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DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC CONTROLLED

SAND SLINGING MACHINE


Submitted in the partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of

SUBMITTED BY:

1. R. VINOTH KUMAR
2. L. PRAMOSH
3. C. N. SHANKARAN

4. S. SOLOMAN RAJ
5. K. NEDUMARAN
6. S. SARAVANAN

Under guidance of
Mr. M.RAM PRABHU, M.E,.Ph.D
OCTOBER 2016.
DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING
VELTECH ENGINEERING COLLEGE
CHENNAI 600054

VELTECH ENGINEERING COLLEGE


CHENNAI 600054

DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING

BONAFIDE CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that this Project work on

DESIGN AND FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC CONTROLLED SAND


SLINGING MACHINE

submitted by . Reg. No.


This is the bonafide record of work carried out by him under our supervision
during the year 2016
Submitted for the Viva-voce exam held on ..

HEAD OF THE DEPARTMENT

INTERNAL EXAMINER

PROJECT GUIDE

EXTERNAL EXAMINER

ACKNOWLEDGEMEN
T

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
At the outset, we would like to emphasize our sincere thanks to the
Principal Mr. XXXXXXXX,M.TECH., encouragement and valuable
advice.

we thank our Esquired Head of Department Mr SXXXXXX,


A.M.I.E, M.E., for presenting his felicitations on us.
We are grateful on our Entourages

Mr. XXXXXXX, M.E., for

guiding in various aspects of the project making it a grand success.


We also owe our sincere thanks to all staff members of the
Mechanical Engineering Department.

Ultimately, we extend our thanks to all who had rendered their cooperation for the success of the project.

CONTENTS

CONTENTS

Chapter No.

TITLE

1.

SYNOPSIS

2.

CONSTRUCTION

3.

WORKING PRINCIPLE

4.

MECHANICAL ASSEMBLY DIAGRAM

5.

PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

6.

MECHANICAL SPARE PART DETAILS

7.

PNEUMATIC COMPONENT DETAILS

8.

FINISHING AND PAINTING

9.

COST ESTIMATION

10.

CONCLUSION

11.

BIBILOGRAPHY

12.

PHOTO VIEW

ABSTRACT

ABSTRCT
To increase the productivity and to overcome skilled labour shortage,
most of the manufacturing industries are going for automation. The main
arm for us to select the project work is to acquire practical knowledge in the
field of automation using PNEUMATIC SYSTEM.

We selectedDESIGN AND

FABRICATION OF PNEUMATIC

CONTROLLED SAND SLINGING MACHINE as our project work and we


used principles of Mechatronics in developing this project work, the vibrating
mechanism is achieved by reciprocating the double acting cylinders which
controlled by solenoid operated 5/2 way DC valve which is actuated through the
Control system.
The operating pressure required for this system is 5 to 6 bar. The
maintenance required for this system is less than the other systems.

CONSTRUCTION

CONSTRUCTION

The project consist of


1.
2.
3.
4.

M.S. Stand
Pneumatic control system
VIBRATING plate with screen type filter
Electric panel

1. M.S.STAND:
The M.S.Stand is shown in figure. It is made in L angle of
2mm thickness and 450X 600 mm width and length. The cylinder is
mounted at the top and connected to the vibrating plate at the end of piston
rod.

2. PNEUMATIC SYSTEM:
In pneumatic system, the piston rod in cylinder is moved by the
supply of compressed air which is supplied through the 5/2 way solenoid
operated directional control valve. The cylinder A and B ports are connected
to the 5/2 way D.C. Valve with 6/8mm PVC tube. The 6mm connector is
used to connect this cylinder port and D.C valve. The minimum air pressure

required is 5 to 6bar. The figure shows the cross section view of double
acting cylinder.

4. VIBRATING PLATE;
The figure shows the Vibrating plate.

The vibrating plate. is made in mild steel material. This is


connected to the end rod of the double acting cylinder.

4. ELECTRICAL PANEL:
A 24V D.C Supply is required to operate this solenoid valve.
For this separate switch is provided to ON/OFF this solenoid valve.

WORKINGPRINCIPL
E

WORKING PRINCIPLE
VIBRATING MACHINE
The Pneumatic circuit diagram is shown in below

Before starting the machine set the pressure 5 Bar


in the FRL unit and connect air supply to the 5/2 way Solenoid
operated directional control valve at the pressure port.
WORKING PRINCIPLE( vibrating machine)

The double acting cylinder is actuated by a 5/2 solenoid


operated directional control valve, which is controlled (ON &OFF) through
the controller. The solenoid valve coil is operating at 12vdc which is
connected to ON/OFF relay controller system .

When the push button is pressed, then the signal is send to the input of
the ON /OFF control RELAY input, which actuate the 5/2 solenoid coil
which in turn actuate the valve position to direct the air to the cylinder. The
cylinder piston rod reciprocates to and fro. When the setting time is reached,
the position of the valve changed and piston will be move back to its initial
position.

Here there is no mechanical or electrical timer is used to return the


piston.

Specification of the components used;

QUANTIT
NAME OF THE PARTS

SIZE
Y

1. Double acting cylinder


2. Solenoid 5/2 way DC Valve

25mmx100mm
12vdc x1/4 inch

1
1

size3. SLINGER PLATE

400mmx400mm

4. POWER SUPPLY 12VDC

12vdc/1 amps

5. M.S. BASE STAND

750mm x 400mm

6. Valve Connector (quick fixing type)

Steel

5 nos

7. Plastic tube

6 x 4 mm

3 meters

8. Electrical on /off relay control

12vdc

1
1
1

1 no

POWER SUPPLY 5V DC AND 12V DC;

A 12 0 V step down transformer is used to stepdown 230V AC to


12V AC .This 12V AC supply is converted to 12V DC using four rectifier
diodes. The voltage from the rectifier section is regulated to 12V DC using
7812 IC . From 12V DC the 7805 IC is used for regulating 5V DC for the
power supply of LED. The power supply circuit is shown in fig.

INTRODUCTION:
All the electronic components starting from diode to Intel ICs only
work with a DC supply ranging from +5V to +12V. We are utilizing for the
same, the cheapest and commonly available energy source of 230V-50Hz
and stepping down, rectifying, filtering and regulating the voltage.
STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER:
When AC is applied to the primary winding of the power transformer,
it can either be stepped down or stepped up depending on the value of DC
needed. In our circuit the transformer of 230V/15-0-15V is used to perform
the step down operation where a 230V AC appears as 15V AC across the
secondary winding. Apart from stepping down voltages, it gives isolation
between the power source and power supply circuitries.
RECTIFIER UNIT:
In the power supply unit, rectification is normally achieved using a
solid state diode. Diode has the property that will let the electron flow easily
in one direction at proper biasing condition. As AC is applied to the diode,
electrons only flow when the anode and cathode is negative. Reversing the

polarity of voltage will not permit electron flow. A commonly used circuit
for supplying large amounts of DCpower is the bridge rectifier. A bridge
rectifier of four diodes (4 x IN4007) are used to achieve full wave
rectification. Two diodes will conduct during the negative cycle and the
other two will conduct during the positive half cycle, and only one diode
conducts. At the same time one of the other two diodes conducts for the
negative voltage that is applied from the bottom winding due to the forward
bias for that diode. In this circuit due to positive half cycle D1 & D2 will
conduct to give 0.8V pulsating DC. The DC output has a ripple frequency of
100Hz. Since each alteration produces a resulting output pulse, frequency =
2 x 50 Hz. The output obtained is not a pure DC and therefore filtration has
to be done.
The DC voltage appearing across the output terminals of the bridge
rectifier will be somewhat less than 90% of the applied rms value. Normally
one alteration of the input voltage will reverse the polarities. Opposite ends
of the transformer will therefore always be 180 degree out of phase with
each other. For a positive cycle, two diodes are connected to the positive
voltage at the top winding.
FILTERING CIRCUIT:

Filter circuits which is usually capacitor acting as a surge arrester


always follow the rectifier unit. This capacitor is also called as a decoupling
capacitor or a bypassing capacitor, is used not only to short the ripple with
frequency of 120Hz to ground but also to leave the frequency of the DC to
appear at the output. A load resistor R1 is connected so that a reference to
the ground is maintained. C1, R1 is for bypassing ripples. C2, R2 is used as
a low pass filter, i.e. it passes only low frequency signals and bypasses high
frequency signals. The load resistor should be 1% to 2.5% of the load.
1000f/25V : for the reduction of ripples from the pulsating
10f/25V

: for maintaining the stability of the voltage at the load side.

0.1f

: for bypassing the high frequency disturbances

BLOCK DIAGRAM FOR POWER SUPPLY

STEP DOWN

TRANSFORMER

BRIDGE

POSITIVE

RECTIFIER

CHARGE
CAPACITOR

5V
REGULATOR

12VD
REGULATOR

LED

BOARD

RELAY

VOLTAGE REGULATOR:
The voltage regulators play an important role in any power supply
unit. The primary purpose of a regulator is to aid the rectifier and filter
circuit in providing a constant DC voltage to the device. Power supplies
without regulators have an inherent problem of changing DC voltage values
due to variations in the load or due to fluctuations in the AC linear voltage.
With a regulator connected to the DC output, the voltage can be maintained
within a close tolerant region of the desired output. IC7812 and 7912 is
used in this project for providing +12V and 12V DC supply.

MECHANICAL
SPARE PARTS &
ASSEMBLY
DIAGRAM

PNEUMATIC
COMPONENTS
DETAILS

DESCRIPTION OF PNEUMATIC
COMPONENTS
1. Double acting air cylinder with piston arrangement.
2. Spool valve (2 position 5 ports valve)
3. Pneumatic fittings
a. Bulk head union
b. Flexible hoses
c. Air compressors
DOUBLE ACTING AIR CYLINDER WITH PISTON
ARRANGEMENT:
It consists of a piston inside a cylindrical housing called a barrel.
Attached to one end of the piston is a rod which the rod end has one port.

This rod end port is used for entrance of air and extends outside one end of
the cylinder. At another end is a port for exit of air.
Double acting cylinder can be extended and retracted pneumatically.
The smallest bore size of a double acting cylinder is 1 1/8 inch. The piston,
which is made of ductile Iron, contains u-cup packing to seal against leakage

between the piston and barrel. The ports are located in the end caps, which
are secured to the barrel by bolts and nuts.

SPOOL VALVE:
The spool is rod in 5/2 values, so that 5/2 valve is called spool
valve. It used to change the path of flow of air.

DIRECTING CONTROL VALVES:


A direction control valve is used to change the direction of airflow as
and when required by the system for reversing the machine tool devices. A
direction control valve may be classified, according to the construction of
the internal moving parts, as

1. Rotary spool Type.


2. Sliding Spool Type.
3. Solenoid operated valves

SOLENOID OPERATED VALVES:


Solenoid valves are electromechanical devices like relays and
contractors. A solenoid valve is used to obtain mechanical movement in
machinery by utilizing fluid or air pressure. The fluid or air pressure is
applied to the cylinder piston through a valve operated by a cylindrical
electrical coil. The electrical coil along with its frame and plunger is known
as the solenoid and the assembly of solenoid and mechanical valve is known
as solenoid valve.

The solenoid valve is thus another important

electromechanical device used in control of machines. Solenoid valves are


of two types,
1. Single solenoid spring return operating valve,(5/2)
2. Double solenoid operating valve.

In fig 1 is shown a single solenoid spring return valve in its de-energized


condition. The symbol for the solenoid and the return are also shown. The
solenoid valve is shown connected to the cylinder to help readers understand
the solenoid valve action. In the de energized condition, the plunger and the
valve spool position as shown in figure 1.

5/2 WAY VALVE

In this position of spool, port P is connected to port A and port B is


connected to tank or exhaust (i.e. atmosphere) if air is used. Spring pressure
(S) keeps the spool in this condition as long as the coil is de energized.
Fluid pressure from port P through port A is applied to the left side of the
cylinder piston. Thus the cylinder piston moves in the right direction. Now
when the solenoid coil is energized, plunger is attracted and it pushes the
spool against spring pressure.
The new position of plunger and spool are shown in fig 2.

In this position of spool, port A gets connected to tank and port P gets
connected to port B. Thus pressure is applied to the cylinder piston from
right and moves the piston rod to the left. At the same time fluid in the other
side is drained out to the tank. When the solenoid coil is again de energized,
the spring (S) will move the spool to its original position as shown in figure
1. Thus, normally when the solenoid coil is de energized the piston rod
remains extended.

PNEUMATIC
FITTING

PNEUMATIC FITTINGS:
There are no nuts to tighten the tube to the fittings as in the
conventional type of metallic fittings. The tube is connected to the fitting by
a simple push ensuring leak proof connection and can be released by
pressing the cap and does not require any special tooling like spanner to
connect (or) disconnect the tube from the fitting.

SPECIFICATION OF THE FITTING:


Body Material
Collect/Thread Nipple
Seal
Fluid Used
Max. Operating Pressure
Tolerance on OD of the tubes

- Plastic
- Brass
- Nitrate Rubber
- Air
- 7 Bar
- 1 mm

Min. Wall thickness of tubes

- 1 mm.

FLEXIBLE HOSES:
The Pneumatic hoses, which is used when pneumatic components
such as actuators are subjected to movement. Hose is fabricated in layer of
Elastomer or synthetic rubber, which permits operation at high pressure.
The standard outside diameter of tubing is 1/16 inch. If the hose is subjected
to rubbing, it should be encased in a protective sleeve.

ADVANTAGES AND LIMITATIONS


ADVANTAGES:

The Pneumatic arm is more efficient in the technical field


Quick response is achieved
Simple in constructions
Easy to maintain and repair
Cost of the unit is less when compared to other robotics
No fire hazard problem due to over loading
Comparatively the operation cost is less
The operation of arm is faster because the media to operate is air
Continuous operation is possible without stopping.

LIMITATIONS:
High torque cannot be obtained.
Load Carrying capacity of this unit is not very high (3 5 kg/s)
Silencer may be used, to reduce the noise of compressed air

APPLICATION
1) DISCHARGE OF WORKPIECE:
The arm fed has wide application in low cost automation. It can be
used in automated assembly lines to pick-up the finished product from
workstation and place them in the bins. It can also be used to pick-up the
raw material and place them on the conveyor belts and vice versa.
2) JOB CLAMPING:
This unit can also be used in clamping operations in certain areas of
mass productions where clamping and unclamping have to be done at high
speeds. The application of this unit is limited to operations, which involves
moderate clamping forces.
3) TRANSFER OF JOBS BETWEEN WORK STATIONS:
The gripping method used in a low cost automation to move the work
piece from one workstation to another. The combination of an angular
rotary motion is the principle behind this method. The gripper holds the
work rigidly. The to and fro motion is achieved by means of the actuating
cylinder.
4) TOOL CHANGING APPLICATION:

When the pneumatic arms are made smaller in size they can be used
in automatic tool changer in CNC turning and drilling machines, by
attaching suitable tool holding device to the rotary cylinder.

PNEUMATIC
CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

PNEUMATIC CIRCUIT DIAGRAM

FEATURES OF THE
VIBRATING MACHINE

FEATURES OF THE VIBRATING MACHINE

It is compact in size
It can be move
The electrical power consumption is very low
It can be utilized at our work shop
It is simple in construction
Low cost
Less weight and easy to handle
It reduces the man power
It is used in mass production

FINISHING AND
PAINTING

FINISHING AND PAINTING

JOB PREPARATION;
Before welding, remove any bend in the L angle with the sludge hammer on
the anvil block. Then it is cut to the required length with the hacksaw blade
and fabricated to required dimensional shape with arc welding.

FINISHING OPERATION BEFORE PAINTING;

After welding, any slag on the welded area is removed with the chipping
hammer and cleaned with the metal wire brush. Then all the surfaces are
rubbed with the emery sheet.

Metal primer is applied on the surfaces with the brush .After drying the
metal primer, the second coating is applied with the paint.

COST ESTIMATION

COST ESTIMATION
Cost in Rs
NAME OF THE PARTS

2. Double acting cylinder


2. Solenoid 5/2 way DC Valve

1600/1200/-

3. VIBRATING PLATE

700/-

4. POWER SUPPLY 12VDC

400/-

5. M.S. STAND

1200/-

6. Valve Connector (5Nos. x 40.00)

200/-

7. Plastic tube (5 meters) 25/metre

200/-

8. relay control

500/6000/-

CONCLUSION

CONCLUSION
We make this project entirely different from other projects. Since
concepts involved in our project is entirely different that a single unit is used
to various purposes which is not developed by any of other team members.
By doing this project we gained the knowledge of pneumatic system
is how automation can be effectively done with the help of pneumatic
system.

It is concluded that any automation system can be done with the help
of pneumatic system.
We have successfully completed the project work on using
Pneumatics system at our Institute.
By doing this project work, we understood the working principle and
uses of various Cylinders, Valves, etc. .
It will be of no doubt that Pneumatics will be an integrated part of any
process in industry in the near future and we developed a through knowledge
in Automation with Pnematics
Once again we express our sincere thanks to our staff members.

BIBILOGRAPHY

BIBILOGRAPHY

Bansal, R.K., Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics Machines (5th edition),


Laxmi publications (P) ltd, New Delhi, 1995.
Ramamirtham,S., Fluid Mechanics and Hydraulics and Fluid Machines,
Dhanpat Rai and Sons, Delhi, 1998.

P.C. Sharma, A Text Book of Production Engineering, S. Chand and


Co.ltd, IV edition, 1993.
Hajra Choudry, Elements of work shop Technology Vol. II Media
Promoters. 2002.
Majundar s.r., Pneumatic systems Principles and Maintenance, tata
McGraw hill, 1995.

PHOTOVIEW