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Mechatronics and Control for

Production Plants
Numerical Control 1: Structure, Programming, CAM
Lecture 4

Prof. Dr.-Ing. Christian Brecher


Dr.-Ing. Werner Herfs
Frederik Wellmann, M.Sc. RWTH
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Simultaneous 5-Axis Milling, Impeller (Video)

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 2

Agenda
1

Structure of NC Controls in Machine Tools

NC Programming Procedures (Manual and Shop-Floor-Oriented)

NC Programming Procedure using CAM Systems

Simulation

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 3

Components of NC Controls

Drives
Operator Panel &
Machine Control Panel
(SINUMERIK 840D sl)

NCU & Drive Modules


(SINUMERIK 840D sl,
SINAMICS S120)

PLC
(SIMATIC S7300)

Terminal Blocks
Digital/Analog I/O

Source: Siemens

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 4

Components of Control Systems


Engineering

Industrial Ethernet

Industrial Ethernet/PROFINET

Machine
Control
Panel

Engineering

MES

External Manual
Control Devices
Main Computer
w. Integrated PLC
PROFIBUS DP

Machine
Control
Panel

External Manual
Control Devices

HSCI
NC Control
Unit

Decentralized PLC

DRIVE-CLiQ

Decentralized
I/O-Modul
Controller Unit
VSS or EnDat 2.2

Spindle Motor

Feed Motors

Source: Siemens, Bosch Rexroth, Heidenhain


WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Spindle Motor

Feed Motors
Page 5

Structure of a numerical control


NC
Data Input
Local

External

Program
Editor

USB-Stick, DNCNetwork (TCP/IP)


PLC
(Programmable Logic Control)

NC Program

(Tool Selection, Coolant on/off


etc.)
Program Preparation
(NC Interpreter)

Switching
Commands M, T

Geometry Data (X, Y, Z, A )


Technology Data (F, S )
Z

Synchronization

Interpolation
X Y Z
+
-

Setpoint Values
Position Control

Control Deviation

M
M

W
W

Position Preparation
Position Control Loop X
Position Control Loop Y
Position Control Loop Z

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M : Motor
W : Measuring System

Page 6

Task Distribution between NC and PLC in Machine Mools


NC Program

Numerical Control (NC)


Geometrical path information

Workpiece and toolpath to follow

HMI

Technical instructions

e.g. cutting speed, feed rate, spindle speed


Identification of switching commands inside

M-Commands
NC Stop

PLC

the NC program
e.g. tool changes, coolant on/off,
loading/unloading of parts

NC
Control Values
(Programmed
Coordinate.)

Actual
Position

Transfer of Switching
Commands to the PLC

Drive Control
Programmable Logic Control (PLC)
Link between switching controls and feedback from

Machine

the machine
Conversion of control commands for switching units

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 7

NC Internal Information Flow


ASCII Part
Program
NC Interpreter

Internal
Data Block

Geometry Data
Preparation

PLC
Signals

Interpolation

Converts ASCII data into internal format


Controls processing sequence
Synchronisation of program buffer
FRAME Transformation
Tool corrections
Preparation of speed profile
(LOOK AHEAD)
Path interpolation
Kinematic transformation
Synchronous actions

Setpoint/Actual
Values
Fast I/O

Position
Control

Position control

Drive
Control

Velocity control
Current control

Setpoint Drive
Values

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 8

Agenda
1

Structure of NC Controls in Machine Tools

NC Programming Procedures (Manual and Shop-Floor-Oriented)

NC Programming Procedure using CAM Systems

Simulation

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 9

Functions of the NC Program


Instructions for NC control
Description of Tool Path
Indirect:
Workpiece Geometry
Direct:
Tool Center Point (TCP) Trajectory

Technology Information
e.g. Number of revolutions or feed rate
Switching commands
Spindle on (clockwise/counter-clockwise)
Tool changes
Synchronization
Wait commands for multi-slide machining
Control commands for switching tables, loading
systems etc.
Source: EXAPT (EXAPT-Plus), Siemens (NX)

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

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Procedures for NC programming


Textual
Drawing of
Workpiece

Tables, Experience, Computations


Programming of geometry
Programming of technology

Shop-Floor Oriented (SFP)


Drawing/
CAD File

Graphical-interactive, problem-oriented
programming of a machine tool:
predefined programming interfaces
query and suggestions for parameters

CAx based

+ Extensions

Postprocessor

CAD File

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

DIN 66025

Graphical-interactive for diff. Machine Tools


complex geometry
collision monitoring
computation of complex toolpaths

CL Data,
APT, ...
Page 11

NC programs: forms and dialects


Programming languages for different requirements
APT (Automatically Programmed Tools)
Description of the machining task
Raw workpiece description, tool description
CLDATA (Cutter Location Data)
Programming of toolpath and tool orientation
G-Code (DIN 66025 / ISO6983)
One of the first standatized dialects
Circle and line interpolation; simple switching commands
Line based

Heidenhain Plane Language


Simple 2 D-programming
Heavy cycle-based (= predefined programm elements)

Excerpt of a G&M program

(STEP-NC ISO14649)
feature-oriented, bi-directional NC programming
Transfer of geometrical information

Source : EXAPT

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 12

NC program (G&M-Code acc. to DIN 66025/ ISO 6983)


Block:

N0005

Block number

G00

Word

X 20 Y30 Z10

Coordinates

Path conditions:

interpolation:
measurements:
units:
zero points:

G0, G1, G2, , G33


G90, G91
G70, G71
G54, , G59

Coordinates:

linear main axes:


rotational axes:
side axes:

X, Y, Z
A, B, C
U, V, W

Interpolation parameters

I, J, K (e.g. for circlular interpolation)

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S2600

Technology

F0.5

M03

Miscellaneous functions

Technology

feed:
spindle speed:
tool number: T

F
S

Miscellaneous functions

synchronization:
before a block:
after a block:
effectiveness:
modal:
block-wise:

M03, M04, M07,


M00, M02, M05,
M03, G00, G01,
M02,

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NC in the production process

Idea

Construction&
Development

Processplanning

Manufacturing

Product

Manufacturing

Construction & Development

Process Planning

Definition of product shape:

Definition of the manufacturing


process

(automated) creation of the


final product

Creation of the programs

Execution of the created NC


programms

- workpiece geometry
- workpiece surface
- tolerances

- material

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Simulation of the
manufacturing process

Machine scheduling and


termination

Programming errors can only


be detected deficient products

Page 14

Agenda
1

Structure of NC Controls in Machine Tools

NC Programming Procedures (Manual and Shop-Floor-Oriented)

NC Programming Procedure using CAM Systems

Simulation

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 15

Definition von CAM


What is CAM?
Computer aided manufacturing
Creation of NC programs for NC controlled machines
With and without(!) use of 2D or 3D CAD data

Application fields of CAM


Toolpath generation and optimization
Simulation
Creation of manufacturing documents

(machining plans, clamping plans, tool lists)


Management of tool and equipment data
Distributed Numerical Control (DNC)

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 16

Functional range of CAM systems


Application View

Resource View

Planning type

Machines (performance data, working

area, tool interfaces, )

Selection of machines and resources

Tools (geometry, construction, cutting

Definition of machining operation

material, cutting values)

Creation of NC code (Post-Processors)

Tool magazines

Verification of planning activities

Clamps

Clamping plans

CAM
Technological View
Workpiece (geometry, quality

requirements, material)
Manufacturing technology (turning,

milling, boring, waterjet cutting etc.)

System oriented View


Resource model
Role model (Data access,

user defined dialogs, )


Graphical display

Strategies

Data management

Cut distribution

Application programming interfaces (API)

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Page 18

Digital product development and manufacturing


Input
Existing models, standards and
regulations, customer requirements,
tables, catalogs
Models, polygon models,
calculation results

Hall plans, quantities,


processing times, visualizations

Visualization, models,
tool data, clamps

Source: KIEF07
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Idea
CAD
Designing, Constucting,
Modeling, Digital Mockup

CAE
Calculating, Simulating, Optimizing

CAP, ERP
Supply of manufacturing equipment,
machine scheduling

CAM, CAQ
Clamping, tool selection,
machining sequence, NC programs

Output
Drawings, visualizations,
compilations, parts lists,
Digital Mock-Up
Calculation results,
optimized models

Work schedules, cycle times,


machine schedules

NC simulation, NC programs,
tool lists, setup sheets

Product
Page 19

Example: CAM programmierung of a turned part


Obtaining the drawing of a part
Organizational information

name
part number
creator of program
date

Additional information

machine
material

All non-dimensioned chamfers: 2.5 mm

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Page 20

Beispiel: CAM-Programmierung eines Drehbauteils


Definition of blank and final workpiece
Planning of the machining process

Creation of part geometry


1

Graphical view

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Page 21

Full simulation, PP Run and NC program


Simulation 2D
NC program

5
7

Simulation 3D
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Page 22

Post-Processors
Goal: Post-processors are used for the translation of general CAM
toolpath data in machine specific NC programs.

Post-Processor

Program processing

Programm
structure

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

G codes,
M commands

Machine tool
(kinematics)

Own
extensions

NC
blocks

NC data definition

Words
(Syntax)

Format

Page 23

Manufacturing of complex parts


freeform surfaces

deep cavity

Increasing demand of rounded

shapes and surfaces:

inclined surface with


holes

Improve ergonomics
Improving the drag coefficient
Improve aesthetic properties
Increased computing power of

control systems is available


Conversion of process

requirements:

accessibility
stability
surface quality
tool wear, etc.

Importance of five-axes milling


processes is significantly increased!
Source: Siemens
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 25

Milling with 3 axes, 3 or 5 axes


simultaneous five-axes milling
3 axes milling

3 axes milling

constant tilt angle and


lead angle

complexity
complexity

Source: Siemens
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 26

Freeform milling with different number of axes and with oriented tools
3-axes milling

5-axes milling

3 - axes milling
constant tilt angle a

tools local
coordinate system

workpiece
coordinate system

y
x

orientation of tool is fixe


and parallel to the z-axis
of the workpiece
coordinate system

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

z
y

y
x

orientation of tool is
constant during the
machining process

Orientation of tool can be


changed during the
machining process

can be defined
beforehand
Page 27

Structure and differences of 5-axis milling machines


variant 1

variant 2

variant 3

variant 4

arrangement of the axes of rotation

description/ variant

2 axes of rotation in the head

fork(variant 1)

nutated (variant 2)

2 axes of rotation in the table

rotary tilt (variante 3)

nutated (variant 4)

1 axes of rotation in the head


1 axes of rotation in the table
Source: SIEM09
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

variant 5

(variant 5)
If a rotation axis is not perpendicular to a linear axis, is is called anutated axis
Page 29

Planning processes of five-axis simultaneous milling double-spline surface


contour refinement with KKF D16
(Rest Milling, 3-axes)

Logo is not machined (at first)


VC Surf Area ZZ Lead
infeed

Rapid move - change level section


Rapid move to security level

Cutting motion (follow contour)


Approaching the cutting contour
Leaving the cutting contour

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

contour roughing with end mill D32


(Cavity Mill, 3-axes)

feed

surface milling: 5-axes with


synchronously adapted tool
orientations (ball nose end mill D16)
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Planning processes of five-axis simultaneous milling


contour profile
Contour roughing
3-axes face milling & peripheral milling

Create contour profile


5-axes peripheral milling

Surface finishing
3-axes face milling

Rapid move - change level section


Rapid move to security level
Cutting motion (follow contour)
Approaching the cutting contour
Leaving the cutting contour

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 31

Agenda
1

Structure of NC Controls in Machine Tools

NC Programming Procedures (Manual and Shop-Floor-Oriented)

NC Programming Procedure using CAM Systems

Simulation

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 33

Need for simulation


More complex and more varied parts
Higher demands on products and thus increasing
complexity of the parts
Higher variance in the manufacturing
Complex technology
Number of axes and associated number of moving
components in the workspace increases
Collision risk increases
High requirements for training in order to make use of
technical advantages
NC programs get are complex
Verification of an implemented post processor
Bug-Fixing

Source: Haas

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 34

Extensions of the process chain from design to manufacturing


Clamping
planning

Clamping
planning

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Programm
creation

Simulation

PP Run

CAM system

Programm
creation

CAM system

Simulation

Test on
machine

Production

NC control / machine

PP Run

Simulation

Sim. system

Test on
machine

Production

NC control / machine

Page 35

NC simulation types CAM internal simulation


Tool path based simulation and verification
Tool path based verification

Consideration of blank, tool and holder geometry in


simulation
Simulation based on the paths generated by the CAM
system in the CAM internal format
Recognition of workpiece / tool collisions and surface
injuries
Tool path centered machine simulation

Extension of the tool path based verification


Consideration of machine workspace and kinematic
behaviour (machine model)
Additional collision checks with additional components
in the work space
(e. g. rotary tilting table)
Bildquellen: Siemens

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 36

Problems of CAM internal simulation


NC simulation functionalities are available in CAM systems

Simulation usually based on the neutral, CAM internal representations of the

machining process
Consequences
Error in the post processor can not be detected in the simulation
Determined program run times are not sufficiently accurate for an optimization
Simulated tool path deviate too much from reality
Simulation results have only limited validity and are not

practical
A NC simulation based on machine-specific NC programs using detailed

virtual pendants of machines and NC controls is required

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 37

NC simulation types Machine simulation


Virtual representation of NC control and of the kinematic
behaviour for a machine-oriented simulation

G&M code based machine simulation


Simulation in the CAM system based on machinespecific NC programs after the post processor run
Use of an NC control imitation to interpret the G&MCodes (NC control model)
Transfer of setpoint values to machine model

NC control based machine simulation


Simulation using an emulated nc control model
(virtual NC kernel, VNCK)
Use the same algorithms for motion generation as the
real nc control
Transfer of real setpoint values from the virtual control
to the machine models of CAM systems or external
simulation software

Hard- und
Software:
NCK on Windows

VNCK

API-VNCK-Server
Bildquellen: Siemens

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 38

NC simulation types Virtual machine


Virtual representation of NC control and of the
kinematic behaviour for a machine-oriented simulation
Virtual machine
2
Consists of machine model, drive model, control
model and optional process model
Virtual representation of machine control and HMI
Consideration of the entire machining situation by
using a machine and drive model with parameter
settings corresponding to the real machine
Avoiding extensive tests using the real machine
Modifications of individual components are possible,
effects on other parts of the machine can be
analyzed
Small deviations of predicted and real manufacturing
time
WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 39

External simulations software (e. g. Siemens RealNC)


Tool for the detailed analysis and optimization of NC

programs before the start of production


Reduction of run-in or shortening of program

execution times
Graphical simulation system for material removal and

collision monitoring (process model)


Support for turning and milling (and combination)
Additional measurement functions for virtually

manufactured workpieces
Two ways of NC simulation
Virtual imitations of A. Fanuc, Heidenhain, Siemens
controls
Especially for Siemens 840D VNCK
Source: INDEX

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 40

External simulations software (e. g. Siemens RealNC)


Benefits
Picture of the entire manufacturing situation (workspace,
workpiece, tools and clamping)
Simulation of machine-specific NC programs after the
postprocessor run
Accurate representation of tool paths
Downside
High modeling and parameterization efforts for all individual
parts
Machinery manufacturers provide machine model and

parameterize them on demand (e. g. INDEX, ...)


The same behavior of the real and the virtual machine
Collision-free machining of the workpiece with predictable
processing time for the real machine
Creation of machine tool geometry and kinematics by the user
possible
RealNC kinematic editor
CAD Import from other systems possible (STL format)
Source: INDEX

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 41

Elements of a machine model (in RealNC)


Machine model

Geometry

Kinematics

Control model

Handling (HMI)

Behavior
model

Axes

Interpretation

Programm
display

Non NC-controlled
movements

Table and clamping


chucks

Motion planning

Variables

Grasping / releasing
objects

Spindle position

Interpolation

Axis values

Switching
times

Tool places

Kinematic
transformation

Tool data

Drive model

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 42

Implementation of the NC simulation with Siemens 840D VNCK


Coupling of RealNC VNCK with the 840D control instead

VNCK Interface

RealNC

of using a control model RealNC

VNCK

Process Simulation
Worpiece exists
Clamp
Clamped
Release drives
Drives free

actions,
processes,
conditions

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Tasks for VNCK (virtual NC kernel)


Control power-up with a specific set of machine data
Discrete-time NC program execution
Transmission of control variables in simulation (e. g. axis
values)
Support for multi-channel applications
Transmission of setpoint variables of simulation
("engine for simulation")
Tasks for RealNC
Geometrical-kinematic machine model
Illustration of processes for peripheral equipment
Visualization
Material removal simulation
Collision calculations
Virtual time management
Data display from VNCK
Page 43

Time determinism using a virtual time management

Simulator

8
Run
1 Interpolation cycle

13
Run
1 Interpolation cycle

set value
computation

Virtual
Control

Freeze

Machine
tool
model

Freeze

Computation

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Real time
[s]

Virtual time
[ms]

Page 44

Use of virtual machines


Virtual machines in the planning process/ process optimization
Syntax check of the NC programs
Measuring of processing times
Checking the quality of the virtually machined workpiece
Parallelized manufacturing and simulation
Simulation, correction and verification of NC programs
Avoiding collisions of tool and tool holder with clamping devices or

machine parts
Shortening lead times and speeding up the process

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 45

Other uses of virtual machines and external simulation systems


Virtual machine in the machine design process
for first kinematic studies of a newly developed

machine a simple geometric machine model without


dynamic aspects is suitable
Investigation of reachability
Investigation of possible collisions of components

After the determination of the kinematics follows a

structural optimization via FE models - the behavior of


the position-controlled drive system is taken into
account (drive model)
For generating a first curves a control model is

additionally needed

Source: Heller

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 46

Other uses of virtual machines and external simulation systems

Virtual machine in the electrical design process


Not only restriction on the electrical machine: design

changes bring changes in the other disciplines of the


machine itself
Geometric and structural dynamic aspects of the

machine are of minor importance


Focus on design and programming of the logical

machine processes (NC, PLC)


Modeling of sensors and actuators which are installed

later in machine
Test the sensor / actuator output against PLC

Source: Chiron

programs and NC cycles

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 47

Other uses of virtual machines and external simulation systems


Training
Handling and the response of the machine to certain

inputs are in the focus


Machine function is clearly explained and the machine

dynamics is demonstrated by the handling of specific


workpieces
Simulated processing time must correspond to the actual

processing on the real machine (at least qualitatively)


Here is a complete replica of the NC kernel and the HMI

is necessary

WZL/Fraunhofer IPT

Page 48

Opportunities and limitations of simulation


Opportunities
Damage-free testing of NC programs
Virtual retraction of NC processes without

assignment of machines
Optimizations and preventive compensations

are possible
Increased understanding of the process

through special systems at different levels


Detection of interactions by coupling

simulation systems
Economical use of resources through

greater availability
Teaching new employees on virtual

machines

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Limitations
Reliability of the results vary depending on the

application
Results are not suitable in many cases for

automated evaluation and must be interpreted


by experts
Modeling effort (depending on detail and

viewing scope) often uneconomically high


Models are not complete and neglect effects

that can have a significant impact


Not fully mature coupling mechanisms between

simulation systems
Understanding of the process
Technical and organizational implementation

Page 49