Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 33

UNITED ARAB EMIRATES UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING
Formula Sheet Fall 2016
Course No. GENG220

Pgage Pabs Patm


x

mvapor

Pvac Patm Pabs

P = g h

y y f xy fg (y: specific volume, or int energy, enthalpy, or entropy)

mtotal

Engineering Thermodynamics

Pv ZRT

PV ZmRT

Wsh 2n

Wspring

PV ZNRu T

1
k x 22 x12
2

Wb PV2 V1 ;

Wb PdV ;

Ru
M

Wb

P2V2 P1V1
;
1 n

Wb P1V1 ln

V2
V1

Q W U KE PE
2

u u 2 u1 C v T dT C v av T2 T1 ; h h2 h1 C p T dT C p av T2 T1

m m
i

m2 m1

Q W mi hi me he m2 u 2 m1u1

V 2 V12
Q W m h2 h1 2
g z 2 z1
2

th

Wnet ,out
QH

COPHP

QL
QH

QH
1

Wnet ,in 1 QL / QH

COPR

QL
1

Wnet ,in QH / QL 1

(if KE = PE 0)

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 907

APPENDIX

PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS


(SI UNITS)

Table A1

Molar mass, gas constant, and


critical-point properties
Table A2
Ideal-gas specific heats of various
common gases
Table A3
Properties of common liquids, solids,
and foods
Table A4
Saturated waterTemperature table
Table A5
Saturated waterPressure table
Table A6
Superheated water
Table A7
Compressed liquid water
Table A8
Saturated icewater vapor
Figure A9
T-s diagram for water
Figure A10 Mollier diagram for water
Table A11 Saturated refrigerant-134a
Temperature table
Table A12 Saturated refrigerant-134a
Pressure table
Table A13 Superheated refrigerant-134a
Figure A14 P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a
Figure A15 NelsonObert generalized
compressibility chart
Table A16 Properties of the atmosphere at high
altitude
Table A17 Ideal-gas properties of air
Table A18 Ideal-gas properties of nitrogen, N2
Table A19 Ideal-gas properties of oxygen, O2

Table A20

Ideal-gas properties of carbon dioxide,


CO2
Table A21 Ideal-gas properties of carbon
monoxide, CO
Table A22 Ideal-gas properties of hydrogen, H2
Table A23 Ideal-gas properties of water vapor, H2O
Table A24 Ideal-gas properties of monatomic
oxygen, O
Table A25 Ideal-gas properties of hydroxyl, OH
Table A26 Enthalpy of formation, Gibbs function
of formation, and absolute entropy at
25C, 1 atm
Table A27 Properties of some common fuels and
hydrocarbons
Table A28 Natural logarithms of the equilibrium
constant Kp
Figure A29 Generalized enthalpy departure chart
Figure A30 Generalized entropy departure chart
Figure A31 Psychrometric chart at 1 atm total
pressure
Table A32 One-dimensional isentropic
compressible-flow functions
for an ideal gas with k  1.4
Table A33 One-dimensional normal-shock
functions for an ideal gas with k  1.4
Table A34 Rayleigh flow functions for an ideal
gas with k  1.4

907

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 908

908
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A 1
Molar mass, gas constant, and critical-point properties

Substance

Formula

Air
Ammonia
Argon
Benzene
Bromine
n-Butane
Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Carbon tetrachloride
Chlorine
Chloroform
Dichlorodifluoromethane (R-12)
Dichlorofluoromethane (R-21)
Ethane
Ethyl alcohol
Ethylene
Helium
n-Hexane
Hydrogen (normal)
Krypton
Methane
Methyl alcohol
Methyl chloride
Neon
Nitrogen
Nitrous oxide
Oxygen
Propane
Propylene
Sulfur dioxide
Tetrafluoroethane (R-134a)
Trichlorofluoromethane (R-11)
Water
Xenon

NH3
Ar
C6H6
Br2
C4H10
CO2
CO
CCl4
Cl2
CHCl3
CCl2F2
CHCl2F
C2H6
C2H5OH
C2H4
He
C6H14
H2
Kr
CH4
CH3OH
CH3Cl
Ne
N2
N2O
O2
C3H8
C3H6
SO2
CF3CH2F
CCl3F
H2O
Xe

Molar mass,
M kg/kmol
28.97
17.03
39.948
78.115
159.808
58.124
44.01
28.011
153.82
70.906
119.38
120.91
102.92
30.070
46.07
28.054
4.003
86.179
2.016
83.80
16.043
32.042
50.488
20.183
28.013
44.013
31.999
44.097
42.081
64.063
102.03
137.37
18.015
131.30

Gas
constant,
R kJ/kgK*
0.2870
0.4882
0.2081
0.1064
0.0520
0.1430
0.1889
0.2968
0.05405
0.1173
0.06964
0.06876
0.08078
0.2765
0.1805
0.2964
2.0769
0.09647
4.1240
0.09921
0.5182
0.2595
0.1647
0.4119
0.2968
0.1889
0.2598
0.1885
0.1976
0.1298
0.08149
0.06052
0.4615
0.06332

Critical-point properties
Temperature,
K
132.5
405.5
151
562
584
425.2
304.2
133
556.4
417
536.6
384.7
451.7
305.5
516
282.4
5.3
507.9
33.3
209.4
191.1
513.2
416.3
44.5
126.2
309.7
154.8
370
365
430.7
374.2
471.2
647.1
289.8

Pressure,
MPa

Volume,
m3/kmol

3.77
11.28
4.86
4.92
10.34
3.80
7.39
3.50
4.56
7.71
5.47
4.01
5.17
4.48
6.38
5.12
0.23
3.03
1.30
5.50
4.64
7.95
6.68
2.73
3.39
7.27
5.08
4.26
4.62
7.88
4.059
4.38
22.06
5.88

0.0883
0.0724
0.0749
0.2603
0.1355
0.2547
0.0943
0.0930
0.2759
0.1242
0.2403
0.2179
0.1973
0.1480
0.1673
0.1242
0.0578
0.3677
0.0649
0.0924
0.0993
0.1180
0.1430
0.0417
0.0899
0.0961
0.0780
0.1998
0.1810
0.1217
0.1993
0.2478
0.0560
0.1186

*The unit kJ/kgK is equivalent to kPam3/kgK. The gas constant is calculated from R  Ru /M, where Ru  8.31447 kJ/kmolK and M is the molar
mass.

Source: K. A. Kobe and R. E. Lynn, Jr., Chemical Review 52 (1953), pp. 117236; and ASHRAE, Handbook of Fundamentals (Atlanta, GA: American
Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), pp. 16.4 and 36.1.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 909

909
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A2
Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases
(a) At 300 K
Gas

Formula

Air
Argon
Butane
Carbon dioxide
Carbon monoxide
Ethane
Ethylene
Helium
Hydrogen
Methane
Neon
Nitrogen
Octane
Oxygen
Propane
Steam

Ar
C4H10
CO2
CO
C2H6
C2H4
He
H2
CH4
Ne
N2
C8H18
O2
C3H8
H2O

Gas constant, R
kJ/kgK
0.2870
0.2081
0.1433
0.1889
0.2968
0.2765
0.2964
2.0769
4.1240
0.5182
0.4119
0.2968
0.0729
0.2598
0.1885
0.4615

cp
kJ/kgK

cv
kJ/kgK

1.005
0.5203
1.7164
0.846
1.040
1.7662
1.5482
5.1926
14.307
2.2537
1.0299
1.039
1.7113
0.918
1.6794
1.8723

0.718
0.3122
1.5734
0.657
0.744
1.4897
1.2518
3.1156
10.183
1.7354
0.6179
0.743
1.6385
0.658
1.4909
1.4108

1.400
1.667
1.091
1.289
1.400
1.186
1.237
1.667
1.405
1.299
1.667
1.400
1.044
1.395
1.126
1.327

Note: The unit kJ/kgK is equivalent to kJ/kgC.


Source: Chemical and Process Thermodynamics 3/E by Kyle, B. G., 2000. Adapted by permission of Pearson Education, Inc., Upper Saddle River, NJ.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 910

910
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A2
Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Continued)
(b) At various temperatures

Temperature,
K
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
900
1000

cp
kJ/kgK

cv
kJ/kgK

Air
1.003
1.005
1.008
1.013
1.020
1.029
1.040
1.051
1.063
1.075
1.087
1.099
1.121
1.142

0.716
0.718
0.721
0.726
0.733
0.742
0.753
0.764
0.776
0.788
0.800
0.812
0.834
0.855

cp
kJ/kgK

14.051
14.307
14.427
14.476
14.501
14.513
14.530
14.546
14.571
14.604
14.645
14.695
14.822
14.983

9.927
10.183
10.302
10.352
10.377
10.389
10.405
10.422
10.447
10.480
10.521
10.570
10.698
10.859

Carbon dioxide, CO2


1.401
1.400
1.398
1.395
1.391
1.387
1.381
1.376
1.370
1.364
1.359
1.354
1.344
1.336

0.791
0.846
0.895
0.939
0.978
1.014
1.046
1.075
1.102
1.126
1.148
1.169
1.204
1.234

Hydrogen, H2
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
750
800
900
1000

cv
kJ/kgK

1.416
1.405
1.400
1.398
1.398
1.397
1.396
1.396
1.395
1.394
1.392
1.390
1.385
1.380

0.602
0.657
0.706
0.750
0.790
0.825
0.857
0.886
0.913
0.937
0.959
0.980
1.015
1.045

1.314
1.288
1.268
1.252
1.239
1.229
1.220
1.213
1.207
1.202
1.197
1.193
1.186
1.181

cp
kJ/kgK

0.742
0.743
0.744
0.747
0.752
0.759
0.768
0.778
0.789
0.801
0.813
0.825
0.849
0.870

Carbon monoxide, CO
1.039
1.040
1.043
1.047
1.054
1.063
1.075
1.087
1.100
1.113
1.126
1.139
1.163
1.185

Nitrogen, N2
1.039
1.039
1.041
1.044
1.049
1.056
1.065
1.075
1.086
1.098
1.110
1.121
1.145
1.167

cv
kJ/kgK

0.743
0.744
0.746
0.751
0.757
0.767
0.778
0.790
0.803
0.816
0.829
0.842
0.866
0.888

1.400
1.399
1.398
1.395
1.392
1.387
1.382
1.376
1.370
1.364
1.358
1.353
1.343
1.335

Oxygen, O2
1.400
1.400
1.399
1.397
1.395
1.391
1.387
1.382
1.376
1.371
1.365
1.360
1.349
1.341

0.913
0.918
0.928
0.941
0.956
0.972
0.988
1.003
1.017
1.031
1.043
1.054
1.074
1.090

0.653
0.658
0.668
0.681
0.696
0.712
0.728
0.743
0.758
0.771
0.783
0.794
0.814
0.830

1.398
1.395
1.389
1.382
1.373
1.365
1.358
1.350
1.343
1.337
1.332
1.327
1.319
1.313

Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), p. 783, Table A4M. Originally published in Tables of Thermal
Properties of Gases, NBS Circular 564, 1955.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 911

911
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A2
Ideal-gas specific heats of various common gases (Concluded)
(c) As a function of temperature
_
cp  a  bT  cT 2  dT 3
(T in K, cp in kJ/kmolK)

Substance
Nitrogen
Oxygen
Air
Hydrogen
Carbon
monoxide
Carbon
dioxide
Water vapor
Nitric oxide
Nitrous oxide
Nitrogen
dioxide
Ammonia
Sulfur
Sulfur
dioxide
Sulfur
trioxide
Acetylene
Benzene
Methanol
Ethanol
Hydrogen
chloride
Methane
Ethane
Propane
n-Butane
i-Butane
n-Pentane
n-Hexane
Ethylene
Propylene

Formula

b
0.1571
1.520
0.1967
0.1916

c
102


 102
 102
 102

N2
O2

H2

28.90
25.48
28.11
29.11

CO

28.16

CO2
H2O
NO
N2O

22.26
5.981 
32.24
0.1923 
29.34 0.09395 
24.11
5.8632 

NO2
NH3
S2

22.9
27.568
27.21

SO2

25.78

SO3
C2H2
C6H6
CH4O
C2H6O
HCl
CH4
C2H6
C3H8
C4H10
C4H10
C5H12
C6H14
C2H4
C3H6

0.8081
0.7155
0.4802
0.4003

% error
Temperature
range, K
Max. Avg.

d
105


 105
 105
 105

2.873
1.312
1.966
0.8704






109
109
109
109

2731800
2731800
2731800
2731800

0.59
1.19
0.72
1.01

0.34
0.28
0.33
0.26

0.1675  102

0.5372  105

2.222  109

2731800

0.89

0.37

102
102
102
102

3.501  105
1.055  105
0.9747  105
3.562  105

7.469
3.595
4.187
10.58

109
109
109
109

2731800
2731800
2731500
2731500

0.67
0.53
0.97
0.59

0.22
0.24
0.36
0.26

5.715  102
2.5630  102
2.218  102

3.52  105
0.99072  105
1.628  105

7.87  109
6.6909  109
3.986  109

2731500
2731500
2731800

0.46
0.91
0.99

0.18
0.36
0.38

5.795  102

3.812  105

8.612  109

2731800

0.45

0.24






102
102
102
102
102

11.20
6.527
31.57
1.22
10.38







105
105
105
105
105

32.42
18.21
77.62
8.039
20.05







109
109
109
109
109

2731300
2731500
2731500
2731000
2731500

0.29
1.46
0.34
0.18
0.40

0.13
0.59
0.20
0.08
0.22

30.33
0.7620  102
19.89
5.024  102
6.900
17.27  102
4.04
30.48  102
3.96
37.15  102
7.913
41.60  102
6.774
45.43  102
6.938
55.22  102
3.95
15.64  102
3.15
23.83  102

1.327
1.269
6.406
15.72
18.34
23.01
22.46
28.65
8.344
12.18












105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105
105

4.338
11.01
7.285
31.74
35.00
49.91
42.29
57.69
17.67
24.62












109
109
109
109
109
109
109
109
109
109

2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500
2731500

0.22
1.33
0.83
0.40
0.54
0.25
0.56
0.72
0.54
0.73

0.08
0.57
0.28
0.12
0.24
0.13
0.21
0.20
0.13
0.17

16.40
21.8
36.22
19.0
19.9

14.58
9.2143
48.475
9.152
20.96







Source: B. G. Kyle, Chemical and Process Thermodynamics (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1984). Used with permission.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 912

912
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A3
Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods
(a) Liquids

Boiling data at 1 atm

Substance

Normal
boiling
point, C

Ammonia

33.3

185.9
80.2

Latent heat of
vaporization
hfg , kJ/kg
1357

Freezing
point, C
77.7

189.3
5.5

Latent heat
of fusion
hif , kJ/kg
322.4

Argon
Benzene
Brine (20% sodium
chloride by mass)
n-Butane
Carbon dioxide
Ethanol
Ethyl alcohol
Ethylene glycol
Glycerine
Helium
Hydrogen
Isobutane
Kerosene
Mercury
Methane

103.9
0.5
78.4*
78.2
78.6
198.1
179.9
268.9
252.8
11.7
204293
356.7
161.5

385.2
230.5 (at 0C)
838.3
855
800.1
974
22.8
445.7
367.1
251
294.7
510.4

17.4
138.5
56.6
114.2
156
10.8
18.9

259.2
160
24.9
38.9
182.2

109
108
181.1
200.6

59.5
105.7

11.4
58.4

Methanol
Nitrogen

64.5
195.8

1100
198.6

97.7
210

99.2
25.3

124.8

306.3

57.5

180.7

218.8

13.7

187.7

80.0

Octane
Oil (light)
Oxygen
Petroleum
Propane

183

42.1

Refrigerant-134a

26.1

Water

100

161.6
394

Freezing data

212.7
230384
427.8

217.0

2257

96.6

0.0

28
126

80.3

333.7

Liquid properties
Temperature,
C

Density
r, kg/m3

Specific
heat
cp, kJ/kgK

33.3
20
0
25
185.6
20

682
665
639
602
1394
879

4.43
4.52
4.60
4.80
1.14
1.72

20
0.5
0
25
20
20
20
268.9
252.8
11.7
20
25
161.5
100
25
195.8
160
20
25
183
20
42.1
0
50
50
26.1
0
25
0
25
50
75
100

1150
601
298
783
789
1109
1261
146.2
70.7
593.8
820
13,560
423
301
787
809
596
703
910
1141
640
581
529
449
1443
1374
1295
1207
1000
997
988
975
958

3.11
2.31
0.59
2.46
2.84
2.84
2.32
22.8
10.0
2.28
2.00
0.139
3.49
5.79
2.55
2.06
2.97
2.10
1.80
1.71
2.0
2.25
2.53
3.13
1.23
1.27
1.34
1.43
4.22
4.18
4.18
4.19
4.22

* Sublimation temperature. (At pressures below the triple-point pressure of 518 kPa, carbon dioxide exists as a solid or gas. Also, the freezing-point temperature
of carbon dioxide is the triple-point temperature of 56.5C.)

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 913

913
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A3
Properties of common liquids, solids, and foods (Concluded )
(b) Solids (values are for room temperature unless indicated otherwise)
Density,
r kg/m3

Substance

Specific heat,
cp kJ/kgK

Metals

Density,
r kg/m3

Substance

Specific heat,
cp kJ/kgK

Nonmetals

Aluminum
200 K
250 K
300 K
350 K
400 K
450 K
500 K
Bronze (76% Cu, 2% Zn,
2% Al)
Brass, yellow (65% Cu,
35% Zn)
Copper
173C
100C
50C
0C
27C
100C
200C
Iron
Lead
Magnesium
Nickel
Silver
Steel, mild
Tungsten

8,280

0.797
0.859
0.902
0.929
0.949
0.973
0.997
0.400

8,310

0.400

2,700

Asphalt
Brick, common
Brick, fireclay (500C)
Concrete
Clay
Diamond
Glass, window
Glass, pyrex
Graphite
Granite
Gypsum or plaster board
Ice
200 K
220 K
240 K
260 K
273 K
Limestone
Marble
Plywood (Douglas Fir)
Rubber (soft)
Rubber (hard)
Sand
Stone
Woods, hard (maple, oak, etc.)
Woods, soft (fir, pine, etc.)

0.254
0.342
0.367
0.381
0.386
0.393
0.403
0.45
0.128
1.000
0.440
0.235
0.500
0.130

8,900

7,840
11,310
1,730
8,890
10,470
7,830
19,400

2110
1922
2300
2300
1000
2420
2700
2230
2500
2700
800

0.920
0.79
0.960
0.653
0.920
0.616
0.800
0.840
0.711
1.017
1.09

921
1650
2600
545
1100
1150
1520
1500
721
513

1.56
1.71
1.86
2.01
2.11
0.909
0.880
1.21
1.840
2.009
0.800
0.800
1.26
1.38

(c) Foods
Specific heat,
kJ/kgK

Food
Apples
Bananas
Beef round
Broccoli
Butter
Cheese, swiss
Cherries
Chicken
Corn, sweet
Eggs, whole
Ice cream

Water
content,
% (mass)
84
75
67
90
16
39
80
74
74
74
63

Latent
heat of
Freezing Above
Below
fusion,
point, C freezing freezing kJ/kg
1.1
0.8

0.6

10.0
1.8
2.8
0.6
0.6
5.6

3.65
3.35
3.08
3.86

2.15
3.52
3.32
3.32
3.32
2.95

1.90
1.78
1.68
1.97
1.04
1.33
1.85
1.77
1.77
1.77
1.63

281
251
224
301
53
130
267
247
247
247
210

Specific heat,
kJ/kgK

Food
Lettuce
Milk, whole
Oranges
Potatoes
Salmon fish
Shrimp
Spinach
Strawberries
Tomatoes, ripe
Turkey
Watermelon

Water
content,
% (mass)
95
88
87
78
64
83
93
90
94
64
93

Freezing
point, C

Above
freezing

Below
freezing

Latent
heat of
fusion,
kJ/kg

0.2
0.6
0.8
0.6
2.2
2.2
0.3
0.8
0.5

0.4

4.02
3.79
3.75
3.45
2.98
3.62
3.96
3.86
3.99
2.98
3.96

2.04
1.95
1.94
1.82
1.65
1.89
2.01
1.97
2.02
1.65
2.01

317
294
291
261
214
277
311
301
314
214
311

Source: Values are obtained from various handbooks and other sources or are calculated. Water content and freezing-point data of foods are from ASHRAE,
Handbook of Fundamentals, SI version (Atlanta, GA: American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1993), Chapter 30,
Table 1. Freezing point is the temperature at which freezing starts for fruits and vegetables, and the average freezing temperature for other foods.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 914

914
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A4
Saturated waterTemperature table
Specific volume,
m3/kg
Temp.,
T C

Sat.
press.,
Psat kPa

0.01
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Entropy,
kJ/kgK

Sat.
liquid,
vf

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
liquid,
uf

Evap.,
ufg

Sat.
vapor,
ug

Sat.
liquid,
hf

Evap.,
hfg

Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Sat.
Evap., vapor,
sfg
sg

0.6117
0.8725
1.2281
1.7057
2.3392

0.001000
0.001000
0.001000
0.001001
0.001002

206.00
147.03
106.32
77.885
57.762

0.000
21.019
42.020
62.980
83.913

2374.9
2360.8
2346.6
2332.5
2318.4

2374.9
2381.8
2388.7
2395.5
2402.3

0.001
21.020
42.022
62.982
83.915

2500.9
2489.1
2477.2
2465.4
2453.5

2500.9
2510.1
2519.2
2528.3
2537.4

0.0000
0.0763
0.1511
0.2245
0.2965

9.1556
8.9487
8.7488
8.5559
8.3696

9.1556
9.0249
8.8999
8.7803
8.6661

3.1698
4.2469
5.6291
7.3851
9.5953

0.001003
0.001004
0.001006
0.001008
0.001010

43.340
32.879
25.205
19.515
15.251

104.83
125.73
146.63
167.53
188.43

2304.3
2290.2
2276.0
2261.9
2247.7

2409.1
2415.9
2422.7
2429.4
2436.1

104.83
125.74
146.64
167.53
188.44

2441.7
2429.8
2417.9
2406.0
2394.0

2546.5
2555.6
2564.6
2573.5
2582.4

0.3672
0.4368
0.5051
0.5724
0.6386

8.1895
8.0152
7.8466
7.6832
7.5247

8.5567
8.4520
8.3517
8.2556
8.1633

50
55
60
65
70

12.352
15.763
19.947
25.043
31.202

0.001012
0.001015
0.001017
0.001020
0.001023

12.026
9.5639
7.6670
6.1935
5.0396

209.33
230.24
251.16
272.09
293.04

2233.4
2219.1
2204.7
2190.3
2175.8

2442.7
2449.3
2455.9
2462.4
2468.9

209.34
230.26
251.18
272.12
293.07

2382.0
2369.8
2357.7
2345.4
2333.0

2591.3
2600.1
2608.8
2617.5
2626.1

0.7038
0.7680
0.8313
0.8937
0.9551

7.3710
7.2218
7.0769
6.9360
6.7989

8.0748
7.9898
7.9082
7.8296
7.7540

75
80
85
90
95

38.597
47.416
57.868
70.183
84.609

0.001026
0.001029
0.001032
0.001036
0.001040

4.1291
3.4053
2.8261
2.3593
1.9808

313.99
334.97
355.96
376.97
398.00

2161.3
2146.6
2131.9
2117.0
2102.0

2475.3
2481.6
2487.8
2494.0
2500.1

314.03
335.02
356.02
377.04
398.09

2320.6
2308.0
2295.3
2282.5
2269.6

2634.6
2643.0
2651.4
2659.6
2667.6

1.0158
1.0756
1.1346
1.1929
1.2504

6.6655
6.5355
6.4089
6.2853
6.1647

7.6812
7.6111
7.5435
7.4782
7.4151

100
105
110
115
120

101.42
120.90
143.38
169.18
198.67

0.001043
0.001047
0.001052
0.001056
0.001060

1.6720
1.4186
1.2094
1.0360
0.89133

419.06
440.15
461.27
482.42
503.60

2087.0
2071.8
2056.4
2040.9
2025.3

2506.0
2511.9
2517.7
2523.3
2528.9

419.17
440.28
461.42
482.59
503.81

2256.4
2243.1
2229.7
2216.0
2202.1

2675.6
2683.4
2691.1
2698.6
2706.0

1.3072
1.3634
1.4188
1.4737
1.5279

6.0470
5.9319
5.8193
5.7092
5.6013

7.3542
7.2952
7.2382
7.1829
7.1292

125
130
135
140
145

232.23
270.28
313.22
361.53
415.68

0.001065
0.001070
0.001075
0.001080
0.001085

0.77012
0.66808
0.58179
0.50850
0.44600

524.83
546.10
567.41
588.77
610.19

2009.5
1993.4
1977.3
1960.9
1944.2

2534.3
2539.5
2544.7
2549.6
2554.4

525.07
546.38
567.75
589.16
610.64

2188.1
2173.7
2159.1
2144.3
2129.2

2713.1
2720.1
2726.9
2733.5
2739.8

1.5816
1.6346
1.6872
1.7392
1.7908

5.4956
5.3919
5.2901
5.1901
5.0919

7.0771
7.0265
6.9773
6.9294
6.8827

150
155
160
165
170

476.16
543.49
618.23
700.93
792.18

0.001091
0.001096
0.001102
0.001108
0.001114

0.39248
0.34648
0.30680
0.27244
0.24260

631.66
653.19
674.79
696.46
718.20

1927.4
1910.3
1893.0
1875.4
1857.5

2559.1
2563.5
2567.8
2571.9
2575.7

632.18
653.79
675.47
697.24
719.08

2113.8
2098.0
2082.0
2065.6
2048.8

2745.9
2751.8
2757.5
2762.8
2767.9

1.8418
1.8924
1.9426
1.9923
2.0417

4.9953
4.9002
4.8066
4.7143
4.6233

6.8371
6.7927
6.7492
6.7067
6.6650

175
180
185
190
195
200

892.60
1002.8
1123.5
1255.2
1398.8
1554.9

0.001121
0.001127
0.001134
0.001141
0.001149
0.001157

0.21659
0.19384
0.17390
0.15636
0.14089
0.12721

740.02
761.92
783.91
806.00
828.18
850.46

1839.4
1820.9
1802.1
1783.0
1763.6
1743.7

2579.4
2582.8
2586.0
2589.0
2591.7
2594.2

741.02
763.05
785.19
807.43
829.78
852.26

2031.7
2014.2
1996.2
1977.9
1959.0
1939.8

2772.7
2777.2
2781.4
2785.3
2788.8
2792.0

2.0906
2.1392
2.1875
2.2355
2.2831
2.3305

4.5335
4.4448
4.3572
4.2705
4.1847
4.0997

6.6242
6.5841
6.5447
6.5059
6.4678
6.4302

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 915

915
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A4
Saturated waterTemperature table (Concluded )
Specific volume,
m3/kg
Temp.,
T C

Sat.
press.,
Psat kPa

205
210
215
220
225

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Sat.
liquid,
vf

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
liquid,
uf

Evap.,
ufg

Sat.
vapor,
ug

Sat.
liquid,
hf

1724.3
1907.7
2105.9
2319.6
2549.7

0.001164
0.001173
0.001181
0.001190
0.001199

0.11508
0.10429
0.094680
0.086094
0.078405

872.86
895.38
918.02
940.79
963.70

1723.5
1702.9
1681.9
1660.5
1638.6

2596.4
2598.3
2599.9
2601.3
2602.3

874.87
897.61
920.50
943.55
966.76

230
235
240
245
250

2797.1
3062.6
3347.0
3651.2
3976.2

0.001209
0.001219
0.001229
0.001240
0.001252

0.071505
0.065300
0.059707
0.054656
0.050085

986.76
1010.0
1033.4
1056.9
1080.7

1616.1
1593.2
1569.8
1545.7
1521.1

2602.9
2603.2
2603.1
2602.7
2601.8

255
260
265
270
275

4322.9
4692.3
5085.3
5503.0
5946.4

0.001263
0.001276
0.001289
0.001303
0.001317

0.045941
0.042175
0.038748
0.035622
0.032767

1104.7
1128.8
1153.3
1177.9
1202.9

1495.8
1469.9
1443.2
1415.7
1387.4

280
285
290
295
300

6416.6
6914.6
7441.8
7999.0
8587.9

0.001333
0.001349
0.001366
0.001384
0.001404

0.030153
0.027756
0.025554
0.023528
0.021659

1228.2
1253.7
1279.7
1306.0
1332.7

305
310
315
320
325

9209.4
9865.0
10,556
11,284
12,051

0.001425
0.001447
0.001472
0.001499
0.001528

0.019932
0.018333
0.016849
0.015470
0.014183

330
335
340
345
350

12,858
13,707
14,601
15,541
16,529

0.001560
0.001597
0.001638
0.001685
0.001741

355
360
365
370
373.95

17,570
18,666
19,822
21,044
22,064

0.001808
0.001895
0.002015
0.002217
0.003106

Entropy,
kJ/kgK
Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Sat.
Evap., vapor,
sfg
sg

1920.0
1899.7
1878.8
1857.4
1835.4

2794.8
2797.3
2799.3
2801.0
2802.2

2.3776
2.4245
2.4712
2.5176
2.5639

4.0154
3.9318
3.8489
3.7664
3.6844

6.3930
6.3563
6.3200
6.2840
6.2483

990.14
1013.7
1037.5
1061.5
1085.7

1812.8
1789.5
1765.5
1740.8
1715.3

2802.9
2803.2
2803.0
2802.2
2801.0

2.6100
2.6560
2.7018
2.7476
2.7933

3.6028
3.5216
3.4405
3.3596
3.2788

6.2128
6.1775
6.1424
6.1072
6.0721

2600.5
2598.7
2596.5
2593.7
2590.3

1110.1
1134.8
1159.8
1185.1
1210.7

1689.0
1661.8
1633.7
1604.6
1574.5

2799.1
2796.6
2793.5
2789.7
2785.2

2.8390
2.8847
2.9304
2.9762
3.0221

3.1979
3.1169
3.0358
2.9542
2.8723

6.0369
6.0017
5.9662
5.9305
5.8944

1358.2
1328.1
1296.9
1264.5
1230.9

2586.4
2581.8
2576.5
2570.5
2563.6

1236.7
1263.1
1289.8
1317.1
1344.8

1543.2
1510.7
1476.9
1441.6
1404.8

2779.9
2773.7
2766.7
2758.7
2749.6

3.0681
3.1144
3.1608
3.2076
3.2548

2.7898
2.7066
2.6225
2.5374
2.4511

5.8579
5.8210
5.7834
5.7450
5.7059

1360.0
1387.7
1416.1
1445.1
1475.0

1195.9
1159.3
1121.1
1080.9
1038.5

2555.8
2547.1
2537.2
2526.0
2513.4

1373.1
1402.0
1431.6
1462.0
1493.4

1366.3
1325.9
1283.4
1238.5
1191.0

2739.4
2727.9
2715.0
2700.6
2684.3

3.3024
3.3506
3.3994
3.4491
3.4998

2.3633
2.2737
2.1821
2.0881
1.9911

5.6657
5.6243
5.5816
5.5372
5.4908

0.012979
0.011848
0.010783
0.009772
0.008806

1505.7
1537.5
1570.7
1605.5
1642.4

993.5
945.5
893.8
837.7
775.9

2499.2
2483.0
2464.5
2443.2
2418.3

1525.8
1559.4
1594.6
1631.7
1671.2

1140.3
1086.0
1027.4
963.4
892.7

2666.0
2645.4
2622.0
2595.1
2563.9

3.5516
3.6050
3.6602
3.7179
3.7788

1.8906
1.7857
1.6756
1.5585
1.4326

5.4422
5.3907
5.3358
5.2765
5.2114

0.007872
0.006950
0.006009
0.004953
0.003106

1682.2
1726.2
1777.2
1844.5
2015.7

706.4
625.7
526.4
385.6
0

2388.6
2351.9
2303.6
2230.1
2015.7

1714.0
1761.5
1817.2
1891.2
2084.3

812.9
720.1
605.5
443.1
0

2526.9
2481.6
2422.7
2334.3
2084.3

3.8442
3.9165
4.0004
4.1119
4.4070

1.2942
1.1373
0.9489
0.6890
0

5.1384
5.0537
4.9493
4.8009
4.4070

Evap.,
hfg

Source: Tables A4 through A8 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado. The
routine used in calculations is the highly accurate Steam_IAPWS, which incorporates the 1995 Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of Ordinary
Water Substance for General and Scientific Use, issued by The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS). This formulation
replaces the 1984 formulation of Haar, Gallagher, and Kell (NBS/NRC Steam Tables, Hemisphere Publishing Co., 1984), which is also available in EES
as the routine STEAM. The new formulation is based on the correlations of Saul and Wagner (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 16, 893, 1987) with modifications to adjust to the International Temperature Scale of 1990. The modifications are described by Wagner and Pruss (J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data, 22,
783, 1993). The properties of ice are based on Hyland and Wexler, Formulations for the Thermodynamic Properties of the Saturated Phases of H2O
from 173.15 K to 473.15 K, ASHRAE Trans., Part 2A, Paper 2793, 1983.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 916

916
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A5
Saturated waterPressure table
Specific volume,
m3/kg
Press.,
P kPa

Sat.
temp.,
Tsat C

Sat.
liquid,
vf

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Entropy,
kJ/kgK

Sat.
liquid,
uf

Evap.,
ufg

Sat.
vapor,
ug

Sat.
liquid,
hf

Evap.,
hfg

Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Evap.,
sfg

Sat.
vapor,
sg

1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0

6.97
13.02
17.50
21.08
24.08

0.001000 129.19
0.001001 87.964
0.001001 66.990
0.001002 54.242
0.001003 45.654

29.302
54.686
73.431
88.422
100.98

2355.2
2338.1
2325.5
2315.4
2306.9

2384.5
2392.8
2398.9
2403.8
2407.9

29.303
54.688
73.433
88.424
100.98

2484.4
2470.1
2459.5
2451.0
2443.9

2513.7
2524.7
2532.9
2539.4
2544.8

0.1059
0.1956
0.2606
0.3118
0.3543

8.8690
8.6314
8.4621
8.3302
8.2222

8.9749
8.8270
8.7227
8.6421
8.5765

4.0
5.0
7.5
10
15

28.96
32.87
40.29
45.81
53.97

0.001004
0.001005
0.001008
0.001010
0.001014

121.39
137.75
168.74
191.79
225.93

2293.1
2282.1
2261.1
2245.4
2222.1

2414.5
2419.8
2429.8
2437.2
2448.0

121.39
137.75
168.75
191.81
225.94

2432.3
2423.0
2405.3
2392.1
2372.3

2553.7
2560.7
2574.0
2583.9
2598.3

0.4224
0.4762
0.5763
0.6492
0.7549

8.0510
7.9176
7.6738
7.4996
7.2522

8.4734
8.3938
8.2501
8.1488
8.0071

20
25
30
40
50

60.06
64.96
69.09
75.86
81.32

0.001017
0.001020
0.001022
0.001026
0.001030

7.6481
6.2034
5.2287
3.9933
3.2403

251.40
271.93
289.24
317.58
340.49

2204.6
2190.4
2178.5
2158.8
2142.7

2456.0
2462.4
2467.7
2476.3
2483.2

251.42
271.96
289.27
317.62
340.54

2357.5
2345.5
2335.3
2318.4
2304.7

2608.9
2617.5
2624.6
2636.1
2645.2

0.8320
0.8932
0.9441
1.0261
1.0912

7.0752
6.9370
6.8234
6.6430
6.5019

7.9073
7.8302
7.7675
7.6691
7.5931

75
100
101.325
125
150

91.76
99.61
99.97
105.97
111.35

0.001037
0.001043
0.001043
0.001048
0.001053

2.2172
1.6941
1.6734
1.3750
1.1594

384.36
417.40
418.95
444.23
466.97

2111.8
2088.2
2087.0
2068.8
2052.3

2496.1
2505.6
2506.0
2513.0
2519.2

384.44
417.51
419.06
444.36
467.13

2278.0
2257.5
2256.5
2240.6
2226.0

2662.4
2675.0
2675.6
2684.9
2693.1

1.2132
1.3028
1.3069
1.3741
1.4337

6.2426
6.0562
6.0476
5.9100
5.7894

7.4558
7.3589
7.3545
7.2841
7.2231

175
200
225
250
275

116.04
120.21
123.97
127.41
130.58

0.001057
0.001061
0.001064
0.001067
0.001070

1.0037
0.88578
0.79329
0.71873
0.65732

486.82
504.50
520.47
535.08
548.57

2037.7
2024.6
2012.7
2001.8
1991.6

2524.5
2529.1
2533.2
2536.8
2540.1

487.01
504.71
520.71
535.35
548.86

2213.1
2201.6
2191.0
2181.2
2172.0

2700.2
2706.3
2711.7
2716.5
2720.9

1.4850
1.5302
1.5706
1.6072
1.6408

5.6865
5.5968
5.5171
5.4453
5.3800

7.1716
7.1270
7.0877
7.0525
7.0207

300
325
350
375
400

133.52
136.27
138.86
141.30
143.61

0.001073
0.001076
0.001079
0.001081
0.001084

0.60582
0.56199
0.52422
0.49133
0.46242

561.11
572.84
583.89
594.32
604.22

1982.1
1973.1
1964.6
1956.6
1948.9

2543.2
2545.9
2548.5
2550.9
2553.1

561.43
573.19
584.26
594.73
604.66

2163.5
2155.4
2147.7
2140.4
2133.4

2724.9
2728.6
2732.0
2735.1
2738.1

1.6717
1.7005
1.7274
1.7526
1.7765

5.3200
5.2645
5.2128
5.1645
5.1191

6.9917
6.9650
6.9402
6.9171
6.8955

450
500
550
600
650

147.90
151.83
155.46
158.83
161.98

0.001088
0.001093
0.001097
0.001101
0.001104

0.41392
0.37483
0.34261
0.31560
0.29260

622.65
639.54
655.16
669.72
683.37

1934.5
1921.2
1908.8
1897.1
1886.1

2557.1
2560.7
2563.9
2566.8
2569.4

623.14
640.09
655.77
670.38
684.08

2120.3
2108.0
2096.6
2085.8
2075.5

2743.4
2748.1
2752.4
2756.2
2759.6

1.8205
1.8604
1.8970
1.9308
1.9623

5.0356
4.9603
4.8916
4.8285
4.7699

6.8561
6.8207
6.7886
6.7593
6.7322

700
750

164.95
167.75

0.001108
0.001111

0.27278 696.23
0.25552 708.40

1875.6
1865.6

2571.8
2574.0

697.00
709.24

2065.8 2762.8 1.9918 4.7153 6.7071


2056.4 2765.7 2.0195 4.6642 6.6837

34.791
28.185
19.233
14.670
10.020

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 917

917
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A5
Saturated waterPressure table (Concluded )
Specific volume,
m3/kg

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Entropy,
kJ/kgK

Press.,
P kPa

Sat.
temp.,
Tsat C

Sat.
liquid,
vf

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
liquid,
uf

Evap.,
ufg

Sat.
vapor,
ug

Sat.
liquid,
hf

Evap.,
hfg

Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Evap.,
sfg

Sat.
vapor,
sg

800
850
900
950
1000

170.41
172.94
175.35
177.66
179.88

0.001115
0.001118
0.001121
0.001124
0.001127

0.24035
0.22690
0.21489
0.20411
0.19436

719.97
731.00
741.55
751.67
761.39

1856.1
1846.9
1838.1
1829.6
1821.4

2576.0
2577.9
2579.6
2581.3
2582.8

720.87
731.95
742.56
752.74
762.51

2047.5
2038.8
2030.5
2022.4
2014.6

2768.3
2770.8
2773.0
2775.2
2777.1

2.0457
2.0705
2.0941
2.1166
2.1381

4.6160
4.5705
4.5273
4.4862
4.4470

6.6616
6.6409
6.6213
6.6027
6.5850

1100
1200
1300
1400
1500

184.06
187.96
191.60
195.04
198.29

0.001133
0.001138
0.001144
0.001149
0.001154

0.17745
0.16326
0.15119
0.14078
0.13171

779.78
796.96
813.10
828.35
842.82

1805.7
1790.9
1776.8
1763.4
1750.6

2585.5
2587.8
2589.9
2591.8
2593.4

781.03
798.33
814.59
829.96
844.55

1999.6
1985.4
1971.9
1958.9
1946.4

2780.7
2783.8
2786.5
2788.9
2791.0

2.1785
2.2159
2.2508
2.2835
2.3143

4.3735
4.3058
4.2428
4.1840
4.1287

6.5520
6.5217
6.4936
6.4675
6.4430

1750
2000
2250
2500
3000

205.72
212.38
218.41
223.95
233.85

0.001166
0.001177
0.001187
0.001197
0.001217

0.11344
876.12
0.099587
906.12
0.088717
933.54
0.079952
958.87
0.066667 1004.6

1720.6
1693.0
1667.3
1643.2
1598.5

2596.7 878.16
2599.1 908.47
2600.9 936.21
2602.1 961.87
2603.2 1008.3

1917.1
1889.8
1864.3
1840.1
1794.9

2795.2
2798.3
2800.5
2801.9
2803.2

2.3844
2.4467
2.5029
2.5542
2.6454

4.0033
3.8923
3.7926
3.7016
3.5402

6.3877
6.3390
6.2954
6.2558
6.1856

3500
4000
5000
6000
7000

242.56
250.35
263.94
275.59
285.83

0.001235
0.001252
0.001286
0.001319
0.001352

0.057061
0.049779
0.039448
0.032449
0.027378

1045.4
1082.4
1148.1
1205.8
1258.0

1557.6
1519.3
1448.9
1384.1
1323.0

2603.0
2601.7
2597.0
2589.9
2581.0

1049.7
1087.4
1154.5
1213.8
1267.5

1753.0
1713.5
1639.7
1570.9
1505.2

2802.7
2800.8
2794.2
2784.6
2772.6

2.7253
2.7966
2.9207
3.0275
3.1220

3.3991
3.2731
3.0530
2.8627
2.6927

6.1244
6.0696
5.9737
5.8902
5.8148

8000
9000
10,000
11,000
12,000

295.01
303.35
311.00
318.08
324.68

0.001384
0.001418
0.001452
0.001488
0.001526

0.023525
0.020489
0.018028
0.015988
0.014264

1306.0
1350.9
1393.3
1433.9
1473.0

1264.5
1207.6
1151.8
1096.6
1041.3

2570.5
2558.5
2545.2
2530.4
2514.3

1317.1
1363.7
1407.8
1450.2
1491.3

1441.6
1379.3
1317.6
1256.1
1194.1

2758.7
2742.9
2725.5
2706.3
2685.4

3.2077
3.2866
3.3603
3.4299
3.4964

2.5373
2.3925
2.2556
2.1245
1.9975

5.7450
5.6791
5.6159
5.5544
5.4939

13,000
14,000
15,000
16,000
17,000

330.85
336.67
342.16
347.36
352.29

0.001566
0.001610
0.001657
0.001710
0.001770

0.012781
0.011487
0.010341
0.009312
0.008374

1511.0
1548.4
1585.5
1622.6
1660.2

985.5
928.7
870.3
809.4
745.1

2496.6
2477.1
2455.7
2432.0
2405.4

1531.4
1571.0
1610.3
1649.9
1690.3

1131.3
1067.0
1000.5
931.1
857.4

2662.7
2637.9
2610.8
2581.0
2547.7

3.5606
3.6232
3.6848
3.7461
3.8082

1.8730
1.7497
1.6261
1.5005
1.3709

5.4336
5.3728
5.3108
5.2466
5.1791

18,000
19,000
20,000
21,000
22,000
22,064

356.99
361.47
365.75
369.83
373.71
373.95

0.001840
0.001926
0.002038
0.002207
0.002703
0.003106

0.007504
0.006677
0.005862
0.004994
0.003644
0.003106

1699.1
1740.3
1785.8
1841.6
1951.7
2015.7

675.9
598.9
509.0
391.9
140.8
0

2375.0
2339.2
2294.8
2233.5
2092.4
2015.7

1732.2
1776.8
1826.6
1888.0
2011.1
2084.3

777.8
689.2
585.5
450.4
161.5
0

2510.0
2466.0
2412.1
2338.4
2172.6
2084.3

3.8720
3.9396
4.0146
4.1071
4.2942
4.4070

1.2343
1.0860
0.9164
0.7005
0.2496
0

5.1064
5.0256
4.9310
4.8076
4.5439
4.4070

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 918

918
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A6
Superheated water

T
C

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.01 MPa (45.81C)*


Sat.
50
100
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

14.670
14.867
17.196
19.513
21.826
24.136
26.446
31.063
35.680
40.296
44.911
49.527
54.143
58.758
63.373
67.989
72.604

2437.2
2443.3
2515.5
2587.9
2661.4
2736.1
2812.3
2969.3
3132.9
3303.3
3480.8
3665.4
3856.9
4055.3
4260.0
4470.9
4687.4

2583.9
2592.0
2687.5
2783.0
2879.6
2977.5
3076.7
3280.0
3489.7
3706.3
3929.9
4160.6
4398.3
4642.8
4893.8
5150.8
5413.4

8.1488
8.1741
8.4489
8.6893
8.9049
9.1015
9.2827
9.6094
9.8998
10.1631
10.4056
10.6312
10.8429
11.0429
11.2326
11.4132
11.5857

P  0.20 MPa (120.21C)


Sat.
150
200
250
300
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.88578
0.95986
1.08049
1.19890
1.31623
1.54934
1.78142
2.01302
2.24434
2.47550
2.70656
2.93755
3.16848
3.39938
3.63026

Sat.
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.37483
0.42503
0.47443
0.52261
0.57015
0.61731
0.71095
0.80409
0.89696
0.98966
1.08227
1.17480
1.26728
1.35972
1.45214

2529.1
2577.1
2654.6
2731.4
2808.8
2967.2
3131.4
3302.2
3479.9
3664.7
3856.3
4054.8
4259.6
4470.5
4687.1

2706.3
7.1270
2769.1
7.2810
2870.7
7.5081
2971.2
7.7100
3072.1
7.8941
3277.0
8.2236
3487.7
8.5153
3704.8
8.7793
3928.8
9.0221
4159.8
9.2479
4397.7
9.4598
4642.3
9.6599
4893.3
9.8497
5150.4 10.0304
5413.1 10.2029

P  0.50 MPa (151.83C)


2560.7
2643.3
2723.8
2803.3
2883.0
2963.7
3129.0
3300.4
3478.6
3663.6
3855.4
4054.0
4259.0
4470.0
4686.6

2748.1
2855.8
2961.0
3064.6
3168.1
3272.4
3484.5
3702.5
3927.0
4158.4
4396.6
4641.4
4892.6
5149.8
5412.6

6.8207
7.0610
7.2725
7.4614
7.6346
7.7956
8.0893
8.3544
8.5978
8.8240
9.0362
9.2364
9.4263
9.6071
9.7797

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

P  0.05 MPa (81.32C)


2483.2

2645.2

7.5931

3.4187
3.8897
4.3562
4.8206
5.2841
6.2094
7.1338
8.0577
8.9813
9.9047
10.8280
11.7513
12.6745
13.5977
14.5209

2511.5
2585.7
2660.0
2735.1
2811.6
2968.9
3132.6
3303.1
3480.6
3665.2
3856.8
4055.2
4259.9
4470.8
4687.3

2682.4
2780.2
2877.8
2976.2
3075.8
3279.3
3489.3
3706.0
3929.7
4160.4
4398.2
4642.7
4893.7
5150.7
5413.3

7.6953
7.9413
8.1592
8.3568
8.5387
8.8659
9.1566
9.4201
9.6626
9.8883
10.1000
10.3000
10.4897
10.6704
10.8429

P  0.30 MPa (133.52C)


0.60582
0.63402
0.71643
0.79645
0.87535
1.03155
1.18672
1.34139
1.49580
1.65004
1.80417
1.95824
2.11226
2.26624
2.42019

2543.2
2571.0
2651.0
2728.9
2807.0
2966.0
3130.6
3301.6
3479.5
3664.3
3856.0
4054.5
4259.4
4470.3
4686.9

2724.9 6.9917
2761.2 7.0792
2865.9 7.3132
2967.9 7.5180
3069.6 7.7037
3275.5 8.0347
3486.6 8.3271
3704.0 8.5915
3928.2 8.8345
4159.3 9.0605
4397.3 9.2725
4642.0 9.4726
4893.1 9.6624
5150.2 9.8431
5413.0 10.0157

P  0.60 MPa (158.83C)


0.31560
0.35212
0.39390
0.43442
0.47428
0.51374
0.59200
0.66976
0.74725
0.82457
0.90179
0.97893
1.05603
1.13309
1.21012

2566.8
2639.4
2721.2
2801.4
2881.6
2962.5
3128.2
3299.8
3478.1
3663.2
3855.1
4053.8
4258.8
4469.8
4686.4

2756.2
2850.6
2957.6
3062.0
3166.1
3270.8
3483.4
3701.7
3926.4
4157.9
4396.2
4641.1
4892.4
5149.6
5412.5

Properties of saturated vapor at the specified pressure.

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.10 MPa (99.61C)

3.2403

*The temperature in parentheses is the saturation temperature at the specified pressure.

s
kJ/kgK

6.7593
6.9683
7.1833
7.3740
7.5481
7.7097
8.0041
8.2695
8.5132
8.7395
8.9518
9.1521
9.3420
9.5229
9.6955

1.6941 2505.6

2675.0

1.6959
1.9367
2.1724
2.4062
2.6389
3.1027
3.5655
4.0279
4.4900
4.9519
5.4137
5.8755
6.3372
6.7988
7.2605

2675.8 7.3611
2776.6 7.6148
2875.5 7.8356
2974.5 8.0346
3074.5 8.2172
3278.6 8.5452
3488.7 8.8362
3705.6 9.0999
3929.4 9.3424
4160.2 9.5682
4398.0 9.7800
4642.6 9.9800
4893.6 10.1698
5150.6 10.3504
5413.3 10.5229

2506.2
2582.9
2658.2
2733.9
2810.7
2968.3
3132.2
3302.8
3480.4
3665.0
3856.7
4055.0
4259.8
4470.7
4687.2

7.3589

P  0.40 MPa (143.61C)


0.46242
0.47088
0.53434
0.59520
0.65489
0.77265
0.88936
1.00558
1.12152
1.23730
1.35298
1.46859
1.58414
1.69966
1.81516

2553.1
2564.4
2647.2
2726.4
2805.1
2964.9
3129.8
3301.0
3479.0
3663.9
3855.7
4054.3
4259.2
4470.2
4686.7

2738.1
2752.8
2860.9
2964.5
3067.1
3273.9
3485.5
3703.3
3927.6
4158.9
4396.9
4641.7
4892.9
5150.0
5412.8

6.8955
6.9306
7.1723
7.3804
7.5677
7.9003
8.1933
8.4580
8.7012
8.9274
9.1394
9.3396
9.5295
9.7102
9.8828

P  0.80 MPa (170.41C)


0.24035
0.26088
0.29321
0.32416
0.35442
0.38429
0.44332
0.50186
0.56011
0.61820
0.67619
0.73411
0.79197
0.84980
0.90761

2576.0
2631.1
2715.9
2797.5
2878.6
2960.2
3126.6
3298.7
3477.2
3662.5
3854.5
4053.3
4258.3
4469.4
4686.1

2768.3
2839.8
2950.4
3056.9
3162.2
3267.7
3481.3
3700.1
3925.3
4157.0
4395.5
4640.5
4891.9
5149.3
5412.2

6.6616
6.8177
7.0402
7.2345
7.4107
7.5735
7.8692
8.1354
8.3794
8.6061
8.8185
9.0189
9.2090
9.3898
9.5625

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 919

919
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A6
Superheated water (Concluded )

T
C

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  1.00 MPa (179.88C)


Sat.
200
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.19437
0.20602
0.23275
0.25799
0.28250
0.30661
0.35411
0.40111
0.44783
0.49438
0.54083
0.58721
0.63354
0.67983
0.72610

Sat.
225
250
300
350
400
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.12374
0.13293
0.14190
0.15866
0.17459
0.19007
0.22029
0.24999
0.27941
0.30865
0.33780
0.36687
0.39589
0.42488
0.45383

Sat.
225
250
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.07995
0.08026
0.08705
0.09894
0.10979
0.12012
0.13015
0.13999
0.15931
0.17835
0.19722
0.21597
0.23466
0.25330
0.27190
0.29048

2582.8
2622.3
2710.4
2793.7
2875.7
2957.9
3125.0
3297.5
3476.3
3661.7
3853.9
4052.7
4257.9
4469.0
4685.8

2777.1
2828.3
2943.1
3051.6
3158.2
3264.5
3479.1
3698.6
3924.1
4156.1
4394.8
4640.0
4891.4
5148.9
5411.9

6.5850
6.6956
6.9265
7.1246
7.3029
7.4670
7.7642
8.0311
8.2755
8.5024
8.7150
8.9155
9.1057
9.2866
9.4593

P  1.60 MPa (201.37C)


2594.8 2792.8
2645.1 2857.8
2692.9 2919.9
2781.6 3035.4
2866.6 3146.0
2950.8 3254.9
3120.1 3472.6
3293.9 3693.9
3473.5 3920.5
3659.5 4153.4
3852.1 4392.6
4051.2 4638.2
4256.6 4890.0
4467.9 5147.7
4684.8 5410.9

6.4200
6.5537
6.6753
6.8864
7.0713
7.2394
7.5410
7.8101
8.0558
8.2834
8.4965
8.6974
8.8878
9.0689
9.2418

P  2.50 MPa (223.95C)


2602.1
2604.8
2663.3
2762.2
2852.5
2939.8
3026.2
3112.8
3288.5
3469.3
3656.2
3849.4
4049.0
4254.7
4466.3
4683.4

2801.9 6.2558
2805.5 6.2629
2880.9 6.4107
3009.6 6.6459
3127.0 6.8424
3240.1 7.0170
3351.6 7.1768
3462.8 7.3254
3686.8 7.5979
3915.2 7.8455
4149.2 8.0744
4389.3 8.2882
4635.6 8.4897
4887.9 8.6804
5146.0 8.8618
5409.5 9.0349

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  1.20 MPa (187.96C)


0.16326
0.16934
0.19241
0.21386
0.23455
0.25482
0.29464
0.33395
0.37297
0.41184
0.45059
0.48928
0.52792
0.56652
0.60509

2587.8
2612.9
2704.7
2789.7
2872.7
2955.5
3123.4
3296.3
3475.3
3661.0
3853.3
4052.2
4257.5
4468.7
4685.5

2783.8
2816.1
2935.6
3046.3
3154.2
3261.3
3477.0
3697.0
3922.9
4155.2
4394.0
4639.4
4891.0
5148.5
5411.6

6.5217
6.5909
6.8313
7.0335
7.2139
7.3793
7.6779
7.9456
8.1904
8.4176
8.6303
8.8310
9.0212
9.2022
9.3750

P  1.80 MPa (207.11C)


0.11037
0.11678
0.12502
0.14025
0.15460
0.16849
0.19551
0.22200
0.24822
0.27426
0.30020
0.32606
0.35188
0.37766
0.40341

2597.3
2637.0
2686.7
2777.4
2863.6
2948.3
3118.5
3292.7
3472.6
3658.8
3851.5
4050.7
4256.2
4467.6
4684.5

2795.9
2847.2
2911.7
3029.9
3141.9
3251.6
3470.4
3692.3
3919.4
4152.4
4391.9
4637.6
4889.6
5147.3
5410.6

6.3775
6.4825
6.6088
6.8246
7.0120
7.1814
7.4845
7.7543
8.0005
8.2284
8.4417
8.6427
8.8331
9.0143
9.1872

P  3.00 MPa (233.85C)

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  1.40 MPa (195.04C)


0.14078
0.14303
0.16356
0.18233
0.20029
0.21782
0.25216
0.28597
0.31951
0.35288
0.38614
0.41933
0.45247
0.48558
0.51866

2591.8
2602.7
2698.9
2785.7
2869.7
2953.1
3121.8
3295.1
3474.4
3660.3
3852.7
4051.7
4257.0
4468.3
4685.1

2788.9
2803.0
2927.9
3040.9
3150.1
3258.1
3474.8
3695.5
3921.7
4154.3
4393.3
4638.8
4890.5
5148.1
5411.3

6.4675
6.4975
6.7488
6.9553
7.1379
7.3046
7.6047
7.8730
8.1183
8.3458
8.5587
8.7595
8.9497
9.1308
9.3036

P  2.00 MPa (212.38C)


0.09959
0.10381
0.11150
0.12551
0.13860
0.15122
0.17568
0.19962
0.22326
0.24674
0.27012
0.29342
0.31667
0.33989
0.36308

2599.1 2798.3 6.3390


2628.5 2836.1 6.4160
2680.3 2903.3 6.5475
2773.2 3024.2 6.7684
2860.5 3137.7 6.9583
2945.9 3248.4 7.1292
3116.9 3468.3 7.4337
3291.5 3690.7 7.7043
3471.7 3918.2 7.9509
3658.0 4151.5 8.1791
3850.9 4391.1 8.3925
4050.2 4637.1 8.5936
4255.7 4889.1 8.7842
4467.2 5147.0 8.9654
4684.2 5410.3 9.1384

P  3.50 MPa (242.56C)

0.06667

2603.2

2803.2

6.1856

0.05706

2603.0

2802.7 6.1244

0.07063
0.08118
0.09056
0.09938
0.10789
0.11620
0.13245
0.14841
0.16420
0.17988
0.19549
0.21105
0.22658
0.24207

2644.7
2750.8
2844.4
2933.6
3021.2
3108.6
3285.5
3467.0
3654.3
3847.9
4047.7
4253.6
4465.3
4682.6

2856.5
2994.3
3116.1
3231.7
3344.9
3457.2
3682.8
3912.2
4146.9
4387.5
4634.2
4886.7
5145.1
5408.8

6.2893
6.5412
6.7450
6.9235
7.0856
7.2359
7.5103
7.7590
7.9885
8.2028
8.4045
8.5955
8.7771
8.9502

0.05876
0.06845
0.07680
0.08456
0.09198
0.09919
0.11325
0.12702
0.14061
0.15410
0.16751
0.18087
0.19420
0.20750

2624.0 2829.7
2738.8 2978.4
2836.0 3104.9
2927.2 3223.2
3016.1 3338.1
3104.5 3451.7
3282.5 3678.9
3464.7 3909.3
3652.5 4144.6
3846.4 4385.7
4046.4 4632.7
4252.5 4885.6
4464.4 5144.1
4681.8 5408.0

6.1764
6.4484
6.6601
6.8428
7.0074
7.1593
7.4357
7.6855
7.9156
8.1304
8.3324
8.5236
8.7053
8.8786

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 920

920
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A6
Superheated water (Continued)

T
C

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  4.0 MPa (250.35C)


Sat.
275
300
350
400
450
500
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.04978
0.05461
0.05887
0.06647
0.07343
0.08004
0.08644
0.09886
0.11098
0.12292
0.13476
0.14653
0.15824
0.16992
0.18157

Sat.
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.03245
0.03619
0.04225
0.04742
0.05217
0.05667
0.06102
0.06527
0.07355
0.08165
0.08964
0.09756
0.10543
0.11326
0.12107

Sat.
325
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.020489
0.023284
0.025816
0.029960
0.033524
0.036793
0.039885
0.042861
0.045755
0.048589
0.054132
0.059562
0.064919
0.070224
0.075492
0.080733

2601.7
2668.9
2726.2
2827.4
2920.8
3011.0
3100.3
3279.4
3462.4
3650.6
3844.8
4045.1
4251.4
4463.5
4680.9

2800.8
2887.3
2961.7
3093.3
3214.5
3331.2
3446.0
3674.9
3906.3
4142.3
4383.9
4631.2
4884.4
5143.2
5407.2

6.0696
6.2312
6.3639
6.5843
6.7714
6.9386
7.0922
7.3706
7.6214
7.8523
8.0675
8.2698
8.4612
8.6430
8.8164

P  6.0 MPa (275.59C)


2589.9
2668.4
2790.4
2893.7
2989.9
3083.1
3175.2
3267.2
3453.0
3643.2
3838.8
4040.1
4247.1
4459.8
4677.7

2784.6
2885.6
3043.9
3178.3
3302.9
3423.1
3541.3
3658.8
3894.3
4133.1
4376.6
4625.4
4879.7
5139.4
5404.1

5.8902
6.0703
6.3357
6.5432
6.7219
6.8826
7.0308
7.1693
7.4247
7.6582
7.8751
8.0786
8.2709
8.4534
8.6273

P  9.0 MPa (303.35C)


2558.5
2647.6
2725.0
2849.2
2956.3
3056.3
3153.0
3248.4
3343.4
3438.8
3632.0
3829.6
4032.4
4240.7
4454.2
4672.9

2742.9
2857.1
2957.3
3118.8
3258.0
3387.4
3512.0
3634.1
3755.2
3876.1
4119.2
4365.7
4616.7
4872.7
5133.6
5399.5

5.6791
5.8738
6.0380
6.2876
6.4872
6.6603
6.8164
6.9605
7.0954
7.2229
7.4606
7.6802
7.8855
8.0791
8.2625
8.4371

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  4.5 MPa (257.44C)


0.04406
0.04733
0.05138
0.05842
0.06477
0.07076
0.07652
0.08766
0.09850
0.10916
0.11972
0.13020
0.14064
0.15103
0.16140

2599.7
2651.4
2713.0
2818.6
2914.2
3005.8
3096.0
3276.4
3460.0
3648.8
3843.3
4043.9
4250.4
4462.6
4680.1

2798.0
2864.4
2944.2
3081.5
3205.7
3324.2
3440.4
3670.9
3903.3
4140.0
4382.1
4629.8
4883.2
5142.2
5406.5

6.0198
6.1429
6.2854
6.5153
6.7071
6.8770
7.0323
7.3127
7.5647
7.7962
8.0118
8.2144
8.4060
8.5880
8.7616

P  7.0 MPa (285.83C)


0.027378
0.029492
0.035262
0.039958
0.044187
0.048157
0.051966
0.055665
0.062850
0.069856
0.076750
0.083571
0.090341
0.097075
0.103781

2581.0
2633.5
2770.1
2879.5
2979.0
3074.3
3167.9
3261.0
3448.3
3639.5
3835.7
4037.5
4245.0
4457.9
4676.1

2772.6
2839.9
3016.9
3159.2
3288.3
3411.4
3531.6
3650.6
3888.3
4128.5
4373.0
4622.5
4877.4
5137.4
5402.6

5.8148
5.9337
6.2305
6.4502
6.6353
6.8000
6.9507
7.0910
7.3487
7.5836
7.8014
8.0055
8.1982
8.3810
8.5551

P  10.0 MPa (311.00C)


0.018028
0.019877
0.022440
0.026436
0.029782
0.032811
0.035655
0.038378
0.041018
0.043597
0.048629
0.053547
0.058391
0.063183
0.067938
0.072667

2545.2
2611.6
2699.6
2833.1
2944.5
3047.0
3145.4
3242.0
3338.0
3434.0
3628.2
3826.5
4029.9
4238.5
4452.4
4671.3

2725.5
2810.3
2924.0
3097.5
3242.4
3375.1
3502.0
3625.8
3748.1
3870.0
4114.5
4362.0
4613.8
4870.3
5131.7
5398.0

5.6159
5.7596
5.9460
6.2141
6.4219
6.5995
6.7585
6.9045
7.0408
7.1693
7.4085
7.6290
7.8349
8.0289
8.2126
8.3874

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  5.0 MPa (263.94C)


0.03945
0.04144
0.04535
0.05197
0.05784
0.06332
0.06858
0.07870
0.08852
0.09816
0.10769
0.11715
0.12655
0.13592
0.14527

2597.0
2632.3
2699.0
2809.5
2907.5
3000.6
3091.8
3273.3
3457.7
3646.9
3841.8
4042.6
4249.3
4461.6
4679.3

2794.2
2839.5
2925.7
3069.3
3196.7
3317.2
3434.7
3666.9
3900.3
4137.7
4380.2
4628.3
4882.1
5141.3
5405.7

5.9737
6.0571
6.2111
6.4516
6.6483
6.8210
6.9781
7.2605
7.5136
7.7458
7.9619
8.1648
8.3566
8.5388
8.7124

P  8.0 MPa (295.01C)


0.023525
0.024279
0.029975
0.034344
0.038194
0.041767
0.045172
0.048463
0.054829
0.061011
0.067082
0.073079
0.079025
0.084934
0.090817

2570.5
2592.3
2748.3
2864.6
2967.8
3065.4
3160.5
3254.7
3443.6
3635.7
3832.7
4035.0
4242.8
4456.1
4674.5

2758.7
2786.5
2988.1
3139.4
3273.3
3399.5
3521.8
3642.4
3882.2
4123.8
4369.3
4619.6
4875.0
5135.5
5401.0

5.7450
5.7937
6.1321
6.3658
6.5579
6.7266
6.8800
7.0221
7.2822
7.5185
7.7372
7.9419
8.1350
8.3181
8.4925

P  12.5 MPa (327.81C)


0.013496 2505.6

2674.3 5.4638

0.016138
0.020030
0.023019
0.025630
0.028033
0.030306
0.032491
0.034612
0.038724
0.042720
0.046641
0.050510
0.054342
0.058147

2826.6
3040.0
3201.5
3343.6
3476.5
3604.6
3730.2
3854.6
4102.8
4352.9
4606.5
4864.5
5127.0
5394.1

2624.9
2789.6
2913.7
3023.2
3126.1
3225.8
3324.1
3422.0
3618.8
3818.9
4023.5
4233.1
4447.7
4667.3

5.7130
6.0433
6.2749
6.4651
6.6317
6.7828
6.9227
7.0540
7.2967
7.5195
7.7269
7.9220
8.1065
8.2819

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 921

921
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A6
Superheated water (Concluded )

T
C

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  15.0 MPa (342.16C)


Sat.
350
400
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.010341
0.011481
0.015671
0.018477
0.020828
0.022945
0.024921
0.026804
0.028621
0.032121
0.035503
0.038808
0.042062
0.045279
0.048469

2455.7
2520.9
2740.6
2880.8
2998.4
3106.2
3209.3
3310.1
3409.8
3609.3
3811.2
4017.1
4227.7
4443.1
4663.3

375
400
425
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.001978
0.006005
0.007886
0.009176
0.011143
0.012736
0.014140
0.015430
0.016643
0.018922
0.021075
0.023150
0.025172
0.027157
0.029115

1799.9
2428.5
2607.8
2721.2
2887.3
3020.8
3140.0
3251.9
3359.9
3570.7
3780.2
3991.5
4206.1
4424.6
4647.2

375
400
425
450
500
550
600
650
700
800
900
1000
1100
1200
1300

0.001641
0.001911
0.002538
0.003692
0.005623
0.006985
0.008089
0.009053
0.009930
0.011521
0.012980
0.014360
0.015686
0.016976
0.018239

1677.0
1855.0
2097.5
2364.2
2681.6
2875.1
3026.8
3159.5
3282.0
3511.8
3733.3
3952.9
4173.7
4396.9
4623.3

2610.8
2693.1
2975.7
3157.9
3310.8
3450.4
3583.1
3712.1
3839.1
4091.1
4343.7
4599.2
4858.6
5122.3
5390.3

v
m3/kg

s
kJ/kgK

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  20.0 MPa (365.75C)

5.3108
5.4438
5.8819
6.1434
6.3480
6.5230
6.6796
6.8233
6.9573
7.2037
7.4288
7.6378
7.8339
8.0192
8.1952

0.007932 2390.7 2529.5 5.1435

0.005862 2294.8 2412.1

4.9310

0.012463
0.015204
0.017385
0.019305
0.021073
0.022742
0.024342
0.027405
0.030348
0.033215
0.036029
0.038806
0.041556

5.7211
6.0212
6.2424
6.4266
6.5890
6.7366
6.8735
7.1237
7.3511
7.5616
7.7588
7.9449
8.1215

0.009950
0.012721
0.014793
0.016571
0.018185
0.019695
0.021134
0.023870
0.026484
0.029020
0.031504
0.033952
0.036371

2617.9
2807.3
2945.3
3064.7
3175.3
3281.4
3385.1
3590.1
3795.7
4004.3
4216.9
4433.8
4655.2

5.5526
5.9043
6.1446
6.3390
6.5075
6.6593
6.7991
7.0531
7.2829
7.4950
7.6933
7.8802
8.0574

4.0345
5.1400
5.4708
5.6759
5.9643
6.1816
6.3637
6.5243
6.6702
6.9322
7.1668
7.3821
7.5825
7.7710
7.9494

0.001792
0.002798
0.005299
0.006737
0.008691
0.010175
0.011445
0.012590
0.013654
0.015628
0.017473
0.019240
0.020954
0.022630
0.024279

3.9313
4.4758
5.1473
5.4422
5.7956
6.0403
6.2373
6.4074
6.5599
6.8301
7.0695
7.2880
7.4906
7.6807
7.8602

0.001701
0.002105
0.003434
0.004957
0.006933
0.008348
0.009523
0.010565
0.011523
0.013278
0.014904
0.016450
0.017942
0.019398
0.020827

1702.8
1914.9
2253.3
2497.5
2755.3
2925.8
3065.6
3190.9
3308.3
3531.6
3749.0
3965.8
4184.4
4406.1
4631.2

3.8290
4.1145
4.5044
4.9449
5.4744
5.7857
6.0170
6.2078
6.3740
6.6613
6.9107
7.1355
7.3425
7.5357
7.7175

0.001560
0.001731
0.002009
0.002487
0.003890
0.005118
0.006108
0.006957
0.007717
0.009073
0.010296
0.011441
0.012534
0.013590
0.014620

3.7642
4.0029
4.2746
4.5896
5.1762
5.5563
5.8245
6.0373
6.2179
6.5225
6.7819
7.0131
7.2244
7.4207
7.6048

0.001503
0.001633
0.001816
0.002086
0.002952
0.003955
0.004833
0.005591
0.006265
0.007456
0.008519
0.009504
0.010439
0.011339
0.012213

1609.7
1745.2
1892.9
2055.1
2393.2
2664.6
2866.8
3031.3
3175.4
3432.6
3670.9
3902.0
4130.9
4360.5
4591.8

2684.3
2845.4
2972.4
3085.8
3192.5
3295.8
3397.5
3599.7
3803.5
4010.7
4222.3
4438.5
4659.2

2902.4
3111.4
3276.7
3423.6
3561.3
3693.8
3823.5
4079.3
4334.6
4592.0
4852.8
5117.6
5386.5

P  30.0 MPa

P  40.0 MPa
1742.6
1931.4
2199.0
2511.8
2906.5
3154.4
3350.4
3521.6
3679.2
3972.6
4252.5
4527.3
4801.1
5075.9
5352.8

h
kJ/kg

P  17.5 MPa (354.67C)

P  25.0 MPa
1849.4
2578.7
2805.0
2950.6
3165.9
3339.2
3493.5
3637.7
3776.0
4043.8
4307.1
4570.2
4835.4
5103.5
5375.1

u
kJ/kg

1738.1
2068.9
2452.9
2618.9
2824.0
2974.5
3103.4
3221.7
3334.3
3551.2
3764.6
3978.6
4195.2
4415.3
4639.2

1791.9
2152.8
2611.8
2821.0
3084.8
3279.7
3446.8
3599.4
3743.9
4020.0
4288.8
4555.8
4823.9
5094.2
5367.6

P  35.0 MPa

P  50.0 MPa
1638.6
1787.8
1960.3
2160.3
2528.1
2769.5
2947.1
3095.6
3228.7
3472.2
3702.0
3927.4
4152.2
4378.6
4607.5

1716.6
1874.4
2060.7
2284.7
2722.6
3025.4
3252.6
3443.5
3614.6
3925.8
4216.8
4499.4
4778.9
5058.1
5338.5

2816.9
3061.7
3241.2
3396.2
3539.0
3675.3
3807.8
4067.5
4325.4
4584.7
4847.0
5112.9
5382.7

1762.4
1988.6
2373.5
2671.0
2997.9
3218.0
3399.0
3560.7
3711.6
3996.3
4270.6
4541.5
4812.4
5085.0
5360.2

3.8724
4.2144
4.7751
5.1946
5.6331
5.9093
6.1229
6.3030
6.4623
6.7409
6.9853
7.2069
7.4118
7.6034
7.7841

P  60.0 MPa
1699.9
1843.2
2001.8
2180.2
2570.3
2901.9
3156.8
3366.8
3551.3
3880.0
4182.1
4472.2
4757.3
5040.8
5324.5

3.7149
3.9317
4.1630
4.4140
4.9356
5.3517
5.6527
5.8867
6.0814
6.4033
6.6725
6.9099
7.1255
7.3248
7.5111

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 922

922
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A7
Compressed liquid water

T
C

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  5 MPa (263.94C)
Sat.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340

0.0012862 1148.1 1154.5


0.0009977
0.04
5.03
0.0009996
83.61
88.61
0.0010057 166.92 171.95
0.0010149 250.29 255.36
0.0010267 333.82 338.96
0.0010410 417.65 422.85
0.0010576 501.91 507.19
0.0010769 586.80 592.18
0.0010988 672.55 678.04
0.0011240 759.47 765.09
0.0011531 847.92 853.68
0.0011868 938.39 944.32
0.0012268 1031.6 1037.7
0.0012755 1128.5 1134.9

Sat.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
260
280
300
320
340
360
380

0.0020378
0.0009904
0.0009929
0.0009992
0.0010084
0.0010199
0.0010337
0.0010496
0.0010679
0.0010886
0.0011122
0.0011390
0.0011697
0.0012053
0.0012472
0.0012978
0.0013611
0.0014450
0.0015693
0.0018248

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

1826.6
20.03
102.57
185.16
267.92
350.90
434.17
517.84
602.07
687.05
773.02
860.27
949.16
1040.2
1134.0
1231.5
1334.4
1445.5
1571.6
1740.1

s
kJ/kgK

P  10 MPa (311.00C)
2.9207
0.0001
0.2954
0.5705
0.8287
1.0723
1.3034
1.5236
1.7344
1.9374
2.1338
2.3251
2.5127
2.6983
2.8841

0.0014522
0.0009952
0.0009973
0.0010035
0.0010127
0.0010244
0.0010385
0.0010549
0.0010738
0.0010954
0.0011200
0.0011482
0.0011809
0.0012192
0.0012653
0.0013226
0.0013980

P  20 MPa (365.75C)
1785.8
0.23
82.71
165.17
247.75
330.50
413.50
496.85
580.71
665.28
750.78
837.49
925.77
1016.1
1109.0
1205.6
1307.2
1416.6
1540.2
1703.6

h
kJ/kg

1393.3
0.12
83.31
166.33
249.43
332.69
416.23
500.18
584.72
670.06
756.48
844.32
934.01
1026.2
1121.6
1221.8
1329.4

1407.9
10.07
93.28
176.37
259.55
342.94
426.62
510.73
595.45
681.01
767.68
855.80
945.82
1038.3
1134.3
1235.0
1343.3

u
kJ/kg

v
m3/kg

0.0009857
0.0009886
0.0009951
0.0010042
0.0010155
0.0010290
0.0010445
0.0010623
0.0010823
0.0011049
0.0011304
0.0011595
0.0011927
0.0012314
0.0012770
0.0013322
0.0014014
0.0014932
0.0016276
0.0018729

0.29
82.11
164.05
246.14
328.40
410.87
493.66
576.90
660.74
745.40
831.11
918.15
1006.9
1097.8
1191.5
1288.9
1391.7
1502.4
1626.8
1782.0

29.86
111.77
193.90
276.26
358.86
441.74
525.00
608.76
693.21
778.55
865.02
952.93
1042.7
1134.7
1229.8
1328.9
1433.7
1547.1
1675.6
1838.2

s
kJ/kgK

P  15 MPa (342.16C)
3.3603
0.0003
0.2943
0.5685
0.8260
1.0691
1.2996
1.5191
1.7293
1.9316
2.1271
2.3174
2.5037
2.6876
2.8710
3.0565
3.2488

0.0016572
0.0009928
0.0009951
0.0010013
0.0010105
0.0010221
0.0010361
0.0010522
0.0010708
0.0010920
0.0011160
0.0011435
0.0011752
0.0012121
0.0012560
0.0013096
0.0013783
0.0014733
0.0016311

P  30 MPa
4.0146
0.0005
0.2921
0.5646
0.8208
1.0627
1.2920
1.5105
1.7194
1.9203
2.1143
2.3027
2.4867
2.6676
2.8469
3.0265
3.2091
3.3996
3.6086
3.8787

h
kJ/kg

1585.5
0.18
83.01
165.75
248.58
331.59
414.85
498.50
582.69
667.63
753.58
840.84
929.81
1021.0
1115.1
1213.4
1317.6
1431.9
1567.9

1610.3
15.07
97.93
180.77
263.74
346.92
430.39
514.28
598.75
684.01
770.32
858.00
947.43
1039.2
1134.0
1233.0
1338.3
1454.0
1592.4

3.6848
0.0004
0.2932
0.5666
0.8234
1.0659
1.2958
1.5148
1.7243
1.9259
2.1206
2.3100
2.4951
2.6774
2.8586
3.0410
3.2279
3.4263
3.6555

P  50 MPa
0.0003
0.2897
0.5607
0.8156
1.0564
1.2847
1.5020
1.7098
1.9094
2.1020
2.2888
2.4707
2.6491
2.8250
3.0001
3.1761
3.3558
3.5438
3.7499
4.0026

0.0009767
0.0009805
0.0009872
0.0009962
0.0010072
0.0010201
0.0010349
0.0010517
0.0010704
0.0010914
0.0011149
0.0011412
0.0011708
0.0012044
0.0012430
0.0012879
0.0013409
0.0014049
0.0014848
0.0015884

0.29
80.93
161.90
243.08
324.42
405.94
487.69
569.77
652.33
735.49
819.45
904.39
990.55
1078.2
1167.7
1259.6
1354.3
1452.9
1556.5
1667.1

49.13 0.0010
129.95 0.2845
211.25 0.5528
292.88 0.8055
374.78 1.0442
456.94 1.2705
539.43 1.4859
622.36 1.6916
705.85 1.8889
790.06 2.0790
875.19 2.2628
961.45 2.4414
1049.1
2.6156
1138.4
2.7864
1229.9
2.9547
1324.0
3.1218
1421.4
3.2888
1523.1
3.4575
1630.7
3.6301
1746.5
3.8102

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 923

923
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A8
Saturated icewater vapor

Specific volume,
m3/kg

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Entropy,
kJ/kgK

Temp.,
T C

Sat.
press.,
Psat kPa

Sat.
ice,
vi

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
ice,
ui

Subl.,
uig

Sat.
vapor,
ug

Sat.
ice,
hi

Subl.,
hig

Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
ice,
si

Subl.,
sig

Sat.
vapor,
sg

0.01
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20
22
24
26
28
30
32
34
36
38
40

0.61169
0.61115
0.51772
0.43748
0.36873
0.30998
0.25990
0.21732
0.18121
0.15068
0.12492
0.10326
0.08510
0.06991
0.05725
0.04673
0.03802
0.03082
0.02490
0.02004
0.01608
0.01285

0.001091
0.001091
0.001091
0.001090
0.001090
0.001090
0.001089
0.001089
0.001088
0.001088
0.001088
0.001087
0.001087
0.001087
0.001087
0.001086
0.001086
0.001086
0.001085
0.001085
0.001085
0.001084

205.99
206.17
241.62
283.84
334.27
394.66
467.17
554.47
659.88
787.51
942.51
1131.3
1362.0
1644.7
1992.2
2421.0
2951.7
3610.9
4432.4
5460.1
6750.5
8376.7

333.40
333.43
337.63
341.80
345.94
350.04
354.12
358.17
362.18
366.17
370.13
374.06
377.95
381.82
385.66
389.47
393.25
397.00
400.72
404.40
408.07
411.70

2707.9
2707.9
2709.4
2710.8
2712.2
2713.5
2714.8
2716.1
2717.3
2718.6
2719.7
2720.9
2722.0
2723.1
2724.2
2725.2
2726.2
2727.2
2728.1
2729.0
2729.9
2730.7

2374.5
2374.5
2371.8
2369.0
2366.2
2363.5
2360.7
2357.9
2355.2
2352.4
2349.6
2346.8
2344.1
2341.3
2338.5
2335.7
2332.9
2330.2
2327.4
2324.6
2321.8
2319.0

333.40
333.43
337.63
341.80
345.93
350.04
354.12
358.17
362.18
366.17
370.13
374.06
377.95
381.82
385.66
389.47
393.25
397.00
400.72
404.40
408.07
411.70

2833.9
2833.9
2834.5
2835.0
2835.4
2835.8
2836.2
2836.6
2836.9
2837.2
2837.5
2837.7
2837.9
2838.1
2838.2
2838.3
2838.4
2838.4
2838.5
2838.4
2838.4
2838.3

2500.5
2500.5
2496.8
2493.2
2489.5
2485.8
2482.1
2478.4
2474.7
2471.0
2467.3
2463.6
2459.9
2456.2
2452.5
2448.8
2445.1
2441.4
2437.7
2434.0
2430.3
2426.6

1.2202
1.2204
1.2358
1.2513
1.2667
1.2821
1.2976
1.3130
1.3284
1.3439
1.3593
1.3748
1.3903
1.4057
1.4212
1.4367
1.4521
1.4676
1.4831
1.4986
1.5141
1.5296

10.374
10.375
10.453
10.533
10.613
10.695
10.778
10.862
10.947
11.033
11.121
11.209
11.300
11.391
11.484
11.578
11.673
11.770
11.869
11.969
12.071
12.174

9.154
9.154
9.218
9.282
9.347
9.413
9.480
9.549
9.618
9.689
9.761
9.835
9.909
9.985
10.063
10.141
10.221
10.303
10.386
10.470
10.557
10.644

60 0

h = 40

2400

2600

00

328200

3000

50%

20

00

3200

3400

4000
3800
3600

4500

h = 4200 kJ/
kg

00

22

00

Sa
tu

ra

0k

00

or

24

va
p

70

te d

h=

0
10
80 0
6

0
80
0
60
0
50
0
40 0
35 00
3 0
25 0
20
0
15

5
Entropy, kJ/kgK

18

00

80 0

J/ k
g

20 0

26

00

k J/k

4200

4300

4400

4500

4600

4700

4800

4900

5000

h = 5000 kJ/kg

80%

Qu

a lit

y=

90 %

2650
h = 2600
2650 kJ/kg
2550

2800

2900

3000

3100

3200

3300

3400

3500

3600

3700

3800

3900

4000

4100

0
10

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

1000

1100

10
1200

Copyright 1984. From NBS/NRC Steam Tables/1 by Lester Haar, John S. Gallagher, and George S. Kell. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/Taylor & Francis
Books, Inc.

60%

FIGURE A9
T-s diagram for water.

1 20

20

0%
=1

1800

kJ/
2200 kg

h=
2000

00

0
0

ty
ali
Qu

tu

e
rat

Sa

uid

1600

iq
dl

0
140

1 00 0

0
100

0
120

14

100

200

300

400

500

600

700

800

900

2
550
0
10
0

1000

Temperature, C

Den
sity

50
0

= kg
/m 3
P
=
300
20 00 b
1 000 ar
5
100 000
80000
0
50
4 00 6000
30000
0
20 0
15 00
00

16

300 k
g/m 3

1100

100 k
40
g/m 3
30
20
15
30 kg
8
/m 3
10
6
4
10 kg
/m 3
3
2
1.5
3 kg/m 3
0.8
1.
0
0
.
6
0.4
1 kg/m 3
0.3
0.2
0.3
0.1
kg/m 3
0.0
5
0.08 0.
1
6
0.1
0.
kg/m 3
0
0.04
3
0.0
0 2
.
0
15
0.0
3k
Den
0.0
g/m 3
s
i
0
t
y
8
=0
.01
kg/m 3

0
1200

30

10:05 AM

40%

12/18/09

0.
0 006
0 .0
.
0 04
0. 03
00
2

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd
Page 924

924
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 925

925
APPENDIX 1
5000

C
1100C

10
5000

C
0
10
=1

C
1000C

/m 3

0C
400

98%
96%
Qu
94%
a lit
y = 92%
90 %
88
86% %
84%
82%
80%
78
76 %
74 %
%
72
70 %
68 %
%

0C
T = 300

2000

De

3000

0.
0. 3
0
0. .08 0.12
0. 06 0.1 5
04
0.0
0.0 5
0. 3
01
0. 5
01

0
0. .8
0.4 6

8
6
4

3
2
1.5
1.0

nsi
ty =

0.0 1

0.1
kg

k g/ m 3

/m 3

1 kg

150
00

200
00

250
00

300
00
bar

C
800C

P=

4000

C
700C

0C
600

3000
0C
500

Enthalpy, kJ/kg

De n s
100
it y = 1
00
000 kg
800
/m 3
0
600
500 0
40000
3000
20
15 00
80 1 00
6000 000
400 5
00
30
2000
1 00
k g/ m 3
80 150
60 100
40
50
30
20
15
10 k
10
g/ m 3

C
900C

4000

02
0.

r
ba
08
0
.
0

2000

%
66 %
64
%
62 %
60 %
58
56%
54%
52%
50%
48%
46%
44%
42%
40%

1000

6
Entropy, kJ/kgK

1000
10

FIGURE A-10
Mollier diagram for water.
Copyright 1984. From NBS/NRC Steam Tables/1 by Lester Haar, John S. Gallagher, and George S. Kell. Reproduced by permission of Routledge/Taylor &
Francis Books, Inc.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 926

926
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A11
Saturated refrigerant-134aTemperature table

Specific volume,
m3/kg

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Sat.
Sat.
Temp., press., liquid,
T C Psat kPa vf

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
liquid,
uf

Evap.,
ufg

Sat.
vapor,
ug

Sat.
liquid, Evap.,
hf
hfg

40
38
36
34
32

51.25
56.86
62.95
69.56
76.71

0.0007054
0.0007083
0.0007112
0.0007142
0.0007172

0.36081
0.32732
0.29751
0.27090
0.24711

0.036
2.475
4.992
7.517
10.05

207.40
206.04
204.67
203.29
201.91

207.37 0.000
208.51 2.515
209.66 5.037
210.81 7.566
211.96 10.10

225.86
224.61
223.35
222.09
220.81

30
28
26
24
22

84.43
92.76
101.73
111.37
121.72

0.0007203
0.0007234
0.0007265
0.0007297
0.0007329

0.22580
0.20666
0.18946
0.17395
0.15995

12.59
15.13
17.69
20.25
22.82

200.52
199.12
197.72
196.30
194.88

213.11
214.25
215.40
216.55
217.70

20
18
16
14
12

132.82
144.69
157.38
170.93
185.37

0.0007362
0.0007396
0.0007430
0.0007464
0.0007499

0.14729
0.13583
0.12542
0.11597
0.10736

25.39
27.98
30.57
33.17
35.78

193.45
192.01
190.56
189.09
187.62

10
8
6
4
2

200.74
217.08
234.44
252.85
272.36

0.0007535
0.0007571
0.0007608
0.0007646
0.0007684

0.099516
0.092352
0.085802
0.079804
0.074304

38.40
41.03
43.66
46.31
48.96

0
2
4
6
8

293.01
314.84
337.90
362.23
387.88

0.0007723
0.0007763
0.0007804
0.0007845
0.0007887

0.069255
0.064612
0.060338
0.056398
0.052762

10
12
14
16
18

414.89
443.31
473.19
504.58
537.52

0.0007930
0.0007975
0.0008020
0.0008066
0.0008113

0.049403
0.046295
0.043417
0.040748
0.038271

Entropy,
kJ/kgK
Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Evap.,
sfg

Sat.
vapor,
sg

225.86
227.12
228.39
229.65
230.91

0.00000
0.01072
0.02138
0.03199
0.04253

0.96866
0.95511
0.94176
0.92859
0.91560

0.96866
0.96584
0.96315
0.96058
0.95813

12.65
15.20
17.76
20.33
22.91

219.52 232.17
218.22 233.43
216.92 234.68
215.59 235.92
214.26 s237.17

0.05301
0.06344
0.07382
0.08414
0.09441

0.90278
0.89012
0.87762
0.86527
0.85307

0.95579
0.95356
0.95144
0.94941
0.94748

218.84
219.98
221.13
222.27
223.40

25.49
28.09
30.69
33.30
35.92

212.91
211.55
210.18
208.79
207.38

238.41
239.64
240.87
242.09
243.30

0.10463
0.11481
0.12493
0.13501
0.14504

0.84101
0.82908
0.81729
0.80561
0.79406

0.94564
0.94389
0.94222
0.94063
0.93911

186.14
184.64
183.13
181.61
180.08

224.54
225.67
226.80
227.92
229.04

38.55
41.19
43.84
46.50
49.17

205.96
204.52
203.07
201.60
200.11

244.51
245.72
246.91
248.10
249.28

0.15504
0.16498
0.17489
0.18476
0.19459

0.78263
0.77130
0.76008
0.74896
0.73794

0.93766
0.93629
0.93497
0.93372
0.93253

51.63
54.30
56.99
59.68
62.39

178.53
176.97
175.39
173.80
172.19

230.16
231.27
232.38
233.48
234.58

51.86
54.55
57.25
59.97
62.69

198.60
197.07
195.51
193.94
192.35

250.45
251.61
252.77
253.91
255.04

0.20439
0.21415
0.22387
0.23356
0.24323

0.72701
0.71616
0.70540
0.69471
0.68410

0.93139
0.93031
0.92927
0.92828
0.92733

65.10
67.83
70.57
73.32
76.08

170.56
168.92
167.26
165.58
163.88

235.67
236.75
237.83
238.90
239.96

65.43
68.18
70.95
73.73
76.52

190.73
189.09
187.42
185.73
184.01

256.16
257.27
258.37
259.46
260.53

0.25286
0.26246
0.27204
0.28159
0.29112

0.67356
0.66308
0.65266
0.64230
0.63198

0.92641
0.92554
0.92470
0.92389
0.92310

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 927

927
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A11
Saturated refrigerant-134aTemperature table (Concluded )

Specific volume,
m3/kg
Sat.
Sat.
Temp., press., liquid,
T C Psat kPa vf

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg

Entropy,
kJ/kgK

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
Sat.
liquid, Evap., vapor,
uf
ufg
ug

Sat.
liquid, Evap.,
hf
hfg

Sat.
vapor,
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Evap.,
sfg

Sat.
vapor,
sg

20
22
24
26
28

572.07
608.27
646.18
685.84
727.31

0.0008161
0.0008210
0.0008261
0.0008313
0.0008366

0.035969
0.033828
0.031834
0.029976
0.028242

78.86
81.64
84.44
87.26
90.09

162.16
160.42
158.65
156.87
155.05

241.02
242.06
243.10
244.12
245.14

79.32
82.14
84.98
87.83
90.69

182.27
180.49
178.69
176.85
174.99

261.59
262.64
263.67
264.68
265.68

0.30063
0.31011
0.31958
0.32903
0.33846

0.62172
0.61149
0.60130
0.59115
0.58102

0.92234
0.92160
0.92088
0.92018
0.91948

30
32
34
36
38

770.64
815.89
863.11
912.35
963.68

0.0008421
0.0008478
0.0008536
0.0008595
0.0008657

0.026622
0.025108
0.023691
0.022364
0.021119

92.93
95.79
98.66
101.55
104.45

153.22
151.35
149.46
147.54
145.58

246.14
247.14
248.12
249.08
250.04

93.58
96.48
99.40
102.33
105.29

173.08
171.14
169.17
167.16
165.10

266.66
267.62
268.57
269.49
270.39

0.34789
0.35730
0.36670
0.37609
0.38548

0.57091
0.56082
0.55074
0.54066
0.53058

0.91879
0.91811
0.91743
0.91675
0.91606

40
42
44
46
48

1017.1
1072.8
1130.7
1191.0
1253.6

0.0008720
0.0008786
0.0008854
0.0008924
0.0008996

0.019952
0.018855
0.017824
0.016853
0.015939

107.38
110.32
113.28
116.26
119.26

143.60
141.58
139.52
137.42
135.29

250.97
251.89
252.80
253.68
254.55

108.26
111.26
114.28
117.32
120.39

163.00
160.86
158.67
156.43
154.14

271.27
272.12
272.95
273.75
274.53

0.39486
0.40425
0.41363
0.42302
0.43242

0.52049
0.51039
0.50027
0.49012
0.47993

0.91536
0.91464
0.91391
0.91315
0.91236

52
56
60
65
70
75

1386.2
1529.1
1682.8
1891.0
2118.2
2365.8

0.0009150
0.0009317
0.0009498
0.0009750
0.0010037
0.0010372

0.014265
0.012771
0.011434
0.009950
0.008642
0.007480

125.33
131.49
137.76
145.77
154.01
162.53

130.88
126.28
121.46
115.05
108.14
100.60

256.21
257.77
259.22
260.82
262.15
263.13

126.59
132.91
139.36
147.62
156.13
164.98

149.39
144.38
139.10
132.02
124.32
115.85

275.98
277.30
278.46
279.64
280.46
280.82

0.45126
0.47018
0.48920
0.51320
0.53755
0.56241

0.45941
0.43863
0.41749
0.39039
0.36227
0.33272

0.91067
0.90880
0.90669
0.90359
0.89982
0.89512

80
85
90
95
100

2635.3
2928.2
3246.9
3594.1
3975.1

0.0010772
0.0011270
0.0011932
0.0012933
0.0015269

0.006436
0.005486
0.004599
0.003726
0.002630

171.40
180.77
190.89
202.40
218.72

92.23
82.67
71.29
56.47
29.19

263.63
263.44
262.18
258.87
247.91

174.24
184.07
194.76
207.05
224.79

106.35
95.44
82.35
65.21
33.58

280.59
279.51
277.11
272.26
258.37

0.58800
0.61473
0.64336
0.67578
0.72217

0.30111
0.26644
0.22674
0.17711
0.08999

0.88912
0.88117
0.87010
0.85289
0.81215

Source: Tables A11 through A13 are generated using the Engineering Equation Solver (EES) software developed by S. A. Klein and F. L. Alvarado.
The routine used in calculations is the R134a, which is based on the fundamental equation of state developed by R. Tillner-Roth and H.D. Baehr, An
International Standard Formulation for the Thermodynamic Properties of 1,1,1,2-Tetrafluoroethane (HFC-134a) for temperatures from 170 K to 455 K
and Pressures up to 70 MPa, J. Phys. Chem, Ref. Data, Vol. 23, No. 5, 1994. The enthalpy and entropy values of saturated liquid are set to zero at
40C (and 40F).

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 928

928
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A12
Saturated refrigerant-134aPressure table

Specific volume,
m3/kg
Sat.
Sat.
Press., temp., liquid,
P kPa Tsat C vf

Internal energy,
kJ/kg

Sat.
vapor,
vg

Sat.
Sat.
liquid, Evap., vapor,
uf
ufg
ug

Enthalpy,
kJ/kg
Sat.
liquid,
hf

Entropy,
kJ/kgK

Sat.
Evap., vapor,
hfg
hg

Sat.
liquid,
sf

Evap.,
sfg

Sat.
vapor,
sg

60
70
80
90
100

36.95
33.87
31.13
28.65
26.37

0.0007098
0.0007144
0.0007185
0.0007223
0.0007259

0.31121
0.26929
0.23753
0.21263
0.19254

3.798
7.680
11.15
14.31
17.21

205.32
203.20
201.30
199.57
197.98

209.12
210.88
212.46
213.88
215.19

3.841
7.730
11.21
14.37
17.28

223.95
222.00
220.25
218.65
217.16

227.79
229.73
231.46
233.02
234.44

0.01634
0.03267
0.04711
0.06008
0.07188

0.94807
0.92775
0.90999
0.89419
0.87995

0.96441
0.96042
0.95710
0.95427
0.95183

120
140
160
180
200

22.32
18.77
15.60
12.73
10.09

0.0007324
0.0007383
0.0007437
0.0007487
0.0007533

0.16212
0.14014
0.12348
0.11041
0.099867

22.40
26.98
31.09
34.83
38.28

195.11
192.57
190.27
188.16
186.21

217.51
219.54
221.35
222.99
224.48

22.49
27.08
31.21
34.97
38.43

214.48
212.08
209.90
207.90
206.03

236.97
239.16
241.11
242.86
244.46

0.09275
0.11087
0.12693
0.14139
0.15457

0.85503
0.83368
0.81496
0.79826
0.78316

0.94779
0.94456
0.94190
0.93965
0.93773

240
280
320
360
400

5.38
1.25
2.46
5.82
8.91

0.0007620
0.0007699
0.0007772
0.0007841
0.0007907

0.083897
0.072352
0.063604
0.056738
0.051201

44.48
49.97
54.92
59.44
63.62

182.67
179.50
176.61
173.94
171.45

227.14
229.46
231.52
233.38
235.07

44.66
50.18
55.16
59.72
63.94

202.62
199.54
196.71
194.08
191.62

247.28
249.72
251.88
253.81
255.55

0.17794
0.19829
0.21637
0.23270
0.24761

0.75664
0.73381
0.71369
0.69566
0.67929

0.93458
0.93210
0.93006
0.92836
0.92691

450
500
550
600
650

12.46
15.71
18.73
21.55
24.20

0.0007985
0.0008059
0.0008130
0.0008199
0.0008266

0.045619
0.041118
0.037408
0.034295
0.031646

68.45
72.93
77.10
81.02
84.72

168.54
165.82
163.25
160.81
158.48

237.00
238.75
240.35
241.83
243.20

68.81
73.33
77.54
81.51
85.26

188.71
185.98
183.38
180.90
178.51

257.53
259.30
260.92
262.40
263.77

0.26465
0.28023
0.29461
0.30799
0.32051

0.66069
0.64377
0.62821
0.61378
0.60030

0.92535
0.92400
0.92282
0.92177
0.92081

700
750
800
850

26.69
29.06
31.31
33.45

0.0008331
0.0008395
0.0008458
0.0008520

0.029361
0.027371
0.025621
0.024069

88.24
91.59
94.79
97.87

156.24
154.08
152.00
149.98

244.48
245.67
246.79
247.85

88.82
92.22
95.47
98.60

176.21
173.98
171.82
169.71

265.03
266.20
267.29
268.31

0.33230
0.34345
0.35404
0.36413

0.58763
0.57567
0.56431
0.55349

0.91994
0.91912
0.91835
0.91762

900
950
1000
1200
1400

35.51
37.48
39.37
46.29
52.40

0.0008580
0.0008641
0.0008700
0.0008934
0.0009166

0.022683
0.021438
0.020313
0.016715
0.014107

100.83
103.69
106.45
116.70
125.94

148.01
146.10
144.23
137.11
130.43

248.85
249.79
250.68
253.81
256.37

101.61
104.51
107.32
117.77
127.22

167.66
165.64
163.67
156.10
148.90

269.26
270.15
270.99
273.87
276.12

0.37377
0.38301
0.39189
0.42441
0.45315

0.54315
0.53323
0.52368
0.48863
0.45734

0.91692
0.91624
0.91558
0.91303
0.91050

1600
1800
2000
2500
3000

57.88
62.87
67.45
77.54
86.16

0.0009400
0.0009639
0.0009886
0.0010566
0.0011406

0.012123
0.010559
0.009288
0.006936
0.005275

134.43
142.33
149.78
166.99
183.04

124.04
117.83
111.73
96.47
80.22

258.47
260.17
261.51
263.45
263.26

135.93
144.07
151.76
169.63
186.46

141.93
135.11
128.33
111.16
92.63

277.86
279.17
280.09
280.79
279.09

0.47911
0.50294
0.52509
0.57531
0.62118

0.42873
0.40204
0.37675
0.31695
0.25776

0.90784
0.90498
0.90184
0.89226
0.87894

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 929

929
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A13
Superheated refrigerant-134a

T
C

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.06 MPa (Tsat  36.95C)


Sat.
20
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

0.31121
0.33608
0.35048
0.36476
0.37893
0.39302
0.40705
0.42102
0.43495
0.44883
0.46269
0.47651
0.49032
0.50410

209.12
220.60
227.55
234.66
241.92
249.35
256.95
264.71
272.64
280.73
288.99
297.41
306.00
314.74

227.79
240.76
248.58
256.54
264.66
272.94
281.37
289.97
298.74
307.66
316.75
326.00
335.42
344.99

0.9644
1.0174
1.0477
1.0774
1.1066
1.1353
1.1636
1.1915
1.2191
1.2463
1.2732
1.2997
1.3260
1.3520

P  0.18 MPa (Tsat  12.73C)


Sat.
10
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100

0.11041
0.11189
0.11722
0.12240
0.12748
0.13248
0.13741
0.14230
0.14715
0.15196
0.15673
0.16149
0.16622

222.99
225.02
232.48
240.00
247.64
255.41
263.31
271.36
279.56
287.91
296.42
305.07
313.88

242.86
245.16
253.58
262.04
270.59
279.25
288.05
296.98
306.05
315.27
324.63
334.14
343.80

0.9397
0.9484
0.9798
1.0102
1.0399
1.0690
1.0975
1.1256
1.1532
1.1805
1.2074
1.2339
1.2602

P  0.28 MPa (Tsat  1.25C)


Sat.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140

0.07235
0.07282
0.07646
0.07997
0.08338
0.08672
0.09000
0.09324
0.09644
0.09961
0.10275
0.10587
0.10897
0.11205
0.11512
0.11818

229.46
230.44
238.27
246.13
254.06
262.10
270.27
278.56
286.99
295.57
304.29
313.15
322.16
331.32
340.63
350.09

249.72
250.83
259.68
268.52
277.41
286.38
295.47
304.67
314.00
323.46
333.06
342.80
352.68
362.70
372.87
383.18

0.9321
0.9362
0.9680
0.9987
1.0285
1.0576
1.0862
1.1142
1.1418
1.1690
1.1958
1.2222
1.2483
1.2742
1.2997
1.3250

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.10 MPa (Tsat  26.37C)


0.19254
0.19841
0.20743
0.21630
0.22506
0.23373
0.24233
0.25088
0.25937
0.26783
0.27626
0.28465
0.29303
0.30138

215.19
219.66
226.75
233.95
241.30
248.79
256.44
264.25
272.22
280.35
288.64
297.08
305.69
314.46

234.44
239.50
247.49
255.58
263.81
272.17
280.68
289.34
298.16
307.13
316.26
325.55
334.99
344.60

0.9518
0.9721
1.0030
1.0332
1.0628
1.0918
1.1203
1.1484
1.1762
1.2035
1.2305
1.2572
1.2836
1.3096

P  0.20 MPa (Tsat  10.09C)


0.09987
0.09991
0.10481
0.10955
0.11418
0.11874
0.12322
0.12766
0.13206
0.13641
0.14074
0.14504
0.14933

224.48
224.55
232.09
239.67
247.35
255.14
263.08
271.15
279.37
287.73
296.25
304.92
313.74

244.46
244.54
253.05
261.58
270.18
278.89
287.72
296.68
305.78
315.01
324.40
333.93
343.60

0.9377
0.9380
0.9698
1.0004
1.0303
1.0595
1.0882
1.1163
1.1441
1.1714
1.1983
1.2249
1.2512

P  0.32 MPa (Tsat  2.46C)

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.14 MPa (Tsat  18.77C)


0.14014

219.54

239.16

0.9446

0.14605
0.15263
0.15908
0.16544
0.17172
0.17794
0.18412
0.19025
0.19635
0.20242
0.20847
0.21449

225.91
233.23
240.66
248.22
255.93
263.79
271.79
279.96
288.28
296.75
305.38
314.17

246.36
254.60
262.93
271.38
279.97
288.70
297.57
306.59
315.77
325.09
334.57
344.20

0.9724
1.0031
1.0331
1.0624
1.0912
1.1195
1.1474
1.1749
1.2020
1.2288
1.2553
1.2814

P  0.24 MPa (Tsat  5.38C)


0.08390

227.14

247.28

0.9346

0.08617
0.09026
0.09423
0.09812
0.10193
0.10570
0.10942
0.11310
0.11675
0.12038
0.12398

231.29
238.98
246.74
254.61
262.59
270.71
278.97
287.36
295.91
304.60
313.44

251.97
260.65
269.36
278.16
287.06
296.08
305.23
314.51
323.93
333.49
343.20

0.9519
0.9831
1.0134
1.0429
1.0718
1.1001
1.1280
1.1554
1.1825
1.2092
1.2356

P  0.40 MPa (Tsat  8.91C)

0.06360

231.52

251.88

0.9301

0.051201

235.07

255.55 0.9269

0.06609
0.06925
0.07231
0.07530
0.07823
0.08111
0.08395
0.08675
0.08953
0.09229
0.09503
0.09775
0.10045
0.10314

237.54
245.50
253.50
261.60
269.82
278.15
286.62
295.22
303.97
312.86
321.89
331.07
340.39
349.86

258.69
267.66
276.65
285.70
294.85
304.11
313.48
322.98
332.62
342.39
352.30
362.35
372.54
382.87

0.9544
0.9856
1.0157
1.0451
1.0739
1.1021
1.1298
1.1571
1.1840
1.2105
1.2367
1.2626
1.2882
1.3135

0.051506
0.054213
0.056796
0.059292
0.061724
0.064104
0.066443
0.068747
0.071023
0.073274
0.075504
0.077717
0.079913
0.082096

235.97
244.18
252.36
260.58
268.90
277.32
285.86
294.53
303.32
312.26
321.33
330.55
339.90
349.41

256.58
265.86
275.07
284.30
293.59
302.96
312.44
322.02
331.73
341.57
351.53
361.63
371.87
382.24

0.9305
0.9628
0.9937
1.0236
1.0528
1.0814
1.1094
1.1369
1.1640
1.1907
1.2171
1.2431
1.2688
1.2942

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 930

930
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A13
Superheated refrigerant-134a (Continued)

T
C

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.50 MPa (Tsat  15.71C)


Sat.
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160

0.041118
0.042115
0.044338
0.046456
0.048499
0.050485
0.052427
0.054331
0.056205
0.058053
0.059880
0.061687
0.063479
0.065256
0.067021
0.068775

Sat.
40
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180

0.025621
0.027035
0.028547
0.029973
0.031340
0.032659
0.033941
0.035193
0.036420
0.037625
0.038813
0.039985
0.041143
0.042290
0.043427
0.044554

Sat.
50
60
70
80
90
100
110
120
130
140
150
160
170
180

0.016715
0.017201
0.018404
0.019502
0.020529
0.021506
0.022442
0.023348
0.024228
0.025086
0.025927
0.026753
0.027566
0.028367
0.029158

238.75
242.40
250.84
259.26
267.72
276.25
284.89
293.64
302.51
311.50
320.63
329.89
339.29
348.83
358.51
368.33

259.30
263.46
273.01
282.48
291.96
301.50
311.10
320.80
330.61
340.53
350.57
360.73
371.03
381.46
392.02
402.72

0.9240
0.9383
0.9703
1.0011
1.0309
1.0599
1.0883
1.1162
1.1436
1.1705
1.1971
1.2233
1.2491
1.2747
1.2999
1.3249

P  0.80 MPa (Tsat  31.31C)


246.79
254.82
263.86
272.83
281.81
290.84
299.95
309.15
318.45
327.87
337.40
347.06
356.85
366.76
376.81
386.99

267.29
276.45
286.69
296.81
306.88
316.97
327.10
337.30
347.59
357.97
368.45
379.05
389.76
400.59
411.55
422.64

0.9183
0.9480
0.9802
1.0110
1.0408
1.0698
1.0981
1.1258
1.1530
1.1798
1.2061
1.2321
1.2577
1.2830
1.3080
1.3327

P  1.20 MPa (Tsat  46.29C)


253.81
257.63
267.56
277.21
286.75
296.26
305.80
315.38
325.03
334.77
344.61
354.56
364.61
374.78
385.08

273.87
278.27
289.64
300.61
311.39
322.07
332.73
343.40
354.11
364.88
375.72
386.66
397.69
408.82
420.07

0.9130
0.9267
0.9614
0.9938
1.0248
1.0546
1.0836
1.1118
1.1394
1.1664
1.1930
1.2192
1.2449
1.2703
1.2954

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
kJ/kg

s
kJ/kgK

P  0.60 MPa (Tsat  21.55C)

v
m3/kg

u
kJ/kg

h
s
kJ/kg kJ/kgK

P  0.70 MPa (Tsat  26.69C)

0.034295

241.83

262.40

0.9218

0.029361

244.48

265.03

0.9199

0.035984
0.037865
0.039659
0.041389
0.043069
0.044710
0.046318
0.047900
0.049458
0.050997
0.052519
0.054027
0.055522
0.057006

249.22
257.86
266.48
275.15
283.89
292.73
301.67
310.73
319.91
329.23
338.67
348.25
357.96
367.81

270.81
280.58
290.28
299.98
309.73
319.55
329.46
339.47
349.59
359.82
370.18
380.66
391.27
402.01

0.9499
0.9816
1.0121
1.0417
1.0705
1.0987
1.1264
1.1536
1.1803
1.2067
1.2327
1.2584
1.2838
1.3088

0.029966
0.031696
0.033322
0.034875
0.036373
0.037829
0.039250
0.040642
0.042010
0.043358
0.044688
0.046004
0.047306
0.048597

247.48
256.39
265.20
274.01
282.87
291.80
300.82
309.95
319.19
328.55
338.04
347.66
357.41
367.29

268.45
278.57
288.53
298.42
308.33
318.28
328.29
338.40
348.60
358.90
369.32
379.86
390.52
401.31

0.9313
0.9641
0.9954
1.0256
1.0549
1.0835
1.1114
1.1389
1.1658
1.1924
1.2186
1.2444
1.2699
1.2951

P  0.90 MPa (Tsat  35.51C)


0.022683
0.023375
0.024809
0.026146
0.027413
0.028630
0.029806
0.030951
0.032068
0.033164
0.034241
0.035302
0.036349
0.037384
0.038408
0.039423

248.85
253.13
262.44
271.60
280.72
289.86
299.06
308.34
317.70
327.18
336.76
346.46
356.28
366.23
376.31
386.52

269.26
274.17
284.77
295.13
305.39
315.63
325.89
336.19
346.56
357.02
367.58
378.23
389.00
399.88
410.88
422.00

0.9169
0.9327
0.9660
0.9976
1.0280
1.0574
1.0860
1.1140
1.1414
1.1684
1.1949
1.2210
1.2467
1.2721
1.2972
1.3221

P  1.40 MPa (Tsat  52.40C)

P  1.00 MPa (Tsat  39.37C)


0.020313
0.020406
0.021796
0.023068
0.024261
0.025398
0.026492
0.027552
0.028584
0.029592
0.030581
0.031554
0.032512
0.033457
0.034392
0.035317

250.68
251.30
260.94
270.32
279.59
288.86
298.15
307.51
316.94
326.47
336.11
345.85
355.71
365.70
375.81
386.04

270.99
271.71
282.74
293.38
303.85
314.25
324.64
335.06
345.53
356.06
366.69
377.40
388.22
399.15
410.20
421.36

0.9156
0.9179
0.9525
0.9850
1.0160
1.0458
1.0748
1.1031
1.1308
1.1580
1.1846
1.2109
1.2368
1.2623
1.2875
1.3124

P  1.60 MPa (Tsat  57.88C)

0.014107

256.37

276.12

0.9105

0.012123

258.47

277.86

0.9078

0.015005
0.016060
0.017023
0.017923
0.018778
0.019597
0.020388
0.021155
0.021904
0.022636
0.023355
0.024061
0.024757

264.46
274.62
284.51
294.28
304.01
313.76
323.55
333.41
343.34
353.37
363.51
373.75
384.10

285.47
297.10
308.34
319.37
330.30
341.19
352.09
363.02
374.01
385.07
396.20
407.43
418.76

0.9389
0.9733
1.0056
1.0364
1.0661
1.0949
1.1230
1.1504
1.1773
1.2038
1.2298
1.2554
1.2807

0.012372
0.013430
0.014362
0.015215
0.016014
0.016773
0.017500
0.018201
0.018882
0.019545
0.020194
0.020830
0.021456

260.89
271.76
282.09
292.17
302.14
312.07
322.02
332.00
342.05
352.17
362.38
372.69
383.11

280.69
293.25
305.07
316.52
327.76
338.91
350.02
361.12
372.26
383.44
394.69
406.02
417.44

0.9163
0.9535
0.9875
1.0194
1.0500
1.0795
1.1081
1.1360
1.1632
1.1900
1.2163
1.2421
1.2676

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 931

931
APPENDIX 1
400

95
0
90
0
85
0
80
0

00
10

110
0

350

105

kg/ m 3
115
0

300

1200

1250

250

1300

1400

200

1350

1450

10

150

1500

100
20

450

500

550

600

650

700
300

400

00

100

120

32
24

20

16
12

0.4

0.4

2.4
8

2.4
0

2
2.3

2.2
4

s=

2.0
8

2.00

1.92

1.76

1.84

1.68

1.60

1.52

1.36

1.44

1.28

1.20

1.12

0.96

0.80

0.72

0.64

2.4

0.1

1.6

0.01
100

150

200

300

350

300

280

260

240

220

200

180

T = 160
160C
160
C

140

120

100

550

600

650

2.7
2

2.6
4

2.5
6
s=

2.4

500

0.04

0.6

80

60

40

20

40
40

20
20

400
450
Enthalpy, kJ/kg

0.8

0.4

0.9

0.8

satura

250

0.7

0.6

0.4

0.3

0.2

0.1

0.02

X=0
.5

60
60

ted va
por

ated

liquid

1.2

satur

0.04

0.2

3.2

40
40

0.1

1.04

20
20

0.2

2.1
6k
J/k
gK

0.88

Pressure, MPa

40

T = 0
0C
0C

90
70
60
50
40

60

R-134a

10

/m33
kg/m
2000kg
tyh==20
ensisity
DDen
160

0
60 500

80

750
20

700

0.02

0.3

0.01
750

FIGURE A14
P-h diagram for refrigerant-134a.
Note: The reference point used for the chart is different than that used in the R-134a tables. Therefore, problems should be solved using all property data
either from the tables or from the chart, but not from both.
Reprinted by permission of American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers, Inc., Atlanta, GA.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 932

932
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS
(a) Low pressures, 0 < PR < 1.0
TR = 5.00
3.00

1.0
5 070
0.7 .
5
0.6
0.60

0.9

8.0 0 .0 0
6

5.0 0

2.00

4.0 0 3.5 0

3.0 0
2 .6 0 2 .4 0 .2 0
2
2.0 0
1.8 0

0.
80

1.60

1.40
1 .6 0 .5 0
1
1.4 0
1.3 0

0.8
5
0. 9

1.2 0

1.20
1.15

1 .1 0

Pv
RT

1.00

0.90

TR = 2.5 Z 1.00
TR = 15 TR = 3.00

NOTE

0.7

0.9
5

v R=

30

REDUCED PRESSURE, P =
R

T
Tcr

TR =
v

0.95

20

5
0.6

REDUCED TEMPERATURE,

CHART
No.
1

00..60

0.5

15

0.85
12

RTcr / Pcr
0.90
0.00

0.80

vRr

0.05

0.75
0.10

PR

1953

0.3
0.0

10
0
0.7

PSEUDO REDUCED VOLUME, v =

0.4

0 .7

2.00
1.60
1.40
1.20
1.10
1.05
1.00
0.95
0.90

1.0

P
Pcr

1.00

NELSON OBERT
GENERALIZED
COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS

0.6

1.10
0.80
1.0
5

---DEVIATION > 1.0%

COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR, Z =

0.8

1.30

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

1.0

REDUCED PRESSURE, P

(b) Intermediate pressures, 0 < PR < 7


3.50

1.10
TR = 5.00
00

2.00
00 60 1.40
1.
20
1.

1.80

2.

00

3.

53.

1.00

0.90

Pv
RT

COMPRESSIBILITY FACTOR, Z =

2.50

0
1 .0
80 70
0
.9 0 . 0 .

0 .6

0.80

1.60

.5 0
=0
v R 0.45
0
0.4

1.50
1.40
0
3
.
0
1.30 0.25

0 .3

0.70

=0
vR

0.60

.2 0

1.20
0.50

NELSON OBERT
GENERALIZED
COMPRESSIBILITY CHARTS

1.15
1.10

0.40

P
Pcr

REDUCED PRESSURE, P =
R

T
Tcr

REDUCED TEMPERATURE, T =
R

v
PSEUDO REDUCED VOLUME, v =
R
RTcr / Pcr

1.05
0.30

1953

TR = 1.00
0.20
0.0

0.5

1.0

CHART
No.
2

1.5

2.0

2.5

3.0

3.5

4.0

REDUCED PRESSURE, P

FIGURE A15
NelsonObert generalized compressibility chart.
Used with permission of Dr. Edward E. Obert, University of Wisconsin.

4.5

5.0

5.5

6.0

6.5

7.0

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 933

933
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A16
Properties of the atmosphere at high altitude
Altitude,
m

Temperature,
C

Pressure,
kPa

Gravity
g, m/s2

Speed of
Sound,
m/s

Density,
kg/m3

Viscosity
m, kg/ms

Thermal
Conductivity,
W/mK

0
200
400
600
800

15.00
13.70
12.40
11.10
9.80

101.33
98.95
96.61
94.32
92.08

9.807
9.806
9.805
9.805
9.804

340.3
339.5
338.8
338.0
337.2

1.225
1.202
1.179
1.156
1.134

1.789
1.783
1.777
1.771
1.764







105
105
105
105
105

0.0253
0.0252
0.0252
0.0251
0.0250

1000
1200
1400
1600
1800

8.50
7.20
5.90
4.60
3.30

89.88
87.72
85.60
83.53
81.49

9.804
9.803
9.802
9.802
9.801

336.4
335.7
334.9
334.1
333.3

1.112
1.090
1.069
1.048
1.027

1.758
1.752
1.745
1.739
1.732







105
105
105
105
105

0.0249
0.0248
0.0247
0.0245
0.0244

2000
2200
2400
2600
2800

2.00
0.70
0.59
1.89
3.19

79.50
77.55
75.63
73.76
71.92

9.800
9.800
9.799
9.799
9.798

332.5
331.7
331.0
330.2
329.4

1.007
0.987
0.967
0.947
0.928

1.726
1.720
1.713
1.707
1.700







105
105
105
105
105

0.0243
0.0242
0.0241
0.0240
0.0239

3000
3200
3400
3600
3800

4.49
5.79
7.09
8.39
9.69

70.12
68.36
66.63
64.94
63.28

9.797
9.797
9.796
9.796
9.795

328.6
327.8
327.0
326.2
325.4

0.909
0.891
0.872
0.854
0.837

1.694
1.687
1.681
1.674
1.668







105
105
105
105
105

0.0238
0.0237
0.0236
0.0235
0.0234

4000
4200
4400
4600
4800

10.98
12.3
13.6
14.9
16.2

61.66
60.07
58.52
57.00
55.51

9.794
9.794
9.793
9.793
9.792

324.6
323.8
323.0
322.2
321.4

0.819
0.802
0.785
0.769
0.752

1.661
1.655
1.648
1.642
1.635







105
105
105
105
105

0.0233
0.0232
0.0231
0.0230
0.0229

5000
5200
5400
5600
5800

17.5
18.8
20.1
21.4
22.7

54.05
52.62
51.23
49.86
48.52

9.791
9.791
9.790
9.789
9.785

320.5
319.7
318.9
318.1
317.3

0.736
0.721
0.705
0.690
0.675

1.628
1.622
1.615
1.608
1.602







105
105
105
105
105

0.0228
0.0227
0.0226
0.0224
0.0223

6000
6200
6400
6600
6800

24.0
25.3
26.6
27.9
29.2

47.22
45.94
44.69
43.47
42.27

9.788
9.788
9.787
9.786
9.785

316.5
315.6
314.8
314.0
313.1

0.660
0.646
0.631
0.617
0.604

1.595
1.588
1.582
1.575
1.568







105
105
105
105
105

0.0222
0.0221
0.0220
0.0219
0.0218

7000
8000
9000

30.5
36.9
43.4

41.11
35.65
30.80

9.785
9.782
9.779

312.3
308.1
303.8

0.590
0.526
0.467

1.561  105
1.527  105
1.493  105

0.0217
0.0212
0.0206

10,000
12,000
14,000
16,000
18,000

49.9
56.5
56.5
56.5
56.5

26.50
19.40
14.17
10.53
7.57

9.776
9.770
9.764
9.758
9.751

299.5
295.1
295.1
295.1
295.1

0.414
0.312
0.228
0.166
0.122

1.458
1.422
1.422
1.422
1.422

105
105
105
105
105

0.0201
0.0195
0.0195
0.0195
0.0195







Source: U.S. Standard Atmosphere Supplements, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1966. Based on year-round mean conditions at 45 latitude and varies with
the time of the year and the weather patterns. The conditions at sea level (z  0) are taken to be P  101.325 kPa, T  15C, r  1.2250 kg/m3,
g  9.80665 m2/s.

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 934

934
PROPERTY TABLES AND CHARTS

TABLE A17
Ideal-gas properties of air

T
K

h
kJ/kg

Pr

u
kJ/kg

vr

s
kJ/kgK

T
K

h
kJ/kg

Pr

u
kJ/kg

vr

s
kJ/kgK

200
210
220
230
240

199.97
209.97
219.97
230.02
240.02

0.3363
0.3987
0.4690
0.5477
0.6355

142.56
149.69
156.82
164.00
171.13

1707.0
1512.0
1346.0
1205.0
1084.0

1.29559
1.34444
1.39105
1.43557
1.47824

580
590
600
610
620

586.04
596.52
607.02
617.53
628.07

14.38
15.31
16.28
17.30
18.36

419.55
427.15
434.78
442.42
450.09

115.7
110.6
105.8
101.2
96.92

2.37348
2.39140
2.40902
2.42644
2.44356

250
260
270
280
285

250.05
260.09
270.11
280.13
285.14

0.7329
0.8405
0.9590
1.0889
1.1584

178.28
185.45
192.60
199.75
203.33

979.0
887.8
808.0
738.0
706.1

1.51917
1.55848
1.59634
1.63279
1.65055

630
640
650
660
670

638.63
649.22
659.84
670.47
681.14

19.84
20.64
21.86
23.13
24.46

457.78
465.50
473.25
481.01
488.81

92.84
88.99
85.34
81.89
78.61

2.46048
2.47716
2.49364
2.50985
2.52589

290
295
298
300
305

290.16
295.17
298.18
300.19
305.22

1.2311
1.3068
1.3543
1.3860
1.4686

206.91
210.49
212.64
214.07
217.67

676.1
647.9
631.9
621.2
596.0

1.66802
1.68515
1.69528
1.70203
1.71865

680
690
700
710
720

691.82
702.52
713.27
724.04
734.82

25.85
27.29
28.80
30.38
32.02

496.62
504.45
512.33
520.23
528.14

75.50
72.56
69.76
67.07
64.53

2.54175
2.55731
2.57277
2.58810
2.60319

310
315
320
325
330

310.24
315.27
320.29
325.31
330.34

1.5546
1.6442
1.7375
1.8345
1.9352

221.25
224.85
228.42
232.02
235.61

572.3
549.8
528.6
508.4
489.4

1.73498
1.75106
1.76690
1.78249
1.79783

730
740
750
760
780

745.62
756.44
767.29
778.18
800.03

33.72
35.50
37.35
39.27
43.35

536.07
544.02
551.99
560.01
576.12

62.13
59.82
57.63
55.54
51.64

2.61803
2.63280
2.64737
2.66176
2.69013

340
350
360
370
380

340.42
350.49
360.58
370.67
380.77

2.149
2.379
2.626
2.892
3.176

242.82
250.02
257.24
264.46
271.69

454.1
422.2
393.4
367.2
343.4

1.82790
1.85708
1.88543
1.91313
1.94001

800
820
840
860
880

821.95
843.98
866.08
888.27
910.56

47.75
52.59
57.60
63.09
68.98

592.30
608.59
624.95
641.40
657.95

48.08
44.84
41.85
39.12
36.61

2.71787
2.74504
2.77170
2.79783
2.82344

390
400
410
420
430

390.88
400.98
411.12
421.26
431.43

3.481
3.806
4.153
4.522
4.915

278.93
286.16
293.43
300.69
307.99

321.5
301.6
283.3
266.6
251.1

1.96633
1.99194
2.01699
2.04142
2.06533

900
920
940
960
980

932.93
955.38
977.92
1000.55
1023.25

75.29
82.05
89.28
97.00
105.2

674.58
691.28
708.08
725.02
741.98

34.31
32.18
30.22
28.40
26.73

2.84856
2.87324
2.89748
2.92128
2.94468

440
450
460
470
480

441.61
451.80
462.02
472.24
482.49

5.332
5.775
6.245
6.742
7.268

315.30
322.62
329.97
337.32
344.70

236.8
223.6
211.4
200.1
189.5

2.08870
2.11161
2.13407
2.15604
2.17760

1000
1020
1040
1060
1080

1046.04
1068.89
1091.85
1114.86
1137.89

114.0
123.4
133.3
143.9
155.2

758.94
776.10
793.36
810.62
827.88

25.17
23.72
23.29
21.14
19.98

2.96770
2.99034
3.01260
3.03449
3.05608

490
500
510
520
530

492.74
503.02
513.32
523.63
533.98

7.824
8.411
9.031
9.684
10.37

352.08
359.49
366.92
374.36
381.84

179.7
170.6
162.1
154.1
146.7

2.19876
2.21952
2.23993
2.25997
2.27967

1100
1120
1140
1160
1180

1161.07
1184.28
1207.57
1230.92
1254.34

167.1
179.7
193.1
207.2
222.2

845.33
862.79
880.35
897.91
915.57

18.896
17.886
16.946
16.064
15.241

3.07732
3.09825
3.11883
3.13916
3.15916

540
550
560
570

544.35
555.74
565.17
575.59

11.10
11.86
12.66
13.50

389.34
396.86
404.42
411.97

139.7
133.1
127.0
121.2

2.29906
2.31809
2.33685
2.35531

1200
1220
1240

1277.79
1301.31
1324.93

238.0
254.7
272.3

933.33
951.09
968.95

14.470
13.747
13.069

3.17888
3.19834
3.21751

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 935

935
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A17
Ideal-gas properties of air (Concluded)

T
K

h
kJ/kg

Pr

u
kJ/kg

vr

s
kJ/kgK

T
K

h
kJ/kg

1260
1280

1348.55
1372.24

290.8
310.4

986.90
1004.76

12.435 3.23638
11.835 3.25510

1600 1757.57
1620 1782.00

1300
1320
1340
1360
1380

1395.97
1419.76
1443.60
1467.49
1491.44

330.9
352.5
375.3
399.1
424.2

1022.82
1040.88
1058.94
1077.10
1095.26

11.275
10.747
10.247
9.780
9.337

3.27345
3.29160
3.30959
3.32724
3.34474

1640
1660
1680
1700
1750

1806.46 878.9
1830.96 925.6
1855.50 974.2
1880.1 1025
1941.6 1161

1335.72
1354.48
1373.24
1392.7
1439.8

5.355
5.147
4.949
4.761
4.328

3.55381
3.56867
3.58335
3.5979
3.6336

1400
1420
1440
1460
1480

1515.42
1539.44
1563.51
1587.63
1611.79

450.5
478.0
506.9
537.1
568.8

1113.52
1131.77
1150.13
1168.49
1186.95

8.919
8.526
8.153
7.801
7.468

3.36200
3.37901
3.39586
3.41247
3.42892

1800
1850
1900
1950
2000

2003.3
2065.3
2127.4
2189.7
2252.1

1310
1475
1655
1852
2068

1487.2
1534.9
1582.6
1630.6
1678.7

3.994
3.601
3.295
3.022
2.776

3.6684
3.7023
3.7354
3.7677
3.7994

1500
1520
1540
1560
1580

1635.97
1660.23
1684.51
1708.82
1733.17

601.9
636.5
672.8
710.5
750.0

1205.41
1223.87
1242.43
1260.99
1279.65

7.152
6.854
6.569
6.301
6.046

3.44516
3.46120
3.47712
3.49276
3.50829

2050
2100
2150
2200
2250

2314.6
2377.7
2440.3
2503.2
2566.4

2303
2559
2837
3138
3464

1726.8
1775.3
1823.8
1872.4
1921.3

2.555
2.356
2.175
2.012
1.864

3.8303
3.8605
3.8901
3.9191
3.9474

Pr

u
kJ/kg

vr

791.2 1298.30 5.804


834.1 1316.96 5.574

s
kJ/kgK
3.52364
3.53879

Note: The properties Pr (relative pressure) and vr (relative specific volume) are dimensionless quantities used in the analysis of isentropic processes, and
should not be confused with the properties pressure and specific volume.
Source: Kenneth Wark, Thermodynamics, 4th ed. (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983), pp. 78586, table A5. Originally published in J. H. Keenan and
J. Kaye, Gas Tables (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1948).

cen2932x_ch18-ap01_p907-956.qxd

12/18/09

10:05 AM

Page 949

949
APPENDIX 1

TABLE A27
Properties of some common fuels and hydrocarbons

Fuel (phase)

Formula

Molar
mass,
kg/kmol

Carbon (s)
Hydrogen (g)
Carbon monoxide (g)
Methane (g)
Methanol ()
Acetylene (g)
Ethane (g)
Ethanol ()
Propane ()
Butane ()
1-Pentene ()
Isopentane ()
Benzene ()
Hexene ()
Hexane ()
Toluene ()
Heptane ()
Octane ()
Decane ()
Gasoline ()
Light diesel ()
Heavy diesel ()
Natural gas (g)

C
H2
CO
CH4
CH4O
C2H2
C2H6
C2H6O
C3H8
C4H10
C5H10
C5H12
C6H6
C6H12
C6H14
C7H8
C7H16
C8H18
C10H22
CnH1.87n
CnH1.8n
CnH1.7n
CnH3.8nN0.1n

12.011
2.016
28.013
16.043
32.042
26.038
30.070
46.069
44.097
58.123
70.134
72.150
78.114
84.161
86.177
92.141
100.204
114.231
142.285
100110
170
200
18

Density,1
kg/L
2

0.790

0.790
0.500
0.579
0.641
0.626
0.877
0.673
0.660
0.867
0.684
0.703
0.730
0.720.78
0.780.84
0.820.88

1At

1 atm and 20C.

2At

25C for liquid fuels, and 1 atm and normal boiling temperature for gaseous fuels.

3At

25C. Multiply by molar mass to obtain heating values in kJ/kmol.

Enthalpy of
vaporization,2
kJ/kg

Specific
heat,1 cp
kJ/kgK

Higher
heating
value,3
kJ/kg

Lower
heating
value,3
kJ/kg

509
1168

172
919
335
362
363

433
392
366
412
365
363
361
350
270
230

0.708
14.4
1.05
2.20
2.53
1.69
1.75
2.44
2.77
2.42
2.20
2.32
1.72
1.84
2.27
1.71
2.24
2.23
2.21
2.4
2.2
1.9
2

32,800
141,800
10,100
55,530
22,660
49,970
51,900
29,670
50,330
49,150
47,760
48,570
41,800
47,500
48,310
42,400
48,100
47,890
47,640
47,300
46,100
45,500
50,000

32,800
120,000
10,100
50,050
19,920
48,280
47,520
26,810
46,340
45,370
44,630
44,910
40,100
44,400
44,740
40,500
44,600
44,430
44,240
44,000
43,200
42,800
45,000