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Common steel structures

Steel has high strength per unit mass.Hence it is used in constructing large column-free
structures.The following are the common steel structures
1.Roof trusses for factories,cinema halls, etc
2.Trussed bents,crane girders,column etc.
3.Roof trusses and columns to cover platforms in railway stations etc.
4.Single or double layer domes for auditoriums,exhibition halls etc.
5.Plate girders and truss bridges for railway and roads
6.Transmission towers for microwave and electric power
7.Water tanks.
8.Chimneys etc,
Properties of structural steel
The properties of steel required fo engineering design may be classified as
i) Physical properties
ii) Mechanical properties
i) Physical properties: Irrespective of its Grade Physical properties of steel may be taken as
given below (clause 2.2.4 of IS 800-2007)
(a) Unit mass of steel ,= 7850 kg/m^3
(b) Modulus of elasticity,E=2.0*10^5 N/mm^2
(c) Poisson's ratio ,u=0.3
(d) Modulus of rigidity,G=0.769*10^5 N/mm^2
(e) Coefficient of thermal expansion , =12*10^-6 / C
ii) Mechanical properties : The following are the important mechanical properties in the
(a) Yield stress fy,
(b) The tensile or ultimate stress fu
(c) The maximum percentage elongation on a standard guage length
(d) Notch toughness
Rolled steel sections
Various types of rolled steel sections manufactured are listed below
i) Rolled steel I-section
ii) Rolled steel Channel sections
iii) Rolled steel Angle sections
iv) Rolled steel Tee sections
v) Rolled steel Bars
vi) Rolled steel Tubes
vii) Rolled steel plates
viii) Rolled steel Flates
ix) Rolled steel sheets and strips
Special considerations in steel design
The following special considerations are required in steel design :

1. Size and shape

2. Buckling
3. Minimum Thickness
4. Connection designs
Various loads expected to act on a structure may be classified as given below
1. Dead load (DL)
2. Imposed loads (IL)
3. Wind loads (WL)
4. Earthquake loads (EL)
5. Erection loads (ER)
6. Accidental loads (AL)
7. Secondary Effects
The following three tyopes of connections may be made in steel structures:
1. Riveted
2. Bolted
3. Welded
Bolted Connections
Bolts are classified as :

Unfinished bolts

Finished bolts

High strength Friction bolts (HSFG)

Classification of bolts based on type of load transfer

Bearing type

Friction grip type

II Terminilogy
The following terms used in the bolted connections are defined below
1.Pitch of the bolts (P) : IT is the center to center spacing of the bolts in a row, measured
along the direction of the load. It is shown as 'P'
2.Gauge distance (g) : It is the distance between the two consecutive bolts of adjacent rows
and is measured at right angles to the direction of load
3.Edge distance (e) : It is the distance of center of bolt hole from the adjacent edge of plate
4.End distance (e') : It is the distance of the nearest bolt hole from the end from the end of the
5.staggered Distance : It is the center to center distance of staggered bolts measured
obliquely on the member
III Types of bolted Connection
Types of joints may be grouped into the following two :
1. Lap joint
2. Butt joint
Welding consist of joining two piece of metal by establishing a metallurgical bond between
them. The elements to be connected are brought closer and the metal is melted by means of
electric arc or Oxy-acetylene flame along with weld rod which adds me 0wtal to the joint
.After cooling the bond is established between the two elements
II Types of welded joints
There are 3 types od welded joints
1. Butt weld
2. Fillet weld
3. Slot weld and plug weld
Design of tension member
I Design strength of a tension member
Tension members is also called as Tie members

The design strength of a tension member is the lowest of the following

1. Design strength due to yielding of gross-section (Tdg)
2. Rupture strength of critical section (Tdn)
3. The block shear (Tdb)
Calculate the block shear
Avg= 2*(P+e)
Atg= e*t
Atn= (e-t) *t
Block shear strength is the least of the following two :
1. Tdb=(Avg*Fy/1.9)+(0.9*Atn*Fu/1.25)
2. Tdb=(0.9Avn*Fy/1.9)+(Atg*Fu/1.25)