479493, 1982
Printed in Great Britain.
00207403/82/08047915503.00/0
Pergamon Press Ltd.
F I N I T E E L E M E N T A N A L Y S I S OF M E T A L F O R M I N G
P R O C E S S E S W I T H A R B I T R A R I L Y S H A P E D DIES
S. I. OH
Battelle Columbus Laboratories, 505 King Avenue, Columbus, OH 43201, U.S.A.
(Received 23 May 1981; in revised form 21 September 1981)
SummaryA method of discretizing the die boundary conditions is considered for the
analysis of metal forming processes by the rigid viscoplastic finite element method. The
method is natural to the finite element method and general enough to treat the boundary
conditions of arbitrarily shaped dies in a unified way. Solutions of the spike forging process
are obtained by using the method. The deformation mechanics of the spike forging process are
discussed and the solutions are compared with experiments.
NOTATION
v~ velocity component
iij strain rate tensor component
effective strain rate
effective strain
cr~j stress tensor component
~0' deviatoric stress component
effective stress
1 prescribed boundary traction
U prescribed boundary velocity
f frictional tration
q~ variational functional
E work function
Hi distribution function for node i
ui node velocity
vo die velocity
n die surface unit normal
s die surface unit tangent
K penalty constant
/z viscosity
x material coordinates
m friction factor
k local shear yield
Ro initial workpiece radius
H0 initial workpiece height
VD die velocity (IVo[)
INTRODUCTION
480
S.I. O H
is, the method can be applied to a wide class of boundary value problems without
restrictions of workpiece geometry. This is achieved by the proper discretization
procedure used in the finite element method. Metal forming processes, in general, are
characterized by loading with dies of various shapes. It seems that a method of
discretizing the die boundary conditions, which is comparable to that used in the finite
element method, is necessary in order to fully utilize the advantage of the finite
element method in metal forming analysis.
In the present paper a method is proposed to establish the theoretical foundations
of the rigid viscoplastic finite element analysis of metalforming precesses with
arbitrarily shaped dies. Then the solutions of the spike forging process are obtained
by using the proposed
method.
(I)
(2)
where ~q and v~ are a strain rate component and a velocity component, respectively.
(3) Constitutive relation;
2iT
(3)
3e
where tTi~' is the deviatoric stress component, and # and ~ are defined by X/(3/2~rU%r0') and X/(2/3~i:~0)
respectively. The flow stress #, in general, is a function of total strain, strain rate and temperature.
(4) Boundary condition;
a,jni
= Fj o n SF
vi = Ui on Sv
(4)
8*=8[f:<'*)dV+L~K'"dVfsc{ f Ldv.}dSfsF~V~d$]=O
I
"*
v~
(5)
(6)
Here K is a large positive constant which penalizes the dilatational strain, and "*" denotes the restriction of
the velocity fields to the trial space.
Finite element analysis of metal forming processes with arbitrarily shaped dies
481
The discretization of this functional follows the standard procedure and can be found elsewhere[13].
The distribution function H, which is assigned to each node, is introduced such that
U(x) = ~. H~(x)U~
(7)
V(x) = ~,//~(x) Vi
where U(x) and V(x) are the velocity components in x~ and x2 direction, respectively, U~ and V~ are those
at nodal points, and the summations are done over nodal points. In the present investigation 9node
isoparametric elements are used.
Substituting equations (6) and (7) into equation (5), the variational functional ~ becomes nonlinear
algebraic equations with unknown u,'s which are velocity components of the nodal points. The stationary
point of the functional can be obtained by solving the simultaneous equations
a~P (ul . . . . . U2M) = 0,
Oui
i = 1. . . . . 2M
(8)
where u = ( u l , u2. . . . . u2M,,u2u)=(Ul, V1. . . . . UM, VM), and M is the number of nodal points. The
solution of the highly nonlinear algebraic simultaneous equations are obtained iteratively by the NewtonRaphson method. The linearized form of equation (8) near the assumed velocity field u0 becomes
00]
+ r 02~ ]
Auj = O.
a~J.=,~ Laujau~Ju=mo
(9)
Solving equation (9) with respect to Auj, the assumed velocity field is updated by ui + aAu~, where a ~< 1.
The iterative process continues until the fraction of the correction term, I[Aul[/llul[and the calculated nodal
point force error norm reach a preassigned value.
In certain cases of rigid viscoplastic deformation, a portion of the workpiece remains rigid. It can be
proved that the rigid zone is determined uniquely by the field equations if the work function E(~) is convex.
The variational function tb in equation (5) becomes nonanalytic at the solution when the rigid zones are
involved and the NewtonRaphson method cannot be used for the solution procedure. The difficulty has
been overcome by assuming the material to be linear if ~ becomes smaller than a small positive number ~0[11].
The rigid viscoplastic material in this approach is considered as a limiting case when Cobecomes infinitely small.
In the finite element method, it is well known that the velocity field given by equation (7) is not flexible
enough to provide adequate solutions for incompressible or nearly incompressible deformation. Various
suggestions have been made in order to overcome this difficulty in analyzing incompressible linear elastic
material[14, 15] and the elasticplastic material in fully plastic range[16]. Numerical tests show that the
reduced integration for volume strain component gives best results for the present investigation. That is, a
3 x 3 integration formula is used for distortional energy rate, while a 2 x 2 integration is used for volumetric
strain rate with quadratic elements. In relation to the incompressibility, the strain rates and stresses were
evaluated at the reduced integration points for best results.
2 mk tan_l ( _ ~ )
(10)
482
S.I. OH
Die
DieS,rfoce/I ~loeu~::
y
"x
>
i
(b]
Ca)
where n is unit normal as shown in the figure, and the subscripts n and s denote the normal and tangential
direction to the interface, respectively. The expression of f, in equation (10) has been used for the smooth
transition of frictional stress near the neutral point for the flat die surface [4]. Here Av, is slipping velocity,
m friction factor, k local flow stress in shear, and Uo is a very small positive number compared to Av,.
The implementation of equation (10) for a curved die is not straightforward since the die surface does
not coincide with the workpiece surface defined in FEM approximation. These discrepancies are shown in
Fig. l(b). Because of the discrepancy, the necessary quantities in equation (10) are not well defined except
at the contact node.
In order to overcome the difficulties the boundary condition normal to the surface is enforced at the
contacting node and is given by
V n = v D n~i )
where n~i)is the unit normal to the die surface, rather than element surface, at node i. It is assumed that the
slipping velocity Av, can be approximated by
(ll)
Here, Hi is the FEM shape function on the surface, v~i the tangential velocity of the ith node, and s(0 the
unit tangent to the die surface at the contact node L
By substituting equation (11) into fs expression, the integrand of the die boundary term in equation (5)
can be evaluated for the twodimensional case as
r
t
f~' fs dr, = f '  Zq 7r mkHj tan' (v,i
VD ' so,)H, ]
/~0
dvo.
(12)
The integration of the die boundary term in equation (5) is carried out by Gaussian quadrature considering
the element surface as a onedimensional isoparametric element. A higher order integration is necessary in
order that the term can reflect the accurate behavior of fs near the neutral point where the integrand has
large higher order contributions than that of the shape function. Numerical tests show that a fivepoint
integration formula is sufficient for this purpose with a quadratic element.
In a case when a portion of the element boundary is not in contact with the die, the slipping velocities at
the free nodes are not defined in equation (12). This difficulty can be overcome easily. The tangential die
velocity vD  %) is set to zero for the free node and the small positive number ue is replaced by a very large
number for the free boundary position. This procedure ensures the consistency of equation (12) on the
contact portion and makes the rest traction free.
The present formulation of the die boundary conditions becomes the same as that of Chen and
Kobayashi [4] in the case of the flat die surface with vD s = 0, except that the present investigation employs
quadratic elements and surface integration is done numerically. It can be easily shown that the error
introduced by the present approach is of the same order of magnitude as that introduced in the FEM
calculation. Therefore, the present formulation does not effect the accuracies of the FEM analysis.
INITIAL GUESS
The NewtonRaphson method, used in solving the nonlinear equation (8), is known to be a fastconverging solution process. A drawback of the NewtonRaphson method is that it requires an initial guess
Finite element analysis of metal forming processes with arbitrarily shaped dies
483
for the velocity field as it can be seen in equation (9). Even though the initial guess velocity field does not
affect the solution itself, it should be close enough to the solution to achieve the convergence in the
iteration process. The initial guess, for the first step solution in general, can be provided by a simple upper
bound solution. It seems, however, that the systematic means of providing the initial guess is desirable for
the effective application of the rigid viscoplastic FEM to complicated metal forming processes. In the
present investigation the initial guess was obtained by treating the workpiece as linear viscous material with
the viscosity as a function of the material point.
Consider the constitutive equation of linear viscous material
~ ' = 2/.*~i~
(13)
where/., is viscosity. Comparing this with equation (3) it can be seen that the solution of rigid viscoplastic
material becomes identical to that of the fictitious linear viscous material with the viscosity
_.
= ~(*)
_ I___~

(14)
3~
484
S.I. 0 8
250
35
300
25.o
~~
200
200
150
in
I00 ~
I0.0

50
.5.0
0.
0.0
8.0
4.0
12.0
Strain Rate,
16.0
20.0
sec i
Top Die
2 3.i mm
9.Smm ~1
25.4mm
i=.[
~ o
Y/'JJJJJ///////.>"
Bottom
Die
Finite element analysis of metal forming processes with arbitrarily shaped dies
485
.2
" u~
o
c" I
.2
u~
o.o
l.o
RADIUS/R o
2'.o
ko
(a)
2'.o
(b)
:.o
RADIUS/R o
r"
u~
o.:,
d
d"
0.0
l.O
RADIUS/Ro
(c)
2.0
0.0
l'.O
2'.0
RADIUS/Ro
(d)
FIG. 4. Calculated FEM grid distortions at die displacements of (a) 0.0 Ho, (b) 0.2 Ho, (c)
0.4 Ho and (d) 0.58 Ho. Solid lines are for m = 0.6 and dotted lines for m = 0.3. Units are
multiples of the undeformed radius.
starts to take place during the early stage. As the deformation progresses, the deforming zone spreads
throughout the workpiece, forming the side surface bulge. Then folding from the side surface to the top and
the bottom dies takes place. Throughout the spike forging process the material near the center of the upper
surface undergoes virtually no defromation as can be seen from the grid distortions. It can also be seen
from the figure that the spike heights are not affected by the friction during the early stages of deformation.
The figure shows, however, that higher spike formed with higher friction and that the difference in spike heights
with different frictions is large at the die displacement of 0.58 Ho.
The predictions are compared with the experimentally measured spike cross sections. The experimental
measurements used for comparison were obtained by Altan et at. [27], who carried out spike forging tests
with lead at room temperature. These data were selected for an initial evaluation of the present FEM
because they were readily available. Lead being a strainrate dependent material, it is expected to simulate
the flow of the other strainrate dependent materials, at least approximately. This point is discussed later
again in connection with Fig. 10.
The predictions with m = 0.3 are compared with lubricated case at the die stroke of 0.58 Ho in Fig. 5. In
486
S.I. OH
I
Theory at 58 %
x~.,erime nt oi 59%
l=I
L9
0.0
1,0
2,0
RADIUSIR o
FIG. 5. Predicted cross sections compared with experiment at die displacement of 0.58 Ho.
Prediction: Ti62420.1Si, 954 C (1750 F), m = 0.3. Experiment: Lead, Room Temperature,
Lubricated.
Fig. 6, the predicted cross sections are superimposed with those of the dry friction experiments at die
displacements of 0.3, 0.44 and 0.58 Ho. These figures show that the predictions are in excellent agreement
with experiments, even though the effects of the different material behaviors of lead and titanium at their
hot working range on the spike height are not known precisely. This point should be further investigated.
The details of the solutions are examined in terms of loads, velocity fields, neutral point locations,
changes in spike height, and effective strain distributions. The calculated load displacement relations are
shown in Fig. 7 for both frictions. The results reveal that the load increases slowly during early stages of
deformation and then it increases rapidly as the deformation progresses. Similar trends were found in spike
forging experiments with lead and aluminum[27]. The load values for both frictions are almost identical at
the early stages and the load is higher for the higher friction.
~ / ~ ~ "
Undeformed
 
Theory ot 50 %
Experiment at 50 %
(a)
(hi
 
(C
Theory
ot
44%
   ~ ~
Theory at 5 8 %
Experiment at 5 9 %
(d)
FIG. 6. Predicted cross sections compared with experiments at die displacements of (a)
0.0Ho, (b) 0.3 Ho, (c) 0.44Ho and (d) 0.58 Ho. Prediction: Ti62420.]Si, 954 C (1750 F),
m = 0.6 Experiment: Lead, Room Temperature, Dry Friction.
Finite element analysis of metal forming processes with arbitrarily shaped dies
487
300
~
rn : 0 . 3
o
rn=0.6
1.25
I.OO
200
0.75
0
0
0
x
I00
x/
x~X ~
x/x/
0.50
x~X/x~
x_x~ x~x
 0.25
0
O.O
I
0.5
I
1.0
Displocemenl/R
5oo
Figs. 8 and 9 show the local velocity distributions at the die displacements of 0.02, 0.2, 0.4 and 0.58 Ho
for m = 0.3 and m = 0.6, respectively. The velocities shown in the figures are relative quantities with
respect to the upper die. It can be seen from the figures that the deformations at the initial stages of both
frictional cases are concentrated near the right upper corner of the workpiece, while the rest of the portion
is rigid. The relative velocities of spike tip are 0.188 Vv and 0.204 Vv at the die displacements of 0.2 and
0.4Ho, respectively when m =0.3, and they are 0.193 VD and 0.238 Vv when m =0.6. Here, VD is the
downward velocity of the upper die. These results show that the differences in spike tip velocities with
different frictions are relatively small at early stages. The figures show, however, that the flow pattern
changes significantly at a die displacement of 0.58 Ho. At this stage the relative velocity of spike tip is about
1.25 Vo when m = 0.6 while it is 0.465 VD when m = 0.3.
As it can be se~n from the relative velocity patterns, a part of the workpiece flows into the central cavity
while the rest of the material flows radially. Because of these two different flow directions, a neutral point
forms on the upper die workpiece interface where the relative movement between die and material becomes
zero. Figs. 8 and 9 show the locations of neutral points. In the case of low friction the neutral point does not
form at die displacements of 0.02 and 0.2 Ho, suggesting that the material flows outward at early stages of
deformation. As the deformation progresses the neutral point appears near the fillet of the upper die.
Comparing Figs 8 and 9 it can be seen that the neutral point forms earlier for higher friction and that its
location is farther away from the center axis. In spite of the differences in the locations of the neutral points with
different frictions, the relative movements are small along the workpieceupper die interface for both frictions
up to 0.4 Ho die displacement.
Fig. I0 shows the change of spike height as a function of die displacements. It can be seen from the
figure that the top surface of the spike moves downward for both friction cases during early stages of
deformation. The downward speed slows down and then the spike top surface moves up near the end of the
process for both cases. The spike tip reaches its minimum earlier for the higher friction case. The figure
shows that the minimum height of 34.8 mm (1.37 in.) is reached at die displacement of 31.5 mm (1.24 in.) in
case of m = 0.6, while that of 31.0 mm (1.22 in.) is reached at die displacement of 35.6 mm (1.40 in.) when
m = 0.3. The figure also reveals that the effect of friction on the spike height is minimal during the early
stage of deformation. The variations of spike height shown in Fig. 10 are in general agreement with earlier
experimental observations [24, 25].
In Fig. 10 the calculated spike height variations are compared with experimental data which were
obtained from isothermally forged lead and aluminum specimens with and without lubricant. The lead was
forged at room temperature and the aluminum at 31YC. It is interesting to note that "hot" aluminum and
"cold" lead behave similarly during isothermal forging. Fig. 10 shows that the spike heights measured from
both lead and aluminum specimens without libricant match the prediction with m = 0.3. The predictions of
the friction factor, m, may require further study because of the uncertainties in spike height variations for
the different materials involved. However, if it is assumed that the spike height variation is relatively
insensitive to the differences in material properties involved, it can be said that the friction factor is approx.
0.6 in the case of dry friction, and it is about 0.3 in the case of lubricated forging of lead and aluminum.
MS Vol. 24, No. 8C
488
S.I. OH
vl
ill
1.0
all
II/
I"T'r
1lttlll
..;.
(.D
,,,,~IZ
La.J
IIIIIII
o
~.Polllll
IIIIII1
l l l l l l l
11IIIII
e;"
lllltll
o"
1111111
lllllll
IIIIIII
1111111
0.0
1.0
~.0
0.0
RADIUS/Ro
(a)
01J
1~0
RADIUS/R 0
(b)
1.0
o a.
F""
"r
Q
i
0"
/ //~
tl/////p
e;
'~ /
l' ; I I I I//~.~
t. , t. .z ,  zj't _ ' ~
IIII
o.o
Lo
RADIUS/R o
(c)
0.0
1.0
RADIUSIRo
(d)
FIG. 8. Relative velocity distributions at die displacements of (a) 0.02 Ho, (b) 0.2 Ho, (c)
0.4 Ho and (d) 0.58 Ho when m = 0.3. A denotes the location of neutral point.
;I.O
Finite element analysis of metal forming processes with arbitrarily shaped dies
1.0
lll/~
l'r"
~D
I
I
I
I
I
I
,4'
d"
0.0
o ,_,
I~
I t # / / /t
.~ l l l / l l l
11[tltl/
: tTtlltl
1.0
RADIUSIR o
1 1 1 1 /
l~.O
i'.o
o.o
RADIUS/Ro
(a)
ILl
"r
489
(b)
..
0
i
<~<'
.,r
"I
/ i//L;
llillfl,
0.0
:
1.0
RADIUS/Ro
(c)
2.0
J o.
o"
tt
;.o
O.O
RADIUS/R o
(d)
FIG. 9. Relative velocity distributions at die displacements of (a) 0.02 Ho, (b) 0.2 Ho, (c)
0.4 Ho and (d) 0.58 Ho when m = 0.6. ~ denotes the location of neutral point.
i.o
490
S.I. OH
3.0
 .....
Calculated
Calculated
m = 03
m = 0.6
Experiment
Lead W i t h no L u b r i c a n t
o Lead With Fel Pro C300
AI W i t h n o L u b r i c a n t
t, AI W i t h F e I  P r o  C 3 0 0
Z.
t.O
oo
i
0.5
I
1.0
1.5
Displacement IRo
In the finite element method the local information such as strains, strain rates, and stresses can be easily
obtained. The information can be used not only to investigate the effect of flow stress on the overall
deformation but also to predict defect formation in metal forming processes. In the present study the total
effective strain concentrations are shown in Fig. 11 for both friction cases at die displacements of 0.2, 0.4
and 0.58 Ha. As it can be expected from the previous discussions, the general patterns of strain
distributions are similar to each other, showing almost no deformation near the spike tip and the highest
strain concentration along the band joining the right upper corner of the specimen and middle of the height
near the center. It is, however, interesting to note that the strain gradient is higher for the higher friction
case, and that the deformation is more uniform in the case of lower friction. The difference in the strain
gradient is more evident near the bottom surface of the workpiece.
CONCLUSION
A method is established to discretize the die boundary conditions in the framework of rigid viscoplastic finite element method. The method is natural to FEM and
general enough to treat the arbitrarily shaped dies in a unified manner. Improvements
are made on the computational efficieneies of rigid viscoplastic FEM by introducing
an automated initial guess generation scheme. It seems that the discretization of die
boundary conditions, together with the initial guess generation scheme, is an essential
step toward the development of a general purpose FEM code for metal forming analysis.
The present work is now being expanded to simulate metal flow in relatively
complex twodimensional metal forging applications. It is expected that this future
effort will, eventually, allow the design of preform shapes, involving massive forming
operations in industrial production processes.
Solutions of the spike forging process with two different frictional conditions are
obtained by the present method. The deformation mechanics of the spike forging
process and effects of friction on the process are discussed. The solutions are
Finite element analysis of metal forming processes with arbitrarily shaped dies
I
i
O"
~______
0.?.5.~
*
O.ZS'~
O.Z~~"
/
0
'% l
I
(a)
(d)
(b)
"
(c)
(e)
o8
O.~
(f)
FIG. 11. Effective strain distributions at die displacements of (a) 0.2 Ho, (b) 0.4 Ho and (c)
0.58 Ho when m = 0.3 and (d) 0.2 Ho, (e) 0.4 Ho and (f) 0.58 Ho when m = 0.6.
491
492
c o m p a r e d with e x p e r i m e n t s . T h e
a g r e e m e n t with e a c h other.
S.I. OH
comparison shows
that t h e y are in e x c e l l e n t
AcknowledgementsThis paper is based on information developed in Processing Science Program sponsored by the Air Force Wright Aeronautical Laboratories, AFSC, under contract F3361578C5025, with
Dr. Harold L. Gegel as program manager. The author would like to acknowledge gratefully the helpful
discussions with Professor Shiro Kobayashi of the University of California, Berkeley. The author also
would like to express his thanks to Drs. T. Altan and G. D. Lahoti at Battell's Columbus Laboratories for
their encouragement and suggestions during the course of this investigation.
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