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LTE RPESS

LTE Link Budget

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Module Objectives

After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

Understand link budgets and parameters

Understand planning margins

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Coverage Dimensioning

Introduction

DL Link Budget & Parameters

UL Link Budget & Parameters

Examples

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Introduction

Target of coverage dimensioning: Estimate Site Coverage Area (site count for given

area)

Service type

Target service probability

Initial site configuration

Equipment performance

Propagation environment

Link budget calculation: used for calculation of Site Coverage Area CA (km2)

Coverage Area

CA

Range

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Link budget

Target of the Link Budget calculation: estimate the maximum allowed path loss on radio path

from transmit antenna to receive antenna

The minimum SINR requirement is achieved with the maximum allowed path loss and

transmit power both in UL & DL

The maximum Path Loss can be used to calculate cell range

Tx Power

+ Gains

Losses/Margins

Path Loss

Rx Noise Power

max. Path Loss Lmax

Lmax_UL

Lmax_DL

Range

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Coverage Dimensioning

Introduction

DL Link Budget & Parameters

UL Link Budget & Parameters

Examples

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In LTE, similar like in HSDPA Link

Budget, one of two approaches can

be adopted:

1. Cell Edge User Throughput

LTE bit rate can be specified and link

budget completed from top to bottom

to determine the maximum allowed

path loss

2. Existing maximum allowed path loss

can be specified and link budget

completed from bottom to top to

determine the achievable LTE bit

rate at cell edge

Shared Channel

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Assumptions:

Operating Band

3GPP TS 36.104 specifies 16 operating

bands for FDD

Defined by customer

Channel Bandwidth

3GPP TS 36.104 specifies values of 1.4,

3, 5, 10, 15 & 20 MHz

Defined by customer.

Channel Model

The SINR is based on link level

simulations results which are available

for:

Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05)

valid for low speed mobiles in general,

i.e. 3 Km/h at 1800 MHZ (5Hz Doppler)

Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU70) valid

for higher speed mobiles

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Operating Band

For simplicity only the main centre frequencies (e.g. 1700, 2100, 2600 ...) are

considered for the link budget calculation

It is also assumed that there is no bandwidth separation between UL & DL (i.e. 2600

MHz assumed both UL & DL )

Channel Bandwidth

The bandwidth configuration impacts factors such as Thermal Noise, overhead ratio &

total cell throughput

The best network performance (maximum peak rate & cell throughput) is achieved by

the deployment of the 20 MHz bandwidth

Supported operating bands* & bandwidths in RL 10 are the following:

10

Frequency band

Band Index

Supported Bandwidths

700 MHz

Band 12 & 17

800 MHz

Band 20

1700/2100 MHz

Band 4 & 10

2100 MHz

Band 1

2600 MHZ

Band 7

increasing, independent of the current RL release

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10

Assumptions:

Scheduling

Two options possible: round robin &

proportional fair

for RL10

See next slide

Clutter Type

Typical: dense urban, urban,

suburban, rural

like slow fading margin or building

penetration loss

Either defined by the network

operator or derived from the given

pathloss

Central input parameter

See next slide

11

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11

Scheduling

Proportional Fair (PF) in time and frequency domain allocation based on metrics

assigned to UE (e.g. Channel conditions)

Scheduling (FDPS)

RL 10 RRM provides Round Robin as the default scheduling for both UL & DL

In RL10 the Proportional fair algorithm could be applied only DL based on a license

Target throughput requirement to be achieved at the cell edge; minimum net single UE

throughput requirement

It can limit the MCS (Modulation & Coding Scheme) to be used

Normally customer requirement

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domain and 1ms in time domain

For each time interval the scheduler controls which resources will be

allocated to which users (considering the buffer status, pending

retransmissions, ...)

The frequency domain scheduler takes into account the channel conditions

for every user and makes the best possibile assignment

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Transmitter: eNodeB

Tx. Power per Antenna

Typical value: 43dBm (20W)

Antenna TX Gain

Antenna gain changes with the antenna

type and frequency band

antenna

Cable Loss

Feederless solution considered

for UL receive path

Typical 0.5 dB

Isotropic Radiated Power from the

transmit antenna.

EIRP = Tx. Power per Antenna

+ Antenna Gain Cable Loss

MHA Insertion Loss

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Tx. Power per Antenna Connector

Typically 8, 20, 40 & 60 Watts

8, 40 & 60W are SW licensed

In case of transmit diversity techniques like MIMO transmit diversity the power could be

increased with 3dB in DL

Antenna Gain

Proportional to the physical size, signal frequency and antenna vertical & horizontal

beamwidth

In 2100 MHz bandwidth typical gains are between 12 dBi - 20 dBi

BTS Antennas vary in frequencies, sizes & configuration

smaller antenna beam higher Antenna Gain

larger size (e.g. 1m 2 m) higher Antenna Gain (at same frequency)

lower frequency lower Antenna Gain

Typical values:

18 dBi for eNodeB directional antenna (3-sector)

19.5 dBi for eNodeB directional high gain antenna (6-sector)

8 dBi for eNodeB omni-directional antenna

14

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14

Cable loss

Cable Loss

is the sum of all signal losses caused by the antenna line

outside the base station cabinet

Jumper losses

Feeder cable loss

MHA (or TMA) insertion loss in DL when MHA is used

Typical 0.5 dB

No MHA is used with Feederless solution*

2 dB feeder solution w/o TMA

2.4 dB if feeders with TMA used (2 dB feeders + 0.4dB

additional jumpers for TMA) + 0.5dB MHA Insertion loss

mounted closed to the antenna. There is only a jumper cable

connection between the RF module and the antenna system

15

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15

Receiver: UE

Handset Noise Figure

depends on the receiver equipment design

and represents the additive noise generated

by various HW components

Typical 7dB for the UE

Thermal Noise

Depends on the channel bandwidth

See next slide

SINR Requirement

See next slides

Receiver Sensitivity

represents the signal level that is

required at the antenna port of the

receiver to be able to achieve

acceptable quality level in receiving

Noise Figure + Thermal Noise +

SINR Requirement

16

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16

Thermal Noise = kB x T x B

Where:

kB = Boltzmanns constant, 1.38 E-23 Ws/K

T = Receiver temperature, 293 K

Single RB bandwidth

B = Bandwidth

Receiver bandwidth

#RB is the Number of Physical Resource

Blocks

DL: all available in the channel bandwidth

UL: only those RBs allocated for

transmission

OFDMA / SC-FDMA

DL: OFDM receiver looks at the whole bandwidth, thus all

available Resource Blocks should be considered.

UL: SC-FDMA receiver looks only at the allocated bandwidth,

thus not all but only assigned Resource Blocks are assumed

in sensitivity formula.

17

Thermal Noise Density not considering

the bandwidth impact

Example:

For 10MHz there are 50 RBs in DL

Thermal noise = -174dBm/Hz +

10log(15 * 1000 * 12 * 50) =

= -174 dBm/Hz + 69,54 dB=

= -104.45dBm

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Thermal noise density: 10*log (kT) in dBm: k:1.38e-23 Joules/Kelvin; T:300 Kelvin

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SINR: Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio

Minimum relation between useful signal and sum of interferences coming from own and

neighboring cells and the received noise power

SINR =

S

I own + I oth + N

Iown: own cell interference (close to zero in LTE due to the orthogonality of subcarriers)

Ioth: other cell interference

N: noise power

In LTE the PDSCH required SINR replaces the required Eb/No of the UMTS Rel. 99

DCH Link Budget; Eb/No is not helpful in case of Fast Link Adaptation

the bit rate of LTE varies every TTI = 1ms (based on parameters like Modulation &

Coding Scheme & number of Physical Resource Blocks)

18

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SINR distribution

The simulation scenarios

and parameters are

provided in 3GPP

TR25.814

Bandwidth = 2000MHz

Speed = 3Km/h

Macro Case 1 Inter-site

distance = 500m

Macro Case 3 Inter-site

distance = 1732m

Cell load is 100% which is

affecting the inter-cell

interference

*Source: "LTE Downlink Performance Results with Time-Domain Scheduling Using UPRISE" by Klaus I Pedersen et al.

19

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19

Required SINR

In order to meet the defined quality requirements (BLER) a certain average required

SINR is needed

Required SINR depends on:

Cell Range (Pathloss)

Cell Edge User Throughput

Based on the Cell Edge Throughput the number of allocated PRBs and the MCS could be defined

see next slides

Channel model is a way to consider UE mobility and environment in the link budget calculation

2 main groups of channel models are available:

Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05) valid for low speed mobiles in general, i.e. 3 Km/h at 1800 MHz

(5Hz Doppler)

Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU70) valid for higher speed mobiles

1Tx 2Rx; 2TX 2RX Transmit Diversity ; 2TX 2RX Spatial Multiplexing (not expected at cell edge)

The impact is the reduced number of resource blocks which could be used for user data

Scheduling gain

see next slides

20

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PRB:

Physical Resource Block

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20

STEP 1 for the required SINR decision:

The target cell edge throughput is used to

select the least robust MCS with good balance

of coverage & resource consumption of the air

interface

SINR decision

Cell Edge

Throughput

BLER

MCS

Input:

Cell Edge User Throughput

BLER at first HARQ retransmission

retransmission, i.e. 10% probability to

complete 1 or more retransmissions

The actual effect is the increase of the cell

edge throughput

TBS =

Transport

Block Size

Affects the amount of resources that will be used for user data

#RBs =

Number of

Resource

Blocks

Output: TBS (Transport Block Size) & Number of Required RBs (Resource

Blocks) see next slide

21

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21

TBS set

Number of user data bits transmitted to single

user during 1 TTI (1ms)

3GPP TS 36.213 specifies tables to:

link the MCS Index -> Modulation Order (modulation

type) and TBS Index

for a specific number of PRBs

it is decided by the scheduler which should translate

a specific CQI in an MCS index

The TBS Index is mapped to a specific TBS size for a

22

specific #PRBs

Uses a different table (3GPP TS 36.213)

See next slide for an example

DL MCSs

MCS

0-QPSK

1-QPSK

2-QPSK

3-QPSK

4-QPSK

5-QPSK

6-QPSK

7-QPSK

8-QPSK

9-QPSK

10-16QAM

11-16QAM

12-16QAM

13-16QAM

14-16QAM

15-16QAM

16-16QAM

17-64QAM

18-64QAM

19-64QAM

20-64QAM

21-64QAM

22-64QAM

23-64QAM

24-64QAM

25-64QAM

26-64QAM

27-64QAM

28-64QAM

ITBS

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

9

10

11

12

13

14

15

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

0

2

1

2

2

2

3

2

4

2

5

2

6

2

7

2

8

2

9

2

10

4

11

4

12

4

13

4

14

4

15

4

16

4

17

6

18

6

19

6

20

6

21

6

22

6

23

6

24

6

25

6

26

6

27

6

28

6

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PRB:

Physical Resource Block

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22

Example for the identification of the Number of PRBs per User and

the Transport Block Size (TBS)

Assumptions:

Required cell edge throughput = 384Kbps

(3GPP TS 36.213 specifies 110

columns)

MCS = 10-16QAM

= 384 / (100% - 10%) = 427 kbps

search for TBS in ITBS9 Air Interface

User Throughput

#RB_used = 3 TBS = 456 bits

456 bits/TTI = 456 bits/1 ms = 456 kbps

427 kbps

Conclusion: # RB used= 3

23

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Identifies the number of Resource Blocks (RB) required to achieve the target Cell

Edge User Throughput

Uses the already defined MCS to identify the appropriate row within the

transport block size table

The target Cell Edge User Throughput is used to determine the minimum

transport block size requirement

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23

SINR decision

decision:

The selected MCS & #PRBs from

Step 1 is associated with a defined

Required SINR

The actual SINR requirement is

obtained from link level simulations

Several look-up tables results are

available for several cases:

Specific channel models (EPA 5Hz &

ETU70Hz channel models)

specified for different antenna schemes

(1TX 2RX or 2TX 2RX)

Block Error Rate BLER typical 10%

SINR is a function of :

MCS = Modulation and Coding Scheme

Number of RBs

24

Example:

SINR table for the case DL 2Tx-2Rx, EPA 5Hz Channel

Model, BLER = 10%

EPA 5Hz Doppler frequency=5Hz for 1800MHz and 3km/h

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24

The more robust the selected MCS (e.g. 0-QPSK) the lower the allowed required SINR

which is improving the coverage. But on the same time the higher the resource

consumption (42 PRBs out of 50 for 10 MHz bandwidth for 1024Kbps) which leaves

less resources for the rest of the scheduled users.

25

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25

Note that not all MCS are suitable to achieve a certain cell edge throughput.

If high target cell edge throughput are required then the selection of a very robust MCS

(with correspondingly large overhead portion) may lead to a situation where the

resource consumed by the coded user data traffic exceeds the amount of the resources

provided by the entire cell (e.g. MCS = 3-QPSK for a cell edge throughput 4096Kbps

requires more than 50 PRBs for 10 MHz bandwidth)

It is recommended for a specific cell edge throughput to select the MCS which is

maximizing the allowed pathloss.

26

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STEP 3 for required SINR decision:

Consider additional SINR improvements features like FDPS

SINR decision

Channel usage

per single UE

10.00%

The larger the amount of resources (subcarriers) available for the

11.11%

scheduling of a single user the higher the chance to avoid channel

12.50%

quality gaps

14.29%

16,67%

For example when 50 PRBs are available (10MHz bandwidth) and

20.00%

10 full user buffer UEs are scheduled per TTI then it results 5

25.00%

PRBs per user that is 10% of resources allocated per UE

33.33%

50.00%

The table could be read as follows: when UE occupies 100% of

100.00%

resources there is no gain from particular scheduling strategy

because RRM cannot play with frequency resources.

If additional UEs could be scheduled in the same TTI (that means less resource

allocation per user) a certain gain can be observed.

Example:

Gain (dB)

3,71

3,64

3,53

3,41

3,25

2,93

2,52

2,11

1,68

0

Cell edge Throughput is 1024Kbps, Number of allocated PRBs per user is selected to be 13 out of

50 available in 10 MHz (for MCS = 5-QPSK)

The channel usage per TTI of the user is 26% so that up to 3 users could be scheduled per TTI

Required SINR = 1,11 dB(Required SINR from table) 2,47 dB (FDPS gain for 26% channel usage)

= -1,36dB

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Receiver: UE

Rx Antenna Gain

0 dBi for UE Antenna

DL Load

Average Resource Utilisation

Assumed to be 50%

Defined by the customer

Interference Margin

interference

Higher reuse schemes are possible but

there is no significant gain in network

performance

See next slides

Body Loss

2-3 dB for VoIP users & 0 dB for data

users

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28

Cell Load

Cell Load [%]

Cell load represents the average resource utilization in terms of PRBs

It accounts for the average load of the system over longer time period (minutes, hours,...)

For the link budget calculation, which is a single cell-edge user case to estimate maximum possible

coverage, cell load reflects the average neighbour load but it does not impact own cell resource

allocation

In other words a cell edge user occupying 100% resources per TTI (100% of PRBs) does not mean

100% load (i.e. over long time period)

Higher cell load means higher interference from the neighbour cells

High neighbour cell load increases the IM that in terms reduces the MAPL*

High neighbour cell load limits the possibility of selecting high MCS

Customer may provide this value

29

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29

DL Interference Margin

Interference margin IM

Interference Margin can be defined as a relation between signals received with &

without interference

IM =

S/N

S /(Iown + Iother + N)

Iown: own cell interference ( 0 in LTE due to the orthogonality of subcarriers)

Ioth: other cell interference

N: noise power

100% orthogonality could be assumed in UL & DL due to OFDM & SC-FDMA so that

the Intra-cell interference is close to zero

DL Interference Margin could be derived analytically

30

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DL Interference Margin

After some analytical derivation the IM in DL could be written as:

IM =

1

1 SINR

1

G

Neighbour

cell load

IM = 10 log1 SINR

G

G = S/I =

Geometry factor

At cell edge the noise N could be neglected in comparison to Iother so that SINR

S/I which is also called G geometry factor

G depends on the network geometry (cell area location probability) and antenna

configuration but not on the cell range

G = -0.03 dB

31

Obtained from system level simulations (with the NSN Morse Simulator for the 3GPP

Macro cell case 1 simulation environment with ISD (inter-site distance) = 500m

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Interference Margin

Downlink

Edge User Throughputs

32

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By selecting high neighbour cell load we are limiting to the usage of low ( robust)

MCS since for higher MCS the IM increases a lot.

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32

Building penetration loss BPL

clutter specific between 12 dB (Rural) and

more than 20 dB (Urban / Dense Urban)

probability of connection (here: indoor)

vary from 85 95%

dispersion of the path loss or received

power measured over the coverage area.

clutter & area dependent; differing for

Indoor / Outdoor; varies from 5 - 12 dB.

Margin

Fading Margin

and standard deviation. Typical values for

slow fading margins for 90-95% coverage

probability are:

outdoor: 6 8 dB

indoor: 10 15 dB

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Signal levels from outdoor Base stations into buildings are estimated by applying a

Building Penetration Loss (BPL) margin

Slow fading standard deviation is higher inside buildings due to shadowing by building

structures

There are big differences between rooms with window and deep indoor (10 ..15 dB)

In-car/Rural 5 10dB

In building:

Dense Urban: 2025 dB

Urban: 1520 dB

Suburban: 1015 dB

floor number :~1,5 dB/floor

(for 1st ..10th floor)

Pindoor = -3 ...-15 dB

Pindoor = -7 ...-18 dB

Pref = 0 dB

-15 ...-25 dB

34

rear side :

-18 ...-30 dB

no coverage

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34

Slow Fading is caused by signal

path

A cell with a range predicted from maximum

pathloss (without Slow Fading Margin SFM)

will have a Cell Area Coverage Probability

of about 75 %

shadowing

coverage quality, better coverage

probability

area, better coverage quality

max. pathloss

from link

budget

- Slow Fading

Margin SFM

Pathloss

prediction

model

Cell Range

probability = 75 %

coverage quality

35

max: pathloss

from link

budget

Pathloss

prediction

model

Cell Range

probability > 75 %,

i.e. less coverage holes,

Better coverage quality;

but: smaller cells

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35

The Location Probability means the probability that the average received field strength is

better than the minimum required received signal strength (in order to make a successful

phone call).

For Radio Network Planning & Dimensioning, two different types of location probabilities are

used:

Cell Area Probability: coverage probability over the whole cell area;

Cell Edge Probability: point location probability at the cell edge.

The Jakes formula can be used to convert the Cell Area into a Cell Edge Probability.

Point Location

Probability

Cell Edge

probability [ % ]

Cell Area

probability [ % ]

50

75

75

90

84

94

90

97

95

99

Location probability

over whole cell area

Jakes, W.C.Jr. Microwave Mobile Communications. USA 1974, John Wiley & Sons. 473 p

36

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36

with the gaussian distribution function

p(r)=

1

2 2

(r r )2

m2

e 2

Probability

a given point inside the cell is called the Point Location

Probability. The point location probability can be written

as the upper tail probability of the above equation :

px0 =

x0

1

2 2

x r

1 1

= + erf 0 m

2 2

2

(r rm )2

2

dr

Slow Fading

Margin, SFM

Field Strength

Level [dBm]

SFM = 1 - coverage

The standard

deviation is

empirically

determined

Examples:

Clutter

Type

DU

9 dB

8 dB

SU

8 dB

7 dB

Jakes, W.C.Jr. Microwave Mobile Communications. USA 1974, John Wiley & Sons. 473 p

37

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37

Point Location

Probabilities

px

Fu =

1

p dA

R2 x0

2 a b +1

1

2

a b + 1

Fu = 1 + erf (a ) + e b 1 erf

b

2

Slow

Fading

Margin,

SFM

a=

( x0 P0 )

2

b=

log 10 e

2

Standard

Deviation,

38

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SFM values presented for the different Cell Edge & Cell Area Probabilities

Jakes formula used to convert Cell Area into Cell Edge Probability

F: Factor to adapt SFM to required Cell Edge Probability

Standard deviation assumed to be 8 dB

SFM = x F

Cell edge

probability

in %

39

Cell Edge

Probability

Cell Area

Probability

Factor

F

SFM

50%

75%

0 dB

75%

90%

0.67

5.5 dB

84%

94%

1.00

8 dB

90%

97%

1.28

10 dB

95%

99%

1.65

13.2 dB

Factor F

for

calculation

of SFM

50

55

60

65

70

75

80

85

90

0.000

0.126

0.253

0.385

0.524

0.674

0.842

1.036

1.282

95

96

97

98

99

1.645

1.751

1.881

2.054

2.326

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39

Gain Against Shadowing is considered at the cell edge

Also called multi server gain (because of multi-cell coverage probability)

For the previous calculation of the Shadowing Margin the key assumption was a

single, isolated cell

However, if there are several cells providing coverage in an area then the probability

of having enough field strength increases

The Gain Against Shadowing reflects the possibility of switching to another cell

available at a certain position

Example:

Assume that there are 2 cells providing

coverage and both cells are providing at the

cell edge 50% location probability (A = B

=50% are the location probabilities for the 2

cells)

If the assumption is that the signals from the

cells are uncorrelated then a joint probability

could be calculated:

P = (A+B) (A*B) = (50%+50%) (50%*50%)

= 75%

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40

Isotropic power required:

Required signal power is calculated to take

into account the building penetration loss

and indoor standard deviation as well as

receiver sensitivity and additional margins.

Sensitivity RxAntennaGain + Interference

Margin + Body Loss Gain Against

Shadowing + BPL + SFM

Allowed Prop. Loss =

EIRP Isotropic Power Required

41

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41

Coverage Dimensioning

Introduction

DL Link Budget & Parameters

UL Link Budget & Parameters

Examples

42

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42

Transmitter Handset

UE Tx Power

typical value: 23dBm (UE Class 3)

typically assumed to be 0 dBi

for data card 2 dBi possible

Body Loss

UE: 0 dB (data user); 2-3dB (VoIP users)

Otherwise (card) : 0dB

UL EIRP = UE Tx Power +

UE Antenna Gain Body

Loss

Shared Channel

43

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43

Receiver eNodeB

NodeB Noise Figure

vendor-specific

for Flexi-BTS default values: 2.2 dB (w/o

MHA) / 2 dB (with MHA)

Thermal Noise

same formula as in DL

only RBs considered which are allocated

for UL transmission (1RB for 64Kbps,

15RBs for 384Kbps, 27 RBs for 1024 Kbps)

SINR Requirement

same decision sequence as in the DL

based on link level simulations

differences in UL coming from different

MCS allocation strategy

Noise Figure + Thermal Noise +

SINR Requirement

44

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44

Required SINR in UL

The selection of MCS in UL is a trade-off between a lower required SINR value and the

number of allocated PRBs per UE:

UE output power is shared between the subcarriers assigned for transmission.

The smaller the number of used subcarriers the higher is the power per subcarrier so the

higher the coverage. On the other hand, lower number of PRBs per UE (lower number of

subcarriers) requires a higher order MCS - increasing the required SINR.

In this case, despite of a higher required SINR, a greater cell range could be obtained due

to the accumulation of the total power on less PRBs used for the transmission.

45

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45

Receiver eNodeB

Rx Antenna Gain

Antenna gain changes with the antenna

type & frequency band

typical value: 18 dBi for a 3-sectored site

/ directional antenna

UL Load

same assumption as in DL

Interference Margin

based on system level simulations

(analytical formula like in DL isnt trivial

because of the interference nature in UL

which is more complex due to UE mobility)

see next slide

Indoor Location Probability, Indoor

Standard Deviation, Shadowing Margin

& Gain Against Shadowing are the

same as in DL

Isotropic Power Required = Receiver Sensitivity

RxAntennaGain + Interference Margin + Cable

Loss Benefit of using MHA Gain Against

Shadowing + BPL + SFM

46

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46

Interference Margin

Uplink

Uplink Interference Margin

Currently obtained from system level simulations. Due to the non-

mathematical model (like in downlink)

It is a function of cell load

47

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47

Coverage Dimensioning

Introduction

DL Link Budget & Parameters

UL Link Budget & Parameters

Examples

48

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48

Assumptions

49

Parameter/Feature

UL

DL

Operating Band

2600 MHz

2600 MHz

Transmission power

Module)

Antenna Scheme

Number of TX antennas = 1

Number of RX antennas = 2

Number of TX antennas = 1

Number of RX antennas = 2

Noise Figure

UE: 7dB

eNodeB: 2,2dB

Cell Load

50%

50%

Scheduling

Round Robin strategy

Proportional Fairness

Not Considered

(Feederless solution)

Not Considered

(Feederless solution)

Antenna Gain

0 dBi

18 dBi

UE speed

3Km/h

3Km/h

Planning Margins

Shadowing Margin & Gain

Against Shadowing NOT

considered

Shadowing Margin & Gain

Against Shadowing NOT

considered

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49

DL

50

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DL

51

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51

UL

52

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52

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