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Exercise 4+5

Using ATPDraw program set up the model of the MV network shown in Fig.1

20 kV
L1 overhead 15km
110 kV




L2 cable 6km


L3 cable 5km

L4 overhead 25 km

L5 overhead 18km


Fig.1. The MV network to be modeled

The network parameters:
1. Supply system:
U= 110 kV - rated system voltage
Ssc = 1.4 GVA - system short circuit power
Calculate: Zs1, Zs0, - positive and zero sequence source impedance.
Model Zs as coupled 51 sequential line component.
2. Transformer (saturable 3phase model)
Y/Y 110/20kV Sn = 63MV - rated power
Usc =12.9% - short circuit voltage
Pcu = 319.1 kW - power dissipated in windings
PFe = 53.4 kW - active power dissipated in transformer core (iron losses)
RT, XT - winding resistance and reactance at the primary and the secondary side
of the transformer
Rm - magnetizing branch resistance
m - steady state flux [Vs]
Im - steady state magnetizing current [A]
3. Overhead line:
The conductor layout is shown in Fig.2.
Conductor cross- section S = 120 mm2
Conductor resistance (DC) Rc = 0.436 /km
Calculate conductor radius Rout [cm] Rin = 0
One PI-section represents 2km long line segment

1,85 m

1,85 m

V tower =10 m

Vmid = 9 m

Fig. 2 Overhead line conductor layout

4. Cable
The single core cables are arranged in a prism as in Fig. 3. which is buried
1.3m deep under ground.

Fig. 3 Cable lines layout.

Single core cable parameters:
Conductor core cross-section Sc = 185 mm2
Conductor- sheath insulation thickness dcs = 1.5 cm
Sheath thickness ds = 3 mm
Outer insulation thickness dout = 1cm.
Conductor resistivity Rho = 2.84E-9 ohm*m
Relative permeability of the conductor material = 1
Relative permeability of the insulator material outside the conductor
u = 1
Relative permittivity of the insulator material outside the conductor
= 5.1
One PI - section represents 500m long cable segment.

5. Loads:

- 1.2 MVA , cos =0.97

- 1.6 MVA cos =0.95
- 846 kVA cos =0.98
- 1.1 MVA cos =0.96

6. The network neutral point grounding modes:

- unearthed network Rn = 1M , W open
- compensated network Rn = 1M , W closed, Xm set to suppress the
fundamental frequency ground fault current
- the network earthed via resistor Rn = 150 . W open
I.Task to do ( first 2 hours)
- set up the model
- check the model performance in steady state for all neutral point earthing modes.
- for ungrounded neutral point determine ( by simulation) the network capacitive
current. Calculate the respective values of the compensating coil reactance Xn to
obtain compensation coefficients kp = 1. Show the ground fault current waveforms in
unearthed and compensated network for solid single phase ground fault at the
II. Task to do (the second 2 hours)
- incept a solid ground fault (Rf = 0.5 - phase A) in the middle of the longest
overhead line in the network with unearthed neutral point. The fault appears at the
maximum of the phase voltage and disappears after four cycles of the faulty steady
state. Show the ground fault current waveform and determine the maximum and the
steady state value of this current.
Show the phase voltage waveforms at the busbar. Calculate the maximum
overvoltages - determine the phase in which they appear.
- repeat the experiment for compensated and resistively grounded network.
- comment the obtained results.
III. Task to do ( the third 2 hours)
- repeat the experiment as in p. II for intermittent (arcing) ground fault.
This is the fault which appears 3 times in each half-cycle at the maximum of the
faulty phase voltage and disappears when the ground fault current drops below
0.1A. After the third arc flash the fault becomes solid and disappears as in p. II.
- do the same assignments as in p.II.