 0 ,
|f (t)| < M e0 t , t > 0.
.
p = + i Re p = > 0 .

fb(p) =

+
w
0

eptf (t)dt

93

16.1.

p = + i .
,
fb(p) (
) - f (t).
:
f (t) fb(p).
( ). f (t) 2 3,
w

ept f (t) dt

p, Re p > 0 , 0 f (t). fb(p) .

16.1.

1 t > 0,
(t) =
0 t < 0.
. :
(t)

ept (t) dt =

w
0

ept 1 dt = lim

w
0


pt
e
=
ept dt = lim
p 0
 p

e
1
1
= lim
= .
+

p
p
p

,
lim

ep

Rep > 0.

1
(t)

.
p

94

16.

, , - , , sin t, cos t, et . .,

(
0 , t < 0,
f1 (t) =
sin x , t > 0 .
(
0 , t < 0,
f2 (t) =
cos x , t > 0 .
(
0 , t < 0,
f3 (t) =
ex , t > 0 .
(t)
f1 (t) = (t) sin(t),

f3 = (t)et,

f2 (t) = (t) cos(t),

(t) . ,
1
1

.
p
16.2. f (t) = t2 .
. :
2

pt 2

t dt = lim

ept t2dt.

:
u = t2 ,

dv = eptdt,

du = 2t dt,

v=

1
.
pept

,
lim

eptt2 dt = lim

, Rep > 0
lim

t2
2 w t dt
pt +
.
pe 0 p ept

2
p
pe

= 0.

95

16.1.
.
:

u=t

!
dv = dt

w
w dt


pt
2 t dt
t
2
1
e = lim

lim
=
p pept + p ept =

pt
du
=
dt
p
e

0
0
0

1
v = pt
pe
= lim

,
lim

!
t
pt = 0.
pe 0

!
2
2
3 pt = 3 .
pe 0
p

2
.
p3
16.3. f (t) = et .
.
!
w
(p)t
e
=
et

eptet dt = lim e(p)t dt = lim

p 0
0

 (p)t
1
e
.
+
= lim

p
p
t2

p > 0

e(p)t
= 0.
p
lim

et

16.1.2

1
p

p > .

.
:
c1 f1 (t) + c2 f2 (t) + . . . + cn fn (t)

c1 fb1 (p) + c2 fb2 (p) + . . . + cn fbn (p).

96

16.

.
:
1 b p 
f (t)

f
.

. f (t)
et , , fb(p) p (p ):
et f (t)

fb(p ).

. (t )f (t ), f (t) > 0,
f (t) ep :
(t )f (t )

ep fb(p).

. 16.1 ex/4 1 ( ) ,
 = 2, . .
(x2)/4
(t 2) e
1 ( ).

1.75
1.5
1.25

1
0.75
0.5
0.25
1

. 16.1. .

97

16.1.

. - 3(t)
(t) t,
:
3(t) (t) =

wt
0

3(x)(t x)dx.

, . . , 3(t) (t) :
wt
0

3(x)(t x)dx =

wt
0

(x)3(t x)dx.

. , . . 3(t)

b (p),
b (p) (t)
3

b (p).
b (p)
3(t) (t)

.
0 t p , . . f (t)

fb(p),
wt
0

f (x)dx

fb(p)
.
p

.
p , . . f (t)

b
f (p),
f (t)

pfb(p) f (0),

f (0) = f (+0) = lim f (t).


t+0

. n- :
f (n) (t)

pn fb(p) pn1 f (0) pn2 f (0) . . . f (n1) (0).

98

16.

. f (t),
fb(p), tn , n ,
tn f (t) :
tn f (t)

(1)n

dn fb(p)
.
dpn

.
, f (t)

fb(p)
w
f (t)

fb(x)dx.
t
p

f (t)
t


Re p > 0 .

r
p

fb(x)dx

99

16.1.

16.1.3

f (t), t > 0

fb(p)
1
p

tn

n!
pn+1

et

1
p

sin t

p 2 + 2

cos t

p
p 2 + 2

sh t

p 2 2

ch t

tn et

n!
(p )n+1

et sin t

(p )2 + 2

10

et cos t

11

t sin t

2p
(p2 + 2 )2

t cos t

p 2 2
(p2 + 2 )2

12

p
p 2 2

p
(p )2 + 2

100

16.


16.4.
f (t) = 5 2t +

t2
3e2t .
6

. :
5
5

,
p

1
t

,
p

t2

2!
,
p3

e2t

1
.
p+2

,
5 2t +

t2
5
2
2!
3
5
2
1
3
3e2t

2+ 3
= 2+ 3
.
6
p p
6p
p+2 p p
3p
p+2

16.5. sh t
ch t.
. :
et et
,
sh t =
2

et + et
ch t =
.
2

et , :
1
1
1 1
1 1
1
sh t = et et

= 2
,
2
2
2p 1 2p + 1 p 1
1
1 1
1 1
p
1

+
= 2
.
ch t = et + et
2
2
2p 1 2p + 1 p 1
,
1
p
sh t

2
, ch t

2
.
p 1
p 1

sin t

1
,
p2 + 1

cos t

p
.
p2 + 1

16.6. sh 3t.
.
sh t

p2

1
.
1

101

16.1.
:
sh 3t

1

p 2
3

3
.
p2 9

.
p 2 2

sh t

16.7. f (t) = e5t t2 .


. t2

p2!3 , :
e5t t2

2!
.
(p 5)3

fb(p) =

2
.
(p 5)3

16.8. f (t) = e8t sh 2t.


. f (t) = sh 2t
fb(p) = p224 .
e8t sh 2t

2
.
(p + 8)2 4

7t
16.9. f (t) = cos
e2t .
. cos 7t:

cos 7t

p
.
p2 + 49

, :
cos 7t
p+2
2t
=
cos
7t

.
e2t
(p + 2)2 + 49
16.10. (t 3) sin (t 3).
. sin t

p21+1 , (t
3) sin(t 3), = 3 sin t, :
e3p
.
sin (t 3)

2
p +1

102

16.

16.11.
(
sin t , 0 < t < ,
f (t) =
0 , t>.
. . , ,
sin t, , ,
. . (t ) sin(t ) ( . 16.2).

1
0.5

-0.5
-1
. 16.2. 16.10.
,
f (t) = sin t + (t ) sin(t ).

f (t)

1
(1 + et ).
2
p +1

16.12. 3(t) = 1 (t) = sin t.


. :
1 sin t =

wt
0

1 sin(t x)dx =

wt
0

sin x 1 dx.

103

16.1.
:
wt
0

t

sin x 1 dx = cos x = cos t + 1.
0

1 sin t = 1 cos t.
16.13. 1 sin t.
. 3(t) = 1 (t) = sin t
: 1 sin t = 1 cos t.
1 cos t

1
p
1
2
=
.
p p + 1 p(p2 + 1)

, .
1
3(t) = 1

,
p

1 sin t

(t) = sin t

1
,
p2 + 1

1
1
1
2
=
.
p p + 1 p(p2 + 1)

16.14. 3(t) = t2
(t) = cos t.
. :
t2

2
,
p3

cos t

p
.
p2 + 1

:
t2 cos t

2
p
2
2
= 2 2
.
3
p p + 1 p (p + 1)

16.15. .
. ,
1
tn

n+1 .
n!
p

104

16.

. n = 1
:
1
.
p2

n 1, ,
n.
,
tn1
1

n.
(n 1)!
p
:
wt
0

1
xn1
dx

.
(n 1)!
p pn

, :
tn
1

n+1 .
n!
p
,
n. ,

n!
.
pn+1

tn

16.16.
.
. ,
sin t

wt
0

sin x dx

1
,
p2 + 1

1
p2 +1

1
.
p(p2 + 1)

rt
0

sin x dx,

105

16.1.
16.17. f (t) = cos2 t.
.
f (t) = pfb(p) f (0).

f (0) = cos2 0 = 1,

f (t) = (cos2 t) = 2 cos t sin t = sin 2t.

,
sin 2t

2
,
p2 + 4

2
= pfb(p) 1.
2
p +4

pfb(p) = 1

p2 + 2
2
=
.
p2 + 4 p2 + 4

,
p2 + 2
b
f (p) =
.
p(p2 + 4)

106

16.

16.18. f (t) = t sin 2t.


.
n
nb
n
n d f (p)
t f (t)

(1)
.
dpn
, , ,


4p
2
= 2
f (t) = t sin 2t

2
.
p +4
(p + 4)2
, :
2p
t sin t

2
.
(p + 2 )2

16.19. f (t) = t2 cos t.


.


p
2
2
.
t cos t

(1)
p 2 + 2


p
.
cos t

2
p + 2
:


p
2 p 2
,
= 2
p 2 + 2
(p + 2 )2
  2


p2
2p(p2 32 )
p
.
=
=
p 2 + 2
(p2 + 2 )2
(p2 + 2 )3
,
2p(p2 32 )
t2 cos t

.
(p2 + 2 )3
16.20. f (t) = sht t .
.
1
,
sh t

2
p 1




w

sh t
dx
1 p + 1
1 x 1

= ln
= 2 ln p 1 .
21
t
x
2
x
+
1
p
p

107

16.1.

, :
16.1. f (t) = C, C = const.

16.3. f (t) = t3 .

16.2. f (t) = t.

16.4. f (t) = at .

:
16.5. f (t) = t4 .

16.7. f (t) = t7 .

16.6. f (t) = t5 .

16.8. f (t) = t11 .

:
3t
.
4

16.12. f (t) = ch 7 t.

16.9. f (t) = sin 5t.

16.11. f (t) = sh

t
16.10. f (t) = cos .
2

, :
16.16. f (t) = (t 10)7 (t 10).

16.13. f (t) = cos (t 1)(t 1).

16.17. f (t) = (t e)10 (t e).

16.18. f (t) = (t 3)12 (t 3).

16.14. f (t) = sh (t )(t ).

16.15. f (t) = ch (t 2)(t 2).

16.19. f (t) =

16.20. f (t) =

0 ,

0 < t < ,

1 ,

< t < 2, .

0 ,

t > 2 .

t ,

0 < t < ,

0 ,

t>.

108

16.

:
16.21. f (t) = ett3 .
16.22. f (t) = et t5.
cos t
16.23. f (t) = t .
e
16.24. f (t) = e0,1t ch t.
16.25. f (t) = e3t cos 2t.

t
16.26. f (t) = et sh .
3
16.27. f (t) = e2t sin t.
16.28. f (t) = e t ch t.
16.29. f (t) = et sin 3t.

3t
16.30. f (t) = e sh 3 t.

, :
16.31. f (t) = 1 3 sin t + 5t2 .
16.32. f (t) =

ch t
+ 2e5t 4 sh 2t.
3

e2t
16.33. f (t) = 3t 2 cos t + .
3
1
16.34. f (t) = 4et +2 sin 2t e2t t3 .
2

:
16.35. f (t) = sin 2t cos t.

16.40. f (t) = 3t cos 2t + t3 .

16.36. f (t) = cos 3t cos 2t.

16.41. f (t) = 7t2 + e2t cos2 2t.

16.37. f (t) = sin2 2t.


t
16.38. f (t) = cos2 .
2
16.39. f (t) = e4t sin 3t cos 2t.

16.42. f (t) = 2t t3 + sin 3t.


sh 7t
+ 2.
e3t
16.44. f (t) = 5t ch 4t 2et.
16.43. f (t) =

,
:
16.45. f (t) = t cos 5t.

16.48. f (t) = t ch t.

16.46. f (t) = t2 sin t.

16.49. f (t) = t sh t.

16.47. f (t) = t2 sin t.

16.50. f (t) = t sin 5t cos 3t.

109

16.1.

:
sin t
.
t
cos 3t cos t
16.52. f (t) =
.
t
sin 10t sin t
16.53. f (t) =
.
t
16.51. f (t) =

cos t cos t
.
t
sin2 t
.
16.55. f (t) =
t
et 1
16.56. f (t) =
.
t
16.54. f (t) =

:
16.57. 3(t) = 1, (t) = cos 2t.

16.61. 3(t) = t, (t) = sin t.

16.58. 3(t) = 1, (t) = e5t .

16.62. 3(t) = sin 3t, (t) = cos t.

16.59. 3(t) = et , (t) = et.

16.63. 3(t) = t, (t) = sh t.

16.64. 3(t) = t + 3, (t) = 1.

16.60. 3(t) = cos t, (t) = cos t.

, :
16.65. 3(t) = 1, (t) = sh t.

16.67. 3(t) = e2t , (t) = sin t.

16.66. 3(t) = t3 , (t) = ch 2t.

16.68. 3(t) = t6 , (t) = cos 3t.

, :
16.69. f (t) = sin t.

16.71. f (t) = at .

16.70. f (t) = sh t.

16.72. f (t) = sin2 t.

:
16.73. f (t) =

wt
0

ch x dx.

16.74. f (t) =

wt
0

cos 3x dx.

110

16.

16.75. f (t) =

wt

x exdx.

16.76. f (t) =

0
wt

cos2 x dx.

16.2

,
.
,
, .


16.21.
1
fb(p) = 7 .
p

tn
1

n+1 ,
n!
p

1
pn+1

tn

.
n!


:
1
t6

.
p7
6!
16.22.
fb(p) =

p2

p
.
+ 13

16.2.

111

. :

fb(p) =

.
p2 + ( 13)2

cos 13 t.
p2 + ( 13)2
16.23.
fb(p) =

1
.
p2 + 16

. , ,
4:
4
1
1

sin 4t.
fb(p) = 2
4 p + 42
4
,
1
f (t) = sin 4t.
4
16.24.
fb(p) =

8
.
5p2 2

. :
q
2
8
1
8
5
q
fb(p) =
q 2 =
q 2 .


5 2
2
2
5 25 p2
p
5
5

:
r
r
5
2
8
f (t) =
sh
t.
5
2
5

16.25.
fb(p) =

e3p
.
p2 + 10

112

16.

. e3p .
.

1
1
10

,
p2 + 10
10 p2 + ( 10)2



e3p
1
10(t 3) (t 3).

sin
p2 + 10
10

16.26.
fb(p) =

1
.
(p 12)5

. p15 p
= 12, , :

fb(p )

et f (t).

t4
1

,
p5
4!
, :
4
1
12t t

e .
(p 12)5
4!
16.27.
fb(p) =

p
.
p2 4p 10

.
. :
p
p
=
.
p2 4p 10 (p 2)2 14
(p 2) , , , . .
(p 2), 2:
(p 2) + 2
(p 2)
2
p
=
=
+
.
(p 2)2 14 (p 2)2 14 (p 2)2 14 (p 2)2 14

16.2.

113

, ,
:

(p 2)
2t
14 t,

e
ch
(p 2)2 14

2
14
2
2e2t
=

sh 14 t.
(p 2)2 14
14 (p 2)2 14
14
:
f (t) = e2t ch

2e2t
14 t + sh 14 t.
14

16.28.
fb(p) =

p3

3p 2
.
p2 2p

. , , ,
. ,
I :
3p 2
A
B
C
3p 2
=
=
+
+
.
p3 p2 2p p(p + 1)(p 2)
p p+1 p2

:
B
C
A(p + 1)(p 2) + Bp(p 2) + Cp(p + 1)
A
+
+
=
.
p p+1 p2
p(p + 1)(p 2)
. , ,
, .
, , , , p,
. , ,
p, p,

114

16.

. , , p
. , p = 0,
p = 1, p = 2:
p=0:

2 = 2A

p = 1 :

5 = 3B

4 = 6C

p=2:

A = 1,
5
B= ,
3
2
C= .
3

,
1
5
2
3p 2
=

+
.
p3 p2 2p p 3(p + 1) 3(p 2)
:
2
5
f (t) = 1 et + e2t .
3
3
16.29.
fb(p) =

2p + 2
.
p4 + 2p3 + 2p2

. , :
2p + 2
2p + 2
=
.
p4 + 2p3 + 2p2
p2 (p2 + 2p + 2)
: p = 0
2 ( I ), p2 + 2p + 2, (
II ). :
2p + 2
A B
Cp + D
=
+
+
.
p2 (p2 + 2p + 2) p2
p
p2 + 2p + 2

16.2.

115

p:
A(p2 + 2p + 2) + B(p3 + 2p2 + 2p) + (Cp + D)p2
=
p2 (p2 + 2p + 2)
p3 (B + C) + p2 (A + 2B + D) + p(2A + 2B) + 2A
=
.
p2 (p2 + 2p + 2)
p

B + C = 0,

A + 2B + D = 0,

2A + 2B = 2,

2A = 2.

:
A = 1,

B = 0,

C = 0,

D = 1.

, :
1
1
2p + 2
=

.
p4 + 2p3 + 2p2
p2 p2 + 2p + 2
:
1

t,
p2
:
1
1
=

et sin t.
2
2
p + 2p + 2 (p + 1) + 1
:
2p + 2

t et sin t.
4
3
2
p + 2p + 2p
16.30.
fb(p) =

p
.
(p2 + 9)2

116

16.

. II . ,
fb(p) , , :
p
p
1
1
p
3
=

(p2 + 9)2
p2 + 9 p2 + 9 3 p2 + 9 p2 + 9
t
t

1 w 1
1w
cos(3t 3x) sin 3x dx =
sin(6x 3t) + sin 3t dx =

3
3 2
0
0


t
t
1
1
1
1
1


= cos(6x 3t) + x sin 3t = cos 3t +
cos 3t + t sin 3t.
0
0
36
6
36
36
6

fb(p) =

:
f (t) =

1
t sin 3t.
6

16.31.
1
b (p)
fb(p) = 3
,
p+1

b (p)
3

.
et t2 + 1

b (p)
b (p)
fb(p) = 3

wt

b (p)
3

3(t) =

b (p) =

3(x)(t x)dx,

,
et t2 + 1

(t) = et .
p+1

:
fb(p)

wt
0

w
et+x
1

dx =
dx.

x x2 + 1
e x x2 + 1
e
0
t

(tx)

16.2.

117

ex ,
x, , et :
et

wt
0



t

p
p
dx




t
t
2
2

= e ln x + x + 1 = e ln t + t + 1 .
x2 + 1
0



p


fb(p)

e ln t + t2 + 1 .
t

f (t) fb(p):
1
16.77. fb(p) = 2 .
p
2
16.78. fb(p) = 10 .
p
6
16.79. fb(p) = 4 .
p
p
16.80. fb(p) = 2
.
p +4
p
16.81. fb(p) = 2
.
p 3
3p
.
16.82. fb(p) = 2
p +5
2
16.83. fb(p) = 2
.
p +4

3
16.84. fb(p) = 2
.
p +3

16.85. fb(p) =
16.86. fb(p) =

16.87. fb(p) =

16.88. fb(p) =

16.89. fb(p) =

16.90. fb(p) =

16.91. fb(p) =

16.92. fb(p) =

1
.
+7
4
.
2
p 11
p
.
2p2 + 7
3p
.
2p2 1
7
.
3p2 + 1
10
.
3p2 4
2p 3
.
p2 + 3
5p + 1
.
p2 13
p2

f (t) fb(p), :
e2p
.
16.93. fb(p) =
p+4

e3p
16.94. fb(p) = 2
.
p +9

118

16.

p e3p
b
16.95. f (p) = 2
.
p +6

16.97. fb(p) =

e4p
b
16.96. f (p) = 2
.
p 5

e2p
.
(p + 3)4

(2 p) e3p
b
16.98. f (p) =
.
p2 + 2p

f (t) fb(p), :
1
.
(p 3)2
1
.
fb(p) =
(p + 5)6
3
.
fb(p) =
(p 7)10
4
fb(p) =
.
(p + 2,1)4
p2
.
fb(p) =
(p 2)2 + 9
p+1
.
fb(p) =
(p + 1)2 + 17
p6
.
fb(p) =
(p 6)2 8
5
fb(p) =
.
(p 3)2 + 25
1
fb(p) = 3
.
p + p2 2p

16.99. fb(p) =

16.100.
16.101.

16.102.
16.103.
16.104.
16.105.
16.106.
16.115.

16.116. fb(p) =

2
.
p3 2p2 + p

16.118. fb(p) =

3p + 9
.
p3 + 2p2 p 2

16.117. fb(p) =

1
.
3
p 3p2 + 2p

16.119. fb(p) =

1
.
(p 2)2 (p 1)

1
.
(p + 10)2 + 3
7
.
16.108. fb(p) =
(p 4)2 2

16.107. fb(p) =

16.109. fb(p) =

16.110. fb(p) =
16.111. fb(p) =

16.112. fb(p) =

16.113. fb(p) =

16.114. fb(p) =

16.120. fb(p) =

16.121. fb(p) =

1
.
p2 + 4p + 5
p
.
p2 + 4p + 5
p3
.
p2 + 2p
p+3
.
2
p + 6p + 11
3p 1
.
2
p + 4p + 9
p
.
p2 + 2p 5
2
.
p4 + p2

p2
.
p3 + 2p2 + 2p + 1

p3 + 4p + 4
b
.
16.122. f (p) =
p4 + p3

16.123. fb(p) =

16.124. fb(p) =

p3 + p2 + 1
.
(p2 p + 1)(p2 + 1)

p3 + 6p2 + 9p + 6
.
(p2 + 2p + 2)(p + 1)2

16.2.

119

p3 + 6p2 + 13p + 8
b
16.125. f (p) =
.
p(p + 2)3
p+4
16.126. fb(p) = 2
.
(p + p + 2)(p2 + 2)
f (t) fb(p), :
16.127. fb(p) =

1
.
p3 + p

16.129. fb(p) =

1
.
p2 p

p2
.
(p2 + 4)2
1
.
16.132. fb(p) = 2
p (p 1)
1
16.133. fb(p) =
.
(p + 1)(p + 2)2
3p
16.134. fb(p) = 4
.
p + 10p2 + 9

16.131. fb(p) =

16.128. fb(p) =

1
.
p4 + p2

16.130. fb(p) =

5
.
(p2 + 3)(p + 1)

f (t) fb(p):

1
b (p) ,
16.135. fb(p) = 3
p

b (p)
3

cos t.

b (p)
16.136. fb(p) = 3

1
,
p2 + 1

b (p)
16.138. fb(p) = 3

1
,
p2

b (p)
16.140. fb(p) = 3

1
,
p+1

1
b (p) 2 ,
16.137. fb(p) = 3
p

b (p)
16.139. fb(p) = 3

b (p)
3

tg t.

1
b (p)
3

.
t2 + 4

1
,
p1

2 e2t
b (p)
3

.
4 + t2
b (p)
3

b (p)
3

et
.
cos2 t

1
.
1 + e2t

120

16.

16.3

16.3.1

n > 1:
a0 y (n) + a1 y (n1) + . . . + an1 y + an y = f (t),
y t; f (t) ,
-; a0 , a1 , . . . , an1 , an , a0 6= 0.
y(t) :
y(0) = y0 ,

y (0) = y0 ,

(n1)

y (0) = y0 , . . . , y (n1) (0) = y0

, , , , , :
y

yb,
y

p yb y(0),
y

p2 yb p y(0) y (0),
y

p3 yb p2 y(0) p y (0) y (0),


...

y (n)

pn yb pn1 y(0) p y (n2) y (n1) (0),


f (t)

fb(p).

,
, :

16.3.

121


a0 pn yb pn1 y(0) p y (n2) y (n1) (0) +


+ a1 pn1 yb pn2 y(0) y (n2) (0) +

+ + an1 p yb y(0) + an yb = fb(p).

, yb, , .


16.32. :
y + 2y + 5y = 20 e3t ,

y (0) = 3.

y(0) = 1,

. , :
y

yb,

p yb y(0) = p yb 1,

p2 yb p y(0) y (0) = p2 yb p 3,
20
20 e3t

.
p3
yb:
p2 yb p 3 + 2 (p yb 1) + 5 yb =

20
.
p3

yb:


20
yb p2 + 2p + 5 =
+p+5
p3
 p2 + 2p + 5
yb p2 + 2p + 5 =
.
p3
yb =

1
.
p3

122

16.

, :
1
yb =

e3t = y(t).
p3
, , :
y(t) = e3t.
16.33. :
e2t
y y =
, y(0) = 0, y (0) = 0.
t
2+e
. , , .
f (t)

fb(p).

, :
y

p yb y(0) = p yb,
y

p2 yb p y(0) y (0) = p2 yb,


f (t)

fb(p).

yb:

p2 yb p yb = fb(p).

1
.
p2 p
, :
yb = fb(p)

1
1
1
=

.
p2 p p 1 p
:
yb = fb(p)

1
1
fb(p) .
p1
p

123

16.3.
,
1

et ,
p1

1,
p

fb(p)

e2t
.
2 + et

, :
e2t
e2t
t
y(t) =
e
1
2 + et
2 + et

wt e2x etx
wt e2x 1
y(t) =
dx
dx
2 + ex
2 + ex
0

:
wt ex dex
wt ex + 2 2
wt dex
wt ex dx
t

=e

dex =
y(t) = e
x
x
x
x
2+e
2+e
2+e
2+e
t

t wt
wt dex

x
t
x
= e ln |e + 2| de + 2
=
0
2 + ex
0
0
t
t


x
t
t
x
= e ln(2 + e ) ln 3 e + 2 ln(e + 2) .
0


y(t) = et ln(2 + et ) ln 3 et + 1 + 2 ln(et + 2) 2 ln 3,


y(t) = (et + 2) ln(et + 2) ln 3 1 + 3.

16.34. :
y + 2y + 5y = 2et cos 2t.
. ,
:
y(0) = C1 ,

y (0) = C2 .

, :

p2 yb C1 p C2 + 2 p yb C1 + 5b
y=

2(p + 1)
.
(p + 1)2 + 4

124

16.

:
yb (p2 + 2p + 5) =

2(p + 1)
+ C1 p + C2 + 2C1 .
(p + 1)2 + 4

yb:

C2 + 2C1
C1 p
+
.
2 +
(p + 1)2 + 4 (p + 1)2 + 4
(p + 1)2 + 4
2(p + 1)

yb =

, :
yb =

2(p + 1)

C2 + C1
p+1
+
.
2 + C1
2
(p + 1) + 4 (p + 1)2 + 4
(p + 1)2 + 4


2p

t sin t
(p2 + 2 )2
:
2(p + 1)

t et sin 2t.
2
2
(p + 1)2 + 4


:
C1

p+1

C1 et cos 2t,
2
(p + 1) + 4

C2 + C1
C2 + C1 t

e sin 2t.
(p + 1)2 + 4
2
, :
y(t) =

C2 + C1 t
1
t et sin 2t + C1 et cos 2t +
e sin 2t.
2
2

16.3.

125

:
16.141. y + 4y + 5y = 0,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 5.

16.142. y 6y 7y = 0,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 4.

16.143. y + 2y + y = 0,

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 0,

16.144. y + 4y + 13y = 0,
16.145. y y = 0,

y(0) = 3,

y (0) = 5,

16.147. y 4y = 4,

y(0) = 1,

16.146. y + y 2y = 0,

y(0) = 0,

16.148. y 6y + 5y = 3,

y(0) = 0,

16.149. y 2y + 2y = 4,

16.150. y + 4y = t,

16.151. y + y = 3t2 + 6,

16.157. y 9y = 5e2t ,

y (0) = 0.

y (0) = 0,

y(0) = 0,

16.160. y + 2y + y = 12t2 et ,

y (0) = 0.
y (0) = 0.

y(0) = 0,
y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1.

y (0) = 0,

y(0) = 0,

16.164. y + 4y = 4 cos 2t,


16.165. y + y = 2 cos t,

y(0) = 1,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 0,

16.162. y + y = et + 2,

y (0) = 3.

y (0) = 2.

y(0) = 1,

16.161. y + y = 10e2t ,

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 1,

y(0) = 1,

16.163. y + y = sin 2t,

y (0) = 0.

y(0) = 1,

16.156. y + 2y + 5y = 2e3t ,

y (0) = 2.

y (0) = 0.

y(0) = 0,

16.159. y 2y = t et ,

y (0) = 2,
y (0) = 6.

y(0) = 0,

16.155. y 5y + 6y = 2et,

16.158. y y = et ,

y (0) = 1.

y (0) = 0.

y(0) = 0,

16.154. y y = e2t ,

y (0) = 1.

y (0) = 0.

y(0) = 0,

16.152. y + y = t3 + 6t,

y (0) = 5.

y (0) = 0,

y(0) = 1,

y(0) = 1,

16.153. y 4y = 4e2t,

y (0) = 2.

y(0) = 1,

y (0) = 2.
y (0) = 1.

y (0) = 0.

126

16.

16.166. y y 6y = 3 sin t,

16.167. y y = 2 sin 2t 4 cos 2t,


16.168. y + 2y + y = ch t,
16.169. y y =

1
,
et + 3

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 2,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 2,

y(0) = 0.

16.170. y y =

1
,
et + 1

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

16.171. y + y =

1
,
et + 1

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

et
,
16.172. y 2y + y =
4 + t2

16.173. y + y = tg t,
16.174. y + y =

1
,
cos t

y (0) = 1.

y(0) = 0,

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

y (0) = 0.

y(0) = 0,

y (0) = 0.

:
16.175. y + 3y + 2y = 0,

y(0) = C1 ,

16.176. y + 2y + 10y = 2et cos 3t,


16.177. y y = 0,

16.3.2

y(0) = C1 ,

y (0) = C2 .

y(0) = C1 ,
y (0) = C2 ,

y (0) = C2 .
y (0) = C3 .


.
, , .
.

16.3.

127


16.35.

x = y,
y = 2x + 2y,
:
x(0) = 1,

y(0) = 1.

. :
x

x
b,
y

yb,

px
b x(0) = p x
b 1,
y

p yb y(0) = p yb 1.

:

px
b 1 = b
y,
p yb 1 = 2b
x + 2b
y.

:

px
b + yb = 1,
2b
x + yb(p 2) = 1.


x
b yb, yb
:

yb = 1 p x
b,
2b
x + (1 p x
b)(p 2) = 1.
x
b:
2b
x + p p2 x
b 2 + 2pb
x = 1,
x
b(p2 + 2p 2) = p + 3,
p3
x
b= 2
.
p 2p + 2

128

16.
:
p3
(p 1) 2
(p 1)
2
=
=

.
p2 2p + 2 (p 1)2 + 1 (p 1)2 + 1 (p 1)2 + 1

x(t):
x(t) = et cos t 2et sin t.
x
b
yb = 1 p x
b.

yb = 1
yb =

y(t):

p(p 3)
p+2
=
,
p2 2p + 2 p2 2p + 2

(p 1)
3
+
.
(p 1)2 + 1 (p 1)2 + 1

y(t) = et cos t + 3et sin t.


, :
(
x(t) = et cos t 2et sin t,
y(t) = et cos t + 3et sin t.

:


x
+
y
=
0,
x = 4y,

x + y = 0,
y = x + 3y + 10,
16.178.
16.179.

x(0) = 1,
x(0) = 40,

y(0) = 1.
y(0) = 10.

16.3.

16.180.

16.181.

16.182.

16.183.

16.184.


x = 2x + y + 1,

y = 3x + 2y + 2,

x(0) = 2,

y(0) = 1.

x y + 4x = 0,

y x + y = 0,

x(0) = 1,

y(0) = 1.

y y + x = 1,5t2 ,

x + 4y + 2x = 4t + 1,

x(0) = 0,

y(0) = 0.

2x y y = et ,

x + y = 1,

x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0,

y(0) = 1.

x y = 0,

x y = 2 sin t,

x(0) = 1, x (0) = 1,

y(0) = 1, y (0) = 1.

129


x y = 0,

x y = 2 cos t,
16.185.

x(0) = 0, x (0) = 2,

y(0) = 2, y (0) = 0.


y x = cos t,

x + y = sin t,
16.186.

x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0,

y(0) = 0, y (0) = 0.


2x + x y = 3 sin t,

x + y = sin t,
16.187.

x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1,

y(0) = 0.


x + y = 2 sin t,

y + z = 2 cos t,

z x = 0,
16.188.

x(0) = 0, x (0) = 1,

y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0,

z(0) = 0, z (0) = 1.


x 3x + 2x + y y = 0,

x + x + y 5y + 4y = 0,
16.189.

x(0) = 0, x (0) = 0,

y(0) = 1, y (0) = 0.


14
1
11
11

7
14.1. . 14.2. . 14.3. . 14.4. . 14.5. . 14.6. .
2
18
18
4
12
14.7. . 14.8. . 14.9. . 14.10. .
14.11. . 14.12. . 14.13. .
14.14. . 14.15. . 14.16. . 14.17. .
14.18. . 14.19. . 14.20. .
14.21. . 14.22. . 14.23. .
14.24. . 14.25. . 14.26. . 14.27. .
14.28. . 14.29. . 14.30. . 14.31.
. 14.32. . 14.33.
14.34. 14.35. 14.36.
. 14.37. . 14.38. .
14.39. . 14.40. . 14.41.
. 14.42. . 14.43. .
14.44. 0,460. 14.45. 0,168. 14.46. 0,515. 14.47.
1/e<x<e , x = 1/e . 14.48.
/3 + k 6 x 6 2/3 + k, k = 0, 1, 2, . . . .
14.49. |x| < 1 . 14.50.
x > 2 x < 4, x = 4 . 14.51.
x. 14.52. 3 < x < 3.
14.53. x > 0. 14.54. |x| < 1. 14.55.
1 < x < 1, x = 1 .
14.56. |x| > e, 1 < |x| 6 e .
14.57. |x| > 1, |x| 6 1.
14.58. 1 < x < 1, x = 1
. 14.59. . 14.60. .
14.61. . 14.62. .
14.63. R = 1, |x| < 1. 14.64. R = 1, 1 6 x < 1.
14.65. R = 5, 5 < x < 5. 14.66. R = 1/e, 1/e 6 x 6 1/e.

131

14.67.
14.69.
14.71.
14.73.

R = 1/3, 1/3 6 x < 1/3. 14.68. R = 2, 2 < x 6 2.


R = 1, 1 < x < 1. 14.70. R = 2, 2 < x < 2.
R = 2, 2 < x < 2. 14.72. R = 0, x = 1.
R = 1, 1 6 x 6 1. 14.74. R = e, e < x < e.

+
X

1/3(1/3 1) (1/3 n + 1)
3
3
14.75. 4 + 4
(x 4)n , 0 < x < 8.
n
4 n!
n=1

14.76.

+ 
X
n=1

14.77.

1
1 n
2


X
(2)n
n=1

xn , |x| < 1.


1 n
x , 1/2 < x 6 1/2.

1
1 X (3)(3 1) (3 n + 1)
14.78. 3 + 3
7
7 n=1
n!
+
X
(1)n x2n+1
14.79.
, < x < +.
2n+1 (2n + 1)!
3
n=0
+

2x
7

n

1 X
(3)(3 1) (3 n + 1)
1
(1)n
14.80. 3 + 3
5
5 n=1
n!

6 < x < 4. 14.81. ln 4 +


+

X
n=1

(1)n+1

, 7/2 < x < 7/2.

x+1
5

n

3n xn
, 4/3 < x 6 4/3.
n4n

1 1 X (2)(2 1) (2 n + 1)
14.82. +
4 4 n=1
n!

x2
2

n

, 0 < x < 4.

+
X
(3)(3 1) (3 n + 1) n+1
14.83. x +
(1)n
x , |x| < 1.
n!
n=1



+
X
1
1
x2n , < x < +.
+
14.84. 1 +
(1)n
(2n! (2n + 1)!
n=1



+
n
X
1
1
1
+
2
14.85.
(1)n+1
xn , < x 6 . 14.86. 0,819. 14.87. 0,039.
n
2
2
n=1
14.88. 0,905. 14.89. 0,160. 14.90. 0,099 14.91. 0,488. 14.92. 0,946.

132

3 1 X 1 + (1)n+1
+
sin nx.
14.93.
2 n=1
n
14.94. )

3
4

+
Ph

n=1

1+(1)n+1
n2

cos nx +

(1)n
n

sin nx ; )

2
8.

+
2
X
k 4k + 2
14.95. x sin x = 2/ + 2/
(1)
cos 2kx.
(4k 2 1)2
k=1



+
X
12
2
k+1

sin kx.
(1)
14.96. Ff (x) =
k (k)3
k=1

+
+
1
4 X cos(2m + 1)x
1
4 X cos(2m + 1)x
14.97. ) + 2
; ) + 2
;
2 m=0 (2m + 1)2
2 m=0 (2m + 1)2


1
2(1)m
(2m + 1)x
4X
+
sin
.
)
m=0 2m + 1 (2m + 1)2
2
+

12 X (1)n1
12 X 1
14.98. )
cos(2n 1)x; )
sin 2(2n 1)x;
n=1 2n 1
n=1 2n 1
+

15 24 X
14.99. )
+ 2
[cos(n) cos(n/2)] cos(nx/4);
2
n=1


+ 
2
12 X 1 2
cos(n) 2 sin(n/2) sin(nx/4).
)
n=1 n n
n
+
e21 X
1
14.100.
ei n x .
2 n= (1 in)

15
15.1. x2 + (y 1)2 = 1 .
15.2. x (x y) > 0. 15.3.
y < 1, y > x2 . 15.4.
x2 + 4y 2 = 1 . 15.5. ,
x 6 2, x > 5, y 6 1, y > 3. 15.6.
y > 5 x, y 6= 0. 15.7.
x > 4, y > 5 x < 4, y < 5. 15.8.
4 6 x 6 4, 3 6 y 6 3. 15.9.

133

y 2 x2 6 1, y 2 + x2 > 1, x 6= 0. 15.10.
x2 + y 2 6= 9, y 6 x. 15.11.
y < x, y > x y > x, y < x. 15.12.
y 6 x4 , y > x. 15.13.
2

x2 + y4 + z 2 = 1 . 15.14.
z = x2 + y 2 , x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9,
. 15.15. x > 0, y > 0, z > 0,
3x + y + 2z 6 1, . 15.16.
x > 4, y > 5, z > 0. 15.17. x y = C, C R.
15.18. x2 y = C, C R. 15.19.
2
2
x2 + y 2 = C,
S C > 0. 15.20. x y = C
C (; 0) (0; +), y = x, y = x C = 0.

15.21.

x2
25

+ y9 = C C > 0. 15.22. 4x2 9y 2 = C

C 6= 0, y = 32 x, y = 23 x C = 0. 15.27.
x + y + z = C, C R. 15.28. x2 + y3 z = C, C R.
15.29. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = C, C > 0. 15.30.
x2
4

z
+ y9 + 25
= C, C > 0. 15.31.

C = 0,

x2
4

x2
4

y2 z2 = C

y 2 z 2 = C C > 0,

x4 y 2 z 2 = C C < 0.
15.32. z = C x2 + y 2 , C R. 15.33. 9.
1
5
15.34. . 15.35. . 15.36. . 15.37. 1. 15.38. 3. 15.43.
3
2
(0; 0). 15.44. y = 2x. 15.45.
x = 0 y = 0. 15.46. x2 + y 2 = 9. 15.47.
x = y 2 . 15.48. x + y + z = 1.
15.49. x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 25. 15.50.
x2 + y 2 = z 2 . 15.51.
x2 + y 2 z 2 = 1. 15.52.
x2 + y 2 + z 2 = n, n N. 15.53. zx = 2xy 3 + 5, zy = 3x2 y 2 + y1 .
15.54. zx = y xy1 , zy = xy ln x. 15.55. zx = 3x2 y 2 + 2 ln y + y x ln y,
zy = 2x3 y +

2x
y

1
y arccos x
.
+ x y x1 . 15.56. zx = p
, zy =

(y 2 +1)3
y 2 + 1 1 x2

134

15.57. zx =

y
, zy =
2
(x + 2)

1
x+2 .

y
15.58. zx = p
, zy = x 2 2 .
2
2
1x y
1x y

p
1
4 y 2 , zy = xy 2 . 15.60. zx = p
,
4y
1 (x + y)2

x
3y

5
1
, zy = 2xy +
zy = 1 2 . 15.61. zx = 5x4 y
.
3
2 3 x
1(x+y)
3
y
2

15.59. zx =

2x
2y
15.62. zx = p
.
, zy =
2
2
(1x y )2 1(1x2 y 2 )
(1 x2 y 2 )2 1(1 x2 y 2 )

15.63. zx = 3cos x ln 3 sin x ln(2x + 3y) + 3cos x


15.64. zx =

1
1
p
, zy =

2
2
1+x+y 2 x+y

1
1+x+y 2

2
, zy =
2x + 3y

1
2

x+y 2

33cos x
2x+3y .

2y.

15.65. zx = ey+2x (1 + 2x), zy = x ey+2x . 15.66. ux = 6yz 2 10xz y,


uy = 6xz 2 x, uz = 12xyz + 5x2 . 15.67. ux =

1
, uy =
z1

1
z1 ,

z
y
1
2 , uy = xz , uz = xy
2 + x.
z
z x

 1 1


z 1
z  x1

z x
1
z
2 , uy = x 1 + y
ln 1 +
15.69. ux = 1 +
2,
y
y
y
x
 1 1


z
y z 1
z x
1
1

yz

.
15.70.
u
=
y

x
,
u
=
x
ln x z y z1 ,
uz = x 1 + y
x
y
y

uz = 2+x+y
(z1)2 . 15.68. ux =

uz = xy ln x y z ln y. 15.71. ux = y xy1 tg2 z, uy = xy ln x tg2 z,


2xy tg z
cos2 z .

15.72. ux = z(x + y 2 + z 3 )z1 , uy = z(x + y 2 + z 3 )z1 2y,






3z 2

2
3 z
2
3
uz = (x + y + z ) ln(x + y + z ) + x+y2 +z3 . 15.73. fx = 2,
uz =

M0


fy =
M0


fy =
M0

15.77.


e
4 ln 2

, fy = 12 ln 2. 15.75. fx = ,
15.74.
=
3
2
M0
M0
M0



e2

e2
3e


fz = 2 . 15.76. fx = , fy = 4 , fz = 2e.
M0
M0
4
M0
M0








= 1, fy = 0, fz = 0. 15.78. fx = 1, fy = 3,

0.

2e,


fx

M0


fx

M0

M0

M0

M0

135


fz

1
y ln y x y
dy.
= 2. 15.79. df = p
dx +
M0
2 (x + y) ln y
2y x + y ln3/2 y

15.80. df =

(3x 4y) sin(x + 2y) 3 cos(x + 2y)


dx +
(3x 4y)2

(8y 6x) sin(x + 2y) + 4 cos(x + 2y)


dy.
(3x 4y)2
15.81. df =

2 + 2xy y sin x cos x


x tg x
dx

dy.
2 cos2 x(1 + xy)3/2
2(1 + xy)3/2

15y 2
2x
dx
+
dy.
x2 + 5y 3
x2 + 5y 3

y 
15.83. df = 3y sin2 (x + y x) cos(x + y x) 1 + dx +
2 x


2
3
+ sin (x + y x) + 3y sin (x + y x) cos(x + y x) x dy.
15.82. df =


15.84. df = (x + lg y) ln(1 + lg y) +

x 
x(x + lg y)x1
dy.
dx +
x + lg y
y ln 10


y
y
dy.
15.85. df = p
dx + arccos(x + y) p
1 (x + y)2
1 (x + y)2
r 
r 


y
x
2
3
15.86. df = 3x yz + 3
dx + x z + 3
dy + x3 y dz.
x
y
x

15.87. df =

2x + z
xy
2y + z
dx

dy

dz.
(x + y + z)2
(x + y + z)2
(x + y + z)2

yz(y 2 x2 )
xz(x2 y 2 )
xy
15.88. df =
dx
+
dy
+
dz.
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2
(x2 + y 2 )2

p
3z x
z tg 3y

dy + x tg 3y dz. 15.90. df =
dx +
15.89. df =
2 x
2 tg 3y cos2 3y

3x2 z
6y 2
x
=
dx
+
dy

dz.
cos2 (x3 + 2y 3 xz)
cos2 (x3 + 2y 3 xz)
cos2 (x3 + 2y 3 xz)

x arctg(2z)
2 1 + xy
y arctg(2z)
dx +
dy +
dz.
15.91. df =
1 + 4z 2
2 1 + xy
2 1 + xy

5 x arcctg z
x tg 5y
arcctg z tg 5y

dx +
dy

dz.
15.92. df =
1 + z2
2 x
2 tg 5y cos2 5y

136


3x2
z
2

15.93. df =

dy
dx
+
cos2 (x3 + 2y)
cos2 (x3 + 2y)
1 x2 z 2

x

dz. 15.94. df = 2(ln 2 + 1) dx.


M0
1 x2 z 2




15.95. df = 32 dx + (4 ln 4 + 8) dy. 15.96. df = dx + dy + e dz.
M0



15.97. df

M0

M0

= 9 ln 3 dx +

1
dy + 9 ln 3 dz. 15.98. 3,030. 15.99. 4,998.
e

15.100. 1,060. 15.101. 0,830.

dz
4 ln3 t cos3 t
15.102.
=
3 ln4 t cos2 t sin t.
dt
t

2t

t
e
sin
dz

.
= 2et cos t
15.103.
dt
2 t
15.104.

arctg t cos 2t
dz
1

.

=
dt
(1 + t2 ) sin 2t
sin3 2t

dz
z
3x2
2
2
15.105.
,
= (t 2)(5t 2). 15.106.
=p
dt
x
1 (x3 y 2 )2
 2x + 2 
z
1
2y
z

.
15.107.
=
=

sin
,

y
1(x3 y 2 )2
x
y+2
y+2


z
3 26x+2y ln 2 z
6x+2y
2x+2
2
x+1
z

=
sin
.
15.108.

, y = 2 26x+2yln+1
=
.
y
y+2
(y+2)2
6x+2y
x
2
+1
15.109.
dz
dx

1 x ln 2
z
=
,
x
x

7+cos x
1+(7x+y)2 .

15.112.

15.111.

z
y

= y2 . 15.110.

z
7
=
,
x 1 + (7x + y)2

z
2x + 2y
,
= 2
x
x 4x + 2y

z
1
,
=p
x
y 2 x2

dz
dx

1
2
y x2

dz
dx

= x22x+2y
+
4x+2y

2ln 32 .
x3
y

y x

z
2
dz
= ln(xy) + 1, dx
= ln(xy) + 1 + yxx2 +2 .
x
z
dz
= y cos x ln y sin x, dx
= y cos x ln y sin x
15.114.
x
15.113.

3cos 3x
.
x 4x+2y

cos x1
cos xy

.
2 x3

137

z
dz
= y xxy (ln x + 1) +
= y xxy (ln x + 1), dx
x
z
15.116.
= cos(u3 + v 2 )(3u2 sin y 2vy sin x),
x
15.115.

z
y

xxy+1 ln x
cos2 x .

= cos(u3 + v 2 )(3u2 x cos y + 2v cos x), u = x sin y, v = y cos x.

z
= eu+2v (4x3 + 2y),
x
z
u
1 z
=
15.118.
=

,
x 1 + v 2 y y

z
y

15.117.

= eu+2v (3y 2 + 2x), u = x4 + y 3 , v = xy.

arctg v

2 y

u
1+v 2

x
y 2 , u

y, v = xy .

z
xu sin(uv)

,
= cos(uv) 2x2 yv sin(uv)
x
2 x

= sin(uv)(x3 v + xu), u = yx2 , v = x + y.

15.119.
z
y

15.120.

u2 v sin x
2uv
u2 y xy1
z
=
+
+
,
x
cos2 x
cos x
cos x

2uv+u2 xy ln x
, u
cos x

z
y

u
t

= 2x es + 4ts3

15.122.
u
t

3s
2 , x

= t es, y = t2 s3 , z =

u
3t
= 2xt es + 6t2 s2 ,
s
2

st
2.

u t sin(yz)
xy cos(yz)
=
+ 2xzt3e2s cos(yz) +
,
s
s
t

= sin(yz) ln s + 3t2 e2sxz cos(yz) xys cos(yz)


, x = t ln s, y = t2 e2s , z = st .
t2

15.123.
t
z

= x y, v = xy . 15.121.

2v+uxz
1+u2 v 2 ,

3v+uxy
1+u2 v 2 , u

= x + 2y + 3z, v = xyz.

3 cos v
uyz xyz1 sin v t
t

, y =
15.124.
x cos2 (3x + yz)
2 cos v
t
z

v + uyz t
t
=
, =
x 1 + u2 v 2 y

y cos v
cos2 (3x+yz)

uy xyz
ln x sin v , u
2 cos v

y u2 v u1 z cos

v u (1 + u ln v) +
z
2y xz
t
z

= v u (1 + u ln v)

xy
z2

z cos v
cos2 (3x+yz)

uz
xyz ln x
,
2 cos v

= tg(3x + yz), v = xyz . 15.125.

xz

t
= v u (1 + u ln v)
, y

u2 v u1 x
cos xz , u
2y xz

xy
z ,v

x
z

sin

xz

t
=
x

u2 v u1 sin
y2

xz

138

u
z
u2 e v
u
z
v
15.126.
= e v (1 + u/v) x
= e (1 + u/v) y 2 2x, y
x
v
u = xy, v = x2 + y 2 .

u2 e v
v2

2y,

z
z
=
= (cos v u u v u ln u sin v u ) 2x u2 v u1 sin v u 2x, y
x
(cos v u u v u ln u sin v u ) 2y u2 v u1 sin v u 4y 3 ,
u = x2 y 2 , v = x2 + y 4 .
r
q
y 3eu x2 z
z
eu v(u 1)
eu v(u1)
3eu y 2
x
15.128.
=

+
=

+
,
2
y
2u
y
u ,
x
2u2
x
u

u = xy, v = x3 + y 3 .

15.127.

1
z
z
= (v uv1 sin u + uv cos u) + uv ln u sin u, y
=
x
y
 
v1
v
+ uv ln u sin u, u = xy , v = x + y.
(v u sin u + u cos u) x
y2
15.129.

15.130. dz = sin x sin y dx + cos x cos y dy, dz =


( sin x sin y ev + cos x cos y v) du + ( sin x sin y u ev + cos x cos y u) dv,
x = u ev , y = uv. 15.131. dz =

x2

2x
2y
dx + 2
dy, dz =
2
+y
x + y2

2y
2y sin u
2xu sin v
( x22x
+y 2 cos v + x2 +y 2 v cos u) du + ( x2 +y 2 cos v + x2 +y 2 ) dv,
x = u cos v, y = v sin u.
15.132. dz = (3x2 y x + x3 y x ln y) dx + x4 y x1 dy, dz = (3x2 y x + x3 y x ln y)


1
4 x1
2 x
3 x
2
4 x1
+
x
y
u
du
+
(3x
y
+
x
y
ln
y)

(u/v
)
+
x
y
u
dv,
x
u
x = v , y = uv.

ey
ex
dx + x
dy, dz =
15.133. dz = x
e + ey
e + ey

2ex +3ey
ex +ey

du +

6ex ey
ex +ey

dv,

z 4 + y z
z
= 3
, y = 4z2yz+x
x = 2u + 6v, y = 3u v. 15.134.
3 x+y 2 .
2
x
4z x + y
1 + z 2 z
z
1+z 2
=

=
,
15.135.
y
z2 .
x
z2
z
z + yz
xzy z1
z
15.136.
=

=
,
x+xy z ln y .
x
x + xy z ln y y
15.137.

z
ez
z ey
z
=

= z
,
x ez +ey .
x
x e + ey y

139

15.138.

z
z
sin z
z
= y cos
=
, y
zx .
x y cos z x

z
z(x + y)z1
z(x+y)z1
z
=

15.139.
=
,
1+(x+y)z ln(x+y) .
x
1 + (x + y)z ln(x + y) y
15.140.

z
5zy sin(xy)
sin(xy)
z
=
, y
.
= 2z 5zx
2
2
z
z
e 5 cos(xy)
x
2z e 5 cos(xy)

z
2xy 3 z 4
z
15.141.
=
=
, y
2
3
3
x 3 cos 3z 4x y z
z
y 2 cos2 z
z
15.142.
=
= 2
, y
2
x 3z cos z 5
15.143.
15.145.
15.147.
15.149.

3x2 y 2 z 4
3 cos 3z4x2 y 3 z 3 .

2yz cos2 z
3z 2 cos2 z5 .


yz xy1
2
z
4

z 2 y z1
z
=
, y = 1z yz ln y . 15.144. dz = dx + dy.
z
M0
x 1 z y ln y
3
3


2
1
3


dz = 2 dx dy. 15.146. dz = dx + dy.
M0
2
M0
7
7


2


dz = dx dy. 15.148. dz = 2 dx + 12 dy.
M0
3
M0


dz = dx + dy.
M0

2(3x + 10z + 6zx2 ) dz


dy
=
, dx =
15.150.
dx
9y 2 (8z 1)
dy
9x2 + 9 + 20xz 2 dz
15.151.
=
, =
dx 3y(10x2 + yz + 10) dx

3x2 12x5
6z 2 (8z1) .

200x3 3y
6(10x2 +yz+10) .

8xy

15.156. zxx
= p
(ln y)x (ln ln y)2 ,
2
3
(1 4x )
2

zxy
= 14x
2

(ln y)x1 (x ln ln y+1)


,
y

zyy
=

x (ln y)x2 (x1ln y)


.
y2

15.157. zxx
= y x ln y (2 + x ln y), zxy
= x y x1 (2 + x ln y),

zyy

zxy

sin xy

= x2 (x 1) y x2 . 15.158.
= y cos(x y) + 2 ,
y


x y cos(x y)sin(x y)
sin(x y)+x ycos(x y)

, zyy = x

=
2 y
4y y

15.159.

zxx

zxx

y 3 2x ln2 2 (1 4x )
, zxy =
=
(1 + 4x )2

3y 2 2x ln 2
1+4x ,

x sin xy 2y cos xy
y4

zyy
= 6y arctg 2x .


.

140

15.160. uxx =
uxy

1
,
2y x sin z

uyy = 2x arctg
uyz =

yx ,
3z1

2
ln y
z+2 cos2 z)

, uyy = y2 sinx z , zzz


= x ln y(sin
,
3
sin z
4 sin z x3

uyz

x cos z
,
y sin2 z

uxz =

ln ycos z

.
2 x sin2 z

15.161. uxx = 0,

2
(9z2)

3z 1, zzz
3z 1,
= 4zxy
,
u
=
2y
arctg
2 (3z1)3/2
xy

uxz =

2z

2
y
.
3z1

15.162. d2 z = y 2 exy +

1 2
1
dx + 2 exy (1 + xy) dx dy + x2 exy 2 dy 2 .
x
y

15.163. d2 z = 2xy y 2 ln 2 dx2 + 2 (sin 2y 2xy xy ln2 2 2xy ln 2) dx dy +



2x cos 2y 2 x ln 2 dy 2 . 15.164. d2 z =

2x y 3
dx2 +
2
2
2
(1 + x y )
 2x3 y
 2x2 y 2
1 
x  2
+

dx dy +
dy .
2
(1 + x2 y 2 )2 y ln 10
(1 + x2 y 2 )2 y 2 ln 10
xy 2

15.165. d2 z =

98 cos(14x + 8y) dx2 112 cos(14x + 8y) dx dy 16 cos(14x + 8y) dy 2 .


1 
y
dx dy + x 4y ln2 4 dy 2.
dx2 + 2 4y ln 4 +
15.166. d2 z = 2
x ln 4
x ln 4


15.167. d3 z = 24xy 4 + 6y 3 dx3 + 3 48x2 y 3 + 18xy 2 dx2 dy + 3 48x3 y 2 +


18x2 y dx dy 2 + 24x4 y + 6x3 dy 3 .

15.168. d3 z = 120x dx3 + 120y dx2 dy + 120x dxdy 2 .




15.169. d3 z = 120x3 y 5 + 24xy dx3 + 3 150x4 y 4 + 12x2 dx2 dy

360x5 y 3 dx dy 2 60x6 y 2 dy 3 . 15.170. d3 z = 120x3 y 6 dx3 +

540x4 y 5 dx2 dy + 540x5 y 4 dx dy 2 1050y 4 + 420y 2 120x6 y 3 dy 3.
15.171. d2 z(0, 2) = 4 dy 2 .

1 
dy 2
 2
15.172. d2 z(1, ) = 2
dx + 2 + dxdy .
4
2
4 3
15.173. d2 z(3, 4) =




24
9
16
+ ln2 10 dx2 +
2 ln2 10 dxdy +
+ ln2 10 dy 2.
125
25
125

141

15.174. d2 z(0,

) = dx2 4 dxdy.
4

15.175. d2 z = 72x2 y dx2 + 48x3 dxdy.


4
6
9
15.176. d2 z = p
dx2 p
dxdy p
dy 2 .
3
3
3
(4x + 3y)
(4x + 3y)
4 (4x + 3y)
15.177. d2 z = y 2 exy dx2 + 2exy y(2 + xy) dxdy + x2 exy dy 2 .

15.178. d2 z = 25 sin(5x + y) dx2 10 sin(5x + y) dxdy sin(5x + y) dy 2.


sin ln t cos ln t
d2 z
+ 2et .
15.179. 2 =
2
dt
t

d2 z
15.180. 2 = y x1 cos t y ln2 y cos t sin t x sin t
dt

y x2 sin t xy ln y cos t + y cos t x(x 1) sin t y x ln y sin t xy x1 cos t,
x = sin t, y = cos t.

sin x
cos x 
d2 z
15.181. 2 = 2yt sin x + 2t + t cos x + 2y cos x ,
dt
2 t
4 t3


1
2
d2 z
x+y
2
1 + 3 4 , x = 1t , y = t + 2.
x = t , y = t. 15.182. 2 = e
dt
t
t

15.183. zuu
= 2y 2 = 2(v 2)2 , zuv
= 4xy = 4(u + 3)(v 2),

zvv
= 2x2 = 2(u + 3)2 . 15.184. zuu
= 2x ln 2 v 2 cos y,

zuv
= 2x ln2 2 uv cos y sin y, zvv
= 2x ln2 2 u2 cos y, x = u + v,


x
4u

2u
x
1

2 + 2 ln y, zuv = y + y y2 3v 2 ,
y = u v. 15.185. zuu =
y
y


1
3xv 2
3v 2
2
3

zvv = y + y y2 3v 2 + 6xv
y , x = u + v, y = u + v .

15.186.

zuu

2uv 5 + 1
2v 4
2uv 5 + 1
3
2uv 2
+
,
=
(x + y)2
v (x + y)2 x + y

+1

2 2
zuv
= 2uv
(x+y)2 4u v +

zvv
=

14uv 5
(x+y)2

15.187.

zuu

4u3 v +

(2uv 5 +1)u
v 3 (x+y)2

4uv 5 1
(x+y)2

u2
v4

8uv 5 1
v 2 (x+y) ,

12u2 v 5 +2u
v 3 (x+y) ,

x = u2 v 4 , y = uv .

4u3 + v
6u2
4u3 + v
3
,
u p
v+
= p
x+y
(x + y)3
4 (x + y)3

142

zuv
= 4u
2

+v
(x+y)3

zvv
= u2v
2

(x+y)3

v 4u
4

+v
(x+y)3

v + 2vu
4

(x+y)3

u+

1 ,
2 x+y

1 ,
x+y

x = u4 v 2 , y = uv.

15.188. utv =
 1 4t3

2tv
2x
8x  1
2t

2v
+

+
+

+
,
t2 (y + 4t)2
(y + 4t)2 t3 (y + 4t)3 (y + 4t)3
t3 y + 4t
x = tv 2, y =

v
t3 .

15.189. zvt
= sin(2vx 3y)(2v 2 +

9
)(2vt + 2x + 6) + cos(2vx 3y) 4v,
t4

x = tv, y =

1
t3

15.190. zvt
=

3 cos(2v 3xy) + 6 sin(2v 3xy)(2 + 3y 6x)(y + 4x)


.
cos3 (2v 3xy)

2v.

15.191. wvt
= 6t2 8t cos t + 6v + 3y + 4y sin t.

15.192. zvt
= 4y cos(y 2 t)

1
(12y 4x) cos(y 2 t) + 8y 2 x sin(y 2
2
t


t) 6 cos(y 2 t) + 4xy sin(y 2 t). 15.193. uxx =
15.194.

wxy

15.196.

uxy

15.197. zxx

15.198.

zxy
=

zxx

w
4et

. 15.195. tyy = t
.
=
y(w + 1)2
(e + 1)3

6u2 y
3y 2 3u2
= 2

.
(u + y 2 y)3 (u2 + y 2 y)2
z

.
= zxy
= zyy
=
(z 1)3

(z 2 y)2 (cos z 2x)


4z(z 2 y)

,
=
(sin z 2zx)2
(sin z 2zx)3

2zx(sin z2zx)x(z 2 y)(cos z2x)


(sin z2zx)3

15.199. zxx
=

zyy

4e2u
.
(2e2u + 1)3

1
(sin z2zx) ,

81y 4 sin 3z
9xy 4

,
z
=

xy
(1+3 cos 3z)3 +
(1 + 3 cos 3z)3

4
(1+39xy
cos 3z)3

6y
1+3 cos 3z .

15.200.

zxx

z2x)

zyy
= x(sin(cos
z2zx)3 .
6y
1+3 cos 3z ,

2z(y + 1)(z 2 + 1)
,
=
(y + yz 2 1)3

143

zxy
=

2z 2 (y+1)(z 2 +1)
(y+yz 2 1)3

zyy
=

z(z 2 +1) (3z 2 +1)(1yyz 2 )+2(z 2 +1)yz 2


(y+yz 2 1)3

(z 2 +1)2
(y+yz 2 1)2 ,

z(z 2 +1)2
(y+yz 2 1)2 .

15.201. f (x, y) = 1 + 2(x 1) + (x 1)2 + 4(x 1)(y 1) + (x 1)2(y 1).

15.202. f (x, y) = 1 + 3(x 1) + 3(x 1)2 (x 1)y + (x 1)3 .

4
1
1
2
15.203. grad u(M0 ) = i + k. 15.204. grad u(M0 ) = i + j + k.
3
2
2
6
1
15.205. grad u(M0 ) = j + k. 15.206. grad u(M0 ) = 4i.
e
4
1
2
15.207. grad u(M0 ) = i + j + k.
45
15
9
1
1 + 2e
15.208. grad u(M0 ) = 2i + 2j + (1 e)k. 15.209. . 15.210. .
6
2
5
1
37
15.211. . 15.212. 1. 15.213. . 15.214. 3. 15.215. .
3
2
11

1
3 ; )
33.
;
)
5.
15.218.
)

15.216. . 15.217. ) 10
3
14
5

15.219. ) 1; ) 2. 15.220. ) 46 ; ) 219 .


x6 y2 z3
=
=
.
6
2
3

z+ 2
x 1 y 12
.
=
=
6x + 2y 2z 9 = 0;
6
2
2

x+2 y1 z 3
6x + 3y + 7 3z 12 = 0;
=
= .
6
3
7 3
x + 11 y 2 z 1
x + 12y 2z 11 = 0;
=
=
.
1
12
2
x+1 y+1 z1
=
=
.
4x + 6y + 5z + 5 = 0;
4
6
5
x2 y1 z
x y 1 = 0;
=
= .
1
1
0

15.221. 6x + 2y + 3z 49 = 0;
15.222.
15.223.
15.224.
15.225.
15.226.

x 1 y 311
z2
=
=
.
15.227. 9x + 3 11y + 8z 36 = 0;
9
8
3 11

144

15.228. 2x + 4y 3z + 3 = 0;

x+1 y2 z3
=
=
.
2
4
3

15.229. z = x2 + y 2 ; 4x + 2y z 5 = 0;

x2 y1 z5
=
=
.
4
2
1

15.230. 2x2 + y 2 z 2 = 3; 2x 2y 3z + 3 = 0;
2

15.231. x + y + (z 1) = 1;

x1 y+2 z3
=
=
.
2
2
3

2
2

x
2x + y + z 3 = 0;
2

y
=
1

1
2

z 32
.
1
x+1 y2 z3
y2
z = 0; 4x y + z + 3 = 0;
=
=
.
15.232. 2x +
4
4
1
1
2

15.233. x + 4y + 6z 21 = 0; x + 4y + 6z + 21 = 0. 15.235.

z = 1 (0; 0). 15.236. z = 91 ( 13 ; 31 ).


15.237. . 15.238. z = 1 (1; 1).
15.239. . 15.240. z = 0 (1; 1).
2
15.241. ( 12 ; 12 ). 15.242. ( 10
3 ; 3 ).

15.243. ( 54 ; 35 ), ( 54 ; 35 ).
15.244. (1; 0). 15.245. yx + ey (y 1) = C.
x2
5
5
15.246. e x +
y 2 = C. 15.247. x3 + 3x2 y 2 + y 4 + y 2 = C.
2
4
2
y

15.248. yex x2 +

y2
y2
= C. 15.249. x y sin x
= C.
2
2

15.250. x2 cos y + e2x = C.

16
1
3!
C
16.1. fb(p) = . 16.2. fb(p) = 2 . 16.3. fb(p) = 4 .
p
p
p
16.4. fb(p) =

4!
5!
1
. 16.5. fb(p) = 5 . 16.6. fb(p) = 6 .
p ln a
p
p

7!
11!
5
16.7. fb(p) = 8 . 16.8. fb(p) = 12 . 16.9. fb(p) = 2
.
p
p
p + 25

145

16.10. fb(p) =

4p
12
p
. 16.11. fb(p) =
. 16.12. fb(p) = 2
.
2
+1
16p 9
p 7

4p2

e p
e 2p p
ep p
b
b
b
. 16.14. f (p) = 2
. 16.15. f (p) = 2
.
16.13. f (p) = 2
p +1
p 1
p 1

e
16.16. fb(p) =

10p

7!

p8

ep
16.19. f (t)

e
. 16.17. fb(p) =

ep

10!
12!
b(p) = e
.
16.18.
f
.
p11
p13



1
1
1

2 ep
1 ep . 16.20. f (t)
+
.
p
p p2

16.21. fb(p) =

3!
5!
b(p) =
.
16.22.
f
.
(p 1)4
(p + 1)6

16.25. fb(p) =

p3
1
b(p) = 1
.
.
16.26.
f
(p 3)2 + 4
3 (p 1)2 19

16.23. fb(p) =

3p

p 0,1
p+1
b(p) =
.
16.24.
f
.
(p + 1)2 + 1
(p 0,1)2 1

1
p+
b(p) =
.
16.28.
f
.
(p 2)2 + 1
(p + )2 1

3
3
b(p) =

.
16.30.
f
.
16.29. fb(p) =
(p + 1)2 9
(p 3)2 3
16.27. fb(p) =

1
3
10
1 p
2
8
16.31. fb(p) = 2
+ 3 . 16.32. fb(p) =
+

.
p p +1 p
3 p2 1 p 5 p2 4

2p
1
3
+
.
16.33. fb(p) = 2 2
p
p + 1 3p 6
16.34. fb(p) =

16.35. fb(p) =

16.37. fb(p) =

16.39. fb(p) =

16.40. fb(p) =

4
3
4
+ 2

.
p + 1 p 4 (p 2)4
1 1
3 
p 
1 p
b
+
+
. 16.36. f (p) =
.
2 p2 + 1 p2 + 9
2 p2 + 1 p2 + 25
p 
p 
11
11
b

+
. 16.38. f (p) =
.
2 p p2 + 16
2 p p2 + 1

1
5
1
+
.
2 (p + 4)2 + 25 (p + 4)2 + 1
6
p ln 3
+
.
(p ln 3)2 + 4 p4

146

14
p+2
1
1
16.41. fb(p) = 3 +
+
.
p
2(p + 2) 2 (p + 2)2 + 16
16.42. fb(p) =

16.44. fb(p) =

3
7
2
6
b(p) =
+
.
16.43.
f
+
.
(p ln 2)4 p2 + 9
(p + 3)2 49 p
p ln 5
2
p2 25
b

. 16.45. f (p) = 2
.
(p ln 5)2 16 p + 1
(p + 25)2

2(3p2 1)
2(3p2 2 )
b
b
16.46. f (p) =
. 16.47. f (p) =
.
(p2 + 1)3
(p2 + 2 )3
p 2 + 2
2p
b(p) =
16.48. fb(p) = 2
.
16.49.
f
.
(p 2 )2
(p2 2 )2

16.50. fb(p) =

8p
2p
b(p) = arctg p.
+
.
16.51.
f
(p2 + 4)2 (p2 + 64)2
2

1 p2 + 1
1 p2 + 121
16.52. fb(p) = ln 2
. 16.53. fb(p) = ln 2
.
2 p +9
4
p + 81
p
2
2
1
p2 + 4
1 p +
b
b
. 16.55. f (p) = ln
.
16.54. f (p) = ln 2
2 p + 2
2
p


p
1
1
. 16.57. f (t) = sin 2t. 16.58. f (t) = e5t 1 .
p+1
2
5

1
16.59. f (t) = t et. 16.60. f (t) = t cos t + sin t . 16.61. f (t) = t sin t.
2

3
16.62. f (t) = cos t cos 3t . 16.63. f (t) = sh t t.
8

2 p
1
(t + 3)3 3 3 . 16.65. fb(p) =
16.64. f (t) =
.
3
p(p2 1)
16.56. fb(p) = ln

6
1
. 16.67. fb(p) =
.
4)
(p 2)(p2 + 1)

16.66. fb(p) =

p3 (p2

16.71. fb(p) =

1
2
b(p) = 1 .
. 16.72. fb(p) =
.
16.73.
f
p ln a
p(p2 + 4)
p2 1

16.68. fb(p) =

6!
b(p) = 1 . 16.70. fb(p) = 1 .
.
16.69.
f
p6 (p2 + 9)
p2 + 1
p2 1

16.74. fb(p) =

1
p2 + 2
1
b
b
. 16.75. f (p) =
. 16.76. f (p) = 2 2
.
p2 + 9
p(p 1)2
p (p + 4)

147

2t9
16.77. f (t) = t. 16.78. f (t) =
. 16.79. f (t) = t3 .
9!

16.80. f (t) = cos 2t. 16.81. f (t) = ch 3t. 16.82. f (t) = 3 cos 5t.

1
16.83. f (t) = sin 2t. 16.84. f (t) = sin 3t. 16.85. f (t) = sin 7t.
7
r

7
1
4
16.86. f (t) = sh 11t. 16.87. f (t) = cos
t.
2
2
11

t
7
t
3
ch . 16.89. f (t) = sin .
2
2
3
3

2t
5
f (t) = sh . 16.91. f (t) = 2 cos 3t 3 sin 3t.
3
3

1
f (t) = 5 ch 13t + sh 13t. 16.93. f (t) = (t 2)e4(t+2) .
13


1
f (t) = (t 3) sin (3t 9). 16.95. f (t) = (t 3) cos 6(t 3) .
3


1
f (t) = sh 5(t 4) (t 4).
5

16.88. f (t) =
16.90.
16.92.
16.94.
16.96.

16.97. f (t) = (t 2)

(t 2)3 e3(t2)
.
3!

16.98. f (t) = (t 3) 2(t 3)e2(t3) . 16.99. f (t) = t e3t.


3t9 e7t
4t3 e2,1t
t5 e5t
. 16.101. f (t) =
. 16.102. f (t) =
.
16.100. f (t) =
5!
9!
3!

2t
t
16.103. f (t) = e cos 3t. 16.104. f (t) = e cos 17t.

16.105. f (t) = e6t ch 8t. 16.106. f (t) = e3t sin 5t.

1 10t
7 4t
16.107. f (t) = e
sin 3t. 16.108. f (t) = e sh 2t.
3
2

16.109. f (t) = e2t sin t. 16.110. f (t) = e2t cos t 2 sin t .


16.111. f (t) = et ch t 4 sh t . 16.112. f (t) = e3t cos 2t.


7
16.113. f (t) = e2t 3 cos 5t sin 5t .
5

148


1
6t sh 6t .
6
1 1
1
16.115. f (t) = + e2t + et . 16.116. f (t) = 2 + 2t et 2et.
2 6
3
1
1
16.117. f (t) = et + e2t . 16.118. f (t) = 2et + e2t 3et .
2
2

16.114. f (t) = et ch

16.119. f (t) = t e2t e2t + et . 16.120. f (t) = 2t 2 sin t.

t
3t
2
16.121. f (t) = et + e 2 sin
. 16.122. f (t) = 2t2 + et .
2
3

1
1
1
3
t
3t
+ e 2 t sin
+ sin t.
16.123. f (t) = e 2 t cos
2
2
3
1
16.124. f (t) = et (2t + cos t + sin t). 16.125. f (t) = 1 + t2 e2t .
2

1
7t
1
16.126. f (t) = 2e 2 t cos
2 cos 2 t + sin 2 t.
2
2
16.127. f (t) = 1 cos t. 16.128. f (t) = t sin t. 16.129. f (t) = et 1.

5 h t
sin 3t i
.
16.130. f (t) = e cos 3t +
4
3
1
t
16.131. f (t) = sin 2t + cos 2t. 16.132. f (t) = et t 1.
4
2
3
16.133. f (t) = t e2t e2t + et . 16.134. f (t) = sin 2t sin t.
4


cos t sin t 1
.
ln
16.135. f (t) = sin t. 16.136. f (t) = sin t +
2
sin t + 1
p
p


2


16.137. f (t) = t ln t + t + 4 t ln 2 t2 + 4 + 2.

arctg et
t
t
.
16.138. f (t) = e arctg . 16.139. f (t) = e tg t. 16.140. f (t) =
2
et
2t

16.141. y(t) = 5e2t sin t. 16.142. y(t) = e3t sh 4t. 16.143. y(t) = t et.
1
16.144. y(t) = e2t (3 cos 3t + 4 sin 3t). 16.145. y(t) = 2 10t + 5et.
3
1
1 1
16.146. y(t) = + e2t + et . 16.147. y(t) = 1.
2 6
3

149

3
2
et + e5t . 16.149. y(t) = 2t + 3 2et cos t + 2et sin t.
5
5
1
1
16.150. y(t) = t + cos 2t sin 2t.
4
8
16.148. y(t) =

16.151. y(t) = t3 3t2 + 12t 18 + 18et . 16.152. y(t) = t3 .

1
1
5
sh 2t. 16.154. y(t) = e2t 2 et + et .
2
3
3

16.155. y(t) = et . 16.156. y(t) = 0,1 e3t + 0,9 et cos 2t + 2 sin 2t .

16.153. y(t) = t e2t

16.157. y(t) = e3t + e3t e2t. 16.158. y(t) = 3 + t + (t 2) et .


16.159. y(t) = t et. 16.160. y(t) = (t4 + 1)et .

16.161. y(t) = e2t + 4 cos t 2 sin t 5.


1
sin t 5 cos t + et + 4 .
2

1
2 sin t sin 2t . 16.164. y(t) = (t + 1) sin 2t.
16.163. y(t) =
3
16.165. y(t) = (t + 1) sin t.
16.162. y(t) =

16.166. y(t) = 0,66 e3t + 1,28 e2t + 0,06 cos t 0,42 sin t.
16.167. y(t) = et + cos 2t 2. 16.168. y(t) =
t t 1 t et + 3
1 t
.
16.169. y(t) = (e 1) e + e ln
3
9
9
4

1 t
11
15 
1
e + et t2 +
t+
.
8
4
4
8


16.170. y(t) = et 1 et t + ln (1 + et ) ln 2 + ln(1 + et ) ln 2.


1 t
et + 1
e 1 t et + sh t ln
.
2
2
p
p



16.172. y(t) = t et ln t + 4 + t2 ln 2 et 4 + t2 + 2et .


sin t 1
1
.
16.173. y(t) = sin t + cos t ln
2
sin t + 1

16.171. y(t) =

16.174. y(t) = t sin t + cos t ln cos t.

16.175. y(t) = (2C1 + C2 )et (C1 + C2 )e2t .


1
16.176. y(t) = et C1 cos 3t + (t + C1 + C2 ) sin 3t .
3

150

16.177. y(t) = y = C3 et + (C2 C3 )t + C1 C3 .


16.178. x(t) = et, y(t) = et .

16.179. x(t) = 18e4t + 32et 10, y(t) = 18e4t 8et .


16.180. x(t) = 2 ch t 4 sh t, y(t) = 6 sh t 1.
16.181. x(t) = e2t(1 2t), y(t) = e2t (1 + 2t).

16.182. x(t) = t2 + t, y(t) = 0,5t2 .


16.183.
16.184.
16.185.
16.186.
16.188.

x(t) = 2 t + 0,5et + 1,5et , y(t) = 0,5et + 1,5et.


x(t) = sin t cos t, y(t) = sin t + cos t.
x(t) = sin t + sh t, y(t) = cos t + ch t.
x(t) = 0, y(t) = 1 cos t. 16.187. x(t) = t cos t, y(t) = t sin t.
x(t) = sin t, y(t) = cos t, z(t) = sin t.

16.189. x(t) =



1 t
1
e e3t + 2t e3t , y(t) = 5et e3t 2t e3t .
4
4

-
. .


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