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Chapter 14

Consumer Decision Process and Problem Recognition

Multiple Choice Questions


1. Consumer-to-consumer solutions to "problems they never knew they had" have accelerated due
to the rise of _____.

A.

social media like Pinterest

B.

crowd sourcing like Kickstarter

C.

peer innovation like Quirky

D.

all of the above

E.

none of the above

2. What is the first stage of the consumer decision process?

A.

information search

B.

problem recognition

C.

alternative evaluation

D.
E.

purchase
postpurchase behavior

3. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding consumer decisions and the consumer
decision process?

A. The decision process model provides useful insight into all types of consumer purchases.
B. Consumer decisions are frequently the result of a single problem.
C. Consumer decisions are rational and functional; otherwise they do not involve decisions per
se.
D. Some consumer decisions result from the convergence of several problems.
E. Once the decision process begins, it may evolve and become more complex with multiple
goals.

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4. Which of the following is(are) a type of consumer decision making discussed in your text?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

limited decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.
E.

B and C
A, B, and C

5. Which of the following is NOT a type of consumer decision making discussed in your text?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

extended decision making

C.

complex decision making

D.

limited decision making

E.

All of the above are types of decision making.

6. The level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process triggered by the need to consider a
particular purchase is known as _____.

A.

personal involvement

B.

product involvement

C.

purchase involvement

D.
E.

enduring involvement
activated involvement

7. Blake doesn't much care about cars but is engaging in a substantial amount of information search
about cars because he is about to buy a new car. In terms of involvement, Blake is _____.

A.

high in product involvement; low in purchase involvement

B. high in value-expressive involvement; low in product involvement


C.

high in product involvement; high in purchase involvement

D.

low in product involvement; low in purchase involvement

E.

low in product involvement; high in purchase involvement

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8. Very high levels of purchase involvement tend to produce _____.

A.

extended decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

affective decision making

D.

limited decision making

E.

none of the above

9. Emma noticed that she was almost out of gas, so she pulled into the nearest gas station and filled
up her tank. Emma's decision on which gas to purchase is characterized by _____.

A.

a high level of cognitive processing

B.

a low level of purchase involvement

C.

limited decision making

D.

extended decision making

E.

a high level of affective processing

10. Which type of consumer decision making only includes the stages of problem recognition, limited
internal information search, purchase, and limited postpurchase behavior?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

normal decision making

C.

limited decision making

D.

extended decision making

E.

simple decision making

11. Which type of consumer decision making does NOT include alternative evaluation?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.

limited decision making

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12. Which type of consumer decision making includes only a limited internal information search and
no external search for information?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.

limited decision making

13. Which type of consumer decision making includes the evaluation of only a few attributes, simple
decision rules, and few alternatives?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.

limited decision making

14. Which type of consumer decision making involves the evaluation of many attributes and
alternatives and employs complex decision rules?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.

limited decision making

15. Which type of decision making process in effect involves no decision per se?

A.

simple decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

automatic decision making

E.

default decision making

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16. Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as _____.

A.

habitual decision making

B.

routine decision making

C.

simple decision making

D.

automatic decision making

E.

default decision making

17. A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of _____.

A.
B.
C.

information
problem recognition
the "do not purchase" alternative

D.

purchase evaluation

E.

all of the above

18. Nominal decisions can be broken into which two distinct categories?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

brand loyal decisions and repeat purchase decisions


primary decisions and secondary decisions
high involvement decisions and low involvement decisions
expensive decisions and inexpensive decisions
first purchase decisions and repeat purchase decisions

19. Which type of nominal decision is characterized by a fairly high degree of product involvement but
a low degree of purchase involvement?

A.

routine decision

B.

inexpensive decision

C.

primary decision

D.

brand loyal decision

E.

low visibility decision

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20. Brad was out of soft drinks in his dorm room, so he went to the store and purchased Coke. This is
the brand he always buys, and he would not even consider purchasing another brand. Which type
of nominal decision does this illustrate?

A.

routine decision

B.

repeat purchase decision

C.

primary decision

D.
E.

brand loyal decision


low visibility decision

21. Which type of nominal decision is characterized by a consumer believing that all brands within a
given product category are about the same and not attaching much importance to the product
category or purchase?

A.

routine decision

B.

repeat purchase decision

C.

secondary decision

D.

inconsequential decision

E.

indifferent decision

22. Rita is doing her family's grocery shopping and purchases ice cream. She's purchased Blue Bell
ice cream before and purchases it again. She's not committed to this brand; it's just that she and
her family like it. Which type of nominal decision is this?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

inconsequential decision
indifferent decision
automatic decision
repeat purchase decision
secondary decision

23. Which type of decision making involves internal and external search, few alternatives, simple
decision rules on a few attributes, and little postpurchase evaluation?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

routine decision making

C.

limited decision making

D.

partial decision making

E.

extended decision making

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24. Which type of decision making covers the middle ground between nominal and extended decision
making?

A.

limited decision making

B.

partial decision making

C.

mid-range decision making

D.

modified decision making

E.

internal decision making

25. Which type of decision making involves recognizing a problem for which there are several
possible solutions?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

normal decision making

C.

alternate decision making

D.

modified decision making

E.

limited decision making

26. Marla is bored with her cell phone. She wants to purchase a new one that has cool ring tones and
can take a picture. She's not going to conduct a big search for a new phone as she's just going to
consider a few others. Which type of decision making is this?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

limited decision making

C.

extensive decision making

D.

extended decision making

E.

truncated decision making

27. Which type of decision making involves an extensive internal and external information search
followed by a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives and significant postpurchase
evaluation?

A.

limited decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

complex decision making

E.

complete decision making

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28. The Smith's oldest daughter, Olivia, is a senior in high school. She has all "A's" and scored a 34
on the ACT. She is president of the debate team and the national honor society as well as a
member of the cheerleading squad. Olivia wants to attend medical school, so both she and her
parents are very concerned about which undergraduate school she attends. They have spent
countless hours on the Internet examining universities, and they have already visited five
campuses. For Olivia and her parents, which type of decision making does this represent?

A.

limited decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

complex decision making

E.

complete decision making

29. _____ is the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state that is sufficient
to arouse and activate the decision process.

A.

Alternative evaluation

B.

Problem recognition

C.

Information search

D.

Purchase

E.

Postpurchase evaluation

30. Tess noticed that she was almost out of shampoo. Which stage of the decision process will this
observation activate?

A.

problem recognition

B.

information search

C.

alternative evaluation

D.

postpurchase evaluation

E.

dissonance

31. A(n) _____ is the way an individual perceives his or her feelings and situation to be at the present
time.

A.

current state

B.

actual state

C.

desired state

D.

self-concept

E.

self-assessment

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32. Bessie is at the grocery store and is trying to remember some of the things she needs to buy. She
is in the cleaning products aisle looking at the floor cleaning products. She's pretty sure she has
another bottle left at home, so she doesn't purchase another. Bessie's perception of her current
situation regarding this product reflects her ____.

A.

current state

B.

desired state

C.

actual state

D.

self-concept

E.

self-assessment

33. A(n) _____ is the way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time.

A.

current state

B.

desired state

C.

actual state

D.
E.

ideal state
idolized state

34. Candice is on a diet and wants to lose 10 pounds. She wants to be thin right now, which
represents her _____.

A.
B.
C.

actual state
ideal state
healthy state

D.

desired state

E.

future state

35. Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding problem recognition?

A. Problem recognition is the first stage in the consumer decision process.


B. Only when the desired state is greater than the actual state will a problem exist.
C. Problem recognition is the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state
that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process.
D. Without recognition of a problem, there is no need for a decision.
E.

All of the above are true regarding problem recognition.

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36. Which of the following drives problem recognition?

A.

the consumer's perception of the actual state

B.

objective reality of the consumer's actual state

C.

the amount of information available

D.

the number of alternatives from which to choice

E.

others' perception of an individual's actual state

37. The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on which factors?

A. the consumer's perception of his or her actual state and the desired state
B. the length of time required to make a decision and the level of purchase involvement
C. the magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states and the relative
importance of the problem
D. the degree of brand loyalty and the amount of time required to make a decision
E. the direction of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states and the relative
importance of the purchase
38. Relative importance of a problem is determined by which of the following?

A. how critical the problem is to the maintenance of the consumer's desired lifestyle
B.

how critical the problem is to others

C. the magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states
D. the magnitude of the discrepancy between the actual self-concept and the ideal self-concept
E.

the level of risk associated with the decision process

39. What are the types of consumer problems?

A.

latent and manifest

B.

primary and secondary

C.

low involvement and high involvement

D.

active and inactive

E.

actual and perceived

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40. Which type of consumer problem is one the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in the
normal course of events?

A.
B.

latent
manifest

C.

active

D.

inactive

E.

blatant

41. Many elderly consumers have problems with arthritis. This painful condition makes it almost
impossible for them to open jars or medicine containers because the joints in their fingers are so
stiff. Which type of consumer problem is this?

A.
B.

latent
manifest

C.

active

D.

inactive

E.

blatant

42. Which type of consumer problem is one of which the consumer is not aware?

A.
B.

latent
manifest

C.

active

D.

inactive

E.

blatant

43. The Martins' home has potentially unsafe levels of radon, but they have no idea because it is
odorless and they have not been feeling any ill effects from it. In fact, several homes have this
problem and the owners are not aware of it, and they may never become aware of it unless
testing is done. What type of consumer problem is this?

A.
B.

latent
manifest

C.
D.
E.

active
inactive
dangerous

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44. Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding active and inactive consumer problems?

A. Active problems require the marketer only to convince consumers that its brand is the superior
solution.
B. Active and inactive problems do not require different marketing strategies.
C. An active problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.
D. Even though a consumer is aware of it, an inactive problem is one that he or she has no desire
to rectify.
E.

Active problems are more serious than inactive ones.

45. Which of the following is a nonmarketing factor affecting problem recognition?

A.

social status

B.

previous decisions

C.

motives

D.

situation

E.

all of the above

46. Which nonmarketing factor affects a consumer's desired state?

A.

culture/subculture

B.

normal depletion

C.

product/brand performance

D.

availability of products

E.

all of the above

47. All EXCEPT which of the following nonmarketing factors affect consumers' desired state?

A.

reference group

B.

household characteristics

C.

normal depletion

D.
E.

financial status/expectations
culture

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48. Which of the following is a nonmarketing factor affecting consumers' actual state?

A.

social status

B.

household characteristics

C.

product/brand performance

D.

motives

E.

culture

49. All EXCEPT which of the following nonmarketing factors affect a consumer's actual state?

A.

past decisions

B.

normal depletion

C.

product/brand performance

D.
E.

reference group
availability of products

50. What has research revealed regarding consumers' variety-seeking behavior?

A. Once a consumer tries another brand, there is a high probably that he or she will not return to
the previous brand.
B.

Consumers usually switch to options within the same brand.

C. Consumers are unwilling to switch to options within the brand.


D. Consumers are more likely to become bored on sensory attributes such as taste.
E. Consumers are more likely to become bored with non-sensory attributes such as brand name.
51. James likes to eat a strawberry Pop-Tart for breakfast before school. After about two weeks of
this, he starts to get bored with that and switches to waffles. James is displaying which type of
behavior?

A.

variety-seeking

B.

brand-switching

C.

entertainment

D.

limited search

E.

extended search

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52. Which of the following is a concern marketing managers have related to problem recognition?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

discovering consumer problems


developing the marketing mix to solve consumer problems
helping consumers recognize problems
suppressing problem recognition among consumers
all of the above

53. What is the most common approach to discovering consumer problems?

A.
B.

activity analysis
intuition

C.

product analysis

D.

problem analysis

E.

qualitative research

54. Rudy is a product category manager for a major consumer packaged goods manufacturer. Part of
his job requires that he analyze a given product category and logically determine where
improvements could be made. Rudy has determined several consumer problems this way. Which
of the following best describes how Rudy uncovers consumer problems?

A.
B.

activity analysis
intuition

C.

product analysis

D.

problem analysis

E.

qualitative research

55. Which online environment option is a growing source of potential consumer feedback and input?

A.

surveys

B.
C.
D.
E.

blogs
Facebook
Twitter
B, C, and D

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56. Some companies attempt to initiate problem recognition through ______.

A.
B.

mass media advertising


focus groups

C.

content analysis

D.

point-of-purchase displays

E.

A and D

57. Radian6 is a leader in the field of ______.

A.

social media measurement

B.

focus group moderating

C.

product development

D.
E.

consumer problem discovery


A and D

58. Which of the following is an approach to problem identification?

A.

activity and product analysis

B.

human factors research

C.

problem analysis

D.

emotion research

E.

all of the above

59. Which approach to problem identification focuses on a particular activity such as lawn
maintenance?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

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60. Kim was participating in a group discussion centered on the participants' problems encountered
while taking care of their hair. Which approach to problem identification is this?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

61. Which approach to problem recognition examines the purchase or use of a particular product or
brand?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

62. A manufacturer of a digital music player asked several consumers the problems associated with
using these types of products. Several consumers said that they had trouble downloading music
onto their computers and then onto their music players. Which approach to problem recognition is
this marketer using?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

63. Which approach to problem recognition starts with a problem and asks respondents to indicate
which activities, products, or brands are associated with (or perhaps could eliminate) those
problems?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

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64. A food manufacturer asked a group of working mothers to think about the problem of serving
nutritious meals to their families given their time constraints and to indicate what activities,
products, or brands are associated with, or perhaps could eliminate, those problems. This
manufacturer is using which approach to problem recognition?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

65. Which approach to problem recognition attempts to determine human capabilities in areas such
as vision, strength, response time, flexibility, and fatigue and the effect on these capabilities of
lighting, temperature, and sound?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

66. The manager of a bank branch is concerned about the number of mistakes the tellers were
making, so he started manipulating different aspects of the environment in the bank to see what
effect each has on the tellers' performance. He examined factors such as the lighting,
temperature, and the volume of the music playing in the bank. Which approach to problem
recognition is this manager using?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

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67. Which approach to problem recognition examines emotions associated with certain problems?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

68. One retailer asked a group of consumers the types of emotions they experience in both positive
and negative retail situations. The purpose of this research was to uncover consumer reactions to
various situations so that clerks could be trained to respond appropriately. Which approach to
problem recognition is this?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.

emotion research

69. Two basic approaches to causing problem recognition are _____.

A.

generic problem recognition and selective problem recognition

B.

active problem recognition and inactive problem recognition

C.

actual problem recognition and desired problem recognition

D. perceived problem recognition and objective problem recognition


E. primary problem recognition and secondary problem recognition
70. Which problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.

primary problem recognition

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71. Campbell's soup used several advertising campaigns that stressed the benefits of soup in
general. For example, one tagline used was "Soup is good food," and another was "Never
underestimate the power of soup." Which type of problem recognition was Campbell's attempting
to stimulate?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.

primary problem recognition

72. Which condition is appropriate to attempt to influence generic problem recognition?

A.
B.

It is early in the product life cycle.


The firm has a high percentage of the market.

C. External search after problem recognition is apt to be limited.


D.

It is an industry-wide cooperative effort.

E. All of the above are appropriate to attempt to influence generic problem recognition.
73. Which of the following is NOT an appropriate condition to attempt to influence generic problem
recognition?

A.
B.

It is early in the product life cycle.


The firm has a small percentage of the market.

C. External search after problem recognition is apt to be limited.


D.

It is an industry-wide cooperative effort.

E. All of the above are appropriate conditions to attempt to influence generic problem recognition.
74. Which problem recognition involves a discrepancy that only one brand can solve?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.

primary problem recognition

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75. An advertisement for Topol toothpaste, which is targeted at smokers and coffee and wine
drinkers, stresses how this is the only brand that can remove the stains associated with these
consumption behaviors. Which type of problem recognition is this marketer attempting to
stimulate?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.

primary problem recognition

76. A firm that introduces a new line of non-fat snack food due to increasing consumer concern with
health is _____.

A.

activating problem recognition

B.

reacting to problem recognition

C.

suppressing problem recognition

D.

triggering problem recognition

E.

none of the above

77. Effective quality control and distribution and package inserts that assure the consumer of the
wisdom of their purchase are attempts at _____.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

responding to consumer problems


helping consumers recognize problems
discovering consumer problems
diverting consumers' attention away from problems
suppressing problem recognition

True / False Questions


78. Problem recognition is the first stage of the consumer decision process.
True

False

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79. If purchase involvement is high, then enduring product involvement will also be high.
True

False

80. The three types of decision making are rebuy, limited, and extended.
True

False

81. Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as habitual decision making.


True

False

82. Two distinct categories of nominal decision making are brand loyal decisions and repeat purchase
decisions.
True

False

83. Problem recognition is the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state
that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process.
True

False

84. When a consumer's actual state is perceived as being greater than the desired state, recognition
of a problem does not occur.
True

False

85. The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on two factors: the actual state
and the desired state.
True

False

86. A latent problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.


True

False

87. A consumer's desired state can be influenced by previous decisions.


True

False

88. Variety-seeking behavior is a challenge to marketers because it means the consumers switch
brands for reasons beyond a company's control.
True

False

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89. One difficulty with using intuition alone to identify consumer problems is that it is a complex
research technique that requires extensive training.
True

False

90. Approaches to discovering consumer problems include activity analysis, product analysis,
problem analysis, human factors research, and emotion research.
True

False

91. Universal problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce.
True

False

92. Attempts to influence generic problem recognition are appropriate for brands that have a high
market share.
True

False

93. Firms attempt to cause selective problem recognition to gain or maintain market share.
True

False

Essay Questions
94. Name and describe the three types of consumer decision making, and discuss the factor that
influences the type consumers will use.

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95. Explain what is meant by the term "problem recognition."

96. Joan currently drives a Toyota automobile, and it has been a very reliable car. However, she
desires to own a BMW, but her finances cannot support such a purchase because she has to pay
her mortgage, utilities, and her son's college tuition. Explain the two factors that affect one's
desire to resolve a particular problem, and specify which one most likely is influencing Joan's
inaction to resolve this discrepancy between her actual state and her desired state.

97. List the four concerns marketing managers have related to problem recognition.

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98. Alex is a brand manager tasked with discovering consumer problems related to the several
products and brands his company manufactures. Name and describe three of the several
approaches discussed in the chapter that he could use to identify consumer problems.

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Chapter 14 Consumer Decision Process and Problem Recognition


Answer Key

Multiple Choice Questions


1.

Consumer-to-consumer solutions to "problems they never knew they had" have accelerated
due to the rise of _____.

A.

social media like Pinterest

B.

crowd sourcing like Kickstarter

C.
D.

peer innovation like Quirky


all of the above

E.
none of the above
Crowdsourcing like Kickstarter facilitates the development of such consumer-to-consumer
solutions.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Consumer Decision Process and Problem Recognition

2.

What is the first stage of the consumer decision process?

A.

information search

B.

problem recognition

C.

alternative evaluation

D.

purchase

E.
postpurchase behavior
Consumer decisions are frequently the result of a single problem.

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Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

14-25
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3.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding consumer decisions and the consumer
decision process?

A. The decision process model provides useful insight into all types of consumer purchases.
B.

Consumer decisions are frequently the result of a single problem.

C. Consumer decisions are rational and functional; otherwise they do not involve decisions
per se.
D.

Some consumer decisions result from the convergence of several problems.

E. Once the decision process begins, it may evolve and become more complex with multiple
goals.
The types of decision processes are not distinct but rather blend into each other.

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Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

4.

Which of the following is(are) a type of consumer decision making discussed in your text?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

limited decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

B and C

E.
A, B, and C
Nominal, limited, and extended decision making are types of decision processes.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

14-26
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5.

Which of the following is NOT a type of consumer decision making discussed in your text?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

extended decision making

C.

complex decision making

D.

limited decision making

E.
All of the above are types of decision making.
Nominal, limited, and extended decision making are types of decision processes.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

6.

The level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process triggered by the need to consider
a particular purchase is known as _____.

A.

personal involvement

B.

product involvement

C.

purchase involvement

D.

enduring involvement

E.
activated involvement
Purchase involvement is triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase.

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Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

14-27
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7.

Blake doesn't much care about cars but is engaging in a substantial amount of information
search about cars because he is about to buy a new car. In terms of involvement, Blake is
_____.

A.

high in product involvement; low in purchase involvement

B.

high in value-expressive involvement; low in product involvement

C.

high in product involvement; high in purchase involvement

D.

low in product involvement; low in purchase involvement

E.
low in product involvement; high in purchase involvement
The level of product and purchase involvement can vary depending on the product.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

8.

Very high levels of purchase involvement tend to produce _____.

A.

extended decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

affective decision making

D.

limited decision making

E.
none of the above
Extended decision making is the response to a high level of purchase involvement.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Extended Decision Making

14-28
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9.

Emma noticed that she was almost out of gas, so she pulled into the nearest gas station and
filled up her tank. Emma's decision on which gas to purchase is characterized by _____.

A.

a high level of cognitive processing

B.

a low level of purchase involvement

C.

limited decision making

D.

extended decision making

E.
a high level of affective processing
A low level of purchase involvement involves no decision per se.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

10.

Which type of consumer decision making only includes the stages of problem recognition,
limited internal information search, purchase, and limited postpurchase behavior?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

normal decision making

C.

limited decision making

D.

extended decision making

E.
simple decision making
A completely nominal decision does not include consideration of the "do not purchase"
alternative.

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Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-29
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11.

Which type of consumer decision making does NOT include alternative evaluation?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.
limited decision making
Nominal decision making does not include alternative evaluation.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

12.

Which type of consumer decision making includes only a limited internal information search
and no external search for information?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.
limited decision making
Nominal decision making involves no decision per se.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-30
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13.

Which type of consumer decision making includes the evaluation of only a few attributes,
simple decision rules, and few alternatives?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.
limited decision making
Limited decision making includes the evaluation of only a few attributes, simple decision rules,
and few alternatives.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Limited Decision Making

14.

Which type of consumer decision making involves the evaluation of many attributes and
alternatives and employs complex decision rules?

A.

routine decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

simple decision making

E.
limited decision making
Extended decision making involves the evaluation of many attributes and alternatives and
employs complex decision rules.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Extended Decision Making

14-31
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15.

Which type of decision making process in effect involves no decision per se?

A.

simple decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

automatic decision making

E.
default decision making
Nominal decision making involves no decision per se.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

16.

Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as _____.

A.

habitual decision making

B.

routine decision making

C.

simple decision making

D.

automatic decision making

E.
default decision making
Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as habitual decision making.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-32
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17.

A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of _____.

A.

information

B.

problem recognition

C.
D.

the "do not purchase" alternative


purchase evaluation

E.
all of the above
A completely nominal decision does not even include consideration of the "do not purchase"
alternative.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

18.

Nominal decisions can be broken into which two distinct categories?

A.
B.
C.
D.

brand loyal decisions and repeat purchase decisions


primary decisions and secondary decisions
high involvement decisions and low involvement decisions
expensive decisions and inexpensive decisions

E.
first purchase decisions and repeat purchase decisions
Nominal decisions can be broken into two distinct categories: brand loyal decisions and repeat
purchase decisions.

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Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-33
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19.

Which type of nominal decision is characterized by a fairly high degree of product involvement
but a low degree of purchase involvement?

A.
B.
C.
D.

routine decision
inexpensive decision
primary decision
brand loyal decision

E.
low visibility decision
A brand loyal decision is characterized by a fairly high degree of product involvement but a low
degree of purchase involvement.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

20.

Brad was out of soft drinks in his dorm room, so he went to the store and purchased Coke.
This is the brand he always buys, and he would not even consider purchasing another brand.
Which type of nominal decision does this illustrate?

A.

routine decision

B.

repeat purchase decision

C.

primary decision

D.

brand loyal decision

E.
low visibility decision
A brand loyal decision is characterized by a fairly high degree of product involvement but a low
degree of purchase involvement.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-34
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21.

Which type of nominal decision is characterized by a consumer believing that all brands within
a given product category are about the same and not attaching much importance to the
product category or purchase?

A.

routine decision

B.

repeat purchase decision

C.

secondary decision

D.

inconsequential decision

E.
indifferent decision
In a repeat purchase situation, the consumer believes all brands within a given product
category are about the same.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

22.

Rita is doing her family's grocery shopping and purchases ice cream. She's purchased Blue
Bell ice cream before and purchases it again. She's not committed to this brand; it's just that
she and her family like it. Which type of nominal decision is this?

A.

inconsequential decision

B.

indifferent decision

C.

automatic decision

D.

repeat purchase decision

E.
secondary decision
In a repeat purchase situation, the consumer believes all brands within a given product
category are about the same.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-35
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McGraw-Hill Education.

23.

Which type of decision making involves internal and external search, few alternatives, simple
decision rules on a few attributes, and little postpurchase evaluation?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

routine decision making

C.

limited decision making

D.

partial decision making

E.
extended decision making
Limited decision making includes the evaluation of only a few attributes, simple decision rules,
and few alternatives.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Limited Decision Making

24.

Which type of decision making covers the middle ground between nominal and extended
decision making?

A.

limited decision making

B.

partial decision making

C.

mid-range decision making

D.

modified decision making

E.
internal decision making
Limited decision making covers the middle ground between nominal and extended decision
making.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Limited Decision Making

14-36
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

25.

Which type of decision making involves recognizing a problem for which there are several
possible solutions?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

normal decision making

C.

alternate decision making

D.

modified decision making

E.
limited decision making
In general, limited decision making involves recognizing a problem for which there are several
possible solutions.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Limited Decision Making

26.

Marla is bored with her cell phone. She wants to purchase a new one that has cool ring tones
and can take a picture. She's not going to conduct a big search for a new phone as she's just
going to consider a few others. Which type of decision making is this?

A.

nominal decision making

B.

limited decision making

C.

extensive decision making

D.

extended decision making

E.
truncated decision making
Limited decision making can occur in response to some emotional or situational needs.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Limited Decision Making

14-37
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

27.

Which type of decision making involves an extensive internal and external information search
followed by a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives and significant postpurchase
evaluation?

A.

limited decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

complex decision making

E.
complete decision making
Extended decision making involves the evaluation of many attributes and alternatives and
employs complex decision rules.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Extended Decision Making

28.

The Smith's oldest daughter, Olivia, is a senior in high school. She has all "A's" and scored a
34 on the ACT. She is president of the debate team and the national honor society as well as a
member of the cheerleading squad. Olivia wants to attend medical school, so both she and her
parents are very concerned about which undergraduate school she attends. They have spent
countless hours on the Internet examining universities, and they have already visited five
campuses. For Olivia and her parents, which type of decision making does this represent?

A.

limited decision making

B.

nominal decision making

C.

extended decision making

D.

complex decision making

E.
complete decision making
Extended decision making involves the evaluation of many attributes and alternatives and
employs complex decision rules.

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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Extended Decision Making

14-38
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
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29.

_____ is the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state that is
sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process.

A.

Alternative evaluation

B.

Problem recognition

C.

Information search

D.

Purchase

E.
Postpurchase evaluation
Without recognition of a problem, there is no need for a decision.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

30.

Tess noticed that she was almost out of shampoo. Which stage of the decision process will
this observation activate?

A.

problem recognition

B.

information search

C.

alternative evaluation

D.

postpurchase evaluation

E.
dissonance
Without recognition of a problem, there is no need for a decision.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-39
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31.

A(n) _____ is the way an individual perceives his or her feelings and situation to be at the
present time.

A.

current state

B.

actual state

C.

desired state

D.

self-concept

E.
self-assessment
An actual state is the way an individual perceives his or her feelings and situation to be at the
present time.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

32.

Bessie is at the grocery store and is trying to remember some of the things she needs to buy.
She is in the cleaning products aisle looking at the floor cleaning products. She's pretty sure
she has another bottle left at home, so she doesn't purchase another. Bessie's perception of
her current situation regarding this product reflects her ____.

A.

current state

B.

desired state

C.

actual state

D.

self-concept

E.
self-assessment
An actual state is the way an individual perceives his or her feelings and situation to be at the
present time.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-40
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33.

A(n) _____ is the way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time.

A.

current state

B.

desired state

C.

actual state

D.

ideal state

E.
idolized state
A desired state is the way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

34.

Candice is on a diet and wants to lose 10 pounds. She wants to be thin right now, which
represents her _____.

A.

actual state

B.

ideal state

C.

healthy state

D.

desired state

E.
future state
A desired state is the way an individual wants to feel or be at the present time.

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Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-41
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35.

Which of the following statements is FALSE regarding problem recognition?

A.

Problem recognition is the first stage in the consumer decision process.

B. Only when the desired state is greater than the actual state will a problem exist.
C. Problem recognition is the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual
state that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process.
D.

Without recognition of a problem, there is no need for a decision.

E.
All of the above are true regarding problem recognition.
Only when the actual state is greater than the desired state will a problem exist.

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Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

36.

Which of the following drives problem recognition?

A.

the consumer's perception of the actual state

B.

objective reality of the consumer's actual state

C.
D.

the amount of information available


the number of alternatives from which to choice

E.
others' perception of an individual's actual state
It is the consumer's perception of the actual state that drives problem recognition, not some
objective reality.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-42
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37.

The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on which factors?

A.

the consumer's perception of his or her actual state and the desired state

B. the length of time required to make a decision and the level of purchase involvement
C. the magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states and the relative
importance of the problem
D. the degree of brand loyalty and the amount of time required to make a decision
E. the direction of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states and the relative
importance of the purchase
The discrepancy must be large enough to motivate the consumer to proceed to the next step in
the decision process.

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Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

38.

Relative importance of a problem is determined by which of the following?

A. how critical the problem is to the maintenance of the consumer's desired lifestyle
B.
C.

how critical the problem is to others


the magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states

D. the magnitude of the discrepancy between the actual self-concept and the ideal selfconcept
E.
the level of risk associated with the decision process
A large discrepancy may exist and the consumer may not proceed to information search
because the relative importance of the problem is small.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-43
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McGraw-Hill Education.

39.

What are the types of consumer problems?

A.

latent and manifest

B.

primary and secondary

C.
D.

low involvement and high involvement


active and inactive

E.
actual and perceived
An active problem is one the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in the normal
course of events; an inactive problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

40.

Which type of consumer problem is one the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in
the normal course of events?

A.
B.
C.
D.

latent
manifest
active
inactive

E.
blatant
Active problems require the marketer only to convince consumers that its brand is the superior
solution.

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Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

14-44
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41.

Many elderly consumers have problems with arthritis. This painful condition makes it almost
impossible for them to open jars or medicine containers because the joints in their fingers are
so stiff. Which type of consumer problem is this?

A.
B.
C.
D.

latent
manifest
active
inactive

E.
blatant
An active problem is problem is one the consumer is aware of or will become aware of in the
normal course of events.

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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

42.

Which type of consumer problem is one of which the consumer is not aware?

A.
B.
C.
D.

latent
manifest
active
inactive

E.
blatant
An inactive problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.

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Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

14-45
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43.

The Martins' home has potentially unsafe levels of radon, but they have no idea because it is
odorless and they have not been feeling any ill effects from it. In fact, several homes have this
problem and the owners are not aware of it, and they may never become aware of it unless
testing is done. What type of consumer problem is this?

A.
B.
C.
D.

latent
manifest
active
inactive

E.
dangerous
An inactive problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.

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Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

44.

Which of the following statements is TRUE regarding active and inactive consumer problems?

A. Active problems require the marketer only to convince consumers that its brand is the
superior solution.
B.
C.

Active and inactive problems do not require different marketing strategies.


An active problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.

D. Even though a consumer is aware of it, an inactive problem is one that he or she has no
desire to rectify.
E.
Active problems are more serious than inactive ones.
Active problems require the marketer only to convince consumers that its brand is the superior
solution.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

14-46
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

45.

Which of the following is a nonmarketing factor affecting problem recognition?

A.

social status

B.

previous decisions

C.
D.

motives
situation

E.
all of the above
Social status, previous decisions, motives, and situation are all nonmarketing factors affecting
problem recognition.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

46.

Which nonmarketing factor affects a consumer's desired state?

A.

culture/subculture

B.

normal depletion

C.

product/brand performance

D.

availability of products

E.
all of the above
Culture/subculture is one of the nonmarketing factors affecting a consumer's desired state.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

14-47
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

47.

All EXCEPT which of the following nonmarketing factors affect consumers' desired state?

A.

reference group

B.

household characteristics

C.

normal depletion

D.

financial status/expectations

E.
culture
Normal depletion is a nonmarketing factor that affects a consumer's actual state.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

48.

Which of the following is a nonmarketing factor affecting consumers' actual state?

A.

social status

B.

household characteristics

C.

product/brand performance

D.

motives

E.
culture
Product/brand performance is a nonmarketing factor affecting consumers' actual state.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

14-48
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

49.

All EXCEPT which of the following nonmarketing factors affect a consumer's actual state?

A.

past decisions

B.

normal depletion

C.

product/brand performance

D.

reference group

E.
availability of products
Reference group is a nonmarketing factor that affects a consumer's desired state.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

50.

What has research revealed regarding consumers' variety-seeking behavior?

A. Once a consumer tries another brand, there is a high probably that he or she will not return
to the previous brand.
B.

Consumers usually switch to options within the same brand.

C.

Consumers are unwilling to switch to options within the brand.

D. Consumers are more likely to become bored on sensory attributes such as taste.
E. Consumers are more likely to become bored with non-sensory attributes such as brand
name.
Consumers get tired of food items such as cereal, not because they don't like the brand but
because, from a sensory (taste) standpoint, they get bored.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

14-49
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

51.

James likes to eat a strawberry Pop-Tart for breakfast before school. After about two weeks of
this, he starts to get bored with that and switches to waffles. James is displaying which type of
behavior?

A.

variety-seeking

B.

brand-switching

C.

entertainment

D.

limited search

E.
extended search
Consumers get tired of food items such as cereal, not because they don't like the brand but
because, from a sensory (taste) standpoint, they get bored.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

52.

Which of the following is a concern marketing managers have related to problem recognition?

A.
B.
C.
D.

discovering consumer problems


developing the marketing mix to solve consumer problems
helping consumers recognize problems
suppressing problem recognition among consumers

E.
all of the above
Marketing managers have four concerns related to problem recognition.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Marketing Strategy and Problem Recognition

14-50
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

53.

What is the most common approach to discovering consumer problems?

A.
B.

activity analysis
intuition

C.

product analysis

D.

problem analysis

E.
qualitative research
Intuition is the most common approach to discovering consumer problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

54.

Rudy is a product category manager for a major consumer packaged goods manufacturer.
Part of his job requires that he analyze a given product category and logically determine where
improvements could be made. Rudy has determined several consumer problems this way.
Which of the following best describes how Rudy uncovers consumer problems?

A.
B.

activity analysis
intuition

C.

product analysis

D.

problem analysis

E.
qualitative research
Although it comes from Rudy's logical analysis, it represents one individual's assessment
based on intuition.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-51
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

55.

Which online environment option is a growing source of potential consumer feedback and
input?

A.

surveys

B.
C.
D.

blogs
Facebook
Twitter

E.
B, C, and D
Online and social media outlets such as blogs, Facebook, and Twitter are a growing source of
potential consumer feedback and input.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

56.

Some companies attempt to initiate problem recognition through ______.

A.

mass media advertising

B.

focus groups

C.

content analysis

D.

point-of-purchase displays

E.
A and D
Retailers as well as manufacturers are involved in these activities.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

14-52
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

57.

Radian6 is a leader in the field of ______.

A.

social media measurement

B.

focus group moderating

C.

product development

D.

consumer problem discovery

E.
A and D
Radian6 is a leader in the field of social measurement and offers proprietary solutions to help
companies with consumer problem discovery.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

58.

Which of the following is an approach to problem identification?

A.

activity and product analysis

B.

human factors research

C.

problem analysis

D.

emotion research

E.
all of the above
Numerous research approaches exist for uncovering consumer problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-53
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

59.

Which approach to problem identification focuses on a particular activity such as lawn


maintenance?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Activity analysis is an approach to problem identification that focuses on a particular activity.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

60.

Kim was participating in a group discussion centered on the participants' problems


encountered while taking care of their hair. Which approach to problem identification is this?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Activity analysis is an approach to problem identification that focuses on a particular activity.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-54
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

61.

Which approach to problem recognition examines the purchase or use of a particular product
or brand?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Product analysis examines the purchase or use of a particular product or brand.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

62.

A manufacturer of a digital music player asked several consumers the problems associated
with using these types of products. Several consumers said that they had trouble downloading
music onto their computers and then onto their music players. Which approach to problem
recognition is this marketer using?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Product analysis examines the purchase or use of a particular product or brand.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-55
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

63.

Which approach to problem recognition starts with a problem and asks respondents to indicate
which activities, products, or brands are associated with (or perhaps could eliminate) those
problems?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Problem analysis starts with a problem and asks respondents to indicate which activities,
products, or brands are associated with (or perhaps could eliminate) those problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

64.

A food manufacturer asked a group of working mothers to think about the problem of serving
nutritious meals to their families given their time constraints and to indicate what activities,
products, or brands are associated with, or perhaps could eliminate, those problems. This
manufacturer is using which approach to problem recognition?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Problem analysis starts with a problem and asks respondents to indicate which activities,
products, or brands are associated with (or perhaps could eliminate) those problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-56
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

65.

Which approach to problem recognition attempts to determine human capabilities in areas


such as vision, strength, response time, flexibility, and fatigue and the effect on these
capabilities of lighting, temperature, and sound?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Human factors research attempts to determine human capabilities in areas such as vision,
strength, response time, flexibility, and fatigue and the effect on these capabilities of lighting,
temperature, and sound.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

66.

The manager of a bank branch is concerned about the number of mistakes the tellers were
making, so he started manipulating different aspects of the environment in the bank to see
what effect each has on the tellers' performance. He examined factors such as the lighting,
temperature, and the volume of the music playing in the bank. Which approach to problem
recognition is this manager using?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Human factors research attempts to determine human capabilities in areas such as vision,
strength, response time, flexibility, and fatigue and the effect on these capabilities of lighting,
temperature, and sound.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-57
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

67.

Which approach to problem recognition examines emotions associated with certain problems?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Emotion research examines emotions associated with certain problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

68.

One retailer asked a group of consumers the types of emotions they experience in both
positive and negative retail situations. The purpose of this research was to uncover consumer
reactions to various situations so that clerks could be trained to respond appropriately. Which
approach to problem recognition is this?

A.

activity analysis

B.

product analysis

C.

problem analysis

D.

human factors research

E.
emotion research
Emotion research examines emotions associated with certain problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-58
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

69.

Two basic approaches to causing problem recognition are _____.

A.

generic problem recognition and selective problem recognition

B.

active problem recognition and inactive problem recognition

C.

actual problem recognition and desired problem recognition

D.

perceived problem recognition and objective problem recognition

E. primary problem recognition and secondary problem recognition


These approaches are analogous to the economic concepts of generic and selective demand.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

70.

Which problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.
primary problem recognition
Generic problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

14-59
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

71.

Campbell's soup used several advertising campaigns that stressed the benefits of soup in
general. For example, one tagline used was "Soup is good food," and another was "Never
underestimate the power of soup." Which type of problem recognition was Campbell's
attempting to stimulate?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.
primary problem recognition
Generic problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

72.

Which condition is appropriate to attempt to influence generic problem recognition?

A.
B.
C.
D.

It is early in the product life cycle.


The firm has a high percentage of the market.
External search after problem recognition is apt to be limited.
It is an industry-wide cooperative effort.

E. All of the above are appropriate to attempt to influence generic problem recognition.
A firm will attempt to influence generic problem recognition when the problem is latent or of low
importance and one of four conditions exists.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

14-60
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

73.

Which of the following is NOT an appropriate condition to attempt to influence generic problem
recognition?

A.
B.
C.
D.

It is early in the product life cycle.


The firm has a small percentage of the market.
External search after problem recognition is apt to be limited.
It is an industry-wide cooperative effort.

E. All of the above are appropriate conditions to attempt to influence generic problem
recognition.
A smaller firm that generates generic problem recognition for its product category may be
generating more sales for its competitors than for itself.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

74.

Which problem recognition involves a discrepancy that only one brand can solve?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.
primary problem recognition
Firms attempt to cause selective problem recognition to gain or maintain market share.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

14-61
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

75.

An advertisement for Topol toothpaste, which is targeted at smokers and coffee and wine
drinkers, stresses how this is the only brand that can remove the stains associated with these
consumption behaviors. Which type of problem recognition is this marketer attempting to
stimulate?

A.

generic problem recognition

B.

selective problem recognition

C.

active problem recognition

D.

inactive problem recognition

E.
primary problem recognition
Firms attempt to cause selective problem recognition to gain or maintain market share.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

76.

A firm that introduces a new line of non-fat snack food due to increasing consumer concern
with health is _____.

A.

activating problem recognition

B.

reacting to problem recognition

C.

suppressing problem recognition

D.

triggering problem recognition

E.
none of the above
Marketers attempt to help consumers solve problems after they arise.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

14-62
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

77.

Effective quality control and distribution and package inserts that assure the consumer of the
wisdom of their purchase are attempts at _____.

A.
B.
C.
D.

responding to consumer problems


helping consumers recognize problems
discovering consumer problems
diverting consumers' attention away from problems

E.
suppressing problem recognition
Marketers do not want their current customers to recognize problems with their brands.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Suppressing Problem Recognition

True / False Questions


78.

Problem recognition is the first stage of the consumer decision process.


TRUE
Consumer decisions are frequently the result of a single problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

79.

If purchase involvement is high, then enduring product involvement will also be high.
FALSE
A consumer can be very involved with a brand or a product category, and yet have a very low
level of involvement with a particular purchase of that product.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
14-63
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

80.

The three types of decision making are rebuy, limited, and extended.
FALSE
Nominal, limited, and extended are the three types of decision making.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

81.

Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as habitual decision making.


TRUE
Nominal decision making is sometimes referred to as habitual decision making.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

82.

Two distinct categories of nominal decision making are brand loyal decisions and repeat
purchase decisions.
TRUE
Nominal decision making can be broken into brand loyal decisions and repeat purchase
decisions.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Nominal Decision Making

14-64
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

83.

Problem recognition is the result of a discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state
that is sufficient to arouse and activate the decision process.
TRUE
Without recognition of a problem, there is no need for a decision.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

84.

When a consumer's actual state is perceived as being greater than the desired state,
recognition of a problem does not occur.
FALSE
Any time the desired state is perceived as being greater than or less than the actual state, a
problem exists.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

85.

The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on two factors: the actual
state and the desired state.
FALSE
The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on the magnitude of the
discrepancy and the relative importance of the problem.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 3 Hard
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-65
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

86.

A latent problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.


FALSE
An inactive problem is one of which the consumer is not aware.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Problems

87.

A consumer's desired state can be influenced by previous decisions.


TRUE
Previous decisions can influence a consumer's desired state.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

88.

Variety-seeking behavior is a challenge to marketers because it means the consumers switch


brands for reasons beyond a company's control.
TRUE
Consumers are more likely to become bored on sensory attributes such as taste.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-03 Summarize the uncontrollable determinants of problem recognition
Topic: Uncontrollable Determinants of Problem Recognition

89.

One difficulty with using intuition alone to identify consumer problems is that it is a complex
research technique that requires extensive training.
FALSE
Intuition is relatively fast, inexpensive, and easy.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
14-66
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

90.

Approaches to discovering consumer problems include activity analysis, product analysis,


problem analysis, human factors research, and emotion research.
TRUE
Numerous research approaches exist for uncovering consumer problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

91.

Universal problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce.
FALSE
Generic problem recognition involves a discrepancy that a variety of brands within a product
category can reduce.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

92.

Attempts to influence generic problem recognition are appropriate for brands that have a high
market share.
TRUE
Attempts to influence generic problem recognition are appropriate for brands that have a high
market share.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

14-67
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

93.

Firms attempt to cause selective problem recognition to gain or maintain market share.
TRUE
Selective problem recognition involves a discrepancy that only one brand can solve.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Accessibility: Keyboard Navigation
Blooms: Remember
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Helping Consumers Recognize Problems

Essay Questions
94.

Name and describe the three types of consumer decision making, and discuss the factor that
influences the type consumers will use.

The three types of consumer decision making are nominal, limited, and extended. As the
consumer moves from a very low level of involvement with the purchase to a high level of
involvement, decision making becomes increasingly complex.
Purchase involvement is the level of concern for, or interest in, the purchase process
triggered by the need to consider a particular purchase. While purchase involvement is a
continuum, it is useful to consider nominal, limited, and extended decision making as general
descriptions of the types of processes that occur along various points along the continuum.
Nominal decision making, sometimes referred to as habitual decision making, in effect
involves no decision per se. A problem is recognized, internal search provides a single
preferred solution, that brand is purchased, and an evaluation occurs only if the brand fails to
perform as expected. Nominal decisions occur when there is very low involvement with the
purchase, and there are two distinct categories: brand loyal decisions and repeat purchase
decisions.
Limited decision making involves internal and limited external search, few alternatives,
simple decision rules on a few attributes, and little postpurchase evaluation. It covers the
middle ground between nominal decision making and extended decision making.
Extended decision making involves an extensive internal and external information search
followed by a complex evaluation of multiple alternatives and significant postpurchase
evaluation. It is the response to a high level of purchase involvement. After the purchase,
doubt about its correctness is likely and a thorough evaluation of the purchase takes place.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


14-68
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McGraw-Hill Education.

Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-01 Describe the impact of purchase involvement on the decision process
Topic: Types of Consumer Decisions

95.

Explain what is meant by the term "problem recognition."

Problem recognition is the first stage in the consumer decision process and is the result of a
discrepancy between a desired state and an actual state that is sufficient to arouse and
activate the decision process. An actual state is the way an individual perceives his or her
feelings and situation to be at the present time. A desired state is the way an individual wants
to feel or be at the present time. Any time the desired state is perceived as being greater than
or less than the actual state, a problem exists. It is important to note that it is the consumer's
perception of the actual state that drives problem recognition, not some objective reality.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

96.

Joan currently drives a Toyota automobile, and it has been a very reliable car. However, she
desires to own a BMW, but her finances cannot support such a purchase because she has to
pay her mortgage, utilities, and her son's college tuition. Explain the two factors that affect
one's desire to resolve a particular problem, and specify which one most likely is influencing
Joan's inaction to resolve this discrepancy between her actual state and her desired state.

The level of one's desire to resolve a particular problem depends on two factors: (a) the
magnitude of the discrepancy between the desired and actual states and (b) the relative
importance of the problem. Joan has an automobile that works just fine, so the magnitude of
the discrepancy is not large enough to spur her to action. However, if her car were damaged in
an accident, then the magnitude of the discrepancy would become much larger. To Joan, she
has other, more important financial commitments that preclude her from solving this problem.
Compared to her other more important problems, this one is perceived as relatively
unimportant.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-02 Explain problem recognition and how it fits into the consumer decision process
Topic: The Nature of Problem Recognition

14-69
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.

97.

List the four concerns marketing managers have related to problem recognition.

First, they need to know the problems consumers are facing. Second, they must know how to
develop the marketing mix to solve consumer problems. Third, managers occasionally want to
cause consumers to recognize problems. Finally, there are times when they desire to suppress
problem recognition among consumers.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 1 Easy
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Marketing Strategy and Problem Recognition

98.

Alex is a brand manager tasked with discovering consumer problems related to the several
products and brands his company manufactures. Name and describe three of the several
approaches discussed in the chapter that he could use to identify consumer problems.

There were five approaches discussed in the chapter, and students can discuss any three:
a. Activity analysisfocuses on a particular activity and attempts to determine what
problems consumers encounter during the performance of the activity.
b. Product analysissimilar to activity analysis but examines the purchase or use of a
particular product or brand.
c. Problem analysisstarts with a problem and asks respondents to indicate which activities,
products, or brands are associated with (or perhaps could eliminate) those problems.
d. Human factors researchattempts to determine human capabilities in areas such as
vision, strength, response time, flexibility, and fatigue and the effect on these capabilities of
lighting, temperature, and sound.
e. Emotion researchexamines the emotions associated with certain problems.

AACSB: Analytical Thinking


Blooms: Understand
Difficulty: 2 Medium
Learning Objective: 14-04 Discuss the role of consumer problems and problem recognition in marketing strategy
Topic: Discovering Consumer Problems

14-70
Copyright 2016 McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. No reproduction or distribution without the prior written consent of
McGraw-Hill Education.