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PED-I

Design of heat transfer equipment


Heat exchangers
Evaporators
Cooling Tower
HE are equipment to transfer heat from a hot stream to a cold stream - at least one of the
streams must be flowing and Convection is the main mode of heat transfer
Exchanger types Regenerative operate in cycles, and
Recuperative continuous
o Direct contact type e.g. barometric condenser, and
o Surface type double pipe, S&T, Fan-fin cooler/Plate exchanger
Tubular exchangers
(i)
Tubes (usually helical) immersed in a bulk liquid (ii)
Double pipe exchangers- low heat load
(iii)
Shell and tube exchangers most common in industry
S&T exchanger configurations
number of shell and tube passes
type of tube surface finned, plain surface
cross-current (e.g. fin fan coolers) and counter/co-current
Place one fabrication drawing of a S&T HE and explain every component of it. Illustrate the
terminologies; explain the assembly and fixing of the components. The design output should
contain detailing to this level so that the same can be sent for fabrication.
Codes and Standards
Common standards for design of shell and tube exchangers are

TEMA - Tubular Exchangers Manufacturers Association (TEMA) , a US based organisation


of heat exchanger manufacturers have a design code formulated with the following
subsection
o Class R : design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for
generally
severe requirements of petroleum and related processing applications
o
o Class C : design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for
generally
moderate requirements of commercial and general process applications
o
o Class B : design and fabrication of unfired shell and tube heat exchangers for chemical
process service
TEMA Standards refer to the ASME boiler code (Section I) or pressure vessel code (Section
) according to the services of the heat exchanger. National standards and codes specified

by the client shall also be applied.


American Petroleum Institute has its standard (API 660) for heat exchangers to be used in
refineries and petroleum related applications.
-

The BIS code covering the shell and tube heat exchangers is IS 4503:1967. Its data sheet is
specified by IS 10123:1982. Air cooled exchangers are specified in IS 10470:1983 and its
data sheet is IS 10873:1983. There are other codes applicable to heat exchangers for marine,
air conditioning etc.
BIS 4503-1967 Reaffirmed 2003 (Indian Standards - Specification for Shell and Tube
Exchangers). This code broadly classifies shell and tube type heat exchangers as (a)Fixed
tube plate - non-removable tube bundle (b) U-tube- removable tube bundle and (c) Floating
head- removable tube bundle. There with subdivisions, give the following seven designs 1 ) Fixed tube plate (see Fig. 1 ),
2 ) U-tube (see Fig. 2 ),
3) U-tube reboiler or kettle type (see Fig. 3),
4 ) Internal floating head ( pull through type ) ( see Fig. 4 ),
5 ) Internal floating head ( non-pull through type ) ( see Fig. 5 1,
6) Internal floating head (reboiler or kettle ) (see Fig. 6), and
7 ) Floating head external packed ( see Fig. 7 )
BIS 4503 refer to IS 28251969, Indian standard code for unfired pressure vessel.
ASME : American Society of Mechanical Express has its code ASME Section VIII, Division
I for unfired pressure vessels as well as the pressure parts of heat exchangers.
BSI: British Standards Institution standard no BS ISO 16812 is applicable for shell and tube
exchangers in petroleum, petrochemicals and natural gas industries.
DIN and GOST are the German and Russian standards with specific codes for heat
exchangers.

TEMA classification shown in Fig. 1 is guided by the features of 1)Front end stationary head, 2)
Shell and 3)Rear end head. {Find out about the preferred option for different applications}
Fig. 1: TEMA Type Designation of S&T Heat Exchangers

Fig.2: Components of S&T HE

Fig.2: Components of S&T HE (contd)

HE Design {Get familiar with the methods, their applicability and limitations}
Kerns method Concept utilises R and S
NTU method
Evaluation of fluid properties concept of caloric temperature
Heat exchanger installation designs must consider
Thermal duty process requirement
Operational flexibility
(i)
facility for partially bypassing the exchanger stream(s): usually provided for
outlet temperature control
(ii)
on-line isolation and maintenance flexibility: this requires bypassing both
streams, draining and flushing shell and tube side, providing blinds for
positive isolation, provision for thermal safety valve.
{Draw the P&ID for a 2-shell exchanger with facility for bypassing, overpressure
protection, thermal survey}

Table- 1: Input process data

(1)
Fluid Name
Flow Rate
Operating Pressure
Operating Temperature
Vapour Fraction
Heat Duty
Fouling Factor
Vapour
Thermal Conductivity
Viscosity
Enthalpy
Specific Heat
Density
Liquid
Thermal Conductivity
Viscosity
Enthalpy
Specific Heat
Density
Critical Pressure
Boiling Range(Dew-Bubble)

SI
--kg/s or kg/hr
kPaG or
MPaG
C
wt/wt
kW or MW
2
m -K/W
W/m2-K
m.Pa.s
kJ/kg
kJ/kg-K
kg/m3
W/m-K
m.Pa.s
kJ/kg
kJ/kg-K
kg/m3
kPaA
C

Metric
--kg/hr
Kg/cm2G

Requirement
Yes
Yes
Yes

C
wt/wt
MMkcal/hr
2
m -hr-C /kcal
kcal/m-hr-C
cP
kcal/kg
kcal/kg-C
kg/m3
kcal/m-hr-C
cP
kcal/kg
kcal/kg-C
kg/m3
Kg/cm2A
C

Yes
(Yes)
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
Yes
(Yes)
(Yes)

Heat Exchanger Specification Sheet

Notes

For two phase flow

For boiling
For boiling

HE Spec Sheet
Service:
Type(ASME designation, Hor./Vert.)
Shell / unit:

Eq.No.:
Size
Surface (m2/unit):
Surface (m2/shell):

Performance of one shell


UOM
Shell side
Fluid stream circulated :
Total fluid entering
Vapour
Liquid
Steam
Non-ondensable
Fluid vaporised/ condensed
Steam condensed
Sp. Gravity (liquid)
Viscosity(liquid)
Mol. Wt. (vapour /non-condensables)
Latent heat
Sp. heat
Thermal conductivity
Operating temperature
Operating pressure
No. of passes per shell
Velocity
Pressure drop
Fouling resistance
Heat exchanged/ transfer rate service

Tube side

Kg/hr
Kg/hr
Kg/hr
Kg/hr
Kg/hr
Kg/hr
Kg/hr
cP
Kcal/kg
Kcal/kgoC
Kcal/hr.m. oC
o
C
Kg/cm2(g)
m/sec
Kg/cm2
hr.m2.oC /Kcal
Kcal/hr

Design:
Clean:

Construction of one shell


Design pressure
Test pressure
Design temperature
No. of tubes:
Shell

Kg/cm2(g)
Kg/cm2(g)
o
C
Tube pitch, type:
OD(mm)

Baffles

Type:
Segmental, %
cut etc.

OD(mm):
ID(mm)
Pitch(mm):

Design code:
Material as per ASTM code
Shell:
Gasket
Shell cover:
Channel:
Channel cover:
Floating head cover:
Baffles:
Tube sheet:
Tubes:
Corrosion allowance(mm), Shell side/Tube side:

ID(mm):
Length(mm):
Longitudinal
Sealing strip: y/n
baffle: y/n
Impingement plate: y/n

Nozzle size (nominal)


Shell side ( inlet/outlet):
Tube side ( inlet/outlet):

Q.
Q.

Which component mostly fails first due to overpressure?


Provide a flow chart for the steps in design