Вы находитесь на странице: 1из 32

. ..

..
..

-
-
-
,
03.06.01 , ,
03.04.03


2015

537.5
22.338
-66

-66 .., .. -
: . :
, 2015. 32 .
: ..-.., ..

-

.
.
-
.
,
,
,
.


- 2013-2020 .

:
-
,
..-.. ..
537.5
22.338

1.

2.

3.

15

4. -

20

5. -

24

29




-
.

100 ,
10 < 100 [1].

,


( < 100 /),
.

0 (

) 30 I ( 2 ) ,

,
31018 /2 (
), 51012 /,
5 (!) ,
. , ,

. ,
,
, .
,
, , ,
(.1).
,
, ,
.

.
-.

,
.

,
-
.
4

. 1.
.
,

.

1.

m q

q
H m2c 4 c 2 ( P A) 2 q .
(1)
c
,
,

q
P p A .
c
,
-
.
,
, ,
z , ..

A A(ct z ), 0 ; : A( Ax , Ay ,0) .
H x
5

( p 0, A 0 ).


q
: px , y Ax , y .
c
,

ct z . cpz mc 2 cpz ,

,
.
2
mc
u2
1 2
c

.
q2 2
A . ,
: p z
2mc 3

:
2
q
q2
x, y
A
d

A
;
(2)
x, y
d .
mc 2
2m 2 c 4
,
.

.

z
.
. , x,

1 A
A E

x-, y-, ,
z.
,
,
x-z.
A2
.
,
,
.

, ,
,
.

qA
, a
mc 2
1.
2
2 a
max mc
.
2

1022 /2 (a 60) max < 1 .
, .

. ,

.
, . , ,

, ,
.
,
.

, -
, ,
. ,
,

.
,
, .
,
,
, ( )
. , ,
,
,
.
30 P ,
-
. 1

1 ,
( 30 ).
,
,

.

,

.
, ,
( , ,

) [2].
,
,
.

, -,
, , ,
.

2.


,
:
z ,
(.(2)) .
z a 2 max c 4 , , amax

-.

2
a max 1 , ,
. ,
,
, ,

.

. . 1979 . [3].
,
, ,

8

,
.
.
, ,
,
, .
, ,
,

,
, .
.
, .. ,
,
.
-
,
(.. ), ,
, , ,
,
.


. (Laser Wakefield
Accelerator, LWFA), [3],
(> 1017 -2)
, , ,
2

.

pe

[4]

(Plasma Beat Wave Accelerator, PBWA)
[5]. PBWA
,
. PBWA ,

( , . )

.
,
,
,

,
[6]. ,
9

,

, .

(Self-Modulated Plasma Beat


Wave Accelerator, SM-PBWA) [7].

[8].
, ,
.

, .. ,
,
,
V p .
, ,
-

1 / 2

V p2

1 2

1 . 1019
c
pe

1016 -3 10 300.
,
.
, .
- ,

. ,

. ,

,

A A(Vpt z )

,
..

(Vp t z )

,
(q=-e) , , ,
. ,

Vp pz m2c 4 c 2 pz 2 e2 A2 e Vp pz mc 2 (3)

10

N e
,
V p t z

c 2 pz N e
Ne
2 N0 ;
2
2
4
2
2
Vp m c c pz e A

d 2
4e( N e N 0 ) .
(4)
d 2
(3) (4)
e

mc 2

1 / 2

2 d 2
1 a2

p
2
p
1 .
(5)
1 2
2
2
2
pe d
c

(
1

)
p

,
.
.
e max

max 1, (5)
2

mc
,
4N 0 e 2 1 / 2
)
pe (

m
e max

max 1
mc 2
. (5) ,

,
.
()
Erel , ,
pe : Erel mc pe e .

N0 = 1018 -3
Erel 109 /,
. Erel ,
,
,
, .
11

(5)
, LWFA,
,
1/ 2

m
. ,
: pe1
2
4

N
e



( , ).
,
,
.
, (2) z
. ,

:
2
e pe W
,
(6)
Emax 4N 0 ez 2
mc 2 2 S
W/S
. E max
Erel .
1018 -3 ,

10 5 /2, (, 10 100 ),
. ,
109 /
.
, ,
.

(5) a 0 , ,
0 (
d
),
(
d
).
,
(5)
2

d
2

d W C Const
pe

12

(7)

Vp
V p2

2
2
W 2
(8)
c 1 p c 2
.

C
.2. :

mc pe
Emax
C Erel C , .. C

e
,
(6)
.
2
p

.2. ,

p=20 ,.Vp/c=0.9975.

. = *= 0.95 (W=38)
,
.

<<1
W
max C
min C c 2c / pe 2 / k p .
>>1 ,

(. 3).
4C / pe .

max C 2 , min 1 .
13


. C 2( p 1)


1 1 / p . ,

, .. .
7 1017 -3 -
C 10 E C Erel C mc pe e 1010 / . ,

, E C Erel ,

.

.3. E/Erel
E/Erel=2 p=20.
z.
.



.
.
.
14

,
(.4)

. 4.

,

3.
, ,
. .3

,
. ,
,

. ,
,
.

.

(1). (
),

, V p ,
.

(9)
H m 2 c 4 c 2 p 2 mc 2 Vp t z .
p
z . ,
15


Vp pz Const .
- :
V
1/ 2
(10)
p 2 1 Const .
c

, z, .5.
p ,
p , ( min ) . ,
, ,
.
,
. , , .. , , ,
min ,
max .
,
, ,
.
,
,
.
,
Ld ,
.
p 1 max 1 (10)
,
:
max 2 p2 max min .
(11)

2
Emax
8

e
W
2
2 3
max 4 p
.
(12)

E
m
c

S
p

,

.

:

16

max

Emax
2
E

2
p

3/ 2
2

2 3 W
.

m
c

(13)

,
,
-:

max

3
4 4 3
p
3
p

(14)

. 5. E/Erel Emax/Erel=0.2 p=20


{,z}. ( )
(10) 0.3, 0,23075 (),
0.02, -0.1.
max=360


-
. , , ,
.
17

,
.
,
, ,
, , .
(10) , ,
- .
,
.
.
, .. ,
Ld max mc 2 eEmax .

Ldnrel 2 p2 p ,

Ldrel 2 p2 a02c W mc 2 N 0 S .

-
,
- .
,

,
max , ..
.

(. .3).

E
c
max ,
Ldrel 4 p2
p E
.
Ldnrel

c
Emax
23 / 2 p2
p E

1/ 2

,
.


. , ,
.

Ldep . . ,
,
,
z , , ,
18

: z a 2 max c 4 .
z , ,
,
4N 2e2 Sz 3 / 3 . ,
,
z . ,
, z
Ldep .

3 2 2p
3m 2 c 4 4 S
Ldep
2 2
. ,
2
e 2 p4W
p ca max
,
,

.


. , ,
,

.

,
.
,
.
,

[9]. ,
, ,
.

,
,
. , ,
, ,

.
,
.
10 ,
2.5 10-5 2 1018 -3 ( p 35) ,
4

5
Erel 109 /, Emax 4 109 /, max 4 10 , max 1.7 10 ,

19

Ldrel 5 , Ldep 1.2 . ,

20 ,
.

, max , N0-1 ,
N0-2 . , N0 = 2.5 1017 -3
20 .
.

.6. ( 1 )
- ( 10 ).


-
10-20 ,
. . 6
LCLS
1 -
10 ,
[10].

4. -

-

. , ,
,
.
,
, ( ),
, .
. [11]
20


a0>>1,
. ,

.
,
, (.7).
,
.
,
, ,
, ..

.
,
.
, ,
, , , -

, ,
.

.7.
12 , 33 (a0=10)
1019 -3[11]. (a) (b)
Z, .
,
, , .

-
. ,
, ,
.
,
21

,
( ) .

. , a0>>1,
[12]. S-,

p2 mc 2
N
S

-
,
N c a0
2 eA0

c

. , ,
R
S<1, <1.
, S -
, ,
.

: a0 S 1 L S 3 / 2 .

, , ,

P
c

max 0.65
,
(15)

rel
2 5
2
Prel m c / e 8.5 , P
.


. , ,
a0 2 5 ,

. ,
, ,

, (
). ,
,
, ,
. , ,
, ,
1/ 2

22

,
.
-
(OSIRIS, ELMIS,HIPACE .),

, ,
PIC (particle-in-cell).
,
(1 )
(1010) 1018.

[.,
,
https://plasmasim.physics.ucla.edu/codes/osiris],

. .8

HIPACE-OSIRIS [13],
.

.8.

(),
PIC [13].

, , ()
.

, ,

23

: Ldif R 2 / . ,

100 ,
a0 1 . , ,
-
, ,
, .

, ,

(
~
a
)

-
~
a 1 / 2 a ( z, ) exp(it ikz / c) c.c. :
a
4Ne 2
(16)
2ik
a
a 0.
z
mc 2

( ),
- ().
,
. c<<R,
.
, (3) (4), (16)
4N 0 e 2

a , (5)
mc 2 (1 )
. ,

, -
, ,
. , , 0 ,
, ,
. ,
/pe ,
,
, . ,
, ,

.


.
(16) ,
24

N(r) , .. 1 .
, ,
,

. -

10 .
1
- ,
,

[14].

.1. -

5. -

2014 .
- 4.2
. (W. Leemans)
LBL (Lawrence Berkeley Laborarory, USA) [15].
(40 , 16 , 0.3 )
.

,
(.9). 9
500 , ,
25


10 17 1018 -3
.


,
.

.9. BELLA LBL


[15] 16
40 ( 0.3 )
500 9 .

,

.
4 ,

.

6
4.2 (.10)
-
(.11), , ,
( 7 1017 -3)
( 80 )

.

( 6%) .
LBL
BELLA 10 -
.
:
(,
26

),
(40 , 100 )
.


.

.10. c
BELLA [15], .


4.2 9 .
.
, .


10 - - ?

[16]. ,

(XFEL),


.
XFEL
LCLS Sacla
10 .
, ,
,

, . XFEL -
27

,
( 30 )
( 50)
.

, , .
.

11.
BELLA [15]
,
81 , ne = 7 1017
cm3.
,
( )
(i), (ii-iii)
(iv).

28



. 1
10 - - [10].
30-50 , /,

1
( )

/ (.12).

.12. -
1 - [10].


/.
10 .




10-100 ,
. (5-10 )
,
29


.
,
- .


( BELLA),
.
, - ,

? -
,
,
( )
.
, ,
,
,
.

(., , .11).
, ,
, .

.
,
, ,
,
.
,
-
. ,
-
, , ,
,
,
.

30


1.
2.

3.
4.
5.
6.

7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.

15.

16.

.. ., .
, . 181, . 9-32 (2011).
.. .,

:
, . , . 43, . 232-236 (2013)
Tajima . and Dawson J.M., Laser electron accelerator, Phys. Rev. Lett., v. 43,
p. 267-270 (1979)
Strickland D and Mourou G, Compression of amplified chirped optical pulses,
Opt. Commun., v. 56, , p. 219-221 (1985)
Rosenbluth M.N. and Liu C.S., Excitation of plasma waves by two laser beams,
Phys. Rev. Lett., v. 29, p. 701-705 (1972)
Berezhiani V.I. and Murusidze I.G., Interaction of highly relativistic short laser
pulses with plasmas and nonlinear wake-field generation, Phys. Scr., v. 45,
p. 87-90 (1992)
H.E. .,
, , . 55, . 551-555 (1992)
Esarey E. et al., Overview of plasma-based accelerator concepts, IEEE Trans.
Plasma Science, v. 24, p. 252-288 (1996)
Siders C.W. et al., Laser wakefield excitation and measurement by femtosecond
longitudinal interferometry, Phys. Rev. Lett., v. 76, p. 3570-3573 (1996)
Leemans W.P. and Esarey E., Laser-driven plasma-wave electron accelerators,
Phys. Today, v. 62, p. 44-49 (2009)
Pukhov A. and Meyer-ter-Vehn J., Laser wake field acceleration: the highly
non-linear broken-wave regime, J.Appl.Phys.B, v. 74, p. 355-361 (2002)
Gordienko S. and Pukhov A., Scalings for ultrarelativistic laser plasmas and
quasimonoenergetic electrons, Phys.Plasmas, v. 12, (2005)
Mehrling T. et al., HiPACE: A quasi-static particle-in-cell code, Plasma Phys.
Control. Fusion, v. 56 (2014)
Lu W. et al., Generating multi-GeV electron bunches using single stage laser
wakefield acceleration in a 3D nonlinear regime, Phys. Rev. ST Accel. Beams,
v. 10 (2007)
Leemans W.P. et al., Multi-GeV Electron Beams from Capillary-DischargeGuided Subpetawatt Laser Pulses in the Self-Trapping Regime, Phys. Rev.
Lett., v. 113, (2014)
Hooker S.M., Developments in laser-driven plasma accelerator, Nature Photon.,
v. 7, p. 775-782 (2013)

31

-


. ..
603950, , . , 23.

Оценить