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2 3

2003

:
- ,
..

: , , ,
. .
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.
.
- .

- . 2003
.., 2003 .

..4
1. .....4
2. .........8
3. -. ....10
4. .14
5. ......16
6. 19
7. ..22
8. ..23
25
..27


. ,
, , , ,
.
. ,
,
,
. , ,
, , , , , , ..
, ,
, .. .
,
. ,
,

.
,
.
.
( )
. ,
.
1.
,
, . F(M),
. ,
; ,
.
. ,
, (
);
..
( ), ( ),
( )
.
F(M) = F(x,y,z) F(x,y,z) =
, ..
F() .
. , .. ,
F() N,
N . F() = const
, , F(x,y,z) = , ,
.
u(M) = u(x,y,z)

grad u =

u u u
k.
i+
j+
x
y
z

(1)

(""): =


i+
j + k , ,
x
y
z

i , j, k ,

, , .
x y z
.

a ( M ) , ,

. a ( M )
P,Q,R,

a ( M ) = P ( x, y, z ) i + Q( x, y , z ) j + R ( x, y, z )k .

,
. :

a ( M ) = P ( x, y ) i + Q( x, y ) j .

a ( M ) ,

a ( M ) .

( , | a ' (M)| 0 ) .
:
dx
dy
dz
=
=
.
P( x, y, z ) Q ( x, y, z ) R( x, y, z )

. , a ( M ) ,
, , ;

. a ( M ) = grad F (M )
F(x,y,z) = ;
F(M) .

dx
dy
=
; dz = 0 .
P(x,y) Q(x,y)

1. u=xy.
. xy=
. = 0 .
2. :
u = arctg

x2 + y2
.
z

. arctg

x2 + y2
= C .
z

x2 + y 2
= a 2 , = tg , < C < . ,
2
2
2
z
x2+y2-a2z2 = 0, z.

3. :
u=

1
2x + 3 y 4z + 1 .

. , ,
:
2x + 3y 4z + 1 = 0


2x + 3y 4z + 1 = ,

:
2x + 3y 4z + 1 = 0 (1 = 1 ).

2. :

u = cos r , (r = x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )
. ,
( r=const u=const). , u=const,
, cos r = C ( 1 C
1 ).
: r = arccosC+2n (n=0, 1, 2,). r, ,
, ,
arccos c, arccos c + 2n, -arccos c + 2n, n .
.
3. :
) u(P)=x; ) u(P)=y; ) u(P)=z;
. (1):

u
) u = x =
i = i . : ) y = j ; ) y = k .
x
6. u ( x, y ) = 4 + x 2 + y 2 (2; 1).
u u
u u

j .

i+
y
x
x y
1
x
2 u
y
2 1
=
= ; : grad u = i + j .
= ;
3
3
4 + x2 + y2 3
4 + x 2 + y 2 3 y

. (1): grad u =
:

u
=
x

7. grad ( c , r ), c .

. c = i +

j + k ;

( c , r ) = x + y + z; grad( c , r ) = ( c , r ) = ( x + y + z) = x + y + z ,

c , x = i , y = j , z = k grad( c , r ) = i +

j+ k = c .

8. F ( M ) = ax i ay j 2 az k (a = const ) .
. :
dx
dy
dz
=
=
ax
ay
2az
dx
dy
= , ln|x|+ln|y|=ln|c1|, xy=c1.

ax
ay
dy
dz
=
ln |y| = 12 ln |z| + 12 ln |c 2| y 2 = c 2 z . ,
ay 2az
:
xy = c1 ;
2
y = c 2 z.
9. ,

a ( M ) = xy i 2 x( x 1) j

.
.
y2
dx
dy
=
, ( x 1) 2 +
= c (c 0) . ,
2
xy
2 x ( x 1)
, (1, 0).

10. u = 9 x 2 y 2 .
e
11. u = ( ) .
r
x
.
12. u = arcsin
2
y + z2
13. u = sin( x 2 y 2 ) .
x2 + y2
.
z
15. :
) u(x,y,z) = x 2 + 2 y 2 + 3 z 2 xy 4 x + 2 y 4 z ( 0,0,0 ) .

14. u =

) u(x,y,z) = 3 x 2 y 3 y 3 + y 4 ( 1,2,1 ) .
y
) u = arctg .
x
16. .

17. a ( M ) =

1 1
i+ j.
x
y

18.

1 1 1
a (M ) = 2 i 2 j + 2 k .
x
y
z

a(M k )
B

Mk

Sk

19. :
0

(M k )

a ( M ) = ( x 2 y 2 z 2 ) i + 2 xy j + 2 xz k .
20.

a = [ c , r ], c . ( [ c , r ]
E
A
).
21. :
) ;
) .
x
22. (x,y) = 2
.
x + y2
.
23. (0;0) , z=xsiny + ycosx
.

24.1) z=ln(x2+4y2) (6; 4; ln100).


2) z=xy (2; 2; 4).
25.
(x,y,z)=xsinz ycosz ?
. 1.
x
26.1) z = arcsin
. (1; 1) (3; 4).
x+ y
2) z = x 2 + y 2 z = x 3 y + 3 xy .
(3; 4).
2.

a (M ) .
- . ,

, (. 1).
, .

n " " Sk (k=1,2, ,n)


Mk
. k-

( a (M k ), (M k ))S k

(1)

k:
n

( a (M k ), (M k ))S k

(2)

k =1

. P, Q, R
, maxSk Sk , maxSk 0 (2)
,

( a (M), (M)) :

( a , )ds .

(3)

d s = ds dx, dy, dz,


(3) :

( a , )ds = ( a , ds ) = ( a ,d s ) = Pdx + Pdy + Rdz .


l

(4)

(4) ,
, , , ..
. (4)

a ( M ) l ( a ) :

l ( a ) = ( a , 0 )ds = ( a ,d s ) = Pdx + Pdy + Rdz .


l

(5)

27. a = y 2 i + x j x=3cost, y=sint

.
. . ,
t 2 0. , :

0
3 0
= ( a , d r ) = ( 3 sin 3t + 3 cos 2 t)dt = ( 1 cos 2t)dt = 3 . : 3
2
2 2

28. a = y i + x j + k x 2 + y 2 = 1, z = 0
.
. : x=cost, y=sint, z=0, 0 t 2. P =
y=
= -sint, Q=x=cost, R=1, dx= sintdt, dy=costdt, dz=0, :

10
2

= ( y)dx + xdy + dz = (( sin t)( sin t) + cos t cos t)dt = ( sin 2 t + cos 2 t)dt = dt = 2 .

: 2

29. a ( M ) = xyz i + ( x + y + z ) j x 2 y 2 k

ABCDA, : x+y=a; x+y=a; xy=a; x+y=a; z=0. . . 2.


. :

a
A

C
x

( a , d r ) = xyzdx + ( x + y + z )dy x 2 y 2 dz = ( x + y )dy ,


z=0 dz=0.
,
y:

(a, d r ) +

AB

( a, d r ) +

( a, d r ) +

(a, d r ) =

DA

( x + y )dy +

AB

( x + y)dy + ( x + y)dy + ( x + y)dy = 0 (2 y a)dy + a ady +

DA

+ (2 y + a)dy + ( a )dy = 2a 2

: 22.

30. a = y i x=bcost, y=b+bsint,


Y.

31. a = xy i + yz j + zxk x2+y2=R2; z=0.

32. a = x 2 y i + j + z k x2+y2=R, z=0.

33. a = y i + x j + c k (c ) :
) x2+y2=1, z=0;
) (x2)2+y2=1, z=0.
3. -.

z1(x,y) z2(x,y) D
z1(x,y) z2(x,y). G={(x,y,z)|(x,y)D , z1(x,y) z z2(x,y)} z.
y . G
, , y
z- .
. P(x,y,z), Q(x,y,z), R(x,y,z),
P Q R
,
,
G, -
x y z
.
P

( x + y + z )dxdydz = Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy ,


G

(1)

11

,
G.
(1) -.
. P, Q, R ,

P Q R
= 1 ,
+
+
x y z

(1) G, ..

dxdydz = V (G) , (1)


G

G :
(2)
V (G ) = Pdydz + Qdzdx + Rdxdy

34. -,
= x 2 dydz + y 2 dzdx + z 2 dxdy , (xa)2+(y-b)2+(zc)2=R2.

. - :
= (2 x + 2 y + 2 z )dxdydz ,
G

G (xa) +(y-b) +(zc) R .


:
2

x=a+cossin, y=b+sinsin, z=c+cos, 0 2, 0 .


2sin. G = R. ,
2

R
8
= 2 d sin d 2 (a + b + c + (cos sin + sin sin + cos ))d = (a + b + c ) R 3 .
0
0
0
3
8
: (a + b + c) R 3 .
3
(), .. ,

n ( M ) = cos ( M ) i + cos ( M ) j + cos (M ) k ,

. n (M )
.

a (M ) ()
( ): =

( a , n )ds .

( )

() a (M ) :

P Q R
, .. a (M )
div a ( M ) =
+
+
x y z

12

G.

a = P i + Q j + R k a i , j , k , ,
, :
=

( P cos + Q cos + R cos )ds ,

( )

( ):
=

Pdydz + Qdxdz + Rdxdy .

( )

- :

, .

35. a = y i x j + z k (),
x2+y2=z2 z=1. . 3.

. div a (M ) =

P Q R
y + ( x) + z = 1 .
=
+
+
z
y
x y z x

, = div a dv = dv = V , V
(G )

(G )

(0,0,1)

V =

1
1
R 2 H, =
. : /3.
3
3

div a =

P Q R
+
+
= y2 + z2 + x2 =
x y z

, =
(G )

. 3.

:
2

= d sin d
0

z
(0,0,1)

4 5
4
d =
R.
5

37.

36. a = xy 2 i + yz 2 j + zx 2 k
x2+y2+z2=R2.
. () ,

- .

a = y i + x j + k
1 z = x2+y2 (0 z 1). .
. 4.
.

dv .

13

(1) () = (1 ) (2 ) , (2) R=1


XOY. - ,
() . ,

P Q R 2 2
div a =
y +
x + 1 = 0 .
+
+
=
x y z x
y
z
. 4
,

( a , n )ds +

(1 )

( a , n )ds = 0 . (1):

(2 )

( a , n )ds = ( a , k )ds = ds = .

(1 )

(2 )

(2 )

: .
38. -,

a = x2 i + y2 j + z2 k

z = 1 x 2 + y 2 , z = 0 .
. :

div a = ( x 2 ) + ( y 2 ) + ( z 2 ) = 2( x + y + z ) .
z
y
x

= div a dxdydz = 2 ( x + y + z )dxdydz = 2 d d


(G )

(G )

( cos + sin + z )dz =

.
3

-,
:
39.

( x cos + y cos + z cos )ds .

( )

40. ( x 2 + y 2 + z 2 )(dydz + dxdz + dxdy ) .


( )

41.

xydxdy + yzdydz + xzdzdx

( )

- :
42.

( x cos + y cos + z cos )ds,

()

43.

( x

x2 y 2 z 2
+
+
=1
a2 b2 c2

cos + y 3 cos + z 3 cos )ds , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = R 2

()

44.

2
2
2
x dydz + y dzdx + z dxdy,

( )

x2 y 2 z 2
+

= 0 (0 z b)
a2 a2 b2

14

45. a = ( x y 2 ) i + x 2 z j + xy k .
46. -,

ydydz + y 3 dxdz + zxdxdy .

47.

zdxdy + y 2 xdydz ,

( )
2

z=x +y , z=1.
48. ,
( , ).

xdydz + ydzdx + zdxdy, x

+ y2 + z 2 = a2 ;

( )

( y z )dydz + ( z x)dzdx + ( x y)dxdy, x

+ y 2 = z 2 0 z h

( )

;
) yzdydz + zxdzdx + xydxdy, x 2 + y 2 a 2 , 0 z h ;
( )

) xdydz + ydzdx + zdxdy, z = 1 x 2 + y 2 0 z 1 ;


( )

) ydydz + zdzdx + xdxdy, , x + y + z = a


()

(a>0), x=0, y=0, z=0;


) x 3 dydz + y 3 dzdx + z 3 dxdy , x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = x ;
( )

dydz + y 2 dzdx + z 2 dxdy, 0 x a; 0 y a; 0 z a .

( )

4.

G a = ( P, Q, R ); L ,
G; - , L; G (

" L"); n ( M ) = (cos , cos , cos )


.
xyz ,
Oxyz.
: z=z(x,y), (x,y) G1; x=x(y,z), (y,z)G2; y=y(z,x),
(z,x) G3.
xyz , L G, P(x,y,z), Q(x,y,z),
R(x,y,z) .

15

Pdx + Qdy + Rdz = (( y z ) cos + (

LP R
Q P
) cos + (
) cos )ds,
z
x
x y

L .

a L,

R Q P R Q P

.
y z z x x y

. .
:
R

(( y z )dydz + ( z x )dxdz + ( x y )dxdy = LPdx + Qdy + Rdz.

-
L , -
, .
, ,
,
.

49. a = y i + x j + k x2+y2=1, z=0


.
. P=y; Q=x; R=1. ,
P R
Q P
R Q

= 1 (1);

=0

= 0.
x y
y z
z x

=

(1 (1))dxdy = 2 dxdy = 2 dx d = 2.

( )

( )

, :
50 I = ydx + zdy + xdz , L - x2+y2+z2 a2, x+y+z=0,
L

, Ox.
. ,
x+y+z=0, :
I = dydz + dzdx + dxdy = (cos + cos + cos )ds,
( )

16

cos , cos , cos - x+y+z=0,


Oz ,
cos , cos , cos "+".

, cos = cos = cos =

1
, :
3
I = 3 ds = 3a 2
S

: 3a

51. I = y 2 z 2 dx + x 2 z 2 dy + x 2 y 2 dz , L - x=acost, y=acos2t, z=acos3t,


L

t.
. t 0 (x,y,z) L
M0(a,a,a) M1(-a,a,-a), t 2
L , 0. ,
L L ,
I=0.
: 0.

52. ( y 2 + z 2 )dx +( x 2 + z 2 )dy + ( x 2 + y 2 )dz ,


L

, , ""
.
53. x 2 y 2 dx +dy + zdz , L x2+y2= R2, z=0,
L

, z = + R 2 x 2 y 2 .
xOy .
4.

, .
. ,
, .

- L ,
0. , L, S.

1
(a, d z )
(1)
S L

S.
0 (1) L 0,
S, L, , ,
1
lim ( a , d r ) , 0.
L M 0 S
L
( S 0)

17

- ,

n .

0 rot ,

n
L G, , S
, , 0,
..

rot a = (rot a ) = lim


n

L M 0
( S 0 )

1
(a, d r ) ,
S L

L , , n , S- ,
.

a ( M ) = P ( x, y , z ) i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R ( x, y, z ) k , P, Q R

rot a = ( R y' Q z' ) i + ( Pz' Rx' ) j + (Q x' Py' ) k =


x
P

y
Q

z
R

54. a = x 2 i + y 2 j z 2 k .

. R y' = Qz' = Pz' = Rx' = Qx' = Py' =0, rot a = 0

: 0
55. rot (grad u), u=x2+ y2+ z2

. grad u = 2x2 i + 2y2 j +2z2 k , rot (grad u)= 0

: 0
56. ,

= x i + y j + z k .
. ,

= r = x
x

y z = ( z y y z ) i + ( x z z x ) j + ( y x x y ) k
y

18

rot = =
x
z y y x

y
x x z x

= 2 x i + 2 y j + 2 z k = 2 .
z
y x x y

, rot , " " ,


.
57. , .

. a n ,

. , a

..

=1, , n

rot a , | rot a | .

58. : a = y2 i - x2 j +z2 k .

rot a =
x
y2

y
x2

= 2( x + y ) k .
z
z2

: 2(x + y) k .

59. :

) rot = 0; [ c ] = 0 , c =const

) rot (c1 a1 + c2 a 2 ) = c1rot a1 + c2 rot a 2 ,

[, (c1 a 1 + c2 a 2 )] = c1[ a 1 ] + c 2 [ a 2 ], 1, 2 .

) rot u a = [ grad u, a + u rot a ; [, u a 1 ] = [ u, a 1 ] + u[, a 1 ], u - .


60. :

) a = sin( 2 x y z )( 2 i j + R );

) a = xyz( x i y j + z R );

) a = arctg ( x y + z )( i 3 j 2 k );

61. a = e x + 2 y +3 z (3 x i + 2 y j + z k ) 0(3,-3,1).

19

62. a = y i x j ABA,
, : x

+y

=R

x=Rcos3t, y=Rsin3t.

. :
= Pdx + Qdy + Rdz =
L

(rot a , n )ds.

( )

x
. 4.
63.
0

a ( M ) = xyz i + ( x + y + z ) i x 2 y 2 R

D : x+y=a; x+y=a; xy=a; x+y=a;


z=0.
64.

a = ( x + z ) i + ( y z ) j + ( y x ) R :

) (y+1)2 +(z1)2=1, x=5 ( n = i );


) (x3)2 +(y2)2=4, z=0 ( n = k )

65. , rot ( a 1 ( M ) + a 2 ( M )) = rot a 1 ( M ) + rot a 2 (M ).


6.

a (M ) (G),
( ) ( M ) , (G), :

a (M) = grad (M) . ( M ) a ( M ) .



,

L ( a,d r ) = (M) (M 0 ),
0 (L).

: a () , a ()
. .

, (M) a ( M ) , (M) + C

20

. -
0 (V) :

(M) = (M 0 ) + ( a ,d r ) ,

()

( L) ( a , d r )

( a , d r ) ,

: a ( M ) = P ( x, y, z ) i + Q( x, y, z ) j + R ( x, y, z ) k ,
(x,y,z)
z
012,
.
, , 012
(G).

(x,y,z)
(M 0 ) = 0 (*) :

0(x0,y0,z0)
1(x1,y1,z1)

x0

y0

z0

(x,y,z) = P(x,y 0 ,z 0 )dx + Q(x,y,z0 )dy + R(x,y,z)dz

2(x2,y2,z2)


,
,
, ..

. 5.
x

x0

x0

y0

y0

z0

z0

P( x, y0 , z 0 )dx = P(t, y 0 , z 0 )dt; Q( x, y, z 0 )dy = Q( x, t , z 0 )dt; R( x, y, z )dz = R( x, y, t )dt

, a ( M )
- .

a ( M ) (G), rot a ( M ) = 0 .
. ,

a () . , , . ,
,
.

66. , a =(y+z) i + (z+x) j +(x+y) k ,


.

. a , .. ,

, rot a =0. :

(*

21

rot a =
x
x+z

y
z+x

=(11) i +(11) j +(11) k = 0 ,


z
x+ y

a .
.
1 .
(), 0 :
x

(x,y,z) = P(x,0 ,0 )dx + Q(x,y,0 )dy + R(x,y,z)dz = 0dx + xdy + (x + y)dz = 0 + xy + (x + y)z =
= xy + yz + zx.
2 .
0(0,0,0).

r =x i +y j +z k - (x,y,z), N M0;

- = r t (0 t 1) . N tx, ty, tz.

d = r dt. (M 0 ) = 0, (M) = ( a ( N ), d ) = ( a (t ), r )dt .


0

a (t)=t(y+z) i + t(z+x) j +t(x+y) k .

( a (t), r )=t(y+z)x+t(z+x)y+t(x+y)z=2t(xy+yz+zx).
, ( ) =(xy+yz+zx)

2tdt = xy+yz+zx.
0

: xy+yz+zx.
67. , .

: a - (L) - ,
(=0).

= ( a ,d r ) = (M) (M 0 ) = (M) (M 0 ) = 0 , .
L

vm
68. F = 3 r ( ),
r
, , m,
. ,

m. , F ,
.

69. , a =(3yz+x2) i + (2y2+3xz) j +(z2+3xy) k ,


.

70. , a = y2 i +2xy j +z k , .

22

71. , a =

y
x
i
+
+2
j
k .
x2 + y 2
x2 + y2

72. : a 1=(y+z) i + (x+z) j +(x+y) k ; a 2=f(x) i + f2(y) j + f3(z) k ; a 3=x i +

y j +y k .
.

73. , a .
u(x,y,z).

) a =(-2x-yz) i +(-2y-xz) j +(-2z-xy) k ;

) a =(2x-yz) i +(2y-xz) j +(2z-xy) k ;

) a =(2x+yz) i +(2y+xz) j +(2z+xy) k ;


) a =(2x-4yz) i +(2y-4xz) j +(2z-4xy) k ;
) a =(2x-3yz) i +(2y-3xz) j +(2z-3xy) k ;

) a =(-3x+yz) i +(-3y+xz) j +(-3z+xy) k ;

) a =(2x+2yz) i +(2y+2xz) j +(2z+2xy) k ;

) a =(4x+yz) i +(2y+xz) j +(2z+xy) k .


7.

a () (G),

div a (M ) = 0 .
.

(G), a () (),

(G) a ( M ) = rot A(M ) , ()

() (G).

a (), (G),
, (G), .

a (), (G),
. , , : (G)

a () (G) a ().
, - ,
.

, - div a =0
.
- ,
, ,
, :

23

( a, n )ds = div a d = 0 .

( )

(G)

a . a
S, L, ,
L.

a L .
. ,
L , ,
.
, .

.
.

a G,
.
, ;
, , (
).

75. , , 74.
8.

()
f().

, rot ()= a () f(M) ,

rot grad f(M)=0, rot( ()+grad f(M)) = rot ()+ rot grad f(M)= a ().

a () ,

, ().
:
P=

Ay Ax
A
Az Ay
A

;Q = x z ; R =

y
z
z
x
x
y

(1)

div a =0 ( A = Ax i + Ay j + Az k ).

().
Ax=0. (1)
Ay
A
Az Ay

= P; z = Q;
=R
(2)
y
z
x
x
, Ay Az,

(2) , P, Q, R , div a =0. 0(x0,y0,z0)


, (x,y,z) .

24

M0

. 6.

x

x0

x0

y0

Ay(x,y,z)= R( x, y , z )dx, Az(x,y,z)= Q ( x, y, z )dx + R( x, y, z )dx,

(3)

a () ,
, , .

div a =0 , , Ay Az,

(3) (2). , A =

i + Ay j +Az k , Ay Az (3). A

rot A = 0 .
74.

r
( , , z )

, = 2i - zj + 2k.

25

10. x2+y29;

x2+y2=92 (|| 3).


11. , r=0;
r=c c , .
12. z2+y2x20; 2(z2+y2)x2=0
(|| 1).
13. u=c x2y2=(1)n arcsin c +n, n
.
14. , z=0;
x2 +y2=z (<c<).

15. ) 4 i +2 j 4 k . ) 12 i j ; )

y
x
i+ 2
j.
2
x +y
x + y2
2

16. , .
17. x2 -y2=; z=h.
18. x3 +y3=c1; z3 +y3=c2.
19. y=c1z; x2 +y2+ z2= c2y.
20. , , ,

e ; .
22. y , .
23. (0,0)
y.
24. 1) tg 0,342, 18052; 2) tg 4,87, 78024.
25. y.
26. 1) cos 0,99; =80; 2) cos 0,199; =101030;
30. = b2.
31. = .
1
32. = R6
8
33. ) =2; ) Y=2.
39. 3dxdydz = 3V .
V

40. 2 ( x + y + z )dxdydz
V

41.0.
42. 4abc.
12R 5
43.
.
5
a 2 b 2
.
44.
2
45. 1.
46. (2 xy + 3 y 2 + x)dxdydz .
V

26

47.

.
6
48. a) 4a3; ) 0. S ; )0; ) . S

; )0; ) ; ) 34.
5
52. 2 ( x y )dxdy + ( y z )dydz + ( z x)dxdz.
S

53.

R 6
.
8

60. ) rot a = 2cos(2xyz)( i +2 j ); ) rot a =x(z2-y2) i + y(x2-z2) j + z(y2-x2) k ; )

5 i + 3 j 2 k
rot a =
.
1 + ( x y + z) 2

61. rot a M 0 =20 i +26 j 24 k .


3
.
16R 2
63.2a2 .
64. ) =2; ) =0.
m
+c.
68.
r
1
69. (x3+2y3+z3)+3xyz + c.
3
z2
70. xy 2 + .
2
71. .

62.

72. a1 a 2 .
73. (x,y,z)=xyz(x+y+z)+c, .
74. 2j + (z + y2)k.

27

1.
.
.: , 2000.
2.
.. , . II- .: , 1973.
3.
.. . . II.- .: , 1984
4.
.. . .: ..,1984.
5.
.. . ( ) .II.
. - .: . ., 1980.
6.
. . . .: . .,
1976.
7.
.. . - .: , 1977.
8.
.. . - .: , 1972.
9.
.. . - .: , 1985.
10.
.. . .
. - .: . . ,1988.
11.
.. . , 1998.
12.
.., .., .. .
. .: . .., 2001.