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LTE Link Budget

LTE RPESS
LTE Link Budget

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LTE Link Budget

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LTE Link Budget

Module Objectives
After completing this module, the participant should be able to:

Calculate link budget for different bit rates


Understand link budgets and parameters
Understand planning margins

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LTE Link Budget

Coverage Dimensioning
Introduction
DL Link Budget & Parameters
UL Link Budget & Parameters
Examples

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LTE Link Budget

Introduction
Target of coverage dimensioning: Estimate Site Coverage Area (site count for given
area)

Coverage dimensioning requires multiple inputs:

Service type
Target service probability
Initial site configuration
Equipment performance
Propagation environment

Link budget calculation: used for calculation of Site Coverage Area CA (km2)
Coverage Area
CA

Range

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LTE Link Budget

Link budget
Target of the Link Budget calculation: estimate the maximum allowed path loss on radio path
from transmit antenna to receive antenna
The minimum SINR requirement is achieved with the maximum allowed path loss and
transmit power both in UL & DL
The maximum Path Loss can be used to calculate cell range

Tx Power
+ Gains
Losses/Margins
Path Loss
Rx Noise Power
max. Path Loss Lmax

Lmax_UL

Lmax_DL

Range
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LTE Link Budget

Coverage Dimensioning
Introduction
DL Link Budget & Parameters
UL Link Budget & Parameters
Examples

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget (FDD case)


In LTE, similar like in HSDPA Link
Budget, one of two approaches can
be adopted:
1. Cell Edge User Throughput
LTE bit rate can be specified and link
budget completed from top to bottom
to determine the maximum allowed
path loss
2. Existing maximum allowed path loss
can be specified and link budget
completed from bottom to top to
determine the achievable LTE bit
rate at cell edge

*PDSCH = Physical Downlink


Shared Channel
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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget

Assumptions:
Operating Band
3GPP TS 36.104 specifies 16 operating
bands for FDD

Defined by customer

Channel Bandwidth
3GPP TS 36.104 specifies values of 1.4,
3, 5, 10, 15 & 20 MHz

Defined by customer.

Channel Model
The SINR is based on link level
simulations results which are available
for:
Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05)
valid for low speed mobiles in general,
i.e. 3 Km/h at 1800 MHZ (5Hz Doppler)
Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU70) valid
for higher speed mobiles

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Operating Band

For simplicity only the main centre frequencies (e.g. 1700, 2100, 2600 ...) are
considered for the link budget calculation

It is also assumed that there is no bandwidth separation between UL & DL (i.e. 2600
MHz assumed both UL & DL )

Channel Bandwidth

The bandwidth configuration impacts factors such as Thermal Noise, overhead ratio &
total cell throughput

The best network performance (maximum peak rate & cell throughput) is achieved by
the deployment of the 20 MHz bandwidth
Supported operating bands* & bandwidths in RL 10 are the following:

10

Frequency band

Band Index

Supported Bandwidths

700 MHz

Band 12 & 17

5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz

800 MHz

Band 20

5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz

1700/2100 MHz

Band 4 & 10

5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz

2100 MHz

Band 1

5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz

2600 MHZ

Band 7

5 MHz, 10 MHz, 20 MHz

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* Note: the amount of supported operating bands is continuously


increasing, independent of the current RL release

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Assumptions:
Scheduling
Two options possible: round robin &
proportional fair

Proportional fair is possible only in DL


for RL10
See next slide

Clutter Type
Typical: dense urban, urban,
suburban, rural

Impact on propagation parameters


like slow fading margin or building
penetration loss

Cell Edge Throughput


Either defined by the network
operator or derived from the given
pathloss
Central input parameter
See next slide

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Scheduling

Round Robin (RR) algorithm in time and frequency random allocation


Proportional Fair (PF) in time and frequency domain allocation based on metrics
assigned to UE (e.g. Channel conditions)

Frequency domain scheduling is implemented in LTE as Frequency Domain Packet


Scheduling (FDPS)

FDPS provides some SINR improvement for PF relative to RR algorithm


RL 10 RRM provides Round Robin as the default scheduling for both UL & DL
In RL10 the Proportional fair algorithm could be applied only DL based on a license

Cell Edge User Throughput [kbps]

Target throughput requirement to be achieved at the cell edge; minimum net single UE
throughput requirement

Determines the service that can be provided at the cell border


It can limit the MCS (Modulation & Coding Scheme) to be used
Normally customer requirement

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In LTE the scheduling is done on a per sub-frame basis: 180KHz in frequency


domain and 1ms in time domain
For each time interval the scheduler controls which resources will be
allocated to which users (considering the buffer status, pending
retransmissions, ...)
The frequency domain scheduler takes into account the channel conditions
for every user and makes the best possibile assignment

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Transmitter: eNodeB
Tx. Power per Antenna
Typical value: 43dBm (20W)

Antenna TX Gain
Antenna gain changes with the antenna
type and frequency band

Common value: 18 dBi for a directional


antenna

Cable Loss
Feederless solution considered

MHA Insertion Loss

Mast Head Amplifier MHA: Pre-Amplifier


for UL receive path
Typical 0.5 dB

EIRP represents the Effective


Isotropic Radiated Power from the
transmit antenna.
EIRP = Tx. Power per Antenna
+ Antenna Gain Cable Loss
MHA Insertion Loss
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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Tx. Power per Antenna Connector

Depends on the Flexi Radio Module selected


Typically 8, 20, 40 & 60 Watts
8, 40 & 60W are SW licensed
In case of transmit diversity techniques like MIMO transmit diversity the power could be
increased with 3dB in DL

Antenna Gain
Proportional to the physical size, signal frequency and antenna vertical & horizontal
beamwidth

Large size & High frequency Narrow beam High gain


In 2100 MHz bandwidth typical gains are between 12 dBi - 20 dBi
BTS Antennas vary in frequencies, sizes & configuration
smaller antenna beam higher Antenna Gain
larger size (e.g. 1m 2 m) higher Antenna Gain (at same frequency)
lower frequency lower Antenna Gain

Typical values:
18 dBi for eNodeB directional antenna (3-sector)
19.5 dBi for eNodeB directional high gain antenna (6-sector)
8 dBi for eNodeB omni-directional antenna
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LTE Link Budget

Cable loss
Cable Loss
is the sum of all signal losses caused by the antenna line
outside the base station cabinet
Jumper losses
Feeder cable loss
MHA (or TMA) insertion loss in DL when MHA is used
Typical 0.5 dB
No MHA is used with Feederless solution*

Typical values for the cable loss:

0.4 dB with Feederless solution* (jumper losses only)


2 dB feeder solution w/o TMA
2.4 dB if feeders with TMA used (2 dB feeders + 0.4dB
additional jumpers for TMA) + 0.5dB MHA Insertion loss

* in the case of feederless solution the Flexi RF Module is


mounted closed to the antenna. There is only a jumper cable
connection between the RF module and the antenna system

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Receiver: UE
Handset Noise Figure
depends on the receiver equipment design
and represents the additive noise generated
by various HW components
Typical 7dB for the UE

Thermal Noise
Depends on the channel bandwidth
See next slide

SINR Requirement
See next slides

Receiver Sensitivity
represents the signal level that is
required at the antenna port of the
receiver to be able to achieve
acceptable quality level in receiving

Receiver Sensitivity = Handset


Noise Figure + Thermal Noise +
SINR Requirement

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LTE Link Budget

Thermal Noise Calculation


Thermal Noise = kB x T x B

Where:
kB = Boltzmanns constant, 1.38 E-23 Ws/K
T = Receiver temperature, 293 K
Single RB bandwidth
B = Bandwidth

ThermalNoise = 174dBm / Hz + 10 log(15kHz 12# RB)


Receiver bandwidth
#RB is the Number of Physical Resource
Blocks
DL: all available in the channel bandwidth
UL: only those RBs allocated for
transmission
OFDMA / SC-FDMA
DL: OFDM receiver looks at the whole bandwidth, thus all
available Resource Blocks should be considered.
UL: SC-FDMA receiver looks only at the allocated bandwidth,
thus not all but only assigned Resource Blocks are assumed
in sensitivity formula.
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10 log (kB *T) = -174dBm/Hz is the


Thermal Noise Density not considering
the bandwidth impact
Example:
For 10MHz there are 50 RBs in DL
Thermal noise = -174dBm/Hz +
10log(15 * 1000 * 12 * 50) =
= -174 dBm/Hz + 69,54 dB=
= -104.45dBm

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Thermal noise density: 10*log (kT) in dBm: k:1.38e-23 Joules/Kelvin; T:300 Kelvin

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LTE Link Budget

SINR: Signal-to-Interference + Noise Ratio


SINR: Signal to Interference plus Noise Ratio
Minimum relation between useful signal and sum of interferences coming from own and
neighboring cells and the received noise power

SINR =

S
I own + I oth + N

S: useful signal (received power)


Iown: own cell interference (close to zero in LTE due to the orthogonality of subcarriers)
Ioth: other cell interference
N: noise power

In LTE the PDSCH required SINR replaces the required Eb/No of the UMTS Rel. 99
DCH Link Budget; Eb/No is not helpful in case of Fast Link Adaptation
the bit rate of LTE varies every TTI = 1ms (based on parameters like Modulation &
Coding Scheme & number of Physical Resource Blocks)

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LTE Link Budget

SINR distribution
The simulation scenarios
and parameters are
provided in 3GPP
TR25.814
Bandwidth = 2000MHz
Speed = 3Km/h
Macro Case 1 Inter-site
distance = 500m
Macro Case 3 Inter-site
distance = 1732m
Cell load is 100% which is
affecting the inter-cell
interference

CDF = Cumulative Distribution Function


*Source: "LTE Downlink Performance Results with Time-Domain Scheduling Using UPRISE" by Klaus I Pedersen et al.
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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR
In order to meet the defined quality requirements (BLER) a certain average required
SINR is needed
Required SINR depends on:
Cell Range (Pathloss)
Cell Edge User Throughput

OFDM specific channel models

Based on the Cell Edge Throughput the number of allocated PRBs and the MCS could be defined
see next slides
Channel model is a way to consider UE mobility and environment in the link budget calculation
2 main groups of channel models are available:
Enhanced Pedestrian A 5Hz (EPA05) valid for low speed mobiles in general, i.e. 3 Km/h at 1800 MHz
(5Hz Doppler)
Enhanced Typical Urban (ETU70) valid for higher speed mobiles

Considered Antenna Scheme for the DL:

1Tx 2Rx; 2TX 2RX Transmit Diversity ; 2TX 2RX Spatial Multiplexing (not expected at cell edge)

L1 overhead of the physical channels

The impact is the reduced number of resource blocks which could be used for user data

Scheduling gain
see next slides

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MCS: Modulation & Coding Scheme


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PRB:
Physical Resource Block

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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (1/7)


STEP 1 for the required SINR decision:
The target cell edge throughput is used to
select the least robust MCS with good balance
of coverage & resource consumption of the air
interface

STEP 1 for required


SINR decision
Cell Edge
Throughput

BLER

MCS

Input:
Cell Edge User Throughput
BLER at first HARQ retransmission

Assumption: to be 10% for the first HARQ


retransmission, i.e. 10% probability to
complete 1 or more retransmissions
The actual effect is the increase of the cell
edge throughput

TBS =
Transport
Block Size

MCS = Modulation & Coding Scheme

3GPP TS 36.211 specifies QPSK, 16QAM & 64QAM for the DL


Affects the amount of resources that will be used for user data

#RBs =
Number of
Resource
Blocks

Output: TBS (Transport Block Size) & Number of Required RBs (Resource
Blocks) see next slide
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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (2/7)


TBS set
Number of user data bits transmitted to single
user during 1 TTI (1ms)

The TB occupies 2 PRBs in time domain


3GPP TS 36.213 specifies tables to:
link the MCS Index -> Modulation Order (modulation
type) and TBS Index

link the TBS Index -> Transport Block Size (TBS)


for a specific number of PRBs

MCS index - from 0 to 28


it is decided by the scheduler which should translate
a specific CQI in an MCS index

ITBS = TBS index


The TBS Index is mapped to a specific TBS size for a

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specific #PRBs
Uses a different table (3GPP TS 36.213)
See next slide for an example

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DL MCSs
MCS
0-QPSK
1-QPSK
2-QPSK
3-QPSK
4-QPSK
5-QPSK
6-QPSK
7-QPSK
8-QPSK
9-QPSK
10-16QAM
11-16QAM
12-16QAM
13-16QAM
14-16QAM
15-16QAM
16-16QAM
17-64QAM
18-64QAM
19-64QAM
20-64QAM
21-64QAM
22-64QAM
23-64QAM
24-64QAM
25-64QAM
26-64QAM
27-64QAM
28-64QAM

ITBS
0
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
9
10
11
12
13
14
15
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
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MCS_index Mod order


0
2
1
2
2
2
3
2
4
2
5
2
6
2
7
2
8
2
9
2
10
4
11
4
12
4
13
4
14
4
15
4
16
4
17
6
18
6
19
6
20
6
21
6
22
6
23
6
24
6
25
6
26
6
27
6
28
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MCS: Modulation & Coding Scheme


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PRB:
Physical Resource Block

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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (3/7)


Example for the identification of the Number of PRBs per User and
the Transport Block Size (TBS)
Assumptions:
Required cell edge throughput = 384Kbps

Only a subset of the complete table


(3GPP TS 36.213 specifies 110
columns)

MCS = 10-16QAM

MCS = 10-16QAM TBS_index = 9

Air Interface User Throughput =


= 384 / (100% - 10%) = 427 kbps
search for TBS in ITBS9 Air Interface
User Throughput
#RB_used = 3 TBS = 456 bits
456 bits/TTI = 456 bits/1 ms = 456 kbps
427 kbps
Conclusion: # RB used= 3
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Identifies the number of Resource Blocks (RB) required to achieve the target Cell
Edge User Throughput
Uses the already defined MCS to identify the appropriate row within the
transport block size table
The target Cell Edge User Throughput is used to determine the minimum
transport block size requirement

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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (4/7)

STEP 2 for required


SINR decision

STEP 2 for the required SINR


decision:
The selected MCS & #PRBs from
Step 1 is associated with a defined
Required SINR
The actual SINR requirement is
obtained from link level simulations
Several look-up tables results are
available for several cases:
Specific channel models (EPA 5Hz &
ETU70Hz channel models)

Different SINR requirements are


specified for different antenna schemes
(1TX 2RX or 2TX 2RX)
Block Error Rate BLER typical 10%

In the SINR look-up table result the


SINR is a function of :
MCS = Modulation and Coding Scheme
Number of RBs
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Example:
SINR table for the case DL 2Tx-2Rx, EPA 5Hz Channel
Model, BLER = 10%
EPA 5Hz Doppler frequency=5Hz for 1800MHz and 3km/h

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EPA: Enhanced Pedestrian A, ETU: Enhanced Typical Urban

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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (5/7)

The selection of MCS is a trade-off between coverage & resource utilization:


The more robust the selected MCS (e.g. 0-QPSK) the lower the allowed required SINR
which is improving the coverage. But on the same time the higher the resource
consumption (42 PRBs out of 50 for 10 MHz bandwidth for 1024Kbps) which leaves
less resources for the rest of the scheduled users.

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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (6/7)

Note that not all MCS are suitable to achieve a certain cell edge throughput.
If high target cell edge throughput are required then the selection of a very robust MCS
(with correspondingly large overhead portion) may lead to a situation where the
resource consumed by the coded user data traffic exceeds the amount of the resources
provided by the entire cell (e.g. MCS = 3-QPSK for a cell edge throughput 4096Kbps
requires more than 50 PRBs for 10 MHz bandwidth)
It is recommended for a specific cell edge throughput to select the MCS which is
maximizing the allowed pathloss.
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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR decision sequence (7/7)


STEP 3 for required SINR decision:
Consider additional SINR improvements features like FDPS

STEP 3 for required


SINR decision

(Frequency Domain Packet Scheduling)

System level simulations are used to show the gain of Proportional

DL FDPS Gain (dB)


Channel usage

Fair algorithm in DL over Round Robin (see the table)


per single UE
10.00%
The larger the amount of resources (subcarriers) available for the
11.11%
scheduling of a single user the higher the chance to avoid channel
12.50%
quality gaps
14.29%
16,67%
For example when 50 PRBs are available (10MHz bandwidth) and
20.00%
10 full user buffer UEs are scheduled per TTI then it results 5
25.00%
PRBs per user that is 10% of resources allocated per UE
33.33%
50.00%
The table could be read as follows: when UE occupies 100% of
100.00%
resources there is no gain from particular scheduling strategy
because RRM cannot play with frequency resources.
If additional UEs could be scheduled in the same TTI (that means less resource
allocation per user) a certain gain can be observed.
Example:

Gain (dB)
3,71
3,64
3,53
3,41
3,25
2,93
2,52
2,11
1,68
0

Cell edge Throughput is 1024Kbps, Number of allocated PRBs per user is selected to be 13 out of
50 available in 10 MHz (for MCS = 5-QPSK)
The channel usage per TTI of the user is 26% so that up to 3 users could be scheduled per TTI
Required SINR = 1,11 dB(Required SINR from table) 2,47 dB (FDPS gain for 26% channel usage)
= -1,36dB
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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Receiver: UE
Rx Antenna Gain
0 dBi for UE Antenna

DL Load
Average Resource Utilisation
Assumed to be 50%
Defined by the customer

Interference Margin

Depends on the neighbor cell


interference

Frequency reuse 1 will be used


Higher reuse schemes are possible but
there is no significant gain in network
performance
See next slides

Body Loss
2-3 dB for VoIP users & 0 dB for data
users

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LTE Link Budget

Cell Load
Cell Load [%]
Cell load represents the average resource utilization in terms of PRBs
It accounts for the average load of the system over longer time period (minutes, hours,...)
For the link budget calculation, which is a single cell-edge user case to estimate maximum possible
coverage, cell load reflects the average neighbour load but it does not impact own cell resource
allocation
In other words a cell edge user occupying 100% resources per TTI (100% of PRBs) does not mean
100% load (i.e. over long time period)

Affects the Interference Margin (IM)


Higher cell load means higher interference from the neighbour cells
High neighbour cell load increases the IM that in terms reduces the MAPL*
High neighbour cell load limits the possibility of selecting high MCS

Recommended value: 50% (subject to change)


Customer may provide this value

*MAPL = Maximum Allowed Path Loss


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LTE Link Budget

DL Interference Margin
Interference margin IM

Interference Margin can be defined as a relation between signals received with &
without interference

IM =

S/N
S /(Iown + Iother + N)

S: useful signal (received power)


Iown: own cell interference ( 0 in LTE due to the orthogonality of subcarriers)
Ioth: other cell interference
N: noise power
100% orthogonality could be assumed in UL & DL due to OFDM & SC-FDMA so that
the Intra-cell interference is close to zero

The only interference which counts is the Inter-cell interference


DL Interference Margin could be derived analytically

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LTE Link Budget

DL Interference Margin
After some analytical derivation the IM in DL could be written as:

IM =

1
1 SINR

1
G

Neighbour
cell load

IM = 10 log1 SINR
G

G = S/I =
Geometry factor

Geometry Factor G explanation:

At cell edge the noise N could be neglected in comparison to Iother so that SINR
S/I which is also called G geometry factor

SINR < G (G is the Maximum SINR at cell edge)


G depends on the network geometry (cell area location probability) and antenna
configuration but not on the cell range

G = -0.03 dB

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Obtained from system level simulations (with the NSN Morse Simulator for the 3GPP
Macro cell case 1 simulation environment with ISD (inter-site distance) = 500m

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LTE Link Budget

Interference Margin
Downlink

IM as a function of Neighbour Cell Load for different MCS and cell


Edge User Throughputs
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By selecting high neighbour cell load we are limiting to the usage of low ( robust)
MCS since for higher MCS the IM increases a lot.

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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Building penetration loss BPL

Loss for Indoor Coverage due to walls, etc.


clutter specific between 12 dB (Rural) and
more than 20 dB (Urban / Dense Urban)

(Indoor) Location Probability

Area Location probability, giving the service


probability of connection (here: indoor)

applied values depend on clutter & area,


vary from 85 95%

Indoor standard deviation

The standard deviation represents the


dispersion of the path loss or received
power measured over the coverage area.
clutter & area dependent; differing for
Indoor / Outdoor; varies from 5 - 12 dB.

Shadowing Margin or Slow Fading


Margin

often also denominated as Log-normal


Fading Margin

calculated from indoor location probability


and standard deviation. Typical values for
slow fading margins for 90-95% coverage
probability are:
outdoor: 6 8 dB
indoor: 10 15 dB
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LTE Link Budget

Building penetration loss


Signal levels from outdoor Base stations into buildings are estimated by applying a
Building Penetration Loss (BPL) margin

Slow fading standard deviation is higher inside buildings due to shadowing by building
structures

There are big differences between rooms with window and deep indoor (10 ..15 dB)

Typical values for BPL:


In-car/Rural 5 10dB
In building:
Dense Urban: 2025 dB
Urban: 1520 dB
Suburban: 1015 dB

signal level increases with


floor number :~1,5 dB/floor
(for 1st ..10th floor)

Pindoor = -3 ...-15 dB
Pindoor = -7 ...-18 dB

Pref = 0 dB

-15 ...-25 dB

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rear side :
-18 ...-30 dB

no coverage

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LTE Link Budget

Slow Fading Margin SFM / Shadowing Margin


Slow Fading is caused by signal

shadowing due to obstructions on the radio


path
A cell with a range predicted from maximum
pathloss (without Slow Fading Margin SFM)
will have a Cell Area Coverage Probability
of about 75 %

this means: Lot of coverage holes due to


shadowing

SFM is required in order to achieve higher


coverage quality, better coverage
probability

Smaller cell, less coverage holes over cell


area, better coverage quality

max. pathloss
from link
budget

- Slow Fading
Margin SFM
Pathloss
prediction
model
Cell Range

Cell Area Coverage


probability = 75 %

large coverage holes, bad


coverage quality

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max: pathloss
from link
budget

Pathloss
prediction
model
Cell Range

Cell Area Coverage


probability > 75 %,
i.e. less coverage holes,
Better coverage quality;
but: smaller cells

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LTE Link Budget

Area Location Probability: Cell Area / Cell Edge Probability


The Location Probability means the probability that the average received field strength is
better than the minimum required received signal strength (in order to make a successful
phone call).
For Radio Network Planning & Dimensioning, two different types of location probabilities are
used:
Cell Area Probability: coverage probability over the whole cell area;
Cell Edge Probability: point location probability at the cell edge.
The Jakes formula can be used to convert the Cell Area into a Cell Edge Probability.

Point Location
Probability

Cell Area Probability:

Cell Edge
probability [ % ]

Cell Area
probability [ % ]

50

75

75

90

84

94

90

97

95

99

Location probability
over whole cell area

Cell Edge Probability


Jakes, W.C.Jr. Microwave Mobile Communications. USA 1974, John Wiley & Sons. 473 p
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LTE Link Budget

Slow Fading is normal distributed


with the gaussian distribution function

p(r)=

1
2 2

(r r )2
m2
e 2

Probability

Cell Edge Probability: Point Location Probability at Cell Edge

The probability Pxo that r exceeds some threshold xo at


a given point inside the cell is called the Point Location
Probability. The point location probability can be written
as the upper tail probability of the above equation :

px0 =

x0

1
2 2

x r
1 1
= + erf 0 m
2 2
2

(r rm )2
2

dr
Slow Fading
Margin, SFM

Field Strength
Level [dBm]

Coverage w/o SFM


SFM = 1 - coverage

The standard
deviation is
empirically
determined
Examples:

Clutter
Type

DU

9 dB

8 dB

SU

8 dB

7 dB

Refer to Cellular Radio Performance Engineering, Chapter 2, e.g. 2.9 Page 29


Jakes, W.C.Jr. Microwave Mobile Communications. USA 1974, John Wiley & Sons. 473 p
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LTE Link Budget

From Point Location Probability to Area Location Probability


Point Location
Probabilities

Cell Area Location Probability

px

Fu =

1
p dA
R2 x0

2 a b +1


1
2
a b + 1
Fu = 1 + erf (a ) + e b 1 erf

b
2

Slow
Fading
Margin,
SFM

a=

( x0 P0 )
2

b=

log 10 e
2

Standard
Deviation,

P0: field strength threshold value at cell edge

: path loss slope


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Slow fading margin SFM (Example)


SFM values presented for the different Cell Edge & Cell Area Probabilities
Jakes formula used to convert Cell Area into Cell Edge Probability
F: Factor to adapt SFM to required Cell Edge Probability
Standard deviation assumed to be 8 dB

SFM = x F

Cell edge
probability
in %

39

Cell Edge
Probability

Cell Area
Probability

Factor
F

SFM

50%

75%

0 dB

75%

90%

0.67

5.5 dB

84%

94%

1.00

8 dB

90%

97%

1.28

10 dB

95%

99%

1.65

13.2 dB

Nokia Siemens Networks

Factor F
for
calculation
of SFM

50
55
60
65
70
75
80
85
90

0.000
0.126
0.253
0.385
0.524
0.674
0.842
1.036
1.282

95
96
97
98
99

1.645
1.751
1.881
2.054
2.326

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LTE Link Budget

Gain Against Shadowing


Gain Against Shadowing is considered at the cell edge
Also called multi server gain (because of multi-cell coverage probability)
For the previous calculation of the Shadowing Margin the key assumption was a
single, isolated cell
However, if there are several cells providing coverage in an area then the probability
of having enough field strength increases
The Gain Against Shadowing reflects the possibility of switching to another cell
available at a certain position
Example:
Assume that there are 2 cells providing
coverage and both cells are providing at the
cell edge 50% location probability (A = B
=50% are the location probabilities for the 2
cells)
If the assumption is that the signals from the
cells are uncorrelated then a joint probability
could be calculated:
P = (A+B) (A*B) = (50%+50%) (50%*50%)
= 75%
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LTE Link Budget

LTE DL Link Budget


Isotropic power required:
Required signal power is calculated to take
into account the building penetration loss
and indoor standard deviation as well as
receiver sensitivity and additional margins.

Isotropic Power Required = Receiver


Sensitivity RxAntennaGain + Interference
Margin + Body Loss Gain Against
Shadowing + BPL + SFM

Max. allowed Path Loss Lpmax =


Allowed Prop. Loss =
EIRP Isotropic Power Required

max. Pathloss Lpmax


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Coverage Dimensioning
Introduction
DL Link Budget & Parameters
UL Link Budget & Parameters
Examples

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LTE Link Budget

LTE UL Link Budget

Assumptions: same as in the DL


Transmitter Handset
UE Tx Power
typical value: 23dBm (UE Class 3)

Antenna TX/RX gain


typically assumed to be 0 dBi
for data card 2 dBi possible

Body Loss
UE: 0 dB (data user); 2-3dB (VoIP users)
Otherwise (card) : 0dB

UL EIRP = UE Tx Power +
UE Antenna Gain Body
Loss

*PUSCH = Physical Uplink


Shared Channel
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LTE Link Budget

LTE UL Link Budget


Receiver eNodeB
NodeB Noise Figure
vendor-specific
for Flexi-BTS default values: 2.2 dB (w/o
MHA) / 2 dB (with MHA)

Thermal Noise
same formula as in DL
only RBs considered which are allocated
for UL transmission (1RB for 64Kbps,
15RBs for 384Kbps, 27 RBs for 1024 Kbps)

SINR Requirement
same decision sequence as in the DL
based on link level simulations
differences in UL coming from different
MCS allocation strategy

see next slide

Receiver Sensitivity = eNodeB


Noise Figure + Thermal Noise +
SINR Requirement

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LTE Link Budget

Required SINR in UL

The selection of MCS in UL is a trade-off between a lower required SINR value and the
number of allocated PRBs per UE:
UE output power is shared between the subcarriers assigned for transmission.
The smaller the number of used subcarriers the higher is the power per subcarrier so the
higher the coverage. On the other hand, lower number of PRBs per UE (lower number of
subcarriers) requires a higher order MCS - increasing the required SINR.
In this case, despite of a higher required SINR, a greater cell range could be obtained due
to the accumulation of the total power on less PRBs used for the transmission.
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LTE Link Budget

LTE UL Link Budget


Receiver eNodeB
Rx Antenna Gain
Antenna gain changes with the antenna
type & frequency band
typical value: 18 dBi for a 3-sectored site
/ directional antenna

UL Load
same assumption as in DL

Interference Margin
based on system level simulations
(analytical formula like in DL isnt trivial
because of the interference nature in UL
which is more complex due to UE mobility)
see next slide

Cable Loss, Building Penteration Loss,


Indoor Location Probability, Indoor
Standard Deviation, Shadowing Margin
& Gain Against Shadowing are the
same as in DL
Isotropic Power Required = Receiver Sensitivity
RxAntennaGain + Interference Margin + Cable
Loss Benefit of using MHA Gain Against
Shadowing + BPL + SFM
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LTE Link Budget

Interference Margin
Uplink
Uplink Interference Margin
Currently obtained from system level simulations. Due to the non-

deterministic characteristic of uplink interferences it is difficult to make a


mathematical model (like in downlink)
It is a function of cell load

IM as a function of Cell Load

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LTE Link Budget

Coverage Dimensioning
Introduction
DL Link Budget & Parameters
UL Link Budget & Parameters
Examples

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LTE Link Budget

Assumptions

49

Parameter/Feature

UL

DL

Operating Band

2600 MHz

2600 MHz

Transmission power

max UE power 23dBm

43 dBm (20W Flexi RF


Module)

Antenna Scheme

Number of TX antennas = 1
Number of RX antennas = 2

Number of TX antennas = 1
Number of RX antennas = 2

Noise Figure

UE: 7dB

eNodeB: 2,2dB

Cell Load

50%

50%

Scheduling

Channel unaware with


Round Robin strategy

Channel aware with


Proportional Fairness

Mast Head Amplifier

Not Considered
(Feederless solution)

Not Considered
(Feederless solution)

Antenna Gain

0 dBi

18 dBi

UE speed

3Km/h

3Km/h

Planning Margins

Building Penetration Loss,


Shadowing Margin & Gain
Against Shadowing NOT
considered

Building Penetration Loss,


Shadowing Margin & Gain
Against Shadowing NOT
considered

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LTE Link Budget

Pathloss as a function of Cell Edge Throughput


DL

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LTE Link Budget

Pathloss as a function of Number of PRBs


DL

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Pathloss as a function of Number of PRBs


UL

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